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# RALPH JUDE I.

## CHEM 31.1 HEJ

Not all liquids conform to Raoult's law and form ideal solutions. An example is the mixture of water and ethanol. Because of certain intermolecular interactions, a unique mixture (an azeotrope) of 95.5% ethanol and 4.5% water forms that boils below (78.1 C) the boiling point of ethanol (78.3 C). Thus, we say that ethanol/water mixtures form a low-boiling azeotrope because the boiling point of the azeotrope is lower than the boiling points of either single component. No matter how efficient is our distilling apparatus, pure 100% ethanol cannot be obtained by the distillation of a mixture of ethanol/water.

4. Illustrate the following phase diagrams: a. t vs. % concentration of ethanol-water mixture @constant pressure

## b. p vs. % concentration of ethanol-water mixture @constant temperature

c. t vs. % concentration of liquid mixture, which does not form azeotrope @constant temperature

5. Based on the phase diagram of 4(a), what is the approximate composition of the ethanol-water mixture, which begins to distill at 80C? Approximately 92% water and 8% ethanol is present at 80C. 6. At 95C the vapor pressure of n-heptane is 684 mmHg and of n-octane is 303 mmHg. Calculate the mole ratio and weight ration of the two components in a mixture of n-heptane and n-octane, which begins to distill at 95C at 650 mmHg. P sol = 650 mmHg 684 x + 303 (1-x) = 650 684x + 303 303x = 650 x= 0.9107 1-x = 0.089 Mole ratio: 0.9107/0.089 = 10.23 (10.23 mols of n-heptane for every 1 mol of n-octane) Weight ratio: 91.25/10.17 = 8.98 (8.98 g of n-heptane for every 1 g of n-octane) 7. Explain the difference in the values of toluene/water weight ratios between the first and second fractions. The ratio of this fraction must be equal since they are extracted at the same time and behaves independently. Throughout the heating process, water and toluene molecules will escape in proportion to their respective vapor pressures at the distilling temperature. Since the water and organic components are not interacting with each other, no enrichment will occur and they will co-distill at a single temperature until all of one component is completely distilled over. Normally, steam distillations are carried out with a large excess of water. When the entire organic component has been distilled, pure water begins to distill. 8. Cite some important application of steam distillation and vacuum distillation. Steam distillation is employed in the production of essential oils like perfumes. It is also employed in the synthetic procedures of complex organic compounds. Eucalyptus oil and orange oil are obtained by this method on the industrial scale. Steam distillation is also widely used in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants where it is commonly referred to as "steam stripping". Other industrial uses of steam distillation include the production of consumer food products such as sprayable or aerosolized condiments such as mayonnaise. Vacuum distillation is used when liquids to be distilled have high atmospheric boiling points or chemically change at temperatures near their atmospheric boiling points. Temperature sensitive materials (such as beta carotene) require vacuum distillation to remove solvents from the mixture without damaging the product.

RALPH JUDE I. JAKOSALEM EXPERIMENT 4: DISTILLATION DATA AND RESULTS Simple Distillation

## CHEM 31.1 HEJ

T (C) 76 76.5 76 76 72 76 77 77.5 76.5 77 77.5 76.5 77.5 77.5 76.5 77 79 78 77 79 76.5 76 74 76.5 77

V (mL) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

## 77.5 75.5 81 78 79 78 82 83 90 91.5 92 92 92 92 93 93.5 93.5 93.5 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94

2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2
T (C) 76 90

94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 93.5 93.5 93 93 93 93 93 93 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

## 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 93.5 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94

8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

## % Volume 22% 51%

Fractional Distillation

T (C) 76 76 76 76 74 66 76 76 71 77

V (mL) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

77 76 69 74 76 76 76 76 71 76 76.5 76

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2

58 85 82 93 92 87 98 98 97 89 91 93

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

94 95 98 98 98 97 98 98 98 98 98

3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

## First Distillate Second Distillate

Temperature (C) 76 82

## % Volume 17% 15%

Steam Distillation
Volume Xylene (mL) First Fraction 0.5 Second Fraction* -no data*the experiment was unsuccessful Volume Water (mL) 1.3 -no dataWeight Ratio 0.38 : 1 -no data-