(Syllabus) Indian Commerce - Optional Commerce Syllabus for Preliminary Examination Part-I Accounting and Auditing ; Accounting Nature

, Scope and Objectives of Accounting-Accounting as an Information System-U sers of Accounting Information. Generally Accepted Principles of Accounting-The Accounting Equation-Accrual Conc ept-Other concepts and conventions, Distinction between capital and revenue expe nditure. Accounting Standards and their application-Accounting standards relatin g to fixed assets, depreciation, inventory, recognition of revenue. Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors, Partnership Firms and Limited Companies-Stat utory Provisions -Reserves, Provisions and Funds. Final Accounts of non profit organisation. Accounting problems related to admission and retirement of a partner and dissolu tion of a firm. Accounting for Shares and Debentures- Accounting Treatment of Convertible Debent ures. Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements Ratio analysis and interpret ation. Ratios relation to short term liquidity, long term solvency and profitabi lity-Importance of the rate of return on investment (ROI) in evaluating the over all performance of a business entity-Cash-flow Statement and Statement of Source and Application of Funds-Societal obligations of Accounting. Auditing - Nature, objectives and basic principles of auditing. - Techniques of Auditing-physical verification, examination of documents and vou ching, direct confirmation, analytical review. - Planning an audit, audit programmes, working papers, audit process. - Evaluation of internal controls. - Test checking and sampling. - Broad outlines of company audit. - Audit of non-corporate enterprises. - Internal and management audit. Part-II Business Organisation Distinctive features of different forms of business organisation. Sole Proprietor Partnerships-characteristics, Registration, Partnership deed, Rights and duties, Retirement, Dissolution. Joint Stock Company-Concept, characteristics, types. Cooperative and State ownership forms of organizations. Types of securities and methods of their issue. Economic functions of the capital market, stock exchanges, Mutual Funds. Control and regulation of capital market. Business combinations; control of Monopolies. Problems of modernisation of indus trial enterprises. Social Responsibility of business. Foreign Trade-Procedure and financing of import and export trade. Incentives for export promotion. Financing of foreign trade. Insurance-Principles and practice of Life, Fire, Marine and General Insurance. Management Management functions-Planning-strategies, Organising-levels of authority Staffin g, Line function and staff function, Leadership, Communication, Motivation, Dire cting-Principles, Strategies.

Amalgamation absorption and reconstruction of companies. profits and gains from business or profession. Duties and powers of the board of directors of a company. Office Management-scope and principles. systems and routines. Accounts and Audit of Companies. Taxation & Auditing Financial Accounting Accounting as a financial information system. foreign exchange transactions. Techniques of segregating semi-variable costs into fixed and v ariable costs. performance standards. shutdown etc. accounting for depreciation. in come from house property. Impact of behavioural sciences. fixed assets. Responsibility accounting. Advanced problems of company accounts.e. Standard costing and variance analysis. corrective action. sales. Cost-volume-profit relationship. types. profit and Cost centres. expenses. investments an d government grants. inventories. handling of record s. incomes. gratuity. Techniques of cost control and cost reduction.. Organisation Structure-Centralization and decentralization-Delegation of authori ty-span of control-Management by Objectives and Management by Exception. Commerce Syllabus for Main Examination Paper-I Accounting & Finance Part-I Accounting. Accounting Standards e. Aggregation of income and set off/carry forward of loss. r esearch and development costs. Control-principles. i. Management of change. Company Secretary-role and functions-qualifications for appointment. Budgetary control. documents and formalities-Doctrine of indoo r management and constructive notice. income of other persons included in assessee's total income. capital gains. revenue recogni tion. Simple problems of computation of income under various heads.. Automation a nd Personal computers. purchases. .g. long term construction contracts.modern aids to Office management. salaries. Incomes which do not form part of total income. Impact of Organisation and Methods (O & M) Company Law Joint stock companies-incorporation.Coordination-Concept. Job Costing Process Costing Marginal Cositng. flexible budgets. Taxation Definitions Basis of charge. investment. Valuation of shares and goodwill. Auditing Audit of cash transactions. Cost Accounting Nature and functions of cost accounting. Salary and wage ad ministration-Job evaluation. methods. contingencies. Crisis Management. office equipment and machines. aid to decision making including pricing decisi ons. Deductions to be made in computing total income.

Investment Decisions-Nature and Scope of Capital Budgeting-Various types of deci sions including Make or Buy and Lease or Buy-Techniques of Appraisal and their a pplicationConsideration of Risk and Uncertainty-Analysis of Non-financial Aspects. EBIT-EPS Analysis. ends means chain-Displacement. System of Cons ortium-Supervision and regulation of banks. Primary and secondary goa ls. Verification of liabilities. Auditor's report and qualifications therein. Paper-II Organisation Theory and Industrial Relations Part-I Organisation Theory Nature and concept of Organisation-Organisation goals. family management. Cash Loss. power structure and po litics-Organisational behaviour as a dynamic system : technical. Capital Structure-Leverages-Significance or Leverages-Theories of Capital Struct ure with special reference to Modigliani and Miller approach. Financial Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool. Rate of Return on Investments-Required Rate of Return-its measurement-Cost of Ca pital-Weighted Average Cost-Different Weights. Limits of ratio nality-Organisational change. other methods. Special points in the audit of different organisations like clubs. Dividend and Retention Policy-Residual Theory or Dividend Policy-Other Models-Ac tual Practices. appointment. Neo-classical and system approachBureaucracy. social and powe r systems-interrelations and interactions-Perception-Status system. sto cks and debts. Bank finance-norms and conditions. debtors. growth and development. Morale and produc tivity-Leadership : Theories and styles-Management of conflicts in organisationTransactional Analysis-Significance of culture to organisations. Cash-flow ability to service debt. Raising finance-short term and long term. Scope and Objectives of Financial Management-Risk and R eturn relationship. functional matrix. succession.Valuation and verification of assets with special reference to fixed assets. Financial Distress-Approaching BIFR under Sick Industrial Undertakings Act : Con cept of Sickness. Concepts of Valuation-Valuation of firm's Fixed Income Securities and Common Sto cks. Banks and Investing Institutions-National and Intern ational Financial Institutions-their norms and types of financial assistance pro vided-inter-bank lending-its regulation. Part-II Business Finance and Financial Institutions. . removal. adaptation. co lleges. Potential Sickness. Nature and basis of power. Money Markets-the purpose of Money Markets. Structure and Role of Finan cial Institutions in India. Money Market in India-Organization a nd working of Capital markets in India-Organization. Evolution of organisation theory : Classical. Management of Working Capital and its Components-Forecasting working capital nee ds. Monetary and Credit policy of Reserve Bank of India. Audit of limited companies. duties and liabilities of company auditor. Theoretical and empirical foundation of theories and Models of motivation. Planning the Capit al Structure of a Company. expans ion and multiplication of goals-Formal organisation. sources of power. inventory. and project-Informal organisation-functions and limitati ons. MAOCARO report. significance of 'true and fare'. charitable societies. Professional m anagement Vs. hospitals. supervision and control. Finance Function-Nature. powers. Type. Organisational control and effectiveness. Single and multiple goals. Erosion of Networth. Structure-Line and St aff. Capital Structure Ratios. cash and credit management.

strikes and lockouts. . need for po sitive approach. I. Industrial relations in Public Enterprises. present day state of affairs and future prospects. Migratory n ature-merits and shortcomings. Role of Personnel Department in the Organisation. Worker's participation in management-philosophy. Trade Union movement in India-origin.Part-II Industrial Relations. rationale. Compulsory adjudication and collective bargaining-approaches. Nature and scope of indsutrial relations. Prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in India. Problems before Indian Trade Union movemen t. growth and structure. Industrial labour in India and its commitment-stages of commitments. the Bonus issue. the socio-economic set-up. Wage policy in India. Absenteeism and labour turnover in Indian Industries-causes Relative wages and wage differentials.L. wage policy. and India. Industrial disputes-sources. Attitude and approac h of management of India-recognition.O. Theories of Unionism.

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