Golder PasteTec™ offices are located in Canada and the United Kingdom in the following locations: Sudbury Ontario

, Canada 1010 Lorne Street T 705-524-5533 MiSSiSSauga Ontario, Canada 6700 Century Avenue T 905-567-4444 FalMouth Cornwall, United Kingdom 5 & 8 Tidemill House, Discovery Quay T 44-1326-211470 As well, we have Golder PasteTec™ teams who operate in: Providencia Santiago, Chile Av. 11 de Septiembre 2353, Piso 2 T 56-2-594-2000 MiraFloreS Lima, Peru Av. La Paz 945 T 51-1-610-1700 belo horizonte Brazil Av. Barao Homem de Melo, 4484-2 andar T 55-31-2121-9800 From these locations, our Golder PasteTec™ staff organize and conduct projects throughout the world.

CORPORATE PROFILE

GOLDER PASTE TECHNOLOGY LTD (PASTETEC™)

CORPORATE PROFILE

Table of conTenTs

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COMPANY PROFILE PASTE PLANTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD CORE VALUES OUR PEOPLE 4.1 SENIOR MANAGEMENT TEAM HEALTH AND SAFETY INTRODUCTION TO PASTE TECHNOLOGY 6.1 WHAT IS PASTE? 6.2 TAILINGS 6.3 PASTE APPLICATIONS 6.4 PASTE BACKFILL 6.5 SURFACE DISPOSAL 6.6 FUTURE PASTE TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES 6.7 OTHER PASTE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS SERVICES 7.1 GENERAL CONSULTING SERVICES 7.1.1 BACKFILL MANAGEMENT PLANS 7.1.2 MINE SITE BACKFILL MATERIALS SURVEY 7.1.3 BACKFILL MIx DESIGN 7.1.4 BACKFILL AND SURFACE WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM AUDIT AND OPTIMIzATION 7.1.5 TAILINGS TRANSPIRATION 7.1.6 RHEOLOGY INDEx TESTING 7.1.7 BINDER STRENGTH TESTING 7.1.8 BACKFILL GROUND SUPPORT TESTING 7.1.9 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING 7.1.10 GEOCHEMICAL TESTING 7.1.11 SURFACE PUMP LOOP RHEOLOGY TESTING 7.1.12 UNDERGROUND PRODUCTION SCALE GRAVITY FLOW TESTING 7.2 DESIGN & ENGINEERING (PRELIMINARY & DETAILED) 7.2.1 BACKFILL AND SURFACE DISPOSAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 7.2.2 BACKFILL AND SURFACE DISPOSAL DELIVERY SYSTEMS 7.2.3 CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST ESTIMATE 7.3 DETAILED ENGINEERING 7.3.1 PROCESS 7.3.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT 7.3.3 CIVIL / STRUCTURAL 7.3.4 MECHANICAL 7.3.5 PIPING 7.3.6 ELECTRICAL/INSTRUMENTATION 7.3.7 PROCUREMENT 7.4 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, COMMISSIONING & TRAINING 7.4.1 SITE MANAGEMENT 7.4.2 COMMISSIONING AND TRAINING 7.5 ADDITIONAL GOLDER PASTETEC™ SERVICES 7.5.1 PASTE ROCK 7.5.2 BACKFILL CONTRACTING & OPERATIONS / MOBILE PASTE PLANTS 7.5.3 TAILINGS DEWATERING / WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT GOLDER PASTETEC™ PROjECT METHODOLOGY PROjECT ExPERIENCE 9.1 ENGINEERING, PROCUREMENT, CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (EPCM) / DETAILED ENGINEERING PROjECTS (SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND) 9.1.1 CONCEPTUAL, PRELIMINARY AND BASIC ENGINEERING 9.1.2 FLOW LOOP TESTING 9.2 SURFACE DISPOSAL PROjECT ExPERIENCE 9.3 OIL SANDS PROjECT ExPERIENCE

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10.0 GOLDER PASTETEC’S™ FUTURE

• Has taken paste technology. engineering design and procurement. Golder PasteTec™ provides consulting and engineering services specific to placement of thickened tailings or paste as underground backfill or for surface disposal. including: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Green’s Creek – Alaska Cannington – Australia Red Lake – Canada Caraiba – Brazil Neves Corvo – Portugal Campbell – Canada Henty – Tazmania Macassa – Canada zinkgruvan – Sweden Great River Energy – United States Laronde – Canada Bulyanhulu – Tanzania Kidd Creek – Canada Cayeli – Turkey San Rafael – Peru Big Gossan – Indonesia Colstrip – United States Cerro Lindo – Peru Diavik – Canada Golder PasteTec™ specialists work in partnership with the mine services teams of Golder Associates (including mine waste management. oil sands fine waste and other mineral waste materials. Europe and South America and have been the preferred consultant for the study. We offer a full range of services including laboratory testing. Our team: • Has been significantly involved in the majority of the paste systems and plants constructed and operated in the world today. Canada was formed in 1996 as a fully owned subsidiary of Golder Associates Ltd. a highly-respected global group of consulting companies specializing in ground engineering and environmental services. design and construction management of over 15 paste systems for underground backfill. 2 3 . Golder is now one of the largest privately-held engineering and environmental science consulting group of companies in the world. water treatment. and land development sectors. ore evaluation. designers and construction managers located in Canada.  We have grown to over 100 engineers. oil & gas. construction management and operational management and support. technicians.0 COMPANY PROFILE Golder Paste Technology Ltd. conceptual. pre-feasibility and feasibility consulting studies.1. Our global group of companies currently has over 160 offices worldwide and we have worked on projects in more than 140 countries receiving numerous awards for the development of reliable. and mineral waste handling and transportation. • Has transitioned paste technology use from the mining industry to include industries generating fly ash. Our staff are highly-qualified specialists in mine backfill. Ontario. tailings dewatering. and expanded its use to include surface mine tailings disposal as well as important innovative solutions in the power. coal spoils. (Golder PasteTec™). mining environmental and rock mechanics) to ensure that a full range of experienced personnel are available around the world to resolve practically any engineering issue that our mining clients may encounter. based in Sudbury. which began as an underground mining backfill application. materials characterization.. cost-effective solutions. Globally.

handling and transport of mineral waste. innovative and practical solutions that meet the needs of our clients. the specialists at Golder PasteTec™ are committed to providing technically superior.0 PASTE PLANTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD CORE VALUES 3. In every aspect of our client relationship.” Clients are the heart of our business. material characterization.2. The focus of every Golder PasteTec™ employee is: • Dedication to client goals on a corporate and personal level • Application of innovative approaches that are results-oriented to support client objectives • Pursuit of outstanding quality in every task the company undertakes • Golder PasteTec • Golder PasteTec ™ ™ Offices Underground and Surface Disposal Paste Projects • Commitment to integrity and high ethical standards in all client relationships • Performing the job in a safe manner 4 5 .0 The mission of Golder PasteTec™ is to be: “A trusted global partner who provides innovative engineering design and project delivery solutions with expertise focused on dewatering & treatment.

com Bruno mandl Global Practice Leader – Mining Located In Sudbury.500 employees of Golder Associates.4.com Joao Scola Manager – South America Located in Santiago.cl emmanuel Pornillos Manager – South America Located in Lima. are a key distinctive feature of Golder PasteTec™. Canada T 705-524-5533 email: Chris_Lee@golder.1 SENIOR MANAGEMENT TEAM Golder PasteTec’s™ senior management team consists of the leaders from our Canadian.com Nural Kuyucak Global Practice Leader – Process Engineering Located In Ottawa.com rob Brown Global Practice LeaderConstruction & Operations Services Located In Mississauga. staffed by local professionals and supported by our world-wide teams. Our senior management team includes: Jim anderson President Located in Sudbury & Mississauga. in-depth base of knowledge and expertise allows Golder PasteTec™ professionals to develop innovative solutions to complex technical problems. European and South American operations. T 613-592-9600 email: Nural_Kuyucak@golder. Our broad. 6 7 . Canada T 905-567-4444 email: Rob_Brown@golder. The senior management team works as a cohesive unit to formulate and implement Golder PasteTec’s™ global strategies. Canada T 705-524-5533 email: Frank_Palkovits@golder.com Chris Lee Technical Director Located in Sudbury. United Kingdom T 44-1326-211470 email: Nick_Slade@golder. Canada T 705-524-5533 email: Sue_Longo@golder. Peru T 51-1-610-1700 email: Emmanuel_Pornillos@golder.0 OUR PEOPLE > > > > > > > > > Mining Engineers Construction Managers Structural Engineers Process Engineers Mechanical Engineers Electrical & Instrumentation Engineers Laboratory Specialists CAD Designers Project Managers 4. Our network of offices. Chile T 56-2-594-2000 email: jscola@golder.com Golder PasteTec™ staff work hand-in hand with the over 6. Canada.com Frank Palkovits Global Practice Leader – Consulting Services Located In Sudbury. Canada T 705-524-5533 email: Bruno_Mandl@golder. Canada T 905-567-4444 email: jim_Anderson@golder.com Sue Longo Region Manager – North America Located in Sudbury.com Nick Slade Region Manager – Europe Located in Cornwall.

other workers. and the general public. and is intended to mitigate risk for our clients.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY In addition to compliance with legislated requirements. including but not limited to the following: • A structured health and safety management system • Region-specific health and safety manuals • Detailed health and safety procedures for all work activities. including but not limited to: hazard identification checklists.5. Our program is intended to protect the health and safety of our project staff. Golder PasteTec™ has developed a formal occupational health and safety (OH&S) program that includes a 12-element OH&S manual and appropriate standard work procedures. we maintain a comprehensive health and safety program. and others • A structured incident response and reporting system 8 9 . Best Practice guides for the hazardous materials surveys. first aid procedures. safe work procedures. To that end. We value the health and safety of our employees and are committed to providing the time and resources necessary to enable our employees to perform their work in a safe and healthy manner. emergency response plans.

audits and investigations • Obtaining feedback from our staff and our clients to ensure that required corrective actions are implemented Each of our employees is expected to conduct themselves responsibly and to maintain a work environment that is safe for themselves. The system focuses on: • Safely planning the work through hazard recognition and risk assessment • Developing controls and safety procedures • Providing the necessary health and safety resources • Training our staff • Communicating the health and safety responsibilities of all personnel • Ensuring that safety controls are being implemented and are effective • Conducting regular site inspections.5. Golder PasteTec’s™ health and safety management system is based on a “continuous improvement” model. the outcome of which is subject to senior management review and immediate action (if unsafe work conditions are determined). In addition. No business objective is so important that it will be pursued at the sacrifice of the well being of our employees. Golder PasteTec™ will provide the resources necessary to promote a safe and healthy work environment in compliance with our established health and safety management system. work sites are subject to both planned and unplanned inspections by health and safety representatives. during the execution of field programs. the need for personal protective equipment. The plan will include an identification of the key hazards. Golder PasteTec™ personnel are also provided with the personal protective equipment required for project work. Our leaders are committed to this vision. emergency procedures and contacts. their colleagues.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY (CoNT’D) As standard practice. which is reviewed by our regional Health and Safety Coordinator prior to issuance to project personnel. in accordance with regulatory health and safety standards. These plans are carried by our field personnel at all times while conducting project site work. our clients and contractors. etc. Golder PasteTec’s™ project managers are responsible for preparing a project-specific Health and Safety Plan at the outset of every project. The health and safety of our people is paramount. WORK SAFE – HOME SAFE 10 11 .

6. 12 13 . WHAT IS PASTE? Paste is a non-segregating engineered mixture of solids and water. It is now generally recognized that significant engineering. scheduling.0 INTRODUCTION TO PASTE TECHNOLOGY 6.1 In the past decade. paste technology has progressed from a research-based concept to a widely accepted and extensively practiced engineering solution for managing mineral waste. production and environmental benefits are gained from the use of paste technology in underground backfill and surface disposal applications. paste: • Is an engineered mixture of solids and water • Possesses a yield stress • Produces a measurable slump (as per the American Society for Testing and Materials ((ASTM test # C143)) • Has a maximum slump of 250mm (10 inches) • Can be moved through a pipeline by gravity. positive displacement pump. centrifugal pump • Has no critical flow velocity • Consistently demonstrates the ability to have minimal material segregation and minimal water bleed at any stage of transport or placement Paste is a non-segregating engineered mixture of solids and water. More specifically.

the acceptance of paste backfill plants. or slickens) are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the worthless fraction of an ore. there are two main applications for paste technology: • Underground backfill (utilized primarily in the mining industry but is also applicable in other industries. such as land development. Certain types of extraction process. In coal and oil sands mining the word ‘tailings’ refers specifically to fine waste suspended in water. over 30 paste installations have begun operating or are in various stages of design or construction throughout the world. while prevalent today. As well. older forms of mineral extraction resulted in large heaps of fine tailings being left dotted around the landscape.3 PASTE APPLICATIONS Paste technology. Today. Tailings may contain trace quantities of metals found in the host ore.6. may result in quantities of the chemicals used to perform the leaching remaining in the material once leaching has been completed.2 TAILINGS Tailings (also known as slimes. The common minerals and elements found in tailings include: • arsenic (found in association with gold ores) • Barite • Calcite • Fluorite • radioactive materials (naturally present in many ores) • mercury • Sulfur (forms many sulfide compounds / pyrites) • Cadmium • Hydrocarbons (oils and greases introduced by mining and processing equipment) 6. The first paste plant built solely for the disposal of mineral tailings was constructed in 1999 and. since then. over 30 paste installations have begun operating or are in various stages of design or construction throughout the world. tails. where void filling is important) • Surface disposal of mineral waste materials (typically mine tailings) or other industrial residues (including surface disposal of industrial mineral sludges) The common additives found in tailings include: • Cyanide – as both Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) and Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) (Leaching agent in extremely dilute quantities which readily volatize upon exposure to sunlight) • SeX – Sodium Ethyl xanthate Flotation agent • PaX – Potassium Amyl xanthate. Flotation agent • mIBC – Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol Frothing agent • Sulfamic acid – Cleaning / descaling agent • Sulfuric acid – Used in large quantities in the PAL process (Pressure Acid Leaching) • activated Carbon – Used in CIP (Carbon In Pulp) and CIL (Carbon In Leach) processes • Calcium – Different compounds – introduced as lime to aid in pH control The first paste plant built solely for the disposal of mineral tailings was constructed in 1999 and. the bulk quantity of a tailings product will be barren rock. These tailings dumps may continue to leach residual chemicals into the environment. The composition of tailings is directly dependent on the composition of the ore and the process of mineral extraction used on the ore. It was first introduced for use in: > > > > Europe – 1978 United States – 1980 South Africa – 1984 Canada – 1984 Extensive research conducted in Canadian mines in the early 1990’s resulted in steady advances in the preparation and transportation of paste. has become widespread. Since that time. The negative image of mine tailings grows in spite of a sound record of environmental stewardship with mine tailings in the past twenty years. crushed and ground to a fine size ranging from coarse sands down to a talcum powder consistency. tailings pile. Typically. and they may contain minute amounts of added compounds used in the extraction process. leach residue. can trace its roots back over thirty years. especially in bulk mining. such as heap leaching. 14 15 . since then.

The materials normally used for backfill can either be traditional hydraulic fill materials such as tailings. the final reclamation costs of waste disposal sites can be enormous and the liability for this final clean-up can be significant. faster stope piling and curing cycle time. With a reduced need for barricades. such as large amounts of precipitation that can cause traditional impoundments to overflow into the local watershed • No critical velocity in the pipeline transport of paste or risk of settling and plugging the line In effect. however. better slimes handling. An efficient deposition and reclamation strategy has become absolutely critical to the profitability of a mining/processing facility. location of the plant with respect to targeted stopes. the application of a paste backfill could result in increased mining productivity and reduced operating costs as compared to traditional hydraulic fill methods. a well engineered paste backfill can provide: • A floor to mine on • A wall to mine next to • Head cover to mine under • Primary ground support • A major mine waste disposal method The benefits of utilizing paste technology in a backfill application include: • Lower cement content • Lower requirement for drill holes • Utilization of surplus / waste materials readily available on site • Complete filling of a void to the back of the opening • Engineered achieved strengths in the paste mix design • Flexibility in formula design for different applications • Reduced stope cycle time • Reduced mine dewatering costs • Reduction of in-rush risk in the mine 6. The potential advantages of paste backfill over hydraulic fill include reduced binder consumption. This shift in thinking has been prompted by changing environmental expectations that will likely continue to increase worldwide. 6.The placement of the waste material as a paste involves ‘engineering’ the waste itself rather than engineering the containment facility. This method does still have its place in some operations. The design of any paste backfill plant is driven by such factors as tailings material property. As an underground construction material in the mining industry. the cost savings that can be achieved by placing the material in a semidry state can be substantial. better slimes handling. these costs and the difficulties involved in obtaining permits have increased dramatically.5 SURFACE DISPOSAL The disposal of mine tailings and other waste materials has historically constituted a large portion of the operating costs and potential liability risk of a mining or other processing facility. and a quick setting consistency and minimal segregation. based on well publicized dam failures around the world) • When combined with concurrent reclamation. Paste backfill applications have been used very successfully in the mining industry as a method of ground control and are a proven method of recovering pillars and increasing reserves. acid generation can be minimised • Reduced water management problems • Little susceptibility to extremes in weather. The advantages of this placement method are: • Smaller tailings / waste impoundment • Less environmental impact and less clean-up • Reduced risk of dam failure and the enormous financial compensation and repair work typically required (anything from $20 million to > $40 million. which is usually the primary contributor to the operating cost of placing backfill. the placement of the waste material as a paste involves ‘engineering’ the waste itself rather than engineering the containment facility. Historically. drainage systems or cleanup of water slimes. This shift in thinking has been prompted by changing environmental expectations that will likely continue to increase worldwide. As environmental regulations in most countries become more stringent. One of these alternative methods is the placement of the waste material in a semi-dry state as either a non-segregating thickened or paste product or a filter cake. 16 17 . faster stope filling and curing cycle time. Furthermore. Due to the shift in environmental responsibility and the subsequent increase in costs for traditional waste placement methods. compressive strength required of the backfill. alternative placement strategies are emerging that are more cost effective for meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements. They generally require less cement than hydraulic fill to achieve the target strength. as well as a reduced surface disposal footprint. available static heads and horizontal distances between the plant and current and future mine workings.4 PASTE BACKFILL Backfill materials are used to fill voids in the mine which have been created by the mining excavation process. sand. rock or cement or they can be a technologically progressive fill material such as paste which uses the same base materials but in a different way. The potential advantages of paste backfill over hydraulic fill include reduced binder consumption. the most common method of disposing of waste/tailings has been accomplished by placement in an impoundment area in a low density slurry form.

6 FUTURE PASTE TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES In recent years.Paste technology provides a lower risk. There are many drivers causing this shift including: • Economic concerns (Net Present Value capital. closure. operating. cost effective solution within prevailing public safety and environmental compliance standards and allows an organization to develop strategies that reduce financial and environmental liabilities. post-closure land use costs) • Risk and liability issues • Land use and land availability constraints • Recognition of social impacts • Surface and ground water resource management challenges • Cost shift in environmental requirements • Recognition of significant environmental and public safety benefits Paste technology provides a lower risk. coal and other industrial minerals in their operations have begun to utilize paste technology to engineer mineral waste management solutions. organizations that utilize mineral commodities such as aluminum.7 Additional paste technology applications include: • Paste technology and the development of the co-disposal of mine site waste rock (Paste rock) • Paste technology in the development of improved methods of controlling the generation of acid from mine waste sites • Paste technology and abandoned mine site remediation/brown field land development using local waste materials • Paste technology in the development of waste material co-mixed for use as deposition site liners to replace geotextiles and/or clays • Paste technology in the development of waste material co-mixes for use as waste site barrier layer / capping • Paste technology in the development of improved methods of handling and disposal of contaminated dredged materials in populated industrial sites • Paste technology and the co-disposal for power plant waste materials OTHER PASTE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS 18 19 . trona. cost effective solution within prevailing public safety and environmental compliance standards and allows an organization to develop strategies that reduce financial and environmental liabilities. 6. 6.

civil. Our team is organized into the following service groups: Consulting Services – Golder PasteTec™ provides conceptual. capital and operating cost estimating. including mining companies. Construction & Operations Services – Golder PasteTec™ provides construction management. through laboratory testing and preliminary engineering to full detailed engineering. electrical and structural) including process flowsheet development. process. plant operator training. underground production scale gravity flow loop testing. pre-feasibility and feasibility level studies. geochemical testing. mechanical. and backfill and surface waste disposal system audits. They use this understanding to provide optimum paste technology solutions that are designed with specific dewatering and transport engineering methods for each material. binder strength testing. 20 21 .0 SERVICES Many organizations. These groups work in conjunction with each other throughout all stages of the project life cycle. backfill and surface disposal system and commissioning and troubleshooting. conceptual preliminary design. construction bid analysis. Golder PasteTec’s™ knowledge and capabilities can resolve these issues and assist organizations to operate successfully in today’s highly regulated business environment. equipment procurement assistance and vendor bid analysis. As well. commissioning. Design & engineering Services – Golder PasteTec™ provides engineering services in all major disciplines (mining. technical. construction management and plant commissioning and training.7. We offer a full range of services from mine review and waste audits. optimization studies. operation manual design. Our staff possess specialized and comprehensive knowledge of the properties of mined materials and their static and dynamic behavior. encounter a number of complex environmental. geotechnical testing. we provide laboratory testing services including rheology index testing. QA/QC and construction monitoring. flow loop testing and backfill ground support testing. instrumentation. detailed engineering. financial and social issues regarding their waste streams.

review and auditing of backfill management plans in underground mines. This hands on approach is highly effective for design engineers and allows them to quickly obtain an intuitive feel for how the material will behave during processing.1 GENERAL CONSULTING SERVICES Golder PasteTec™ can define the concepts required to progress a project through the concept. scheduling. measuring. pre-feasibility and feasibility stages of the project development process. economic and environmental / social. review and reconciliation • Maintenance and inspection planning • Mix design criteria • Bulkhead design and construction quality control • Testing requirements in the plant. scales of production. (Golder PasteTec™) has the capability and experience to be able to assist with the development. At the concept stage.1. monitoring. our extensive experience and knowledge allows us to provide various levels of consulting assistance to operators thus ensuring a safe and efficient backfill operation. 7. operations. These studies are completed according to international standards and are often used to obtain project financing. underground and in a laboratory • Mine and plant operational practices • Integration into tactical and strategic mine design. responsibility and accountability • Development of a risk register – hazard identification. mining and mill operations Golder PasteTec™ can define the concepts required to progress a project through the concept. PLAN IMPROVE BaCKFILL maNaGemeNt PLaNS OPERATE MEASURE 22 23 .1 BACKFILL MANAGEMENT PLANS Backfill.7. including technical. planning. The potential for high pressure and major inrush are key hazards that need to be addressed within the range of systems and controls outlined in an effective management plan. As well. Golder PasteTec™ staff are involved with the testing and interpretation of the results of the lab testing. The design and implementation of a backfill management plan is essential in order to identify and manage the major hazards associated with the placement of backfill into stopes in underground mines. The basis of Golder PasteTec’s™ design work is our laboratory testing and since the design engineers and the laboratory are located in the same office. involves the placement of large volumes of material that needs to be controlled within a stope boundary. in its various forms including paste. and the tie-in to existing electrical systems. pre-feasibility and feasibility stages of the project development process. At the completion of the feasibility study. The design options are carried forward and refined during the pre-feasibility and feasibility stages of the project. Golder Paste Technology Ltd. controls and risk assessment • Emergency response • Quality control • Monitoring. plant site and transportation corridors are optimized using sustainability. the final selection of instrumentation based on other control systems being utilized. This typically results in two or three design options. slurry and rock. measuring and review processes for the following tasks: • Organizational structure. design. a preferred mineral waste management strategy will have been selected. criteria. the engineering design will have been refined and will have been costed. The engineering designs are then optimized so that no fatal flaws are associated with the engineering project. Golder PasteTec™ can provide backfill management plans that will detail the planning. The key strategic decisions at this stage of the project include whether buildings should be pre-engineered or custom designed. many process and material transportation options are considered. Multiple technologies.

1. cement binder and water components that must be uniformly mixed. Mine geometry. feeders. The mix design is dependent on the backfill method (rock. Similar tests can be conducted to determine the transport properties of a given waste material for surface disposal. hydraulic slurry or paste fill). Its characteristics can be engineered to meet a wide range of considerations and circumstances.1. conduct flow loop testing. or minimizing the mine’s liability with respect to its waste management. the proper delivery system.1.7.5 TAILINGS TRANSPORTATION The successful transport of paste fill is very dependent on the quality of the paste. In some cases. rate. a site visit is usually appropriate to define the waste materials available to the mine site for use as backfill (rock. This can often be completed with minimal additional capital expenditure. mill layout and related materials location including tailings pond. The selection of the transportation method is an integrated decision involving: • The capital and operating cost of the system • The demands placed on the system – volume. 24 25 . minimal binder consumption and sufficient ground control. gravel.4 Backfill technology is continually improving and existing underground backfill and surface waste disposal systems at a mine site can benefit from a review to evaluate the efficiency based on production.2 MINE SITE BACKFILL MATERIALS SURVEY To ascertain the availability of backfill materials and to complete the preliminary process evaluation.1. Golder PasteTec™ considers the mine tailings. reducing acid mine drainage for example.1. alluvial sand. paste moves through a pipeline as a plug flow. head. The index tests will be used to define the potential backfill materials suitable for underground gravity transport/pumping as a hydraulic slurry or paste fill.3 BACKFILL MIx DESIGN Based on the information obtained from a site visit or from information supplied by the mine (waste material size distribution and mineralogical and chemical composition). Defined as a non-segregating slurry. Golder PasteTec™ can perform system analysis and design complete transportation systems for tailings transportation which will include analysis of and sourcing of equipment (including belt conveyors. stackers. distance • The pumping system required – conventional centrifugal pumping or positive displacement pumping • The environmental limitations of the Tailings Storage Facility (TSF) 7. etc. transfer towers. BACKFILL AND SURFACE WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM AUDIT AND OPTIMIzATION 7. As well. hoppers. mining methods. 7. using either gravity mode. life cycle costing and contingency planning dealing with secondary spill containment. exiting the line not as a liquid but as a semisolid resembling toothpaste. 7. slurry or paste) chosen by the mine or dictated by material availability and/or waste management economics. Virtually all tailings leave the extractive process in a slurry with the dry exceptions being gypsum (fertilizer industry – tailings sized crystals) and ash (power stations – fly and bottom ashes).6 RHEOLOGY INDEx TESTING The specific rheology of the backfill materials (tailings. free of lumps and at the specified slump. etc. waste rock. Golder PasteTec™ will provide recommendations to improve the backfill quality and subsequently reduce costs. Golder PasteTec™ will define a backfill mix design. a larger review can incorporate a change in the waste management program. Suitable quantities of the different waste materials can be collected for later laboratory evaluation.) will be characterized using laboratory index tests developed by Golder PasteTec™. analytical pressure modelling. The objective is to design a cost effective backfill mix that will optimize the chosen materials providing reliable underground distribution. mine waste rock. must be employed. waste management and longterm liability to the mine. piping systems and pumps). alluvial deposits and waste rock dump will all be reviewed. It must contain the correct mixture of tailings. pumped mode or a combination of both modes of transport.

Poisson’s ratio and stiffness of the fill material at different confining pressures will be determined by this test work. Through the use of the Golder PasteTec™ backfill database and analytical and numerical analysis. This testing is conducted to produce more precise pressure loss data with which to design a given underground borehole/ pipeline distribution system for hydraulic slurry or paste backfill. leachate quality and acid generating potential need to be determined. etc. The data logged pressure drops per length of pipeline. Test cylinders are cast (diameter to accommodate the given fill material particle size. usually 4μ) to develop a uniaxial compressive strength versus binder content relationship.9 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING For surface disposal.1. 6” or 8” diameter pipeline system.12 UNDERGROUND PRODUCTION SCALE GRAVITY FLOW TESTING Golder PasteTec™ can provide testing for potential mine backfill materials at the mine site using an existing or simulated production scale underground gravity flow borehole/ pipeline system. Similar test work can be conducted to evaluate efficiently the use of different types of binder.1. These include tests specifically developed to assess the change in material characteristics of the tailings (such as density. 7. These tests. 26 27 . more specifically for surface disposal. through analytical and numerical analysis. sedimentation and permeability) when deposited.7 BINDER STRENGTH TESTING Golder PasteTec™ can conduct binder strength tests for a given backfill method.e.1. 7. can be conducted for underground backfill or surface waste disposal materials. These data can be The test work requires up to 10 m3 of material which is prepared to the relevant pulp density or slump consistency then fed through a pump and circulated through the instrumented flow loop at varying flow rates. self-supporting backfill head cover. are analyzed and an average pressure loss per length can be determined for the tested material. free standing wall height.) can be optimized for a given mining geometry. for a given diameter pipeline at the different flow rates.10 GEOCHEMICAL TESTING Many paste properties are influenced by the mineralogical and chemical make-up of the tailings. Strength tests can also be conducted to determine the binder concentration required to ensure stable surface waste disposal sites for a certain site geometry.1. the required backfill strengths for a specified backfill performance (i.1.8 BACKFILL GROUND SUPPORT TESTING The geo-mechanical properties of a given mine fill material (rock. 7. 7. moisture content. Young’s modulus.11 SURFACE PUMP LOOP RHEOLOGY TESTING used to evaluate the ground support properties of the material and thus determine. The results of the analysis will be used to confirm the laboratory characterization of the material obtained from the laboratory rheology index testing and to design the distribution system. Surface flow loop testing to determine the rheological properties of a hydraulic slurry or paste material (75 to 85 wt% solids) can be performed by Golder PasteTec™ using one of several test systems available at our laboratory or directly at the mine site. Golder PasteTec™ conducts a series of tests to determine the properties of the material once placed on surface. The materials are tested using a specific binder (Portland cement. 7. hydraulic slurry. Porosity. The data collected is essential for the engineering design of the surface disposal pumping/pipeline system or borehole/pipeline underground gravity flow distribution system. In addition. cut & fill mucking floor. fly ash and slag cement). which can be performed in a 4”. backfill materials and/or backfill methods for a specific mine site.1. or paste fill) can be determined from the triaxial compressive testing of backfill cylinders.Golder PasteTec™ can provide testing for potential mine backfill materials at the mine site in an existing or simulated production scale underground gravity flow borehole/pipeline system. if the fill material can provide the strength required by the given mining situation. 7.

we can review.DESIGN & ENGINEERING (PRELIMINARY & DETAILED) Conceptual design and preliminary engineering can provide process flow sheets. The above capital costs and the operating costs can be combined to determine the life cycle cost. Golder PasteTec™ is committed to the continuous improvement of its engineering designs and services. hydraulic fill or paste fill) or waste disposal. should the test work not be completed. 7. As well.1 PROCESS Paste is highly sensitive to small changes in material characteristics or equipment performance.3 CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST ESTIMATE 28 An order of magnitude of the capital and operating costs for the above systems can be developed which shows the equipment.2 Golder PasteTec™ can review. BACKFILL AND SURFACE DISPOSAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 7. pump and pipeline distribution system for surface waste disposal. hydraulic slurry. Our detailed engineering staff are involved in the project from the engineering phase through to construction management and commissioning. Golder PasteTec™ will develop a system for completion of preliminary engineering based on a list of assumptions necessary to address all uncertainties. The proposed system will meet the operation rates that are necessary to meet the demands of the mining method and milling rate at the consistency determined by the test work. Golder PasteTec™ can provide: • Flow sheets and mass balances 7. major equipment lists and the development of ±40% order of magnitude capital and operating cost estimate. 7. Golder PasteTec™ has been performing EPCM on paste backfill and surface disposal projects for many years and as a result. pipeline material selection. Construction Management (EPCM) services. Preliminary general arrangement drawings showing equipment layout in the existing or new building and a summary of required services for the plant operation will also be developed. or paste fill) in the mine.2. This methodology has been highly successful since lessons learned during construction and commissioning can be incorporated into the design phase of the next project. construction and commissioning costs. BACKFILL AND SURFACE DISPOSAL DELIVERY SYSTEMS 7. pre-discharge site preparation and overall system configuration. has an experienced staff that have performed EPCM for a large number of projects.3 DETAILED ENGINEERING Golder PasteTec™ provides full Engineering.3. discharge configuration. and overall system configuration. capacities. Procurement. Most paste plants are pushing the limit for what is possible with current technology in solids liquid separation and pumping and subtle variations in the process design or control can have far reaching effects on the plant operating cost and performance. layout and conduct preliminary design of an underground borehole / pipeline or raised distribution system for placement of the fill (rock. However. The flow sheets will include distribution system pipeline diameter.1 Golder PasteTec™ can develop a process flow sheet and provide documentation for the surface plant to manufacture a dewatered thickened paste or filtered product for backfill (rock. Operating manpower.2. The development of preliminary general arrangement drawings show overall layout and a summary of required services for the distribution system operation. rates. layout and provide a preliminary preliminary design of a dewatering. operating pressures. Golder PasteTec™ is committed to the continuous improvement of its engineering designs and services. Flow sheets will include preliminary solids and water balance. • Piping & instrumentation drawings and control systems design 29 .2. general arrangement drawings. scheduling and support are estimated to determine the system operating cost. The specifics of the designed system are contingent on the outcome of the aforementioned test work.

Golder PasteTec™ performs its piping design using 3D design software to enable better visualization and avoid interferences. Golder PasteTec™ has extensive experience regarding how paste equipment must be assembled to make the operation and maintenance efficient and operator friendly. plugging.3.6 Golder PasteTec™ can perform full service electrical engineering for paste systems including: • Equipment specifications • Cable layouts and schedules • MCC and transformer specification and layouts • Motor and instrumentation schematics • junction boxes and control panel design • Grounding and lighting ELECTRICAL/ INSTRUMENTATION 7.4 MECHANICAL The correct specification of mechanical equipment is key to obtaining a well functioning paste plant.7 PROCUREMENT Golder PasteTec™ can work independently or in conjunction with mine personnel to effectively manage the following aspects of the procurement process: • Identify and qualify suppliers and contractors • Prepare tenders for equipment. Golder PasteTec™ has established relationships with numerous industry-leading equipment vendors in order to obtain equipment with superior performance. We can provide: • Hydraulic modelling • Piping plans and sections • Piping Isometrics and bill of materials • Piping and valving specifications • Piping support design 7. premature wear or hammer of in plant piping and underground/ surface disposal paste distribution systems. stairs and supports 7. stairs and supports are required for a paste system.3. Paste is frequently a challenging material to handle since it is sticky and viscous and prone to buildup and plugging. platforms. 7. Designs can range from simple building and equipment foundations to more complicated seismic and dynamic stability analysis. We can provide: • Equipment layout plans. sections • Equipment 3D layouts 7. we will provide the following services that will assist in completing the project on schedule and within budget: • Cost tracking and reporting • Schedule tracking and reporting • Cost and schedule forecasting • Contract management 30 31 .3. materials and labour • Bid analysis • Contract preparation • Delivery scheduling & expediting • Cost and Schedule Control Working independently or in conjunction with mine personnel.3.5 PIPING The correct piping design is important to avoid line sanding. Golder PasteTec™ has substantial experience in the design of all the types of structures required for a paste plant including: • Concrete and rebar design • Structural steel design for buildings.3. steel or concrete buildings.3. platforms.3 CIVIL/ STRUCTURAL Concrete foundations for equipment and structures.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT Equipment layout is another key facet of paste system design. We can provide: • Equipment specifications • Tank and hopper design • HVAC system design 7.The correct specification of mechanical equipment is key to obtaining a well functioning paste plant.

In other cases. loss control. The combination of unsaturated soil conditions together with the interbedded structure creates ideal conditions for weathering of the waste rock through geochemical and biological pathways. While run-out failures in high.5. The wet tailings stream is commonly discharged as slurry that produces a segregated deposit with problematic drainage and seepage conditions. cost/schedule control. with superior physical and hydraulic properties for the construction of post mining landforms. supervision. PASTE ROCK 7.1 SITE MANAGEMENT Our on-site Project Managers have extensive experience in both building and operating plants.2 COMMISSIONING AND TRAINING The experienced Golder PasteTec™ team will take a leading. In contrast. scheduling. Our team regularly conducts equipment inspections. waste rock dumps typically form steep topographies with high stability.5 ADDITIONAL GOLDER PASTETEC™ SERVICES 7. we have supplied Construction Monitoring services to ensure the design intent of our paste engineers was maintained. COMMISSIONING & TRAINING 7. procurement.4 Golder PasteTec™ can provide Construction Management and Commissioning services for the paste systems that it designs. the dry waste rock stream offers high shear strength with excellent physical stability characteristics and thus the material is routinely disposed of in large waste rock dumps constructed above the natural ground surface. field engineering and administration required.Golder PasteRock™ is a new method for the disposal of tailings and waste rock that involves full blending of the two materials to a specified mix design followed by deposition of the material in a single repository. thereby reducing the total volume of waste and creating opportunities to reduce surface area requirements for impoundment design and construction. The new material also has a density much higher than either conventional tailings or waste rock deposits. will be updated as commissioning progresses to maintain accuracy. stability.1 Golder PasteRock™ is a new method for the disposal of tailings and waste rock that involves full blending of the two materials to a specified mix design followed by deposition of the material in a single repository. Conventional mine waste management systems produce both wet and dry waste streams. We have the field experience to provide site audits. Waste rock dumps constructed with tip faces greater than 4 to 6 m develop an internal structure associated with segregation producing coarse and fine layers with a high permeability rubble layer at the base. In some cases. or other problems associated with neutral drainage and salinity. which includes complete operating instructions. 7. Construction Management can range from simple technical support and QA/QC to full support with all the management. Reactive tailings need to be protected from oxidation and this is normally achieved through sub-aqueous disposal that inhibits oxygen contact with the tailings.4. we have provided full Construction Management services for our custom-designed paste plants. The primary design philosophy is capacity. Golder PasteRock™ can blend waste rock and tailings to produce an engineered material. However.4. In addition to the commissioning component. We are one of the few firms that can offer surface and underground capabilities and can see the project through from the tailings pump box to the underground stope. Sulphide oxidation and acid generation often begins during the construction of the rock dumps and results in long-term acid drainage and metal leaching. The various parts of our training program ensure that the operators and supervisors have a clear understanding of the operational as well as the theoretical aspects of the plant and underground distribution system. containment and safety. maintenance inspections and troubleshoot other plants that may not be operating as they should be. training can include classroom instruction and post commissioning operational training. numerous failures in tailings impoundments have occurred in recent times and it can be broadly stated that the primary concerns with tailings impoundments remain rooted in physical instability. internal structure and topography result in unsaturated conditions within waste rock dumps. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT. termed paste rock. The hydraulic properties of waste rock together with surface hydrology. 32 33 . design and constructability reviews. This allows them to effectively supervise the daily on-site activities including: • Contractor supervision • Equipment installation • Contractor scheduling • Pre-commissioning • Reporting 7. low shear strength and slow consolidation properties. plant specific safety issues and emergency procedures. hands-on role in the successful commissioning of the plant and equipment. conventional sub-aerial disposal of reactive tailings as slurry can result in segregation of the tailings which leads to accelerated oxidation causing acid generation. over-steepened dumps may occur. We will work with the mine personnel during this phase which it will serve as one of the components of the training program. Impoundment design for slurry tailings is generally controlled by physical issues. Our group of Construction Managers and Superintendents provide the vital link between our design teams and the plant constructors. The Operating Manual. HAzOP reviews. where our client may have had their own team in place. QA/QC. However.

many government bodies are stressing the importance of improved water use and are making this aspect of mining operations a stipulation of the permitting process. Thiosalts. the management of the water that results from the dewatering of tailings and disposal / storage of tailings and wasterocks often poses a major technological. magnesium).5. In addition. zinc. Our water management and treatment services include: • Assessment of water quality and treatment requirements • Treatability studies • Process development • Pilot project completion • Trouble shooting • Process control and automation • Conceptual design and detailed design • Engineering. development. the optimization of a dewatering process makes a mining project economically viable as it will reduce the immediate and long-term environmental liabilities. aluminum. ammonium and nitrate. However. Africa and Australia. especially in Europe. By recovering the water from tailings and other waste products such as sludge.Golder PasteTec™ provides a full spectrum of wastewater management and treatment services to mining and industrial organizations around the world. manganese. lead. can be alkaline or acid and may contain: salinity (e. Working in partnership with the water treatment services teams of Golder Associates allows us to provide a comprehensive level of service to address and identify potential issues and determine the most practical and cost-effective mitigation option for a given site. the site location and the underground environment. all laboratory testing. incomplete sulphide oxidation products that may cause delayed acidity in the receiving water reservoirs. and meet or surpass the regulated objectives for water discharge. Thus. The quality of water is critical when determining the amount available for recycle/reuse. increase water recovery. The wastewater treatment services provided by Golder PasteTec™ include assessment. including tailings water. Wastewaters that result from operations at a mining or metallurgical site.. a paste engineer and site superintendent. nickel. We are experts in designing and implementing chemical active treatment systems and passive treatment systems which can be used for a variety of flow rates in a variety of climates including extreme cold. prevent/minimize sources that can impact water quality. The mobile paste plants provided by Golder PasteTec™: • Are fully transportable • Are quickly assembled and dismantled • Provide production rates up to 90 m /hr of paste backfill 3 7. processing it and recycling it back into the mining and metallurgical processes. the type of ore bodies. from 5 to 10-inch available • Can vary cement content depending on recipe Golder PasteTec™ can supply the equipment. cost of equipment and water transportation. construction management (EPCM) • Plant implementation and commissioning • Staff training and creation of maintenance and operations (M&O) manuals If required.3 TAILINGS DEWATERING / WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT Golder PasteTec™ provides a full spectrum of wastewater management and treatment services to mining and industrial organizations around the world. and mining/process engineering as required. chloride. water is rapidly becoming considered as a commodity. The effective dewatering of tailings and sludge also reduces the foot print of the disposal/storage area.5. drainage. social and economic challenge to the mining and mineral processing industry worldwide Golder PasteTec™ works with our clients to: reduce water use. design and implementation of conventional “Best Available Economically Achievable” (BATEA) technologies as well as the use of emerging advanced technologies. copper. anions of carbonate. Water is essential for mining and hydrometallurgical processes. reuse and recycle. social and economic sustainable development requirements are achieved. As clean and potable water resources become scarce in the world.2 BACKFILL CONTRACTING & OPERATIONS / MOBILE PASTE PLANTS Golder PasteTec™ is an innovation leader in the development and use of mobile paste plants which can provide a lower capital alternative to the construction of a full paste plant facility. many mandated environmental. procurement. water reuse reduces the ever-increasing need for additional fresh water sources and can result in cost savings in a number of water management applications including environmental permitting. The raw materials typically belong to the client or can be locally sourced. In fact. sulphate. 34 35 . Our engineers and operators develop a custom process for each project and address the unique characteristics of the feed material. arsenic and cyanide. • Offer pumped or gravity injected backfill delivery • Utilize single source or multi-blend paste recipes • Have a consistent slump. may also be present. and cations of sodium. energy consumption.g. The quality of wastewater can vary widely depending on a number of factors such as the nature of the exposed minerals. QA/QC services. environmental. Golder PasteTec™ is an innovation leader in the development and use of mobile paste plants which can provide a lower capital alternative to the construction of a full paste plant facility. calcium. 7. and seepage water. suspended solids and metal ions such as iron. metallurgical processes used and climate. turn-key projects and operation of treatment systems can also be provided.

Monitoring and Optimization • aterial Characterization Testing M – size distribution – mineralogy • ptimization O – surface disposal – pressure gradient – underground fill – strength and cement cost • aste Water Management W • urface Disposal Restraints S – legislation – tailings area 36 37 . understanding and providing engineering solutions allows us to accurately forecast budgets. Golder PasteTec’s™ projects will include the following stages: 1. rheology. Construction and Commissioning 6. field trials and F monitoring of placed paste 3. react to changing market conditions which may affect our client’s capital investment strategies and strategically plan each stage of the project. Detailed Engineering 5. strength I testing. Conceptual / Prefeasibility design – generally supported by testing 2. settling characteristics of the tailings • low loop testing. Our phased approach to identifying.0 Golder PasteTec’s™ project management methodology focuses on following a pre-defined set of work stages that can be adjusted according to the needs of our clients. sedimentation testing. Feasibility and Basic Level Engineering 4. Typically.GOLDER PASTETEC™ PROjECT METHODOLOGY 8. Testing and Material Characterization • ndex testing.

This project experience list is divided into the following sections: > EPCM or Detailed Engineering > Conceptual. backfilling. Preliminary and Basic Engineering > Flow Loop Testing > Surface Disposal > Oil Sands 38 39 . The following project and client list provides a cross section of Golder PasteTec’s™ capabilities and experience. and water treatment technologies.9.0 PROjECT ExPERIENCE Golder PasteTec’s™ staff are highly specialized in providing innovative solutions involving waste management dewatering. We have been at the forefront of the development of paste technology since its infancy and have been significantly involved with over two thirds of the paste backfill installations in operation today.

 low-cost backfill for the 8.500 m. aGH DarreH mINe Location: Iran Golder PasteTec™ led the EPCM design and construction of the zarcan plant. fine saw dust. montana. entailed engineering and procurement of a paste backfill system. Located at an altitude of 4. uS Golder PasteTec™ performed the feasibility study.000 ft deep mine.1 ENGINEERING. followed with basic engineering. flow loop testing. FaLCONBrIDGe LImIteD KIDD CreeK mINe Location: timmins. The flyash disposal system will also prepare an engineered fill that will be used in the containment of other plant effluents. Located in northwest Ontario. and commissioning of paste pumping and distribution system. The plant will reduce the amount of water in the effluent holding pond and will significantly reduce PPL’s current issues with ground water contamination and seepage from the EHP. and construction management. The paste plant will be constructed in two phases with the first to meet the production schedule of 2. The system will include slurry pumping and pipeline from the main thickener to the planned underground paste plant to be located at the top of the orebody. geotechnical testing and completed the full EPCM design and construction of a 100 tph flyash surface disposal system in 2004. Canada Completed feasibility study prior to being awarded the EPCM for the Diavik Mine. PROCUREMENT. ZarCaN INterNatIONaL reSOurCeS LtD. Construction assistance is to follow. pilot plant. Canada Completed pre-feasibility study prior to being awarded the EPCM for the Musselwhite Mine. Project capital cost is estimated at $30 Million. and conducted the commissioning and training. screened. completed plant commissioning and training of the workforces. The system will include a crushing plant. construction. DIavIK DIamOND mINeS INC. North Dakota. led the detailed engineering design and construction. and operated the process sorting and dewatering system for a PCB cleanup project in 2004. The system will include a flotation circuit to remove sulphides from the tailings as well as thickening of both the sulphide and de-sulpherized tailings. Production rate designed for 400 m3/hr including mineral and organic solids consisting of large cobble (> 200 mm).000 – 10. hogfuel/woodchips (long strands to 5 mm chips). the project will be the first surface disposal paste plant in northern Ontario. it will be the highest and first completely underground paste plant in existence.000 m above sea level. Canada. procurement. Future production rate is to increase to 3. EPCM design.000 tpd. alluvial sand and waste rock to provide a high-strength. Peru Completed paste investigation. Canada. mINSur S. The system will use the local granite for backfill purposes. hydrates and builds strength in less than 24 hours. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (EPCM) / DETAILED ENGINEERING PROjECTS (SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND) GOLDCOrP CaNaDa LtD. Project capital cost was $3 Million. at which time the second phase will be constructed. and commissioning of a 73 tph flyash surface disposal system. the project presents many challenges in meeting delivery schedules by winter road that is only open for 2 months a year. completing basic and detailed engineering. Marine shoreline sediments contaminated with PCB were dredged. flow loop. The system deposits the de-sulpherized tailings as paste into the current pond and the sulphides as thickened tailings into the current open pit under water cover.9. flow loop testing and basic engineering. Located at approximately 3. pilot plant testing. water return systems and review of detailed engineering services in 2004. Pt FreePOrt INDONeSIa BIG GOSSaN mINe Location: Indonesia Completed feasibility and basic engineering studies prior to being awarded the EPCM for the Big Gossan Mine detailed engineering and procurement of a paste backfill system to be completed in 2009. Project capital cost is estimated at $135 Million. Golder PasteTec™ was awarded the EPCM contract in late 2003 as the prime consultant for project management.5 Million. Project capital cost was $1. a grinding circuit as well as a paste plant. it will be the largest underground paste backfill plant in the world and one of the largest paste plants for any installation. procurement assistance. uS Golder PasteTec™ performed the feasibility study. Detailed engineering was completed in 2008 and construction management and commissioning will extend into 2010. or PPSM. BC. ON. 40 41 . Located in the Northwest Territories. known as the Paste Preparation and Storage Mechanism. Project capital cost was $11 Million. Strict guidelines for release were dictated by Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Great rIver eNerGy COaL CreeK StatION Location: Bismarck. Canada Golder PasteTec™ completed extensive testing and preliminary design effort. Canada Golder PasteTec™ completed a fast-track EPCM design. SaN raFaeL mINe Location: antauta. The flyash is disposed of as a high density slurry and due to its pozzalonic properties. construction. construction management. Golder Associates also completed basic and detailed engineering of the tailings management facility. Project capital cost was $4 Million. sorted and deposited in final ponds while carrier water treated in clarifier prior to release to the environment. Golder PasteTec™ also set up a QA/QC monitoring program for the paste backfill plant that combines tailings. detailed engineering. PCB DreDGe aND DISPOSaL SyStem Location: Prince rupert. muSSeLwHIte mINe Location: Northwest Ontario. geotechnical testing.a. The plant was commissioned in january 2004. stones and sediments to < 1 micron. New SKeeNa FOreSt PrODuCtS INC.000 tpd. The detailed engineering of a thickened tailings surface disposal system will be completed in 2009 with construction management and commissioning extended into 2010. The EPCM for the extensive underground distribution system was also conducted by Golder PasteTec™. The paste plant is designed around the Dorr Oliver Eimco deep tank paste thickener. PPL mONtaNa COLStrIP Steam eLeCtrIC StatION Location: Billings. Project capital cost was estimated at $10 Million. Project capital cost is estimated at $25 Million. Project capital cost was $35 Million. piping and instrumentation. DIavIK DIamOND mINe Location: Northwest territories.

piping details. Project capital cost was $7 Million. CaraIBa PaSte PLaNt mINeraCaO CaraIBa Sa Location: Bahia. construction. Sweden Golder PasteTec™ performed an initial study and the EPCM design. Detailed engineering for the 90 tph paste plant was followed by successful commissioning in May 1999. Project capital cost $6 Million. BuLyaNHuLu GOLD PrOJeCt Location: tanzania. Construction and commissioning of the plant was completed in March 2001. Golder PasteTec™ was retained to review the system and managed the paste system from August 1997 until August 1998. construction. construction managEmEnt (EPcm) / DEtailED EnginEEring ProjEcts (surfacE anD unDErgrounD) (cont’D) INCO LImIteD GOrO NICKeL PrOJeCt Location: Brisbane.1 EnginEEring. EPCM detailed engineering. The project moved forward and Golder PasteTec™ was awarded the EPCM contract in the fall of 1997. ON. and commissioning for the paste backfill underground distribution system at Laronde Mine. aGNICO-eaGLe LarONDe mINe Location: Quebec. construction. commissioning and training of operating staff in Brazil. The distribution system included two 900 m boreholes and special high strength casing. Canad Golder PasteTec™ performed an initial study and lead the EPCM design. Project capital cost was $2. Golder PasteTec™ performed the conceptual study. Hatch-Rescan was subcontracted by Golder PasteTec™ to complete the civil/structural and electrical design. electrical and instrumentation packages. boreholes and underground piping was completed in early 2001. australia Golder PasteTec™ was involved on the Goro Nickel Project engineering of this world-class project. and commissioning of an 84 tph paste backfill plant and underground distribution system. equipment specifications and layout in addition to the project management during the construction and commissioning of the plant. and commissioning of a 50 tph paste backfill plant. Commissioning and operator training was completed in October 2000 and the plant is currently producing paste at full capacity. civil. The plant complemented an existing batch plant which prepared low moisture content cemented tailings. ProcurEmEnt. PLaCer DOme CamPBeLL mINe Location: red Lake. The underground distribution system is composed of 8” and 6” piping and fully cased boreholes. Construction of the surface plant. Golder PasteTec™ completed a full EPCM for the underground distribution system. The large scale tonnage required engineering/ design involving state-of-the-art dewatering technology with thickeners and the use of very high capacity positive displacement pumps. rIO tINtO ZINKGruvaN mINe Location: Zinkgruvan. alaska. australia Completed paste investigation. and commissioning for the paste plant while working with SNC-Lavalin’s Vancouver office in the fall of 1998. Golder PasteTec™ was the prime consultant for the detailed engineering and provided all flow sheets. Golder PasteTec™ has provided the construction management. HeNty mINe PaSte PLaNt Location: tasmania. Brazil After laboratory testing. The cemented tailings were trucked to the new underground paste plant. 42 43 . construction. Project capital cost was $6 Million. ON. Golder PasteTec™ has provided the construction management. Canada After completing laboratory testing. Golder PasteTec™ completed the EPCM design. BHP wOrLD mINeraLS CaNNINGtON PaSte PLaNt Location: Queensland. Project capital cost was $5 Million. The plant was successfully commissioned in November 1997 and training of personnel was completed by February 1998. assisted with construction and commissioning and jointly produced the operating manuals with the client. KeNNeCOtt mINeraLS GreeNS CreeK mINe Location: Juneau. Golder PasteTec™ performed the commissioning and training for the first year of production. CBI CayeLI PaSte PLaNt Location: rize. The underground distribution system engineering was completed by Golder PasteTec™. and basic engineering of the fresh water supply system. flow loop testing and preliminary engineering before the award of the EPCM contract in late 1996. turkey Golder PasteTec™ completed on-site flow loop testing and preliminary strength work on the paste backfill for CBI in 1996. Construction of the surface plant.5 Million. GOLDFIeLDS LtD. Golder PasteTec™ was awarded the EPCM contract in the summer of 1997. flow loop testing and preliminary engineering throughout 1997. basic engineering and detail design phases of the system for the production of thickened tailings and the disposal pipeline system. remixed to a paste consistency and pumped to both longhole and cut-and-fill stopes. construction. Golder PasteTec™ was heavily involved in the EPCM design of the plant expansion. Golder PasteTec™ also completed the EPCM for the underground distribution system. GOLDCOrP INC reD LaKe mINe Location: red Lake. Skanska/ABB was subcontracted by Golder PasteTec™ to complete the civil/structural and electrical design. rendering the cement addition and underground distribution system unusable. but the pumping system did not work as specified. Project capital cost $7 Million. Commissioning and operator training was completed in April 2001 and the plant is currently producing paste at its present designated capacity of 90 tph paste backfill. and commissioning of a 90 tph (expandable to 135 tph paste backfill plant). Project capital cost was $6 Million. Project capital cost was $6 Million. Golder PasteTec™ completed the underground distribution system design. uS Golder PasteTec™ performed the feasibility study. included are the associated handling of water. design. Canada Golder PasteTec™ performed laboratory testing and flow loop testing as well as EPCM design. Project capital cost was $7 Million. africa Golder PasteTec™ worked with SNC-Lavalin to complete the EPCM design. and commissioning of a 180 tph batch paste plant which will have the capability to dispose of tailings underground as backfill or on surface in a ‘stacked’ paste form. commissioning and training of operating staff in Turkey. Commissioning was completed in May 2002. BarrICK /KaHama GOLD COrP. boreholes and underground piping was completed in September 2000. Golder PasteTec™ performed the process and geotechnical design and SNC-Lavalin provided the structural. which utilizes gravity to feed all areas of the mine.9. Detailed engineering for the 186 tph paste plant was followed by successful commissioning in October 1998. australia Henty Gold commissioned a paste plant in 1996. Project capital cost was $5 Million. on-site flow loop testing and a feasibility study comparing paste and rock fill.

Stillwater Mining Company. Canada • Nico Mine. A cross section of projects are listed below. Great River Energy. Quebec. Portugal Myra Falls Operation. Sutton Resources. Quebec. Quebec. Australia Cannington Mine. Brazil • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Las Cenizas. INCO.. Kazakhstan Caraiba Mine. Chile San Rafael Mine. design criteria formulation. Minsur. Wyoming. Quebec. MBR. Noranda. AngloGold. Boliden-Westmin. Peru • Prairie Creek. Canada Lockerby Mine. PRELIMINARY AND BASIC ENGINEERING Golder PasteTec™ has provided numerous clients with preliminary engineering or feasibility studies into the use of paste technology at their properties. Canada Grevet Mine. Brazil • ALCOA Alumina SA. Turkey Copper Rand. French Guyana • Newmont Yanacocha Gold Mill. Sutton Resources 44 45 . New Brunswick. Coeur D’Alene. Portugal Cayeli Mine. Noranda Mining & Exploration. Las Pelambres. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Ivanhoe Turquoise Hill. Molycorp. Bristol. Canada Forteleza Mine.1. Peru • Mauro. Quebec. Canada • Cerro Matoso. Mongolia Cambior Camp Caiman. Las Pelambres. Golder PasteTec™ coordinates the design and set-up of the flow loop and carries out the pipeline pressure monitoring in real time with the use of a data-logger and pressure transducers. Diavik Diamond Mine. Chile • Codelco Norte. The purpose of these studies range from conceptual studies all the way to bankable feasibilities and basic engineering. USA CE zinc. Tanzania Campbell Mine. Minsur S. Coeur D’Alene. BHP Billiton. PPL Montana. Brazil Bulyanhulu. USA Kidd Creek. Alaska. cost estimates. Mineraçao Caraiba. Chile • Newmont/Yanacocha Conga Project. flowsheets. Colombia • BHP Billiton. Ontario. Canada San Rafael Mine. flow loops and pilot plant work. Brazil • Tanadua Mine. Turkey Copper Rand. Kazakhstan Caraiba Mine. Vermont. Peru Las Cenizas. Peru • Breakwater Myra Falls. Alaska. general arrangement drawings. USA Campbell Mine. Canada Ruttan Mine. RTz Consultants. California Goro Nickel Project. USA Bell Allard. Canada Kidd Creek Mine. Canada Brunswick Mine. Spain 9. Bakyrchik Mining Venture. Canada Mount Isa Mine. TVx. Ontario. Canada • PT Freeport Indonesia. The following is a cross section of flow loop projects carried out by Golder PasteTec™. Cajamarca. Canada Kensington Mine Project. Bakyrchik Mining Venture. equipment specifications. Noranda. French Guyana Newmont Minas Conga. Fortune Minerals. Somincor. Montana. Canada Las Cruces Project. Quebec. The purpose of these studies range from conceptual studies all the way to bankable feasibilities and basic engineering.1. Brazil Neves Corvo Mine. Peru Mountain Pass Mine. Cayeli Bakir Isletmeleri. Falconbridge Limited. Quebec. Cambior Inc.G. USA • Cambior Camp Caiman. MSV Resources. UK Neves Corvo. MLC. Placer Dome.. geotechnical and/or rock mechanics. 9. California. Quebec. Bolivia • CVRD Taquori-Vasouras. Montana Chimo Mine.C. Canada Myra Falls Operations. Falconbridge Limited. Ontario Stillwater Mine.A. Typically. Chile • Cuiaba Mine. Chile Coal Creek Station. Agnico Eagle. Canada T. Rio Tinto. Cayeli Bakir Isletmeleri. MLC. Boliden-Westimin. Canada Stillwater Mine. Ontario. Mineraçao Caraiba. Chile • Quebrada Seca. USA Bakyrchik Mine. Cambior Inc. Canada Bouchard Hebert Mine. MIM.. North Dakota. Ontario. Molycorp. Stillwater Mining Company. Peru Colstrip Steam Electric Station. Brazil • Omya. B. CMM. Canada Bulyanhulu Gold Project. Canada • Coeur D’Alene San Bartolome. flow loops are carried out at the mine site by assembling a temporary loop of pipe. Canada Cannington Mine. Agnico Eagle. The results of the flow loop test are used in the design of the underground or surface distribution system. Soda Ash. Spain • BHP Escondida. Placer Dome. Australia Kensington Mine Project. Quebec. Noranda. Canada Doyon Mine. USA Brunswick Mine. Manitoba.1 CONCEPTUAL. Studies typically include lab testing. BHP.2 FLOW LOOP TESTING Flow loop tests are carried out to determine the pipeline friction losses for a given material at various flow rates and paste consistencies. USA Mountain Pass Mine. Brazil Cayeli Mine. British Columbia. New Brunswick. New Caledonia Olympias Mine.. Red Lake. BHP. Canadian zinc. Canada Laronde Mine. Somincor. • Mineras Aguas Teñidas SAU. MSV Resources.. Chile Alhue. Indonesia • Newmont Yanacocha Minas Conga. Australia Laronde Mine. Hudson Bay Mining & Smelting Co. Barrick Gold. Talabre Tailings Impoundment. Quebec. Greece Vazante Mine. Brazil • MBR Vargem Grande. Cambior Inc. Falconbridge Limited.Golder PasteTec™ has provided numerous clients with preliminary engineering or feasibility studies into the use of paste technology at their properties. Canada Bakyrchik Mine..

The de-sulpherized tailings will be thickened and deposited in the existing tailings pond. SURFACE DISPOSAL PROjECT ExPERIENCE 46 47 . The waste material was thickened into a paste. where they would ideally desiccate with minimal water bleed. civil. BrItISH COLumBIa.9. The removed solids would be pumped as thickened slurry to an alternate deposition area. flow loop. PrINCe ruPert. Marine shoreline sediments contaminated with PCB were dredged. NOrtHweSt ONtarIO. which utilizes gravity to feed all areas of the mine. Golder PasteTec™ performed the feasibility study. The results showed that the capital cost of the project could be significantly reduced through the use of paste technology although the operating costs of the paste option resulted in a slightly higher Net Present Cost for the paste option over the projected 30 year mine life. The thickening of the tailings will increase the life of the tailings pond for the life of the mine.2 muSSeLwHIte mINe. uSa This Asarco project was one of the first full-scale feasibility studies completed on the use of paste for surface disposal. Golder PasteTec™ completed a fast-track design/build/operate project for a PCB clean-up project in Prince Rupert. hogfuel/woodchips (long strands to 5 mm chips). The goal of this project was to stabilize the old coal mines so that houses could be built on the land and also allowed for the disposal of the coal spoils underground. Construction and commissioning of the plant was completed in March 2001. mONtaNa. Strict guidelines for release were dictated by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. sorted and deposited in final ponds. A 10.000 tpd Copper project was investigating the potential for alternative tailings management schemes and detailed cost estimates were made based on paste technology and traditional sub-aqueous disposal methods. screened. Golder PasteTec™ designed the underground distribution system. BOrON. geotechnical testing. Golder PasteTec™ attempted to reduce the costs and improve operations by limiting additional ponds. The plant will reduce the amount of water in the effluent holding pond and will significantly reduce PPL’s current issues with groundwater contamination and seepage from the EHP. SKeeNa PrOJeCt. rOCK CreeK. mONtaNa. The study involved the removal and relocation of solids from the plant waste ponds to an alternate area. Golder PasteTec™ performed the process and geotechnical design and SNC-Lavalin provided the structural. CaNaDa A PCB dredge and disposal system was designed and built by Golder PasteTec™. BuLyaNHuLu GOLD PrOJeCt This project for Barrick Gold involved Golder PasteTec™ working with SNC-Lavalin to complete the detailed engineering of a 180 tph batch paste plant which will have the capability to dispose of tailings underground as backfill or on surface in a ‘stacked’ paste form. pilot plant testing. aLBerta. CaNmOre. while carrier water was treated in clarifier prior to release to the environemnet. uSa This project in Billings. Several options were produced for transporting and storing the solids and the most suitable method was a mobile mixing/ pumping method. uS BOraX. thickened and deposited in the existing open pit under a water cover to prevent acid generation. tHree SISterS PrOJeCt. CaNaDa This project involved work between Golder PasteTec™ and Golder Associates Ltd. The sulphides would be removed. detailed engineering and is currently finishing construction of a 73 tph flyash surface disposal system. BC. fine saw dust. Production rate designed for 400 m3/hr included mineral and organic solids consisting of large cobble (> 200 mm). CaNaDa This project involves the removal of sulphides from the tailings via a flotation circuit. electrical and instrumentation packages. Laboratory testing was followed by field trials on the behavior of the material when placed on surface and included leachate collection and trafficability. BILLINGS. COLDStrIP POwer StatION. CaLIFOrNIa. stones and sediments to <1 micron. (GAL – Calgary). uSa This study was performed to determine long-term disposal options for Borax’s waste material. Golder PasteTec™ excavated coal spoils and other waste materials over a three-year period for disposal underground. mixed with cement and inserted underground into abandoned coal mines. Montana was conducted for PPL Montana.

and electrical packages. if so. Golder PasteTec™ has also applied our dewatering and pumping experience to the fine tailings challenges experienced in the oil sands industry. The project included a site visit. reduced the volume of the containment facility and greatly reduced the reclamation costs for a relatively short-term project. civil. CHILe. 48 49 .9. which will have the capability to transport paste through a long pipeline via pumping. were assessed. increasing the placement densities and decreasing disposal area footprints. to complete the detailed engineering of a 300 tph surface disposal paste pipeline and pumping system. Golder PasteTec™ designed the paste pipelines.3 OIL SANDS PROjECT ExPERIENCE Golder PasteTec™ has also applied our dewatering and pumping experience to the fine tailings challenges experienced in the oil sands industry. SaN BartOLOme PrOJeCt This project for Empresa Minera Manquiri S. including centrifugal slurry pumping. Advancements in dewatering technology and successes on similar projects indicate the technology may be suitable to Syncrude’s challenges by improving water recovery. As well. Golder PasteTec™ performed the process and transport system design and Fluor Inc.2 Surface DiSpoSal project experience (cont’D) GreeCe PrOJeCt At the request of the client.g. vacuum filtration. Our projects have provided extensive laboratory testing. SyNCruDe CaNaDa LtD. storage locations and processes. Our engineers and technicians have worked at a grassroots level to understand the physical and chemical relationships that cause these fine tailings to exhibit their hydrophilic characteristics and unstable deposition properties. The transportation methods studied included hydraulic transportation by centrifugal or positive displacement pumps and mechanical transportation using belt conveyors. 9. SOutH amerICa Studies were completed for Codelco Norte in Chile regarding the high compression thickening and tailings disposal of 230 ktpd at the Talabre Tailings Management Facility (TMF). The pumps were designed to overcome a 20% incline to reach the final deposition area. A conceptual design was proposed that reduced the footprint of the facility. The options which were assessed included high compression thickening. pre-feasibility level designs and cost estimates to support our client’s initiatives for improved tailings deposition performance. better water recycling and accelerated closure. The goal of these studies was to identify the options available which would maximize the tailings storage capacity at the existing TMF. Favourable geometry indicated savings of 20% over the cost of a traditional impoundment. pressure filtration and the combination of thickening and filtration dewatering methods. etc. consideration was given to the option of maintaining the tailings thickening operation at the mill as an alternative to conducting thickening at the TMF area only. several presentations to the client. SuNCOr eNerGy PrOJeCt: Pre-Feasibility Study on applying Paste technology to Oil Sands tailings management Golder PasteTec™ investigated whether paste technology could be applied to Suncor Energy’s tailings fines and. improved deposition angles and densities. CODeLCO NOrte. Due to the extreme climate of the area. eSCONDIDa PrOJeCt Studies were completed for Minera Escondida TDA regarding the multiple options available for the tailings disposal of 240 ktpd at the Laguna Seca Tailings Management Facility (TMF). provided the structural. plant layouts and capital and operating cost estimates to allow the client to make an informed decision on this tailings technology. reduced water consumption. would the application translate into the benefits currently being realized with paste in other mineral processing industries (e. PrOJeCt: Paste technology Services for Surface waste Disposal Golder PasteTec™ investigated the application of paste technology as one possible solution towards the surface disposal of Syncrude’s tailings waste stream. field pilot studies. extensive laboratory testing on NRU and flotation tailings. Our engineers and technicians have worked at a grassroots level to understand the physical and chemical relationships that cause these fine tailings to exhibit their hydrophilic characteristics and unstable deposition properties.).A. A variety of equipment.involved Golder PasteTec™ working with Fluor Inc. Golder PasteTec™ investigated the use of paste for surface disposal at a gold project located in Northern Greece. a conceptual flowsheet design. paste thickening. water conservation and maximum water recovery from the slurry tailings stream was a key driver for the completion of these studies.

we find a different context for waste management solutions. water supply. the use of paste technology as waste management streams was considered by many to be an unrealistic option as paste was thought to be a high risk and high cost option. and ultimately offers a strategic competitive benefit. 50 10. Paste technology provides real and tangible benefits to clients in cost reduction and permitting. environmental impact) and societal considerations are critical elements of every project whether in the design. material characterization. builds trust within the local communities.” . The innovative solutions offered through paste technology make the best use of our natural resources and minimize the footprint of mineral waste operations.GOLDER PASTETEC’S™ FUTURE Only ten years ago. operations.0 We remain: “Your trusted global partner providing innovative engineering design and project delivery solutions with expertise focused on dewatering & treatment. one where sustainability drivers such as environmental (eg. or closure stage of its life cycle. Today. handling and transport of mineral waste.

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