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Viscoplasticity is a theory in continuum mechanics that describes the rate-dependent inelastic behavior of solids. Rate-dependence in this context means that the deformation of the material depends on the rate at which loads are applied. The inelastic behavior that is the subject of viscoplasticity is plastic deformation which means that the material undergoes unrecoverable deformations when a load level is reached. Rate-dependent plasticity is important for transient plasticity calculations. The main difference between rate-independent plastic and viscoplastic material models is that the latter exhibit not only permanent deformations after the application of loads but continue to undergo a creep flow as a function of time under the influence of the applied load. The elastic response of viscoplastic materials can be represented in one-dimension by Hookean spring elements. Rate-dependence can be represented by Figure 1. Elements used in one-dimensional models of viscoplastic nonlinear dashpot elements in a manner similar to materials. viscoelasticity. Plasticity can be accounted for by adding sliding frictional elements as shown in Figure 1. In the figure E is the modulus of elasticity, λ is the viscosity parameter and N is a power-law type parameter that represents non-linear dashpot [σ(dε/dt)= σ = λ(dε/dt)(1/N)]. The sliding element can have a yield stress (σy) that is strain rate dependent, or even constant, as shown in Figure 1c. Viscoplasticity is usually modeled in three-dimensions using overstress models of the Perzyna or Duvaut-Lions types. In these models, the stress is allowed to increase beyond the rate-independent yield surface upon application of a load and then allowed to relax back to the yield surface over time. The yield surface is usually assumed not to be rate-dependent in such models. An alternative approach is to add a strain rate dependence to the yield stress and use the techniques of rate independent plasticity to calculate the response of a material For metals and alloys, viscoplasticity is the macroscopic behavior caused by a mechanism linked to the movement of dislocations in grains, with superposed effects of inter-crystalline gliding. The mechanism usually becomes dominant at temperatures greater than approximately one third of the absolute melting temperature. However, certain alloys exhibit viscoplasticity at room temperature (300K). For polymers, wood, and bitumen, the theory of viscoplasticity is required to describe behavior beyond the limit of elasticity or viscoelasticity. In general, viscoplasticity theories are useful in areas such as • • • • • the calculation of permanent deformations, the prediction of the plastic collapse of structures, the investigation of stability, crash simulations, systems exposed to high temperatures such as turbines in engines, e.g. a power plant,
• dynamic problems and systems exposed to high strain rates.
Perzyna. the first IUTAM Symposium “Creep in Structures” organized by Hoff provided a major development in viscoplasticity with the works of Hoff. the development of a mathematical model heads back to 1910 with the representation of primary creep by Andrade's law. the application of these theories did not begin before 1950.Viscoplasticity 2 History Research on plasticity theories started in 1864 with the work of Henri Tresca. Odqvist generalized Norton's law to the multi-axial case. Saint Venant (1870) and Levy (1871) on the maximum shear criterion. Phenomenology For a qualitative analysis. and Lemaitre for the isotropic hardening laws. Rabotnov. and those of Kratochvil. where limit theorems were discovered. In 1960. hardening tests at constant stress or strain rate. In 1929. Ponter and Leckie. several characteristic tests are performed to describe the phenomenology of viscoplastic materials. . This model provided a relation between the deviatoric stress and the strain rate for an incompressible Bingham solid However. In viscoplasticity. Some examples of these tests are  1. 2. The ideas presented in these works have been the basis for most subsequent research into rate-dependent plasticity. introduced a viscosity coefficient that is temperature and time dependent. creep tests at constant force. In 1934. Concepts such as the normality of plastic flow to the yield surface and flow rules for plasticity were introduced by Prandtl (1924) and Reuss (1930). and 3. in 1963. and Chaboche for the kinematic hardening laws. Norton developed a one-dimensional dashpot model which linked the rate of secondary creep to the stress. stress relaxation at constant elongation. The formulated models were supported by the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and the phenomenological standpoint. An improved plasticity model was presented in 1913 by Von Mises which is now referred to as the von Mises yield criterion. Malinini and Khadjinsky. Hohenemser and Prager  proposed the first model for slow viscoplastic flow. Hult. In 1932. Perzyna.
Viscoplasticity 3 Strain hardening test One consequence of yielding is that as plastic deformation proceeds. i. To obtain the stress-strain behavior shown in blue in the figure. A change in the rate of strain during the test results in an immediate change in the stress–strain curve. where is the elastic strain and is the viscoplastic strain. At the same strain. This lag is modeled quite accurately by overstress models (such as the Perzyna model) but not by models of rate-independent plasticity that have a rate-dependent yield stress.1/s and the cycle is continued for increasing values of strain. The blue line shows the response when the strain rate is changed suddenly. Creep test Figure 3b. the material is initially loaded at a strain rate of 0. the higher the rate of strain the higher the stress 2. There is clearly a lag between the strain-rate change and the stress response. At the end of that time period the strain rate is dropped instantaneously back to 0. The hypothesis of partitioning the strains by decoupling the elastic and plastic parts is still applicable where the strains are small. three essential differences can be observed. The dotted lines show the response if the strain-rate is held constant. The concept of a plastic yield limit is no longer strictly applicable.e. The strain rate is then instantaneously raised to 100/s and held constant at that value for some time. Creep test . Figure 3a. an increase in stress is required to produce additional strain. 1.1/s. Stress-strain response of a viscoplastic material at different strain rates. Figure 2. For a viscoplastic material the hardening curves are not significantly different from those of rate-independent plastic material. 3. This phenomenon is known as Strain/Work hardening.. Strain as a function of time in a creep test. Nevertheless.
The decompositon of strain rate is Figure 4. A primary creep stage. The classical creep curve represents the evolution of strain as a function of time in a material subjected to uniaxial stress at a constant temperature. as shown in Figure 3b this curve usually shows three phases or periods of behavior 1. the total strain rate is zero. for instance. Creep tests measure the strain response due to a constant stress as shown in Figure 3. 2. is the starting stage during which hardening of the material leads to a decrease in the rate of flow which is initially very high. 4 Relaxation test As shown in Figure 4. also known as transient creep. In viscoplastic materials. the relaxation test is defined as the stress response due to a constant strain for a period of time. The secondary creep stage. In general. The creep test. The residual value that is reached when the stress has plateaued at the end of a relaxation test corresponds to the upper limit of elasticity. . The elastic part of the strain rate is given by For the flat region of the strain-time curve. For some materials such as rock salt such an upper limit of elasticity occurs at a very small value of stress and relaxation tests can be continued for . relaxation tests demonstrate the stress relaxation in uniaxial loading at a constant strain. A tertiary creep phase in which there is an increase in the strain rate up to the fracture strain. Hence we have. is where the strain rate is constant. also known as the steady state. . Therefore the relaxation curve can be used to determine rate of viscoplastic strain and hence the viscosity of the dashpot in a one-dimensional viscoplastic material model.Viscoplasticity Creep is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under constant stresses. these tests characterize the viscosity and can be used to determine the relation which exists between the stress and the rate of viscoplastic strain. 3. In fact. a) Applied strain in a relaxation test and b) induced stress as functions of time over a short period for a viscoplastic material. . is performed by applying a constant force/stress and analyzing the strain response of the system.
the elastic perfectly viscoplastic solid. The viscous dashpot has a response given by where is the viscosity of the dashpot. Norton-Hoff model for perfectly viscoplastic solid In a perfectly viscoplastic solid. and hence there is no initial yield stress. In the Norton-Hoff model the viscosity is a nonlinear function of the applied stress and is given by where is a fitting parameter. respectively. 5 Rheological models of viscoplasticity One-dimensional constitutive models for viscoplasticity based on spring-dashpot-slider elements include the perfectly viscoplastic solid. If we assume that plastic flow is isochoric (volume preserving). the Norton-Hoff model can be expressed as When the solid is viscoelastic..e. . In parallel connections. Many of these one-dimensional models can be generalized to three dimensions for the small strain regime. also called the Norton-Hoff model of viscoplasticity.e. λ is the kinematic viscosity of the material and . i. and the elastoviscoplastic hardening solid. In models where the elements are connected in series the strain is additive while the stress is equal in each element. It is important to note that relaxation tests are extremely difficult to perform because maintaining the condition in a test requires considerable delicacy. Then the viscoplastic strain rate is given by the relation In one-dimensional form.Viscoplasticity more than a year without any observable plateau in the stress. time rates strain and stress are written as and . The effect of elasticity is neglected in the model.. then the above relation can be expressed in the more familiar form . i. In the subsequent discussion. Perfectly viscoplastic solid (Norton-Hoff model) Figure 5. the stress is additive while the strain is equal in each element. the stress (as for viscous fluids) is a function of the rate of permanent strain. The elements may be connected in series or in parallel.
Viscoplasticity 6 where is the deviatoric stress tensor. The equivalent strain rate is defined as These models can be applied in metals and alloys at temperatures higher than one third of their absolute melting point (in kelvins) and polymers/asphalt at elevated temperature. In the second situation. Elastic perfectly viscoplastic solid (Bingham-Norton model) Two types of elementary approaches can be used to build up an elastic-perfectly viscoplastic mode. Bingham-Maxwell model (by analogy with the Maxwell model and the Bingham model) or the Bingham-Norton model. Figure 6: The response of perfectly viscoplastic solid to hardening. Such a model is called a Bingham-Kelvin model by analogy with the Kelvin model. the sliding friction element and the dashpot are arranged in parallel and then connected in series to the elastic spring as shown in Figure 7. and are material parameters. For elastic-perfectly viscoplastic materials. The model can be expressed as where is the viscosity of the dashpot element. the elastic strain is no longer considered negligible but the rate of plastic strain is only a function of the initial yield stress and there is no influence of hardening. creep and relaxation tests. is the von Mises equivalent strain rate. The responses for strain hardening. all three elements are arranged in parallel. The sliding element represents a constant yielding stress when the elastic limit is exceeded irrespective of the strain. This model is called the Figure 7. The elastic perfectly viscoplastic material. If the dashpot element has a response that is of the Norton form we get the Bingham-Norton model . In the first situation. and relaxation tests of such material are shown in Figure 6. creep.
Elastoviscoplastic hardening solid An elastic-viscoplastic material with strain hardening is described by equations similar to those for a elastic-viscoplastic material with perfect plasticity. The response of elastoviscoplastic hardening solid to hardening. after exceeding the yield stress. This implies that the yield stress in the sliding element increases with strain and the model may be expressed in generic terms as . and relaxation tests of such material are shown in Figure 8. continues to increase beyond the initial yielding point. The responses for strain hardening. material the stress.Viscoplasticity 7 Other expressions for the strain rate can also be observed in the literature with the general form The responses for strain hardening. creep. creep and itself. However. creep and relaxation tests. The response of elastic perfectly viscoplastic solid to hardening. and relaxation tests of such a material are shown in Figure 9. This model is adopted when metals and alloys are at medium and higher temperatures and wood under high loads. Strain-rate dependent plasticity models Classical phenomenological viscoplasticity models for small strains are usually categorized into two types: • the Perzyna formulation • the Duvaut–Lions formulation Figure 9. For an elastoviscoplastic relaxation tests. . in this case the stress depends both on the plastic strain rate and on the plastic strain Figure 8. creep.
4. is a relaxation time. However. The SCGL model is used extensively by the shock physics community. In those situations the plastic strain rate is calculated in the same manner as in rate-independent plasticity. this model exhibits an unrealistically small strain-rate dependence at high temperatures. The model is purely empirical and strain-rate independent at high strain-rates. the MTS model is limited to strain-rates less than around 107/s. The yield function is often expressed as an equation consisting of some invariant of stress and a model for the yield stress (or plastic flow stress). Hence this model is valid for the largest range of strain-rates among the five flow stress models. The Zerilli–Armstrong (ZA) model  is a simple physically based model that has been used extensively. Flow stress models The quantity is von Mises or represents the evolution of the yield surface. the Zerilli–Armstrong model. is a set of internal variables (such as the plastic strain Duvaut–Lions formulation The Duvaut–Lions formulation is equivalent to the Perzyna formulation and may be expressed as where is the closest point projection of the stress state on to the boundary of the region that bounds all possible elastic stress states.  and aluminum alloys. In other situations. An examaple plasticity. A more complex model that is based on ideas from dislocation dynamics is the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model. 3. The Johnson–Cook (JC) model  is purely empirical and is the most widely used of the five. alloys of steel. is a yield function. A dislocation-based extension based on  is used at low strain-rates. The Preston–Tonks–Wallace (PTW) model  is also physically based and has a form similar to the MTS model. 5. The Steinberg–Cochran–Guinan–Lund (SCGL) model   is semi-empirical. . the yield stress model provides a direct means of computing the plastic strain rate. However. the PTW model has components that can model plastic deformation in the overdriven shock regime (strain-rates greater that 107/s). However.Viscoplasticity 8 Perzyna formulation In the Perzyna formulation the plastic strain rate is assumed to be given by a constitutive relation of the form where ). is the Cauchy stress. Numerous empirical and semi-empirical flow stress models are used the computational plasticity. This model has been used to model the plastic deformation of copper. 2. the Preston–Tonks–Wallace model. tantalum. The following temperature and strain-rate dependent models provide a sampling of the models in current use: 1. the Johnson–Cook model the Steinberg–Cochran–Guinan–Lund model. the Mechanical Threshold Stress model.
Viscoplasticity Johnson–Cook flow stress model The Johnson–Cook (JC) model  is purely empirical and gives the following relation for the flow stress ( ) 9 where is the equivalent plastic strain. and is the initial equivalent plastic strain. is a function that represents strain hardening. The strain hardening function ( ) has the form where are work hardening parameters. The flow stress in this model is given by where is the athermal component of the flow stress. This is not as it is often thought just a parameter to make reference temperature.  where is the energy to form a kink-pair in a dislocation segment of length are given by the relations . Steinberg–Cochran–Guinan–Lund flow stress model The Steinberg–Cochran–Guinan–Lund (SCGL) model is a semi-empirical model that was developed by Steinberg et al. The thermal component ( ) is computed using a bisection algorithm from the following equation. is the Peierls stress. The saturation of the thermally activated stress is the Peierls stress ( this model is usually computed with the Steinberg–Cochran–Guinan shear modulus model. and are material constants. For conditions where .B and n. is the Boltzmann constant. The saturation value of the athermal . is a is a reference melt temperature.and temperature-dependent shear ). and . The normalized strain-rate and temperature in equation (1) are defined as where is the effective plastic strain-rate of the quasi-static test used to determine the yield and hardening non-dimensional. for high strain-rate situations and extended to low strain-rates and bcc materials by Steinberg and Lund. is the length of a dislocation segment. is the thermally activated component of the flow stress. and is the drag coefficient. The shear modulus for is the shear modulus at standard temperature and pressure. The constants where valleys. is the width of a kink loop. . is the dislocation density. we assume that parameters A. is the plastic strain-rate. is the distance between Peierls is the magnitude of the Burgers vector. modulus. is the Debye frequency. and stress is is the pressure.
Mechanical threshold stress flow stress model The Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model    ) has the form where is the athermal component of mechanical threshold stress. is the athermal component of the flow stress given by where is the contribution due to solutes and initial dislocation density. In the thermally activated terms. alloys). are material constants. is the component of the flow stress due to intrinsic barriers to thermally activated dislocation motion and dislocation-dislocation interactions. The Zerilli–Armstrong model has been modified by  for better performance at high temperatures. and is the shear modulus at 0 K and ambient pressure. ( ) are temperature and strain-rate dependent scaling factors. ) is given by an empirical modified Voce The strain hardening component of the mechanical threshold stress ( law where . bcc. and is the microstructural stress intensity. is the component of the flow stress due to microstructural evolution with increasing deformation (strain hardening). hcp. The scaling factors take the Arrhenius form where is the Boltzmann constant. is the magnitude of the Burgers' vector. are is the average grain diameter. is zero for fcc materials. ( ) are constant reference strain-rates. The general form of the equation for the flow stress is 10 In this model.Viscoplasticity Zerilli–Armstrong flow stress model The Zerilli–Armstrong (ZA) model    is based on simplified dislocation mechanics. the functional forms of the exponents where are material parameters that depend on the type of material (fcc. and ( ) are constants. ( ) are normalized activation energies.
is the value of at 0K. respectively. Note that the maximum is the stress at zero strain hardening rate. ) are constants. ( . A linear Voce hardening law is used in the model. ( ) are the values of at 0 K and close to melt. is the contribution due to stage-IV hardening. The saturation stress and the yield stress are given by where is the value of close to the melt temperature. and where is the density. is a normalized yield is the hardening constant in the Voce hardening law. is a normalized work-hardening saturation stress. . and is a dimensionless material parameter that modifies the Voce hardening law. stress for deformation at 0 K. is a constant. ) are material parameters for the high strain-rate regime.Viscoplasticity 11 and is the hardening due to dislocation accumulation. and /s. are material constants. strain-rate is usually limited to about Preston–Tonks–Wallace flow stress model The Preston–Tonks–Wallace (PTW) model  attempts to provide a model for the flow stress for extreme strain-rates (up to 1011/s) and temperatures up to melt. ( is the saturation threshold is the maximum strain-rate. and is the atomic mass. The PTW flow stress is given by with where stress.
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