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PI System Fig 25 Modified Hunter Curve for Calculating Hot-Water Flow Rate .

Fig 26 Enlarged area of Modified Hunter Curve for Calculating Hot-Water Flow Rate .

SI System .

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2 Friction Loss for Water in Copper Tubing (Types K. L. 3 Friction Loss for Water in Plastic Pipe (Schedule 80) .5 Fig. 1 Friction Loss for Water in Commercial Steel Pipe (Schedule 40) Fig. M) Fig.Pipe Sizing 33.

3 1.15)(0.0 2.00 2.2 3.126 m loss (13)(0.6 7.7 6. 75% through.0263 and diameter D = 26.0 4.1 1. Pressure drop through pipe tees varies with flow through the branch.75 m.2 5.9 0.5 2.7 0.5 0.6 mm.8 7. Top curve is average of 4 curves. mm 40 1.7 0.0 3.45 m/s). Idelchik (1986) also presents data for threaded tees.67 2.9 32 0. Example 6. 90° Reduced coupling Open return bend Angle radiator valve Radiator or convector Boiler or heater Open gate valve Open globe valve Source: Giesecke (1926) and Giesecke and Badgett (1931.0 8. urinals.35 2. ∆p = = 1. determining the flow at the circled branch.0ρVin /2 + 1.7 0.6 1. m/s 0.0 Elbow.6 9.1 1.3 4.8 1.4 1.0 3.7 0.. B.1 5.3 5.6 1.8 2.24 kPa pressure drop.5 50 1.3 2.e.8 m. the number of equivalent elbows for the through-flow is 0.8 125 3.4 0.0 2. branches A.34 m/s).6 4.5 6.4 1.5 2.33 m/s as 0.2 2.7 0. 1932a).5 1.7 0.0334)(0.1 3.6 0. Different investigators present tee loss data in different forms.9 1.1 4.0263)(0.0109 m loss From Figure 4.5 4.5 0. and the pressure loss is based on the exit flow rate. Solution: From Figure 4.5 0.0 5. Determine the pressure or energy losses for a 25 mm (all openings) threaded pipe tee flowing 25% to the side branch.5 0.6 0.4 200 4.7 0.0 1. service water piping sized to handle .7 2.5 0. ∆p = (0.6 150 3.4 1.5 1.0 3.5 20 0.4 4. one for each circuit shown.6 0.0 may be assumed for entering and leaving 2 2 flows (i.6 3.5 0.5 1.33 1.75/0.9 0. Therefore. the number of equivalent elbows for the branch flow of 25% is 13 elbows.8 1.3 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI) Equivalent Length in Metres of Pipe for 90° Elbows Pipe Size.6 Table 6 Velocity. and multiplying the pressure loss for the same size elbow at the flow rate in the circled branch by the equivalent elbows indicated.5 4.0 0.0 8. 90° Elbow.7 3.4 6.45 m/s as 0.7 17.5 0. 2. Figure 4 illustrates pressure drops for nominal 25 mm tees of equal inlet and outlet sizes and for the flow patterns illustrated.7 4.33.8 0.8/0. 45° Elbow.8 7.9 1.9 65 1.1 1. Pressure loss in desired circuit is obtained by selecting the proper curve according to illustrations.0334)(0.3 2. or ∆h = (0.2 1. ∆p = 1. and it is sometimes difficult to reconcile results from several sources.0 100 2. Table 6 gives the equivalent length of a 25 mm elbow at 1. lavatories.4 9. 3.8 1.5 4.8 0.6 8.8)] = 0.9 3.8 8.0 4. the branch flow is 0.4 7. top curve.342)/[(2)(9. and C are the same size).4 8.4 1.6 5. a pressure or head loss coefficient of 1.8 250 5.1 2. Using Equations (1) and (2) with friction factor f = 0.00 1.0266)(0. Using Equations (1) and (2) with friction factor f = 0.9 0.8 9. As an estimate of the upper limit to tee losses. welded.5 1.. Interpolating from Table 6 gives the equivalent of a 25 mm elbow at 0.6 2.e. Fig.2 6. the equivalent elbows shown in the chart do not apply.00 3.75/0.33 15 0. Chart is based on straight tees (i.7 6.0 Copper Tubing 1.2 1.5 0.8 25 0.2 1.2 300 6.15 elbows.0266)(1.4 3.8 2. aSee Table 6 for equivalent length of one elbow.0 0.8 5.6 2.6 3. 90° long turn Elbow.0263)(0.4 1.5 0.67 3.342)/2 = 0.67 1.6 mm.0ρVout /2).2 3.3 1.8 4.7 0. bottom curve.8 6.1 7. When the size of an outlet is reduced.0 0.79 m/s).452)/[(2)(9.1 8. sinks.3 6. Tee Fitting Pressure Drop.9 1.33 0.452)/(2) Notes: 1. and the pressure loss is based on the exit flow rate.4 0. the through-flow is 0.2 9.8)] = 0.15)(0.7 1. The full flow characteristics of each load device are readily obtained from manufacturers.5 0.75 L/s (1.0 6.3 1.5 0.0266)(1000)(1. the maximum loss for any circuit for any flow will not exceed 2 elbow equivalents at the maximum flow occurring in any branch of the tee.9 1.4 90 2. or ∆h = (13)(0. 1932b) SERVICE WATER PIPING Sizing of service water piping differs from sizing of process lines in that design flows in service water piping are determined by the probability of simultaneous operation of a multiplicity of individual loads such as water closets.5 0.8 Table 7 Fitting Iron and Copper Elbow Equivalentsa Iron Pipe 1.0 0.9 2.2 4.0 9.9 0.3 1.2 1.2 2.25 L/s (0.8/0.6 3. 4.5 12.8 0.9 3.3 2. The entering flow is 1 L/s (1.9 0.0 2.3 5. however.0 4.5 3.107 kPa pressure drop.0266)(1000)(0. and showers.0334 and diameter = 26. 4 Elbow Equivalents of Tees at Various Flow Conditions (Giesecke and Badgett 1931.7 5.