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Chapter 5 Notes (CP) 5-2 Reading the Periodic Table As you read 5-2, complete the following.

Main Groups of the Periodic Table Choose colors of your choice and color in the groups listed below. Be sure to fill in the box to the right of the group name as a key.

1 2 1 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7

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alkali metals - alkaline earth metals -

transition metals - inner transition metals -

halogens - noble gases -

Metals/Metalloids (semimetals)/Nonmetals Using colors of your choice, color the nonmetals and metalloids (semimetals). Leave the metals uncolored.

1 2 1 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7

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Chapter 5 Notes (CP)

metals - s,p,d, and f blocks

nonmetals -

metalloids (semimetals) -

Using the colors of your choice, color the electron blocks of the periodic table.

s block -

d block -

p block -

f block -

5-3 Periodic Trends Read 5-3 and complete the notes below. Electron Configuration and Periodicity Electron configurations of elements are very closely related to the properties of elements. Elements are classified into four main groups according to their electron configurations. 1. Noble Gases - (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) elements with their outermost s and p subshells filled. Sometimes they are called inert gases, because they do not react with many substances. 2. Representative elements - those with outermost s and p subshells partially filled. 3. Transition metals - those elements containing outer d subshell electrons 4. Inner Transition metals (Rare Earth Metals) - those containing outer f subshell electrons. Trends in Atomic Size Covalent Atomic Radius - half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of a homonuclear (one type of nucleus) diatomic (two atoms) molecule. Ex: the separation between nuclei in a Br2 molecule is 0.230nm. The CAR is 0.115nm (0.230/2) {See Fig. 5-16 on page 175} Group Trends Atomic size ______________ as we move down a group. Reason ______________________________________________________________________________ Page 2 of 5

Chapter 5 Notes (CP) Periodic Trends Atomic size ______________ as we move from left to right across a period. Reason ______________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 5 Notes (CP) Trends in Ionic Size When an atom loses electrons (becoming a positive ion), it becomes _____________ than the atom. Reason ______________________________________________________________________________ When an atom gains electrons (becoming a negative ion), it becomes ____________ than the original atom. Reason ______________________________________________________________________________ Elements in the same group form ions of the ________ charge. Elements on the left side of the PT form ___________ ions. Moving from left to right, the ion charge goes from ___ to ___ and so forth. Elements on the right side of the PT form ____________ ions. Moving from right to left, the ion charge goes from ____ to ___ to ___. _________________ do not form ions at all (in most cases). Trends in Ionization Energy Ionization Energy the energy needed to ____________ an electron from a gaseous atom (this forms a positive ion with a 1+ charge) Li(g) Li+(g) + e IE = _________________ J/atom Ionization Energy can be looked at as a reflection of how strongly an atom _____________ its outermost electron. Atoms with ________ IE hold electrons tightly; atoms with ________ IE easily lose their outermost electrons (and gain a _________ charge). **Li(g) Li+(g) + e IE = _______ kJ/mol Group Trends The first IE ____________ as we move down a group. IE trends are direct opposites of the trends for _____________________. Reason The atomic size _______________ as you move down a group, therefore the outermost e- is farther from the nucleus (it takes _______ energy to remove it) Periodic Trends For representative elements, the IE ____________ as you move from left to right Reason - (an _____________ in nuclear charge holding ___________ more tightly) (See Fig 5-19 on page 178) Trends in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity the energy change accompanying the ______________ of an electron to a gaseous atom (most are negative in value because most elements __________ energy when gaining electrons) F(g) + e F (g)

EA = -328 kJ/mol

Negative EA indicates the gain of an electron as favorable Positive EA indicates the gain of an electron as unfavorable Group Trends EA ______________ as you move down a group (due to the increased atomic size) Periodic Trends Generally, EA ____________ from left to right across a period (due to atoms being smaller and nuclear charge increasing). (See Fig 5-21 on page 182) Page 4 of 5

Chapter 5 Notes (CP) Trends in Electronegativity Electronegativity - the ability an element has to ___________ electrons when it is chemically bonded with another element Electronegativities have no ________. {See Table 5-23 on page 184} Group Trends - electronegativities _____________ as you move down a group (due to the shielding effect) Periodic Trends - electronegativities __________ as you move from left to right in a given period (due to nuclear charge increasing as you move across a period, allowing electrons to be attracted more easily). Trends on edges of PT Open your periodic table and put the following trends on the table (on the top and side): Atomic Radius - _________ down a group, ___________ across a period Ionization Energy _________ down a group, ___________ across a period Electronegativity - _________ down a group, ___________ across a period Ionic Size - _________ down a group, ___________ across a period

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