Ozone Layer Depletion and Global Warming | Global Warming | Greenhouse Gas

OZONE LAYER DEPLETION AND GLOBAL WARMING

If the ozone in the atmosphere from the ground level to a height of 60 km could be assembled at the earth’s surface. As the ozone layer is reduced the earth’s surface is exposed to more of the shorter UV wavelengths of sun’s radiation that damage living things. the ozone layer above the Northern hemisphere has been reduced by 5-6 % in spring per decade. we now have evidence of significant thinning of the ozone layer during spring and summer. we can expect 20 % more radiations in these damaging wavelengths. This is observed in both the Northern and the Southern hemispheres at middle and high latitudes. sensitive and un tanned skin may burn in less than 15 minutes. It will like wise affect the productivity of the aquatic and terrestrial eco-systems. and have an adverse impact on plant growth. with maximum of more than 30 % reduction compared to normal. For each 10 % depletion of the ozone layer. . chlorophyll and plant hormones are especially sensitive to UV radiation. UV radiations will affect human health through for example sunburn. Single celled algae.OZONE LAYER DEPLETION AND GLOBAL WARMING. Increasing doses of UV-B may cause skin cancer. A relative scale ranging from low to extreme is also applied: In extreme conditions ( UV Index higher than 9) light. The latest tests (January. damage to the immune system in animals as well as human beings. During the last 10-15 years. 15-40 km above the earth surface. The UV index developed by Environment Canada.March 1995) have shown very large reductions. it would comprise a layer of gas only about 3mm thick. up to 30 % variation may be regarded as normal. Stratospheric ozone has large natural temporal and spatial variations. However. Ozone forms a layer in the stratosphere. Global stratospheric ozone levels have declined. early aging of the skin and rising rates of skin cancer. eye cataracts. It runs on a scale from 0 to 10 being a typical mid summer. other eye damage. snow blindness. protecting plants and animals from much of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiations.radiations at ground level. The ozone layer acts as a giant sunshade. It may also cause suppression of the immune system. UV RADIATION: A depletion of the ozone layer will increase the UV. which means that the ozone layer is changing. sunny day in the tropics.

. is described as a potential relative to that of CFC-11. Because it takes so long for the CFCs and halogens to reach the stratosphere . A minor part is degraded and some is recycled. CFCs only allowed use is in certain refrigerating systems. chlorine is released and react with ozone layer as a consequence. Most of the CFCs imported to Norway are eventually emitted into the atmosphere. Zoo plankton.g anchovy larvae. Some of the ozone depleting substances are persistent.The various ozone depleting substances vary in the degree to which they contribute to the reduction in the ozone layer. carbon tetra chloride and several other chemicals are ozone depleting substances. This allows the harmful solar UV radiation to pass through to the earth’s surface. Choro fluoro carbons CFCs. and there fore have a higher ODP. Plankton – phytoplankton as well as zoo plankton are highly sensitive to UV radiation. Ecological effects: Impact on the oceans: Increasing amounts if UV radiations will have an impact on plankton and other tiny organisms at the base of the marine food web. More UV B radiation reduces the amount of food phytoplankton create through photosynthesis. methyl bromide. feeding off the phytoplankton. under the influence of the sun’s ultraviolet light. for example. halogens. are more efficient than the CFCs in depleting ozone. but refillment of halons is prohibited.B also damages the small fish. remaining active in the atmosphere for upto 50 years. Zoo = animal). Halogens. a 16 % reduction of the ozone layer would kill more than 50% of e. are also affected. halogens and carbon tetra chloride to Norway have been stopped. Halogens are only allowed in existing fire extinction plants. they rise slowly.( Phyto = plant. taking up to seven years to reach the stratosphere. Imports of CFCs. It has been estimated that on shallow coastal shelves. shrimp and crab larvae. as they lack the protective UV-B absorbing layers that higher forms of plants and animals have. any reduction in their use on the earth does not have an immediate effect on the concentration in the stratosphere. ODP . and cause a 5 % drop in plankton numbers and 69% drop in fish yield. These organisms provide the original food source for all other living organisms in the oceans. UV. methyl chloroform. When CFCs and halogens are released into the atmosphere. But once they are there.OZONE DEPLETION GASES: The Ozone depletion Potential.

will be significantly reduced. gutters. In urban areas. such as formaldehydes. More UV-B radiation seems likely to cause the global increases in atmospheric hydrogen peroxide. Smog formation creates other oxidized organic chemicals. making it an important part of acid rain formation. window and door frames. A 10 % decrease in carbon dioxide uptake by the oceans would leave about the same amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as is produced by the fossil fuel burning. by reducing the effectiveness of the carbon dioxide sink in the oceans. for example. With a diminishing ozone layer. These molecules can also produce reactive hydrogen radicals when they absorb UV-B. forming new substances. Phytoplankton in the oceans assimilates large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Rice production may be drastically reduced by the effects of UV-B on the nitrogen assimilating activities of the micro-organisms. . Plastic materials used outdoors will have much shorter lifetimes with small increases of UV radiation. DAMAGE TO MATERIALS: UV radiations cause many materials to degrade more rapidly. The hydroxyl radicals. pipes. IMPACT ON LAND PLANTS: A high increase in UV radiation may disrupt many ecosystems on land. This is the principal chemical that oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid in cloud water.GLOBAL WARMING: Ozone layer depletion seems likely to increase the rate of green house warming. Increased UV radiations will reduce phytoplankton activity significantly. etc used in buildings degrade faster. This means that the large amounts of carbon dioxide will remain in the atmosphere. Most plants (and trees) grow more slowly and become smaller and more stunted as adult plants when exposed to large amounts of UV-B. INCREASED EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: UV-B stimulates the formation of reactive radicals. stimulate the creation of tropospheric ozone and other harmful pollutants. it is likely that the supply of natural nitrogen to ecosystems such as the tropical rice paddies .25 % increase in tropospheric ozone. a 10% reduction of the ozone layer is likely to result in 10. Increased UV-B inhibits pollen germination.molecules that react rapidly with other chemicals. PVC sidings.

Global surface temperature increased 0. including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries. limiting their use is hard. as the Natural Resources Defense Council put it. 30 Nations worldwide agreed to reduce the usage of CFCs and encouraged other countries to do so as well.OZONE DEPLETION SOLUTIONS: The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. The Intergovernmental Panel On Climatic Change (IPCC) concludes that increasing green house gas concentrations resulting from human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation caused most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century. This will be highly significant. . A small number of scientists dispute the consensus view. GLOBAL WARMING: Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth near surface air and oceans since the mid 20th century and its projected continuation. because these countries produce three quarters of the CFCs in the world.18(1. The basic conclusions have been endorsed by more than 40 scientific societies and academic science. Now action must be taken to ensure that the ozone layer is not destroyed. By the year 2000. The treaty asked for CFC makers to only eliminate half of their CFC production. Because CFCs are so wide spread and used in such a great variety of products. Also. it would be difficult if not possible to eliminate those CFCs already in existence. the US and twelve other nations in Europe have agreed to ban all use and production of CFCs. However many environmentalists felt the treaty did “ too little. I n the Montreal Protocol. The IPCC also concludes that the variations in natural phenomena such as solar radiations and volcanoes produced most of the warming from pre industrial times to 1950 and had a small cooling effect afterwards. CFCs would remain in the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. making some people feel that it was in adequate. since many products already contain components that use CFCs. Companies are finding substitutes for CFCs and people in general are becoming more aware of the dangers of ozone depletion. Many other countries have signed treaties written laws restricting the use of CFCs.33 +_ 0. international action has been taken to limit CFCs. too late” .32) during the last century. Despite the difficulties. The CFCs problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment.74+_ 0.

species extinctions and changes in the agricultural yields. permafrost and sea ice is expected. Estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the Climatic Research Unit conclude that the 2005 was the . Political and public debate continues regarding climatic changes. The uncertainty inn this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to green house gas concentrations and use of differing estimates of the future green house emissions. Expressed as a linear trend. warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 even if emission stops. this temperature rose by 0. TEMPERATURE CHANGES: The most commonly discussed measure of the global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the earth’s surface.07C+_ 0. An increase in the global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation. widespread instrumental measurements became available in the late 1800s . geo engineering to reverse global warming. Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0. with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval warm period or the little Ice Age. Temperature is believed to have been relatively stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing green house emissions.13 C+_ 0. because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the long life time of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree.22C (0.12 C and 0. with warming being the strongest in the Arctic. The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for about 0. Most of the studies focus on the period up to the year 2100. However.4F) per decade since 1979.74C +_ 0.4 C (2 TO 1105 F) during the twenty first century. and more speculatively. according to satellite temperature measurements. Based on estimates by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. probably including expansion of subtropical deserts.03C per decade.02C per decade).22 and 0.002C of warming per decade since 1900. Other likely effects include increases in the intensity of extreme weather events. versus the 0. Some other uncertainties include how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. (0.18 C over the period 1906-2005. The available options are mitigations to reduce further emissions. adaptations to the damage caused by warming. The rate of warming over the last 50 years of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole. The continuing retreat of glaciers. 2005 was the warmest year since reliable.Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6. and what actions if any to take in response.

Clouds also affect the . Since 1979. and earth’s surface. a further warming of about 0. carbon dioxide which causes 9-26% . The major green house gases are water vapors . monthly carbon dioxide measurements display seasonal oscillations in over all yearly uptrend. Although more green house gases are emitted in the northern than the southern hemisphere. this does not contribute to the difference in warming because the major green house gases persist long enough to mix between hemispheres.(0. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter(W/m2) . Naturally occurring green house gases have a mean warming effect about 33C (59F). Existence of the green house effect as such is not disputed.Ovean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the oceans loose more heat by evaporation.albedo feedback.13C per decade ). and declines during the growing season as plants remove some atmospheric carbon dioxide. each year’s maximum occurs during the Northern hemisphere’s late spring. even by those who do not agree that the recent temperature increase is ia attributable to human activity. Temperature changes vary over the globe. land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as oceans temperature. which cause 3-7 %. The Northern hemisphere warms faster than the southern hemisphere because it has more land and because it has extensive areas of seasonal snow and sea ice cover subject to the ice. The thermal inertia of the oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that climate can take centuries or longer to adjust to the changes in forcing. The question is instead how the strength of the green house effect changes when human activity increases the concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere. GREEN HOUSE GASES: Green house effect schematic showing of energy flows between the atmosphere. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if green house gases were stabilized at 2000 levels. Temperatures in 1998 were unusually warm because the strongest El Nino in the past century occurred during that year.5 C (0. behind 1998.25 C per decade against 0. Recent atmospheric carbon dioxide increases. methane which causes 4-9 % and ozone.second warmest year.which causes about 36 – 70 % of the green house effect. The green house effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm the planet’s lower atmosphere and surface.9F) would still occur. It was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. space.

The future rate of rise will depend on uncertain economic. the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. Although there are a few areas of linkage. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since the mid 1700s. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 650. Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. The destruction of stratospheric ozone by CFCs is sometimes mentioned in relation to global warming. methane. but they are composed of liquid water or ice and so are considered separately from water vapor and other gases. and natural developments. particularly deforestation. These clouds reflect solar radiations more efficiently than clouds .000 years. but substantial ozone depletion did not occur until the late 1970s. In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. ranging from 541 to 970 p.p. aerosols have indirect effect on the radiation budget. AEROSOLS AND SOOT Global dimming. Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of green house gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide concentrations are continuing to rise due to the burning fossil fuels and land use change.radiation balance. Most of the rest is due to land use change. Less direct geological evidence indicates that carbon dioxide values this high were last seen about 20 million years ago. a gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth’s surface. leading to increased radiative forcing of carbon dioxide. Accordingly. Reduction of stratospheric ozone has a cooling influence. has partially counteracted global warming from the present. CFCs and nitrous oxide. James Hansen and colleagues have proposed that the effects of the products of fossil fuel combustion CO2 and aerosols have largely offset one another in recent decades. Fossil fuels burning has produced about three quarters of the increase in carbon dioxide from human activity over the past 20 years. the IPCC Special report on Emissions Scenarios gives a wide range of future carbon dioxide scenarios. technological. so that net warming has been driven mainly by the non carbon dioxide greenhouse gases. These aerosols exert a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. tropospheric ozone. The main cause of this dimming is aerosols produced by volcanoes and pollutants. the relation ship between these two is not so strong. sociological. tar sands or methane clathrates are extensively exploited.m by the year 2100. Fossil fuel reserves are sufficient to reach these levels and continue emissions past 2100 if coal. Tropospheric ozone contributes to surface warming.

When deposited. a few studies disagree. the emitted radiation increases with the forth power of its absolute temperature. The main negative feedback in global warming is the effect of temperature on emission of infra red radiation. Radiosonde. SOLAR VARIATION: Variations in solar output have been the cause of past climatic changes. especially on the glaciers or on the ice in Arctic regions. While both increased solar activity and increased green house gases are expected to warm the troposphere. such as a recent phenomenological analysis that indicates the contribution of solar forcing may be under estimated. . the lower surface albedo can also directly heat the surface. when a warming trend results in effects that induce further warming. depending on whether it is airborne or deposited. which heats the atmosphere and cools the surface. the result is a negative feedback. (weather balloon) data from the pre satellite era show cooling since 1958. when satellite measurements became available. Green house gases and solar forcing affect temperatures in different ways. are most pronounced in the tropics and the subtropics. the result is a positive feedback. This effect also causes droplets to be of more uniform size. particularly in Asia. including black carbon. The main positive feedback in global warming involves the tendency of warming to increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. while the effects of green house gases are dominant in the extra tropics and Southern hemisphere. Although solar forcing is generally thought to be too small to account for a significant part of global warming in recent decades. Atmospheric soot aerosols directly absorb solar radiation. an increase in the solar activity should warm the stratosphere while an increase in the green house gases should cool the stratosphere. Thus. which reduces growth of raindrops and makes the cloud more reflective to incoming sunlight. The influences of aerosols. Observations show that temperatures in the stratosphere have been steady or cooling since 1979. as the temperature of the body increases. when the warming results in effects that reduce the original warming. Regionally (but not globally). as much as 50% of the surface warming due to greenhouse gases may be masked by atmospheric brown clouds. though there is greater uncertainty in the early Radiosonde record FEEDBACK: A positive feedback is a process that amplifies some change.with fewer and larger droplets. Soot may cool or warm.

The melting ice contributes to the ice-albedo feedback. both have a lower albedo than the white sea ice. When ice melts. Both land and open water are on average less reflective than ice and thus absorbs more solar radiation. . Since water vapor is a green house gas. land or open water takes its place. ICE-ALBEDO FEEDBACK: The lighter blue areas are melt ponds and the darkest areas are open water. the strength of the green house effect depends on the atmospheres rate of temperature decrease with height. Seen from below. LAPSE RATE: The atmosphere temperature decreases with height in the troposphere. this warming causes the atmosphere to hold still more water vapor( a positive feedback). the saturation vapor pressure increases. Measurements of the rate of temperature change with height are very sensitive to small errors in observations. CLOUD FEEDBACK: Warming is expected to change the distribution and type of clouds. long wave radiation escaping to space from the relatively cold upper atmosphere is less than that emitted toward the ground from the lower atmosphere. Although this feedback process causes an increase in the absolute moisture content of the air. This causes more warming. Thus. which in turn causes more melting. the clouds reflect sunlight and emit infra red radiations to space. seen from above. These details were poorly observed before the advent of satellite data and are difficult to represent in the climate models. making it difficult to establish whether the models agree with observations. the relative humidity stays nearly constant or even decreases slightly because the air is warmer. Both theory and climate models indicate that global warming will reduce the rate of temperature decrease with height. the increase in water vapor content makes the atmosphere warm further. Since emission of infrared radiation varies with temperature. Whether the net effect is warming or cooling depends on details such as the type and altitude of the cloud. and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere will tend to increase. the clouds emit infra red radiation back to the surface. and this cycle continues. and so exert a warming effect. and so exert a cooling effect. producing a negative lapse rate feedback. that weakens the green house effect. The result is a much larger green house effect than that due to carbon dioxide alone. and so on until other processes stop the feedback loop.WATER VAPOR FEEDBACK: If the atmosphere is warmed.

ARCTIC METHANE RELEASE: Warming is also the triggering variable for the release of methane in the Arctic. Others. thermodynamics. rather. Warming due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases is not an assumption of the models. and a model of heat and moisture transfer from soil and vegetation to the atmosphere. salt content. such as Nitrous oxide released from peat. some . but research into such effects is at early stage. GAS RELEASE: Release of gases of biological origin may be affected by global warming. All modern climate models are in fact combinations of models for different parts of the Earth. simplification of the actual climate system are inevitable because of the constraints of available computer power and limitations in knowledge of the climate system. and other atmospheric properties.which limits the growth of diatoms in favor of the smaller phytoplanktons that are poorer biological pumps of carbon. it is an end result from the interaction of green house gases with radiative transfer and other physical processes in the models. clouds. Although much of the variation in the model outcomes depends on the green house gas emissions used as inputs. Some models also include treatments of chemical and biological processes. directly affects climate. such as Di methyl sulfide released from oceans have indirect effects. Some of these gases. CLIMATE MODELS: The main tools for projecting the future climate changes are mathematical models based on physical principles including fluid dynamics. The representation of clouds is one of the main sources of uncertainty in present generation models. the temperature effect of a specific green house gas concentration (climate sensitivity) varies depending on the model used. Although they attempt to include as many processes as possible. creates a positive feedback. These include an atmospheric model for air movements. temperature. In addition to human caused emissions. REDUCED ABSORPTION OF CO2 BY OCEANS: Ocean ecosystem’s ability to sequester carbon is expected to decline as the oceans warm. model for ice cover on land and sea. and radiative transfer. This is because warming reduces the nutrient levels of the mesopelagic zone (about 200 to 1000 m deep). an ocean model that predicts temperature. Global climate model projections of future climate most often have used estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). and circulation of ocean waters. Methane released from thawing permafrost such as the frozen peat bogs in Siberia. and form methane clathrate on the sea floor.

Models are used to help investigate the causes of recent climate changes by comparing the observed changes to those that the models project from the various natural and human derived causes. A 2001 report by the IPCC suggests that glacier retreat. Some observational studies also show a positive feedback.0 F TO 11. ice shelf disruption such as that of the Larsen Ice Shelf. sea level rise. such as changes to the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation. Including uncertainties in future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate sensitivity.4 C(2. and increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are attributable in part to global warming. at least in part. the IPCC anticipates a warming of 1. in correlation with the increase in sea surface temperature ( see Atlantic Multi decadal Oscillations). relative to 1980-1999. and worldwide sea level rise. Some effects on both the natural environment and human life are. this generally shows a positive feedback. Instead. they do indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man made green house gas emissions.5F) by the end of the 21st century. Social and economic effects of the global warming may be exacerbated by growing population densities in affected areas. ATTRIBUTED AND EXPECTED EFFECTS: ENVIRONMENTAL: It usually is impossible to connect specific weather events to global warming. . changes in mountain snow pack. and some adverse effects from warmer temperatures.1 C to 6. Although these models do not unambiguously attribute the warming that occurred from approximately 1910 to 1945 to either natural variation or human effects. already being attributed to global warming. The summary also states that there is no clear trend in the annual worldwide number of tropical cyclones. Other expected effects include water scarcity in some regions and increased precipitation in others. The newer IPCC Fourth Assessment Report summary reports that there is observational evidence for an increase in intense tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic Ocean since about 1970. Arctic shrinkage. changes in the rainfall patterns.models also include a simulation of carbon cycle. global warming is expected to cause changes in the overall distribution and intensity of events. A summary of probable effects and recent understanding can be found in the report made for the IPCC Third Assessment Report by Working Group II. such as fewer cold related deaths. but that the detection of long term trends is complicated by the quality of records prior to the routine satellite observations. though this response is uncertain. Broader effects are expected to include glacier retreat. Temperate regions are projected to experience some benefits.

and that in a worst case scenario global per capita consumption could fall by the equivalent of 20 percent. this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mud flows. adaptation to the changing global environment. but that temperatures will appreciably decrease only after several centuries. but issued a strong warning. RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING: The broad agreement among the climate scientists that the global temperatures will continue to increase led some nations. historically the world’s largest emitter of green house gases. an amendment to the UNFCCC negotiated in 1997. states. As of June 2009. and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world. It suggests that extreme weather might reduce the global gross domestic product by up to one percent. the former head of the China Meteorological Administration. including the Indus and the Ganges.The Tibetan Plateau contains the world’s third largest store of ice. corporations and individuals to implement responses. written by Sir Nicholas Stern. transport. economic sectors likely to face difficulties related to climate changes include banks. and geo engineering to reverse global warming. water supplies in those regions will be in peril. only the United States. International talks began in May 2007 on a future treaty to succeed the current . and others.” “In the long run. MITIGATION: Mitigation of the global warming ids accomplished through reductions in the rate of anthropogenic green house gas release. has refused to ratify the treaty. These responses to global warming can be divided into mitigation of the causes and effects of global warming. the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers. Models suggest that the mitigation can quickly begin to slow global warming.” “ In the short term. agriculture. According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The treaty expires in 2012. Once they vanish. said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term.” ECONOMIC: One widely publicized report on potential economic impact in the Stern Review. The response to the Stern Review was mixed. “ Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China. The world’s primary international agreement on reducing the green house gas emissions in Kyoto Protocol. The Protocol now covers more than 160 countries and over 55 percent of global green house gas emissions. Developing countries dependent up on agriculture will be particularly harmed by the global warming. Qin Dahe.

then China should do the same since China’s gross national carbon dioxide emissions now exceeds those of the U. . while their emissions have been small compared to the developed countries. An example is green house gas remediation. particularly Africa. has made similar contentions. constructions of flood defenses. DEBATE AND SKEPTICISM: Increased publicity of the scientific findings surrounding global warming has resulted in political and economic debate. usually through carbon sequestration techniques such as carbon dioxide capture. changes in the medical care. Solar radiation management reduces insulation. such as abandoning settlements threatened by the sea level rise. Many environmental groups encourage individual action against global warming. Measures including water conservation. The U. The exemption of the developing countries from Kyoto Protocol restrictions has been used to rationalize non ratification by the U.S.S. India . adaptive agricultural practices. such as the installation of air conditioning equipment. Martian colonization. ADAPTATION: A variety of measures have been suggested for adaptation to global warming. water rationing. GEO ENGINEERING: Geo engineering is the deliberate modifications of Earth’s natural environment on a large scale to suit human needs. Poor region s. to major infrastructure projects. No large scale geo engineering projects have yet been under taken. as well as community and regional actions. such as by the addition of stratospheric sulfur aerosols.one. Others have suggested a quota on world wide fossil fuel production. Another point of contention is the degree to which emerging economies such as India and China should be expected to constrain their emissions.S and criticism from Australia. UN negotiations are now gathering pace in advance of a meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009. also exempt. which removes the green house gases from the atmosphere. appear at greatest risk from the projected effects of global warming. and interventions to protect threatened species have all been suggested. These measures range from the trivial. China has contended that it is less obligated to reduce the emissions since its per capita responsibility and per capita emissions are less than that of the U. A wide ranging study of the possible opportunities for adaptation of infrastructure has been published by the institute of Mechanical Engineers. citing a direct link between fossil fuel production and Carbon dioxide emissions.S contends that if it must bear the cost of reducing emissions.

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