=0 n
n
a
simply {a
n
} with a
n
is the nth term.
Formula of sequence:
1. An explicit formula for the nth term
2. The first few terms of the sequence
3. A recursion formula
a =
1
`
1 1 1
1
n
a
a a = =
+
, 1
1 1
8/11/2008 2 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
a
n
=
n
)
`
.. . ,
4
,
3
,
2
, 1
n
n
a
a a
+
+
1
, 1
1 1
Convergence of Sequence Convergence of Sequence g q g q
Definisi:
W th t { } t L h li it We say that sequence {a
n
} converges to L or has limit
L and write
L a
n
= lim
If for each positive number , there is a
corresponding positive number N such that
L a
n
n
lim
A sequence that fails to converge to any finite
p g p
< L a N n
n
number L is said to diverge, or to be divergent.
8/11/2008 3 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Notes: Notes:
Here and is many sequence problem, it is convenient to
use the following almost obvious fact. g
L x f
x
=
) ( lim
If
L n f
n
=
) ( lim , then
This is convenient because we can apply lHopitals Rule
to the continuous variable problem.
8/11/2008 4 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Properties of Limit Sequence Properties of Limit Sequence p q p q
Let {a
n
} be convergent to L and {b
n
} be convergent to
M, then
1. ( ) ( ) ( ) M L b lim a lim b a lim
n n n n
= = ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n
n
n n
n
2. ( ) ( ) ( ) M . L b lim . a lim b . a lim
n
n
n
n
n n
n
= =
( )
3.
( )
( ) M
L
b lim
a lim
b
a
lim
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= =


.

\

, untuk M 0
n
8/11/2008 5 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Monotone Sequence Monotone Sequence qq
Definition:
A sequence {a
n
} is called
(i) increasing if a
n
< a
n+1
(ii) nondecreasing if a
n
a
n+1
(iii) decreasing if a
n
> a
n+1
(iv) nonincreasing if a
n
a
n+1
8/11/2008 6 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Determine if the sequence coverges or diverges :
1 n 2
n
a
n
= 1.
Answer:
We has
1 2
) (
=
x
x
x f
, in particular, I Hopital Rule,
2
1
1 2
lim ) ( lim =
=
x
x
x f
x x
1 2x
Thus
that is, a
n
converges to .
2
1
1 2
lim =
n
n
n
Thus,
8/11/2008 7 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example (Cont.) Example (Cont.) p ( ) p ( )
2.
n
n
n
1
1 a

.

\

+ =
n
. \
Answer:
We has
x
x
x f

.

\

+ =
1
1 ) (
, In particular, IHopitals Rule,
 
  1


.

\


.

\

+ =
x
x
x
1
1 ln . lim exp


.

\


.

\

+
=
x
x
x 1
1
1 ln
lim exp
x
x
x

.

\

+
1
1 lim
e e
x
x
x
= =

.

\

+
=
1
1
lim exp
.
\
x







.

\

+

.

\

=
2
2
1
1
.
1
lim exp
x
x
x
x
. \
e
n
n
n
=

.

\

+
1
1 lim
Thus,
.
\
.
\
x
8/11/2008 8 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
that is, a
n
converges to e.
. \
Problem Set Problem Set
1 n 4
2
+ 1 2
Determine if the sequence coverges or diverges :
3 n 2 n
1 n 4
a
2
n
+
+
=
2 n 3
a
2
+
=
)
`
.. .
5
4
,
4
3
,
3
2
,
2
1
a
n+1
=
2
1
(a
n
+
n
a
2
)
, a
1
=2
1.
2
8.
7.
1 n
a
n
+
1 n
n
a
n
+
=
)
`
5 4 3 2
)
`
.. .
9
5
,
7
4
,
5
3
,
3
2
, 1
2.
9.
8.
3.
1 n +
( )
n
n
n
4
a
=
) n ln(
.. .
4
3
1
1
,
3
2
1
1
,
2
1
1
1
, 1
10.
4.
n
) n ln(
a
n
=
) 3
.. .
1
5
4
,
1
4
3
,
1
3
2
,
1
2
1
a
n+1
= 1 +
2
1
a
n
, a
1
=1
11.
6.
5.
8/11/2008 9 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
5 4 3 2
Infinite Series Infinite Series
An infinite series is an expression that can be written in An infinite series is an expression that can be written in
the form:
+ + + + + =
3 2 1
... ...
n i
a a a a a
with a
n
is nth term.
=1 i
8/11/2008 10 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Sequence of Partial Sums Sequence of Partial Sums qq
Let S
n
denote the sum of the first n terms of the series
, then
=1 i
i
a
S
1
= a
1
S
2
= a
1
+ a
2
S
2
= a
1
+ a
2
.
.
n
S is called the nth partial sum of the series
a
.
S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
+ a
4
+ + a
n
=
=
n
i
i
a
1
S
n
is called the nth partial sum of the series
=1 i
i
a
Sequence {S
n
} is called the sequence of partial sums
8/11/2008 11 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Definition: Convergent of Infinite Series Definition: Convergent of Infinite Series gg
The infinite series
i
a
converges and has sum S if the e e se es
=1 i
co e ges a d as su S e
sequence of partial sums {S
n
} converges to S, if {S
n
}
diverges, then the series diverges.
8/11/2008 12 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Geometric Series Geometric Series
A series of the form
1 n
1 n
ar = a +ar +a r
2
+ ... + a r
n1
+ ...
ith 0 with a 0.
The partial sum of geometric series is
n
2 1
S
n
=
1 i
1 i
ar = a +ar +a r
2
+ ... + a r
n1
And so
S =
( ) r 1 a
n
r 1
And so
S
n
=
( )
r 1
, r 1.
8/11/2008 13 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Properties of Properties of Geometric Series Geometric Series pp
1 If r < 1 then sequence {r
n
} converges to 0 because
1. If r < 1 then sequence {r } converges to 0 because
n
n
r lim
= 0, then the series converges to
r 1
a
2. if then sequence {r
n
} diverges because
then the series diverges
r > 1
n
n
r lim
= ,
then the series diverges
8/11/2008 14 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
. . .
32
1
16
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
+ + + + +
1. Show
converges
32 16 8 4 2
Answer:
Consider the partial sums
1 1
1 1 3 1
S
1
=
2
1
= 1 
2
1
S
2
=
4
1
2
1
+ =
4
3
= 1 (
2
1
)
2
S
3
=
8
1
4
1
2
1
+ + =
8
7
= 1 (
2
1
)
3
8 4 2 8
(
2
)
then,
S
n
= 1 (
1
)
n
n
(
2
)
and
n
n
S lim
=
n
lim (1 (
2
1
)
n
) = 1
so because the sequence of partial sums {Sn}
8/11/2008 15 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
q p { }
converges to 1, then that infinite series converges to 1.
Example (2) Example (2) p ( ) p ( )
+ ) 1 i ( i
1
2. 2.
(Kolaps Series). Show the infinite series converges.
=
+
1 i
) 1 i ( i
Answer:
Consider the partial sums
1 1 1
) 1 i ( i
1
+
=
i
1

1 i
1
+
then,
 
/
 
/ /
 
/ /
 
/ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
1
and
S
n
=

.

\

+
/
/
+ +

.

\

/
/
/
/
+

.

\

/
/
/
/
+

.

\

/
/
1 n
1
n
1
. . .
4
1
3
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
1 =

.

\

+
1 n
1
1
 
1
so because the sequence of partial sums {Sn}
n
n
S lim
=
n
lim

.

\

+
1 n
1
1 = 1
8/11/2008 16 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
q p { }
converges to 1, then that infinite series converges to 1.
Example (3) Example (3) p ( ) p ( )
3. 3.
=1 i
i
1
(Show that the harmonic series diverges)
Answer:
We show that S
n
grows without bound. Imagine n to be
Large and write
1 i
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
S
n
= 1 +
n
1
. . .
8
1
7
1
6
1
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
+ + + + + + + +
S
n
= 1 +
1
. . .
8
1
7
1
6
1
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
+ +
.

\

+ + + +
.

\

+ +
n 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
. \ . \
1 +
n
1
. . .
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
4
1
4
1
2
1
+ +

.

\

+ + + +

.

\

+ +
1 1 1 1 1
It is clear that by taking n sufficiently large, we can
introduce as many s Thus {S } diverges hence
= 1 +
n
1
. . .
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ + + + +
8/11/2008 17 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
introduce as many s. Thus {S
n
} diverges, hence,
so does the harmonic series.
Devergence tests of Devergence tests of nnth term th term gg
If the series
=0 n
n
a
converges, then
n
n
a lim
= 0, ekivalen if
n
n
a lim
0 then the series diverges.
Example: Show that
2
2
n
diverges. Example: Show that
=
+ +
1 n
2
4 n 3 n 3
diverges.
That series diverges since
n
li
2
1
li
1
4 n 3 n 3
lim
2
n
+ +
=
2
n
n
4
n
3
3
1
lim
+ +
3
1
=
(Tidak Nol)
So proved that
diverges.
=
+ +
1 n
2
2
4 n 3 n 3
n
8/11/2008 18 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
The New Problem The New Problem
To prove that a series converges is does not suffice to
h h
li
0 i thi t h ld f
show that
n
n
a lim
= 0, since this property may hold for
divergent as well as convergent series.
For example, harmonic series, For example, harmonic series,
=1 n
n
1
=1 +
n
1
. . .
8
1
7
1
6
1
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
+ + + + + + + +
+ . . .
It is clear that
n
n
a lim
= 0, but the harmonic series diverges.
Therefore we need the other tests for positive series Therefore we need the other tests for positive series.
8/11/2008 19 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
1. The integral test
Let function f be continuous, positive, nonincreasing
function the interval [1,)
a If the improper integral
dx ) x ( f
converges then series
a. If the improper integral
b If the improper integral
1
dx ) x ( f
converges, then series
=1 n
) n ( f
converges.
diverges then series
dx ) x ( f
b. If the improper integral diverges, then series
=1 n
) n ( f
diverges.
1
dx ) x ( f
8/11/2008 20 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
1. Determine the series
n
2
e n
converges or diverges
=1 n
Answer. We has
2
x
e x ) x ( f
= , thus
2
x
d li
2
x
b
b
2 x
) ( d li
1
2
dx e x
x
1
dx e x lim
x
1 b
1
2 x
b
) x ( d e lim
2
b
x
b
2
e lim
2
1



1
1 1
lim
2
1
2
2
1
=
=
= = =
1
b
2
.
\
1
2
2
e
e
b
b
e 2
So because
dx e x
2
x
1
converges, then
1
n
2
e n
1
=1 n
also converges.
8/11/2008 21 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
2. Determine the series
n ln n
1
converges or diverges
Answer. We has , thus
=2 n
n ln n
x x
x f
ln
1
) ( =
=
b
b
x x
dx
x x
dx
2 2
ln
lim
ln
=
2
ln
) (ln
lim
x
x d
b
( ) ( ) ( ) = = = 2 ln ln ln ln lim ln ln lim b x
So because diverges then
( ) ( ) ( ) = = =
2 ln ln ln ln lim ln ln lim b x
b b
dx
1
So because diverges, then
also diverges.
2
ln x x
=2 n
n ln n
8/11/2008 22 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Determine the following series converges or diverges:
+
1
1 n 2
1
4.
1.
( )
=
3 n
2
2 n
1
2
n ln n
1
=
+
1 n
1 n 2
+
1
2
1 n 4
1
2. 5.
( )
=3 n
=2 n
n ln n
=
+
1 n
1 n 4
( )
3
1
3.
( )
=
+
1 n
2
n 3 4
8/11/2008 23 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
2. Convergence of pseries
Th i The series
=1
1
i
p
i
h i t t i ll d i where p is a constant, is called pseries.
By the integral test, we have
d
1
li
t
p 1
x
lim
1 t
lim
p 1
dx
x
lim
1
p
t
=
1
t
p 1
lim
=
p 1
lim
t
Note the case
1. p = 1 gives the harmonic series, then the series
diverges
2. p > 1 gives
p 1
t lim
= 0, then the series converges
8/11/2008 24 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
t
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
3. p < 1 gives
p 1
t
t lim
=, then the series diverges.
t
4. p < 0, the nth term of
=
n
i
P
i
1
1
, namely, doesnt even
P
n
1
Tend toward 0. So the series diverges by nth term test. g y
So we has, namely:
1 The pseries converges if p > 1 1. The p series converges if p > 1
2. The pseries diverges if 0 p 1
8/11/2008 25 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Does the following series converge or diverge?
1
1.
=1
001 , 1
1
n
n
By the pseries test, the series
001 1
1
converges By the p series test, the series
=1
001 , 1
n
n
converges
because p=1,001 > 1
2
1
1
2.
By the pseries test, the series diverges
=1
2
1
n
n
=1
2
1
1
n
n
because p= < 1
=1 n
n
8/11/2008 26 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
3. Ordinary Comparison Test
Suppose
= ` 1 n
n
a
= ` 1 n
n
b
and the positive series, if a
n
b
n
then
1. If converges, then
n
b
= ` 1 n
n
b
n
a
= ` 1 n
n
a
converges
2. If
diverges, then diverges
= ` 1 n
= ` 1 n
8/11/2008 27 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Does the following series converge or diverge:
1
n
1.
=
3 n
2
5 n
Answer:
we will comparing the series a =
1
and b
n
we will comparing the series a
n
=
n
and b
n
=
5 n
2
we know that
,
=1 n
n
1
is harmonic series and
n
1
b th i
1
di h
5 n
2
n
1
, so because the series
=1 n
n
2
5
n
diverges, then
the series diverges.
=
2 n
2
5 n
8/11/2008 28 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
2.
2
5
1
Answer:
2.
=
+
1 n
2
5 n
1
1
We will comparing the series with b
n
=
and a
n
=
we know that the series
is pseries with p = 2 > 1
5 n
1
2
+
2
n
1
2
n
1
1
2
n
1
5 n
1
2
+
=1 n
n
and
=1 n
2
n
1
converges
then the series
converges.
=
+
1 n
2
5 n
1
8/11/2008 29 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Does the following series converge or diverge
n
1
=
+
1 n
2
5 n
n
( )
=
3 n
2
2 n
1
4.
1.
=
3 n
2
5 n
1
=
1 n
1 n 2
1
2. 5.
=
+
1 n
n
1 2
1
3.
8/11/2008 30 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
4. Limit Comparison Test
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
Suppose a
n
and b
n
positive series and
n
n
n
b
a
lim
= L
1 If 0 < L < then
b
and Converge or 1. If 0 < L < then
= ` 1 n
n
a
= ` 1 n
n
b
and Converge or
diverge together
2 f 0 d
th
2. if L = 0 and
= ` 1 n
n
b
= ` 1 n
n
a
converges, then converges.
8/11/2008 31 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Does the following series converge or diverge :
+ 3 n 2
=
+
+
1 n
2 3
7 n 5 n
3 n 2
1.
Jawab:
1
If we note the series, the nth term is like b
n
=
Thus,
2
1
n
3 2n +
3 2
2 3
n
n
n
b
a
lim
= 2
1
2
2 3
1
7 5
lim
n
n n
n
+
=
7 5
3 2
lim
2 3
2 3
+
+
=
n n
n n
n
+
+
1 n
2 3
7 n 5 n
3 n 2
the series converges.
So because L=2 and the series
=1
2
1
n
n
converges, then
8/11/2008 32 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
=
+
1 n
7 n 5 n
Example Example pp
1
2.
Answer:
=
+
1 n
2
4 n
If we note the series, the nth term is like bn =
thus,
n
1
1
n
n
n
b
a
lim
= 1
n
1
4 n
1
lim
2
n
+
4 n
n
lim
2
2
n
+
=
=
1
the series diverges.
So because L=1 and the series
diverges, then
=
+
1 n
2
4 n
1
=1
1
n
n
8/11/2008 33 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Does the following series converge or diverge:
n
+1 n 3
=
+ +
1 n
2
3 n 2 n
n
=
+
1 n
3
4 n
1 n 3
1
n ln
4.
1.
=
+
1 n
1 n n
1
=1 n
2
n
n ln
2.
5.
=
+
1 n
2
n
3 n 2
3.
8/11/2008 34 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
5. Ratio Test
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
=1 k
k
a
+1 k
a
li
Let
be a series of positive term and
=
+
k
1 k
k
a
lim
=1 k
k
a
1. if
< 1, the series converges.
suppose
=1 k
=1 k
k
a
diverges. 2. if
> 1, the series
3
n
1.
=1
!
n
n
3
n
3
1 + n
Answer:
Suppose nth term is a
n
=
!
3
n
, then (n+1)th is a
n+1
=
thus,
( )! 1
3
+ n
3 ! 3
1 +
n
n
( )! 1
3
1
n
n
+
+
a
S b 0 ( 1) th th i
3
n
( ) 1
3
lim
+
=
n
n
0 =
( )! 1 3
! 3
lim
1
+
=
+
n
n
n
n
n
( )
!
3
! 1
lim
n
n
n
n
+
=
n
n
n
a
a
1
lim
+
So because =0 (< 1), then the series
=1
!
n
n
converges.
8/11/2008 36 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
2
3
n
2.
=1
2
n
n
3
n
1
3
+ n
Jawab:
Suppose nth term is an =
2
3
n
, then (n+1)th a
n+1
=
thus,
( )
2
1
3
+ n
3
2
3
lim
n
2 1
3
li
+
n
n
( )
2
1
1
3
li
n
n
+
+
n
a
1
lim
+
3 =
( )
2
1
lim
+
=
n
n
( )
2
1 3
lim
+
=
n
n
n
( )
2
3
1
lim
n
n
n
n
+
=
n
n
n
a
1
lim
+
So because =0 (< 1), then the series
=1
2
3
n
n
n
diverges
8/11/2008 37 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Does the following series converge or deverge:
! n
+ 5 n
=1
!
n
n
n
n
=
+
1
!
5
n
n
n
n
3
n
4.
1.
( )
=1
! 2
n
n
n
n
( )
=1
! 2
n
n
n
2.
5.
=
+
1
!
4
n
n
n
n
3.
8/11/2008 38 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Positive Series Test Positive Series Test Positive Series Test Positive Series Test
6. The Root Test
=1 k
k
a
Let be a series with a positive terms and suppose
that
a a
k
lim
=1 k
k
a 1. if a
< 1, the series converges
that
a a
k
k
k
=
lim
=1 k
=1 k
k
a
diverges
= 1, the test is inconclusive.
2. if a
> 1, then the series
3. if a
1, the test is inconclusive.
3. if a
8/11/2008 39 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Does the following series converge and diverge:
1

+ 2 2
n
n
1.
=
.

\

1
1
n
n
n
Answer:
n
n


+ 2 2
Suppose nth is a
n
=
n
n

.

\

+
1
2 2
, thus
2
2 2
lim lim
+ n
a
n
2
1
lim lim =
=
n
a
n
n
n
n
So because a = 2 (> 1), then the series
=

.

\

+
1
1
2 2
n
n
n
n
=
. \
1 n
diverges.
8/11/2008 40 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
2

+ 2
n
n
2.
=
.

\

1
1 2
n
n
n
Answer:
n
n


+ 2
Suppose nth term is a
n
=
n
n

.

\

+
1 2
2
, thus
1 2
lim lim =
+
=
n
a
n
2 1 2
lim lim =
=
n
a
n
n
n
n
 
+ 2 2
n
n
So because a = (< 1), then the series
=

.

\

+
1
1
2 2
n
n
n
converges.
8/11/2008 41 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Does the following series converge or diverge:
 
1
n
 
1 1
n
=

.

\

1
ln
1
n
n
 
n
=

.

\

+
1
1
2
1
n
n
n
3.
1.
=

.

\

+
1
1 2
2 3
n
n
n
n
=

.

\

+
1
2 3
n
n
n
n
2. 4.
8/11/2008 42 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Alternating Series Alternating Series
The series of the form
( ) . . . a a a a a 1
4 3 2 1
1 n
n
1 n
+ + =
=
+
with a
n
> 0, for all n.
An important example is the alternating harmonic
series, namely;
( ) . . .
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
n
1
1
1 n
1 n
+ + =
=
+
8/11/2008 43 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Alternating Series Test Alternating Series Test gg
An alternating series converges if the following two An alternating series converges if the following two
condition are satisfied
1. a
n+1
< a
n
0 lim =
n
n
a
2.
Example:
Does the following alternating series converge or diverge
1 1 1
1 1 . . .
4 3 2
1 + + 1.
2.
. . .
! 4
1
! 3
1
! 2
1
1 + +
8/11/2008 44 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
! 4 ! 3 ! 2
Example Example pp
1. Answer (Alternating series test)
We h e
1
d
1
the se ies con e ges We have a
n
=
n
, and a
n+1
=
1 + n
since
, the series converges,
1 1
1
+ n a
a. 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
> + =
+
=
+
=
+
n n
n
n
n
a
a
n
n
a
n
>a
n+1
b
0
1
lim lim = = a
b.
0 lim lim = =
n
a
n
n
n
So because a dan b proved, the alternating series
converges.
8/11/2008 45 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
2. Answer (alternating series test)
We h e
1
d
1
the se ies con e ges We have a
n
=
! n
, and a
n+1
=
( )! 1 + n
since
, the series converges,
!
1
n a
a.
( )
1 1
! 1
1
!
1
> + =
+
=
+
n
n
n
a
a
n
n
a
n
>a
n+1
b
0
1
lim lim = = a
b.
0
!
lim lim = =
n
a
n
n
n
So because a dan b proved, the series converges.
8/11/2008 46 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Does the following alternating series converge or deverge:
2
( )
n
( )
=
+
+
1
1
1 3
2
1
n
n
n
( )
=
1
3
1
n
n
n
n
3
1
4.
1.
( )
=
+
+
1
2
3
1
n
n
n n
n
( )
=
+
1
) 1 (
1
1
n
n
n n
2.
5.
( )
=
+
1
1
!
1
n
n
n
n
n
3.
8/11/2008 47 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Absolute Convergence and Conditional Absolute Convergence and Conditional
Convergence Convergence Convergence Convergence
If the series is said to converge adsolutely if the series
=1 n
n
b
In the other words, a series
converges absolutely, then
=1 n
n
b
converges.
of absolute values converges.
n
b
n
b
converges.
And the series is said converge conditionally if the series
diverges but
=1 n =1 n
g
8/11/2008 48 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Ratio Test for Absolute Convergence Ratio Test for Absolute Convergence gg
Let
1
n
a
with a
n
0 and
n
n
a
a
1
lim
+
= r, then
=1 n n
n
a
1. if r < 1, the series converges absolutely
2. if r > 1, the series diverges
3 if r = 1 no conclusion about convergence or absolute 3. if r = 1, no conclusion about convergence or absolute
convergence can be drawn from this test.
8/11/2008 49 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Does the following series conditional converge, absolute
converge, or diverges: g , g
1.
( )
=
+
1
1
!
2
1
n
n
n
n
Answer: Answer:
( )
2
1
2
n+
We have a
n
= ( )
!
2
1
1
n
n
n+
, and a
n+1
=
( )
( )! 1
2
1
1
2
+
+
+
n
n
n
thus,
( )
( )
( )
( )!
2
1
! 1
2
1
lim lim
1
1
2
1
n
n
a
a
r
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+
+
+
+
= =
( )! 1 2
! 2
lim
1
+
=
+
n
n
n
n
n
1
2
lim
+
=
n
n
0 =
( )! n
We conclude from the Absolute Ratio Test, the series
absolute converges.
8/11/2008 50 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
2.
( )
1
1
1
1
n
n
=1 n
n
Answer:
( )
1
1
1
n
converges by Alternating Series Test. (Proved!)
( )
=1 n
n
diverges, since it is a pseries
=
=
1 1
1
n n
n
n
a
converges by Alternating Series Test. (Proved!)
However,
( )
1
1
1
1
n
n
So the series
with p = .
conditional converges.
=1 n
n
8/11/2008 51 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Does the following series conditional converge,
absolute converge or diverges:
( )

.

\

5
1
n
n
n
( )
( )
1
1
1
n
n n
1.
4.
absolute converge, or diverges:
=
. \
1
5
n
) 4 (
n
( )
=
+
1
1
n
n n
1
) 1 (
n
2
5
=1
2
n
n
) 1 (
n
=1
ln
n
n n
1
) 1 (
n
2.
5.
=
+
1
2 3
) 1 (
n
n
=
+
1
1
) 1 (
n
n n
3.
6.
8/11/2008 52 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Power Series Power Series
The power series has two form:
1. A power series in x has the form
n
n
x a
= a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ . . .
=0 n
n
a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x + . . .
2. A power series in (x b) has the form
( )
=
0 n
n
n
b x a
= a
0
+ a
1
(xb) + a
2
(xb)
2
+ . . .
For this time, we talk about convergence set / for what xs
does the power series converges.
8/11/2008 53 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Radius of Convergence Radius of Convergence gg
Radius of convergence found with the ratio test for g
absolutely converges :
Let
( )
n
n
b x a
and
n
n
n
n
b x a
b x a
L
) (
) (
lim
1
1
=
+
+
=0 n n
n
b x a ) (
1. If L < 1, the series converges.
2 If L = 1 no conclusion so that another test must be 2. If L = 1, no conclusion, so that another test must be
tried.
8/11/2008 54 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Find the radius of convergence of the following series g g
=
+
0
2 ) 1 (
n
n
n
n
x
1.
=
+
0
! ) 1 (
n
n
n
x
2.
=
+
0
! ) 1 (
n
n
x n
3.
8/11/2008 55 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Answer Answer
+
0
2 ) 1 (
n
n
n
x
1 We apply the ratio test for absolute convergence
=
+
0
2 ) 1 (
n
n
1. We apply the ratio test for absolute convergence.
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
L
2 ) 1 (
:
) 2 ( 2
lim
1
1
+ +
=
+
+
2
x
=
) 2 (
) 1 (
2
lim
+
+
=
n
n x
n
So the series converges absolutely if L< 1, namely
2 < x < 2
n
n n 2 ) 1 ( ) 2 ( 2 + +
2 ) 2 ( 2 +
n
n
2 < x < 2
If x = 2 or x = 2 , the ratio fails. However,
When x = 2
( ) ( )
=
=
+
=
+
1 1
1
1
2 1
2
n n
n
n
n n
The series is the harmonic series which diverges
8/11/2008 56 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
The series is the harmonic series, which diverges.
Answer Answer
When x = 2
( ) ( )
1 2
n n
The series is the alternating harmonic series, which
( )
( )
( )
( )
=
=
+
=
+
1 1
1
1
2 1
2
n
n
n
n
n
n n
We conclude that the convergence set is the interval
2 x < 2
g ,
converges.
2 x < 2
8/11/2008 57 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Answer (2) Answer (2)
+
0
! ) 1 (
n
n
x
( ) ( )
2 W l th ti t t f b l t
=0
) (
n
2. We apply the ratio test for absolute convergence.
li
1 +
x x
L
n n
li
x
Because L = 0 < 1 then the series converges for all x
( ) ( )! 1
:
! 2
lim
+ +
=
n
x
n
x
L
n
0 =
( ) 2
lim
+
=
n
x
n
Because L = 0 < 1, then the series converges for all x.
We conclude that the convergence set is interval (,)
8/11/2008 58 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Answer (3) Answer (3)
=
+
0
! ) 1 (
n
n
x n
( ) ( )
3 W l th ti t t f b l t
=0 n
3. We apply the ratio test for absolute convergence.
( )
n
! 2
1 +
0 0 jik
We conclude that the series converges only at x 0
( )
( )
n
n
n
x n
x n
L
! 1
! 2
lim
1
+
+
=
+
( ) x n
n
2 lim + =
=
=
0 ,
0 , 0
x jika
x jika
We conclude that the series converges only at x = 0.
8/11/2008 59 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Theorem 1 Theorem 1
The convergence set for a power series
n
n
x a
is always
The convergence set for a power series
=0 n
n
an interval of one of the following three types.
is always
1. The single point x = 0.
2. An interval (c, c), plus possibly one or both endpoints.
3. The whole real line.
8/11/2008 60 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Theorem 2 Theorem 2
The convergence set for a power series
) (
n
n
b x a
is always
The convergence set for a power series
=0
) (
n
n
an interval of one of the following three types.
1 The single point x = b
is always
1. The single point x = b.
2. An interval (c + b, c + b), plus possibly one or both
endpoints.
3. The whole real line. 3. The whole real line.
8/11/2008 61 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
Find the convergence set of the given power series:
) 1 (
n
x
( )
=
+
0
2
1
) 1 (
n
n
x
( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
1.
( ) ( ) ( )
. . .
81 . 4
4 ln 2
27 . 3
3 ln 2
9 . 2
2 ln 2
3
2
4 3 2
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ x x x x
( ) ( ) 2 2
3 2
2.
( )
( ) ( )
. . .
! 3
2
! 2
2
2
3 2
+
+
+
+
+ +
x x
x
3.
) 3 2 (
n
x
) 4 3 ( ) 1 (
n n
x
) 5 2 ( ) 1 (
n n
x
( )
=
+
0
2
4 1
) (
n
n
n
4.
( )
=
+
0
2
2 1
) 4 3 ( ) 1 (
n
n
n
x
5.
( )
=
+
0
2
3 1
) 5 2 ( ) 1 (
n
n
n
x
6.
8/11/2008 62 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Operation on Power Series Operation on Power Series pp
We have done this for one series, a geometric series.
1 1 , < < x
x
a
ax
n
n
=
1
1
A better question to ask now is whether we can say anything A better question to ask now is whether we can say anything
about properties of S(x) =
=1 n
n
ax
For example is it differentiable? Is it integrable?
.
For example, is it differentiable? Is it integrable?
8/11/2008 63 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Theorem 3 Theorem 3
Suppose that S(x) is the sum of a power series on
interval I, that is ,
S(x)=
=0 n
n
n
x a
= a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x
3
+ . . .
 
=0 n
n
n
x a D
Then,
1. S(x) =
= D[a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x
3
+ . . .]
= a + 2a x + 3a x
2
+
1
1
n
n
n
x n a
x
n
d
1 1 1
2
3
+
4
2
= a
1
+ 2a
2
x + 3a
3
x + . . .
=
dt t S
0
) (
=0
0
n
n
n
dt t a
=
+
+
0
1
1
n
n n
x
n
a
2
3
4
=
=
= a
0
x + a
1
x
2
+
a
2
x
3
+
a
3
x
4
+ . . . 2.
8/11/2008 64 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
=0 n
Example Example pp
Apply Theorem 3 to the geometric series
1
x 1
1
= 1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
+ . . . for 1< x <1, to obtain
formulas for two new series
a.
( )
2
1
1
x
b. ln(1 x)
Answer:
1
a.
( )
2
1
1
x
Differentiating term by term yields Differentiating term by term yields
( )
2
1
1
1
1
x
x
D
x
=

.

\

= 1 + 2x + 3x
2
+ 4 x
3
+ . . .
1< <1
1
n
8/11/2008 65 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
, 1< x <1
1
1 =
=
n
n
x n
Contoh Contoh
a. ln (1 x)
Integrating term by term gives
x x
1
+ + + + =
= dt t t t dt
t
x
0
3 2
0
... 1
1
1
) 1 ln(
1 1 1 1 1 1
4 3 2 4 3 2
+ + + + = + + + + = x x x x t t t t
x
...
4 3 2
...
4 3 2
0
+ + + + = + + + + = x x x x t t t t
, 1< x <1
n
x
n
=
1
1
n
n
=1
8/11/2008 66 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
1
Find the power series representation for f(x):
x
x f
+
=
1
1
) (
.

\

=
x
x f
1
ln ) (
1
) (x f =
1.
6
2
5. f(x)=tan
1
(x)
x
x
x f = =
1
) (
2
2
.
\
+ x
f
1
) (
( )
2
1
) (
x
x f
+
=
3
6.
2.
( )
x f
1
) ( =
7
x
x
x
x f
+
=
+
=
1 1
) ( 3.
( ) x
x f
3 2
) (
+
7.
2
1
1
) (x f
+
=
4.
2
1 x +
8/11/2008 67 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Taylor and Maclaurin Taylor and Maclaurin Series Series
Definition: Let f(x) be function with derivatives of all order
at x=b. then we define the Taylor series for f about x = b
to be
( )
) (
) (
n
n
b x
b f
f(x)
f(b) + f (b)(x b)+ +
) ( ) ( ' '
2
b x b f
( )
=
0
!
n
b x
n
f(x) =
= f(b) + f (b)(xb)+ + . . .
In the special case where b = 0, the taylor series for f
is called the Maclaurin Series namely
! 2
! 2
) 0 ( "
2
x f
is called the Maclaurin Series, namely,
( )
0
) (
!
) 0 (
n
n
x
n
f
f(x) = = f(0) + f (0)(x)+ + . . .
! 2
=0 n
8/11/2008 68 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Find the Maclaurin Series for the given function:
1 f(x)= sin x 1. f(x) sin x
Answer:
f(x) = sin x
f(0) = 0
f(x) sin x
f (x) = cos x
f (x) =  sin x
f(0) = 0
f(0) = 1
f(0) = 0
f (x) =  cos x
f(0) = 1
f
lV
(x) = sin x
f
lV
(0) = 0
thus,
sin ) (
7 5 3
+ + = =
x x x
x x x f
( )
+1 2
1
n
n
x
8/11/2008 69 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
. . .
! 7 ! 5 ! 3
sin ) ( + + = = x x x f
( )
( )
=
+
=
0
! 1 2
1
n
n
Example Example pp
2. f(x)= e
x
Answer: Answer:
f(x) = e
x
f (x) = e
x
f(0) = 1
f(0) = 1
f (x) e
f (x) = e
x
f(0) = 1
f (0) = 1
f (x) = e
x
f(0) = 1
f
lV
(x) = e
x
f
lV
(0) = 1
thus, thus,
. . .
! 4 ! 3 ! 2
1 ) (
4 3 2
+ + + + + = =
x x x
x e x f
x
=
=
0
!
n
n
n
x
8/11/2008 70 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Example Example pp
Find the Taylor series about x = 1 for f(x)= e
x
Answer: Answer:
f(x) = e
x
f (x) = e
x
f(1) = e
f(1) = e
f (x) = e
x
f(1) = e
f (1) e
f (x) = e
x
f(1) = e
f
lV
(x) = e
x
f
lV
(1) = e
thus,,
( ) ( )
. . .
! 3
1
! 2
1
) 1 ( ) (
3 2
+
+ + = =
x
e
x
e x e e e x f
x
( )
=
0
!
1
n
n
n
x
e
8/11/2008 71 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
Problem Set Problem Set
1. Find the Maclaurin Series for the given function
a f( ) cos
f( ) i
2
a. f(x) = cos x
b. f(x) = cos x
2 f. f(x) = sec x
e. f(x) = sin
2
x
c. f(x) = cos
2
x
g. f(x) = tan x
d. f(x) = e
x
+ sin x
h. f(x) = sec x
2. Find the Taylor series about x = a for the given function
c. f(x) = e
x
, a = 2 a. f(x) = cos x, a = /3
b f(x) = sin x a = /3
8/11/2008 72 Calculus II (MA 1123) Faculty of Science Telkom Institute of Technology
b. f(x) = sin x, a = /3