HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION. Problem solving has a special importance in the study of mathematics. A primary goal of mathematics teaching and learning is to develop the ability to solve a wide variety of complex mathematics problems. During mathematics problem solving, one goal is to find a solution for a given problem. Other goals may be to generate new problems, generate alternative solutions, interpret a result, or generalize. TheCurriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, (1989), advocates that a primary goal for students is "that they become mathematical problem solvers". The National Council for Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has given strong emphasis to problem solving in the mathematics classroom. The process of problem solving, according to Polya (1957), involves four steps: understanding the problem, devising a plan (solution), implementing the plan and looking back (examining the solution). These processes demand the ability to develop a deep understanding of the problem and to devise a plan to solve it. Problem solving (Polya, 1973; Schoenfeld, 1985) has been advocated as revealing more of the strategies employed by children in the course of solving mathematical problems. While problem solving can be described through the use of heuristics and meta-cognitive strategies, the underlying assumption is that all mathematical entities consist of well-organized structures, waiting to be discovered. Teachers of mathematics should inculcate in children the inclination to develop strategies in the process of solving problems and to value its importance. However, the process of problem solving has not been given proper emphasis in schools, possibly due to the fact that teachers themselves are not very competent problem solvers and the burden of syllabus to finish and public examinations to prepare the students for. As a primary school teacher, we should know the mathematics concept before we started teaching mathematics. According to Catania et. al (2003), mathematics has three dimensions such as facts and procedures, understanding and problem solving. Lots of practices on facts and procedures without understanding will make mathematics will be difficult and boring.
SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002

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There were some reasons why problem solving skills should be emphasized in mathematics curriculum. The other reason why problem solving skills should be emphasized in mathematics curriculum is to promote creative thinking for the pupils. problem solving skills can only be developed after pupils have gone through different level of problems. According to Smith ( 2001). still many of the children make errors in solving mathematical word problems. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 2 . Such experiences at a susceptible age may create a taste for mental work and leave their imprint on mind and character for a lifetime. facts and strategies in the process of solving problems. and if you solve it by your own means. Problem solving is an important skill in learning of mathematics. Nevertheless. This means pupils will be able to apply the information. Pupils also have a good mental process in solve any problems if there have been expose to the problem solving process early stage of their ages.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1. Pupils will experiences in solve any problem in their life in the correct step and procedures. you may experience the tension and enjoy the triumph of discovery.0 Five reasons why problem solving skills should be emphasized in mathematics curriculum. Our curriculum exposes the problem solving processes to the school children in primary school. They can solve the problems easily and get the satisfy answer for the problems occurred. but if it challenges your curiosity and brings into play your inventive faculties. Your problem may be modest. First reasons why problem solving skills should be emphasized in mathematics curriculum is to promote critical thinking. By learning strategies in solving problems. These will make your mind ready for any types of problem and you will ready to solve it easily because you have the ability to synthesis and analysis of higher order thinking. pupils will have the clue for them to solve the problems if they face any kinds of problems in their lifetimes. This means during teaching problem solving teachers also promote mental process and enhance understanding of concepts and procedures. Exposure to problem solving at an early age will ensure pupils are adequately equipped with standard procedures to solve problems.

pupils can ready themselves to face challenges in their real life. By learning problems solving skills. Most of our situation in our life involved mathematics to solve it. For an example. when they want to buy some new stationary for the next semester or for an examination. Pupils will have to make a budget plan before buying something to make sure they they have the correct amount of money. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 3 . For the example. this problems need mathematics processes to solve this type of problems. pupils must know types of food they have to take and the quantities available for them. To get a healthy body. They can solve the problem involve their lifestyle easily and in the correct procedures without any trouble. problems solving skills also promote pupils to challenge the real-life problems. If the pupils can use the correct mathematics procedures to solve mathematics problems. This means most of our daily situations involved mathematics to solve it. So.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION Problems solving skills also narrow the gap between mathematics and real life problems. Besides that. then they wouldn¶t have any trouble to solve their real life situations. to get some food during the break time will ask the pupils to count the amount of money they have in order to buy the food they want to have. Mathematics is the queen for any types of situation in our daily life situations. These five reasons show why problem solving skills need to be emphasized in teaching mathematics.

Teacher guides the pupils to find the information given in the problems and what they are asked for. In this step. Then. Step 2: Devise a plan. Teacher will ask the pupils about the correct operation. Step 1: Understand the problem. ii) one week = 7 days.1 Examples of words problems. they have to write the number sentence (horizontal form) to make sure that they will use the correct operation. Given Asked for : half an hour every day. Step 3: Carry out the plan.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1. After that. Question 1 : Azmin watches cartoons for half an hour every day. Solve : i) half an hour = 30 minutes. Number sentence : 30 minutes X 7 days = SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 4 . does he spend on watching cartoons in a week? The strategy to solve this problem is µSimplify the problem¶. Operation : Multiplication. : times spend on watching cartoons in a week (in minutes). Pupils will be asked to change the unit according to the question. they need to do the calculation in the vertical form/standard writte method. How much time. in minutes. Before they can carry out the plan.

0 0 . If they found the correct answer in step 4. Teacher guides the pupils to find the information given in the problems and what they are asked for. Question 2 : The mass of an empty bag is 360 g. they will have to check the answer by reversing the operation in step 3. What is the mass. ANSWER : 210 minutes. Check : 210 minutes ÷ 7 days = 7 30 minutes 210 minutes . its mass becomes 1.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION X 30 minutes 7 days 210 minutes Step 4 : Check the answer. Step 1: Understand the problem. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 5 . of the books? The strategy to solve this problem is µSimplify the problem¶. in kg. When the bag is full of books. they will write the answer from step 3 in the apce provided.21 . In order to make sure that they have found the correct answer.6 kg.

Pupils will be asked to change the unit according to the question.0. kg 1 0 6 3 g 0 6 0 0 Solve : i) 1. In this step.6kg Asked for : mass of the books (in kg). Before they can carry out the plan. Step 3: Carry out the plan. they have to write the number sentence (horizontal form) to make sure that they will use the correct operation.6 kg = 1.360 kg = 1. mass of an empty bag = 360g. Operation : Substraction. Teacher will ask the pupils about the correct operation. ii. ii) 360 g = 0.240 kg SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 6 . After that. they need to do the calculation in the vertical form/standard writte method.360 kg Number sentence : 1.360 kg 1.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION Given : i.600 kg . mass of the bag full with books = 1.600 kg ± 0.600 kg. Then. Step 2: Devise a plan.

240 kg + 0. ANSWER : 1.360 kg 1.360 = 1. they will write the answer from step 3 in the apce provided.600 kg If they found the correct answer in step 4.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION Step 4 : Check the answer.240 kg SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 7 .240 kg + 0. they will have to check the answer by reversing the operation in step 3. In order to make sure that they have found the correct answer. Check : 1.

8. 3. 1. 12. 9. 17. 16. 4.2 Data analysis. Name ADELINE CHAN ALEX JOE LARRY CLODIA ANNIE DEWINA AK SAREP DORIS LIZA ELISSHAM AK SAKIM ELVIS AK IMPIN EVELYN UNA AK ROBERT HANNA AK KATIJAH LILYANNA VIZESSA AK AGEN LYDIA AK BERONG MARYLNA AK PILAR NAZREEN AK TATAU NEREEN AK MANAS NIGLAS AK YATI PAULINE AK ONOK SIM WAN CHUIN SITI MASLIZA WELFEREDDEE ZABIL AK NORLELA Question 1 10 10 10 7 10 10 7 9 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 3 7 10 Question 2 10 10 10 3 9 6 5 8 9 9 9 7 7 10 10 9 10 1 10 6 Total 20 20 20 10 19 16 12 17 17 19 19 17 17 20 20 19 19 4 17 16 a) Number of pupils pass with full marks = 5 persons Percentage of pupils pass for this quiz = (5 x 100) ÷ 20 = 25 % b) Number of pupils fail to answer correctly = 15 persons Percentage of pupils fail for this quiz = ( 15 x 100 ) ÷ 20 = 75 % SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 8 . 7. 10. 14. 11. 6. 13. Bil. 5. 19. 20. 2. 18. 15.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1.

For this situation. They were confused and unable to write proper symbols and relevant operation as related to terms in the word problems. they did not complete the information given and write the full information asked for in the word problem. Elvis and Welfreddee have difficulties to comprehend what is read and transform the words problems to Mathematical sentence. the analysis will be on Question 1 only.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1. She was also unable to understand the meaning of terms in word problems and mathematical operation. neither in Bahasa Malaysia. she can only guess the meaning of the problem from the sentence given by her own style. Evelyn Una didn¶t write the number sentence to complete the third step in Polya¶s Model. In this case. From the analysis. They also have difficulties to relate terms and operation and concepts. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 9 . The rest of the puils did not facing any difficulties to solve the word problems. As for Hanna and Sim Wan Chuin. words or phrases in the question because they unable to understand in English term. And that¶s why she often makes mistake due to misunderstanding of term. They cannot understand the meaning of terms in the word problems and mathematical sentence. She will unable to transform word problems into mathematical sentences correctly including symbols and operations. In other words. she was unable to point out the main focus or unknown information of the problems. they are facing difficulties in the interpretation of word problems. they were careless to follow the correct steps in order to solve the word problem. Hanna and Sim Wan Chuin. As for Evelyn Una. She cannot read. Newman¶s Error Analysis is a procedure to identify pupils¶s error in solving word problems. She was not able to read mathematical problems in English language. In this case. This type of mistake is called carelessness. Dewina.3 Newman¶s Error Analysis Procedure. comprehension and information given in the problems. pronounce or refuse to read. They can follow the correct steps and find the correct answer as asked in the word problem. we can see that Siti Masliza is very weak in reading and understanding.

They found that.4 The effective strategies in teaching Mathematics words problems in the classroom. they still have to follow the four steps in Polya¶s Model. There are four main reason why I choose simplify word problems as the effective strategies in teaching Mathematics words problems in the classroom.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 1. there are two effective strategies in teaching Mathematics word problems in the classroom. The first one is simplify the problem. simplify the problem is the most convenient and fastest way to solve mathematics word problem. From my understanding and other reading. devise a plan. do simulation or analogy. For some pupils who were still weak to find the information given and what was the problem is all about. The four steps are : i) ii) iii) iv) understand the problem. and check the answer. This strategy is suitable for advance pupils. carry out the plan. The four main reasons are: a) Pupils can understand better the operations involved to solve the problem after they identify and write down the given information and what is the problem all about. Based on my findings. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 10 . They can understand the problem when they construct a table and try to to find the blank row or column according to the information given. No matter what kind of strategy that the pupils want to use. I find that the effective strategies in Mathematics words problem in the classroom is simplify the problem. draw a diagram or construct a table is the best way for them to solve word problems. The advance pupils don¶t like to waste their time by drawing diagram.

HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION b) Pupils can save more time and more space in order to solve word problems. to solve word problems. After all. c) It is much easier for the examiner to check the pupils¶ steps and their final answers. What is the unknown? What are the data? What is the condition? Is it possible to satisfy the condition? Is the condition sufficient to determine the unknown? o Separate the various parts of the condition. UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM o o o First. Wording in some math problems might scare young students. such as UPSR. You have to understand the problem. But. Learning about the strategies for solving word problems will help in all aspects of life. if their final answer is wrong. it is necessary to work in an organized manner. people will always look at their examination results rather than asking them whether they know or don¶t know the correct answer. Maybe they can solve the problems by drawing a diagram. but during the exam there is time limitation to solve word problems. Here is an example of how we can simplify the problems involving addition word problems in the classroom: 1. Pupils can still score at least 1 mark out of 3 if they can show any correct step. but there are many easy tricks for solving word problems. especially during their exam. by drawing a diagram. it¶s too hard for the examiner to understand what the pupils are trying to show if they have the wrong answer. Pupils will be very disappointed if they know the correct answer but don¶t really know how to write the correct steps in order to prove that they know the answer to the problems. Can you write them down? SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 11 . d) There is so much different between how to solve problems in their daily life than showing the correct four steps correctly based on Polya¶s Model. In primary school.

for some other problem? Some problems overwhelm us with their complexity. Can you see clearly that the step is correct? Can you prove that it is correct? 4. Could you use it? Could you use its result? Could you use its method? o Could you restate the problem? o Did you use all the data? Did you use the whole condition? 3. o Have you seen it before? Or have you seen the same problem in a slightly different form? o Do you know a related problem? o Look at the unknown! And try to think of a familiar problem having the same or a similar unknown. CARRYING OUT THE PLAN o Third. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 12 . I will choose simplify the problem as the effective strategies to solve mathematical word problem. Find the connection between the data and the unknown. check each step.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 2. as my conclusion. In such cases. So. Carry out your plan. DEVISING A PLAN o Second. Examine the solution obtained. You should obtain eventually a plan of the solution. or the method. o Carrying out your plan of the solution. o Here is a problem related to yours and solved before. o o o Can you check the result? Can you check the argument? Can you derive the solution differently? Can you see it at a glance? Can you use the result. Looking Back o Fourth. it may pay off to simplify the problem.

examine all the data. etc. Polya¶s stages are well-known and taken into account for the present study. You may try to solve a part of the problem. guess the answer. (2) Devise a plan: At this stage a connection between the data and the unknown is investigated. After these attempts you should eventually obtain a plan of the solution. sometimes more than one strategy can be used.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION CONCLUSION. In a solution of a problem sometimes one strategy. Polya (1957/1997) proposes four stages. you may be obliged to consider auxiliary or similar problems in order to find a connection. Main strategies used in problem solving are. (i) understand the problem (ii) devise a plan (iii) carry out the plan (iv) chenck the answer. Taking this behaviour into account during instruction is helpful in order to solve the problem and to improve problem solving ability. (1) make a systematic list (2) guess and check (3) make a drawing SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 13 . Polya¶s sub stages and the mental activities involved in these stages are as follows: (1)Understand the problem: This stage requires understanding the problem. which have sub stages. From these problem solving process stages. to explain the problem solving process. In fact. a plan depends on an appropriate strategy. The teacher can ask some questions like: (i) What are the data? What is the condition? (ii) What is the unknown? State each part with your own sentence etc. If the operations to be made are known then we have a plan. If not.

the strategy is changed.1999). to see if the answer is reasonable or not and whether there is another way for the solution or not. If the solution cannot be found.HBMT1103 INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS EDUCATION (4) look for a pattern (5) write an equation (6) solve a similar or simpler problem (7) work backward (8) construct a table and (9) reasoning. SEBASTIAN LEMBANG ANAK IGOL 781112135167002 14 . the solution is checked in terms of the original problem. (3) Carry out the plan: By using the chosen strategy. Related problems which can be solved by this strategy are also considered (Mason. the problem is solved step by step in this stage. (4)Chech the answer: At this stage.

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