Airbus A380


Airbus A380

A Singapore Airlines A380 takes off at Zurich Airport. Role National origin Wide-body, double-deck jet airliner Multi-national

Manufacturer Airbus First flight Introduced Status 27 April 2005 25 October 2007 with Singapore Airlines In production, in service

Primary users Emirates Singapore Airlines Qantas Lufthansa Air France Korean Air Produced Number built Unit cost 2004–present 69 (as of 23 June 2011) US$375.3 million
[2] [1]

(approx. €260 million or £229 million)

The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Designed to challenge Boeing's monopoly in the large-aircraft market, the A380 made its maiden flight on 27 April 2005 and entered commercial service in October 2007 with Singapore Airlines. The aircraft was known as the Airbus A3XX during much of its development, before receiving the A380 model number. The nickname Superjumbo has since become associated with it. The A380's upper deck extends along the entire length of the fuselage, and its width is equivalent to that of a widebody aircraft. This allows for an A380-800's cabin with 5146 square feet (478.1 m2) of floor space; 49% more floor space than the current next-largest airliner, the Boeing 747-400 with 3453 square feet (320.8 m2), and provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up to 853 people in all-economy class configurations.

Airbus A380 The A380-800 has a design range of 15200 km (8200 nmi; 9400 mi), sufficient to fly from New York to Hong Kong for example, and a cruising speed of Mach 0.85 (about 900 km/h or 560 mph at cruising altitude). As of June 2011 the A380 has received 234 firm orders, of which 51 had been delivered. The largest order came from Emirates, which has 90 aircraft on order.



In the summer of 1988, a group of Airbus engineers led by Jean Roeder began working in secret on the development of a ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA), both to complete its own range of products and to break the dominance that Boeing had enjoyed in this market segment since the early 1970s with its 747.[3] McDonnell Douglas unsuccessfully offered its smaller, double-deck MD-12 concept for sale.[4] [5] Roeder was given approval for further evaluations of the UHCA after a formal presentation to the President and CEO in June 1990. The megaproject was announced at the 1990 Farnborough Air Show, with the stated goal of 15% lower operating costs than the 747-400.[6] Airbus organised four teams of designers, one from each of its partners (Aérospatiale, Deutsche Aerospace AG, British Aerospace, CASA) to propose new technologies for its future aircraft designs. The designs would be presented in 1992 and the most competitive designs would be used.[7] In January 1993, Boeing and several companies in the Airbus consortium started a joint feasibility study of an aircraft known as the Very Large Commercial Transport (VLCT), aiming to form a partnership to share the limited market.[8] [9] This joint study was abandoned two years later, Boeing's interest having decreased because analysts thought that such a product would unlikely earn the $15-billion in development costs. Despite the fact that only two airlines had expressed public interest in purchasing such a plane, Airbus was already pursuing its own large plane project. Analysts suggested that Boeing instead would pursue stretching their 747 design, and that air travel was already moving away from the hub and spoke system that consolidated traffic into large planes, and toward more non-stop routes that could be served by smaller planes.[10] In June 1994, Airbus began developing its own very large airliner, designated the A3XX.[11] [12] Airbus considered several designs, including an odd side-by-side combination of two fuselages from the A340, which was Airbus’s largest jet at the time.[13] The A3XX was pitted against the VLCT study and Boeing’s own New Large Aircraft successor to the 747.[14] [15] From 1997 to 2000, as the East Asian financial crisis darkened the market outlook, Airbus refined its design, targeting a 15 to 20% reduction in operating costs over the existing Boeing 747-400. The A3XX design converged on a double-decker layout that provided more passenger volume than a traditional single-deck design,[16] [17] in line with traditional hub-and-spoke theory as opposed to the point-to-point theory of the Boeing 777,[18] after conducting an extensive market analysis with over 200 focus groups.[19] [20]

which had progressed sequentially from A300 to A340. and manufacturing of the first A380 wing box component started on 23 January 2002. which are manufactured northern Germany. the A380 parts are transported by barge to Langon. a complex route known as the Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit was developed. For the surface movement of large A380 structural components. Spain. assembled sections. with final assembly in Toulouse The front and rear sections of the fuselage are loaded onto one of three roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships in Hamburg in [27] [28] The wings. the five largest contributors.[9] Production Major structural sections of the A380 are built in France. are Rolls-Royce.[21] [22] with 50 firm orders from six launch customers. the ship picks up the belly and tail sections by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA in Cádiz in southern Spain.[25] Components of the A380 are provided by suppliers from around the world. France. from where they are shipped to the United Kingdom. the construction of port facilities and the development of new and modified roads to accommodate oversized road convoys. From there. 18 January 2005 finalised in early 2001. Due to their size. General Electric and [19] Goodrich.[13] The aircraft’s configuration was The first completed A380 at the "A380 Reveal" event held in Toulouse. though some parts are moved by the A300-600ST Beluga aircraft used in the construction of other Airbus models. Afterwards. some of which include the nose. It was chosen because the number 8 resembles the double-deck cross section.[23] [24] The A380 designation was a break from previous Airbus families.Airbus A380 3 Design phase On 19 December 2000. re-christened as the A380.8-billion programme to build the A3XX. and delivers them to Bordeaux. The ship unloads in Bordeaux. This involved the construction of a fleet of roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships and barges. where the ship adds them to its cargo. United Technologies. the ship trades the fuselage sections from Hamburg for larger. Germany. and by oversize road convoys to the . the supervisory board of newly restructured Airbus voted to launch a €8.[26] [27] Geographical logistics sequence for the A380. Safran. and the United Kingdom. by value. and is a lucky number in some Asian countries where the aircraft was being marketed. they are brought to the assembly hall (the Jean-Luc Lagardère Plant) in Toulouse in France by surface transportation. The development cost of the A380 had grown to €11 billion when the first aircraft was completed.[29] In Saint-Nazaire in western France. are transported by barge to Mostyn docks. at Filton in Bristol and Broughton in North Wales.

[41] [42] On 4 September 2006.[32] The first A380. in the first of a series of flights to test passenger facilities and comfort.Airbus A380 assembly hall in Toulouse.[36] It arrived in North America on 6 February 2006. completing the opening of the flight envelope. landing in Iqaluit. Rosay said flying the A380 had been “like handling a bicycle” . Airbus announced modifications adding 30 kg to the wing to provide the required strength.[31] Airbus sized the production facilities and supply chain for a production rate of four A380s per month.[34] This plane.[46] . 853 passengers and 20 crew left the aircraft in 78 seconds. in a shallow dive. the A380 flew its first high altitude test at Bole International Airport.[39] Three days later.[37] On 14 February 2006.85).[35] A380 MSN001 about to land after its maiden flight On 1 December 2005 the A380 achieved its maximum design speed of Mach 0.[40] Flight test engineer's station on the lower deck of A380 F-WWOW The maiden flight of the first A380 using GP7200 engines—serial number MSN009 and registration F-WWEA—took place on 25 August 2006. the aircraft are flown to Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (XFW) to be furnished and painted. serial number MSN001 and registration F-WWOW. short of the required 150% to meet the certification. Nunavut in Canada for cold-weather testing.[43] The aircraft flew from Toulouse with 474 Airbus employees on board. It conducted its second high altitude test at the same airport in 2009. equipped with Trent 900 engines. the first full passenger-carrying flight test took place.[44] Airbus obtained type certificates for the A380-841 and A380-842 model from the EASA and FAA on 12 December 2006 in a joint ceremony at the company's French headquarters. Addis Ababa. With 8 of the 16 exits blocked. during the destructive wing strength certification test on MSN5000. flew from Toulouse Blagnac International Airport with a flight crew of six headed by chief test pilot Jacques Rosay.[32] In 2006.[38] On 26 March 2006 the A380 underwent evacuation certification in Hamburg. less than the 90 seconds required by certification standards.96 (versus typical cruising speed of Mach 0.[30] After assembly.[45] [46] The A380-861 model obtained the type certificate 14 December 2007.[33] Its maiden flight took place at 8:29 UTC (10:29 am local time) 27 April 2005.[29] 4 Testing Five A380s were built for testing and demonstration purposes. the test wing of the A380 failed at 145% of the limit load. the A380 received European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to carry up to 853 passengers. After successfully landing three hours and 54 minutes later. was unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse on 18 January 2005. It takes 3600 L (950 US gal) of paint to cover the 3100 m2 (33000 sq ft) exterior of an A380.[43] In November 2006 a further series of route proving flights took place to demonstrate the aircraft's performance for 150 flight hours under typical airline operating conditions.

[59] or converted to A380-800 by Emirates and ILFC. these were not easily transferred between versions of the software. announced a third delay.[69] After further manufacturing setbacks. deliveries in 2007 would drop to only 9 aircraft.[60] Airbus suspended work on the freighter version. all of which retained their orders with some placing subsequent orders. due to Rolls-Royce engine availability problems.[72] Airbus plans to deliver “between 20 and 25” A380s in 2011 before ramping up to three a month in 2012.[47] [48] Specifically.[49] pushing the first delivery to October 2007.[54] The delay also increased the earnings shortfall projected by Airbus through 2010 to €4. Christian Streiff.8 billion. upon completion of a review of the A380 program.Airbus A380 5 Production and delivery delays Initial production of the A380 was troubled by delays attributed to the 530 km (330 mi) of wiring in each aircraft. at least in part because wiring harnesses manufactured using aluminium rather than copper conductors necessitated special design rules including non-standard dimensions and bend radii. EADS.[71] In 2010 Airbus delivered 18 from the expected 20 A380s. its concurrent design and production. to be followed by 13 deliveries in 2008. On 13 June 2006.[62] For the passenger version Airbus negotiated a revised delivery schedule and compensation with the 13 customers. the high degree of customisation for each airline.[52] and led to the departure of EADS CEO Noël Forgeard.[49] This reduced the total number of planned deliveries by the end of 2009 from about 120 to 90–100.300 connectors). including Emirates. the CEO of Airbus.[66] Qatar Airways. and the full production rate of 45 aircraft per year in 2010.[50] Airbus announced the first delay in June 2005 and notified airlines that deliveries would be delayed by six months.[49] [55] As Airbus prioritised the work on the A380-800 over the A380-800F.000 wires and 40.[56] freighter orders were cancelled by FedEx[57] [58] and UPS.[67] A380 in original Airbus livery and Korean Air.[49] [53] On 3 October 2006. The announcement caused a 26% drop in the share price of Airbus's parent. down from the previously revised target of 18.[72] . Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert. with the delivery schedule undergoing an additional shift of six to seven months. 25 in 2009.[51] Although the first delivery was still planned before the end of 2006. and failures of configuration management and change control. and A380 programme manager Charles Champion.[68] On 13 May 2008 Airbus announced reduced deliveries for the years 2008 (12) and 2009 (21). but said it remained on offer. and deliveries by the end of 2009 would be cut to 70–80 aircraft.[65] Air France.[49] This caused overall configuration management problems. Airbus reduced plans to deliver 14 A380s in 2009.[61] albeit without a service entry date. Airbus cited as underlying causes the complexity of the cabin wiring (100.[64] Qantas.[63] Singapore Airlines. while British and French sites migrated to version 5.[70] A total of 10 A380s were delivered in 2009. Airbus announced a second delay. it would appear that German and Spanish Airbus facilities continued to use CATIA version 4.

The second model. Singapore Airlines CEO Chew Choong Seng said that the A380 was performing better than both the airline and Airbus had anticipated.000. ” . to better reflect trends in premium class accommodation. transporting 6.200 A380 flights totalling 21. 890.[78] By the end of 2008.000 passengers between 20 international destinations.[77] Qantas followed on 19 September 2008.[88] The design range for the −800 model is 15400 km (8300 nmi).[75] Emirates was the second airline to take at Zurich Airport. and its upper deck is so far away from the engines the noise dissipates. delivery of the A380 on 28 July 2008 and started flights between Dubai and New York[76] on 1 August 2008. now 525 passengers in three classes. would carry 150 tonnes of cargo 10400 km (5600 nmi).Airbus A380 6 Entry into service The first aircraft delivered (MSN003. The A380 is so big it's difficult to sense its speed. burning 20% less fuel per passenger than the airline's A Singapore Airlines A380 lines up for take-off existing 747-400 fleet.000 hours. showing economy class seating “ The lack of engine noise – it's 50% quieter than a 747-400 on takeoff – was downright eerie. or from Sydney to Istanbul non-stop.[90] The −800F development was put on hold as Airbus prioritised the passenger version and all cargo orders were cancelled.[82] [83] Lufthansa received its first A380 on 19 May 2010. 2011.000 flights.380. starting flights between Melbourne and Los Angeles on 20 October 2008.000 passengers had flown on 2. arriving at Charles de Gaulle Airport. The A380-800 original configuration carried 555 passengers in a three-class configuration[87] or 853 passengers (538 on the main deck and 315 on the upper deck) in a single-class economy configuration.[86] Design Overview The new Airbus was initially offered in two models.[74] Two months later.[79] In February 2009 the millionth A380 passenger flying with Singapore Airlines was recorded.[80] In May 2009 it was reported that the A380 had carried 1.[84] By July 2010 the 31 A380s then in service had flown 156.[81] Air France received their first A380 on 30 October 2009.[9] [73] Passengers bought seats in a charity online auction paying between $560 and $100. Future variants may include an A380-900 stretch seating about 656 passengers (or up to 960 passengers in an all economy configuration) and an extended range version with the same passenger capacity as the A380-800.5 million passengers during 41 thousand flight hours and 4200 flights.[85] On 2 June 2011 Korean Air became the sixth airline to add the aircraft to its fleet when it received its first aircraft which started service on the June 16. In May 2007 Airbus began marketing a configuration with 30 fewer passengers.000 hours with passengers in 17.[89] capable of flying for example from Hong Kong to New York. the A380-800F freighter.[13] The A380 cabin cross section. traded for 370 km (200 nmi) more range. registered 9V-SKA) was handed over to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered into service on 25 October 2007 with an inaugural flight between Singapore and Sydney (flight number SQ380).

5 arrival noise limits under the Quota Count system set by London Heathrow Airport. head of Airbus SAS's alternative fuel programme. Both engine types allow the aircraft to achieve QC/2 departure and QC/0.[13] The A380 was used to demonstrate the viability of a synthetic fuel comprising standard jet fuel with a natural-gas-derived component.9 in) liquid crystal displays. and fly-by-wire flight controls linked to side-sticks. A380-800F freighter. albeit with some strengthening required. two navigation displays. and A380-861 and −863F with Engine Alliance GP7000 turbofans. The A380 also features wingtip fences similar to those found on the A310 and A320 to alleviate the effects of induced drag.[97] They include QWERTY keyboards and trackballs. These MFDs are new with the A380. −842 and −843F with Rolls-Royce Trent 900. will provide lower operating costs per passenger than the 747-400 and older 747 variants. said the GTL used was no cleaner in CO2 terms than standard fuel but it had local air quality benefits because it contains no sulphur. The Trent 900 is a derivative of the Trent 800. Accordingly. one engine parameter display.[105] which is a key destination for the A380. interfacing with a graphical "point-and-click" display navigation system. one system display A380 flight deck and two Multi-Function Displays. but Airbus estimates that the size of the aircraft.[101] Only two of the four engines are fitted with thrust reversers. which was designed to be mixed with normal jet fuel.[93] [94] Flight deck Airbus used similar cockpit layout. the A380 features an improved glass cockpit. with one of the A380's four engines using a mix of 60% standard jet kerosene and 40% gas to liquids (GTL) fuel supplied by Shell. increasing fuel efficiency and performance. and the GP7000 has roots from the GE90 and PW4000. all of which are physically identical and interchangeable.[106] The aircraft needed no modification to use the GTL fuel. a three hour test flight operated between Britain and France. and provide an easy-to-use interface to the flight management system—replacing three multifunction control and display units. but incorporates the swept fan technology of the stillborn Trent 8104. The Trent 900 core is a scaled version of the Trent 500.[102] A Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engine on the wing of Noise reduction was an important requirement in the A380's design. to reduce crew training costs.9-by-7. an Airbus A380 [103] [104] and particularly affects engine design. coupled with the advances in technology described below. This common design approach sacrifices some fuel efficiency on the A380-800 passenger model.[95] [96] The improved cockpit displays feature eight 15-by-20 cm (5.[100] The GP7200 has a GE90-derived core and PW4090-derived fan and low-pressure turbo-machinery. On 1 February 2008. Sebastien Remy. procedures and handling characteristics to those of other Airbus aircraft. comprising two Primary Flight Displays.Airbus A380 [91] 7 —TIME The A380's wing is sized for a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) over 650 tonnes in order to accommodate these [13] [92] The stronger wing (and structure) will be used on the future versions.[107] .[98] [99] Engines The A380 can be fitted with two types of engines: A380-841.

the IMA suite is first used on the A380.[121] The Network Systems Server (NSS) is the heart of A380 paperless cockpit. each controlled by its own keyboard and cursor control device mounted in the foldable table in front of each pilot. Thermoplastics are used in the leading edges of the slats.[115] Newer weldable aluminium alloys are also used. Front fuselage view of A380 following the ARINC 664 standard. The data communication networks use Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet.[113] This aluminium-glass-fibre laminate is lighter and has better corrosion and impact resistance than conventional aluminium alloys used in aviation. The suite is a technological innovation. stronger structure. the A380 avionics are highly networked. star-topology and based on 100baseTX fast-Ethernet.[114] Unlike earlier composite materials.[112] The new material GLARE (GLAss-REinforced fibre metal laminate) is used in the upper fuselage and on the stabilisers' leading edges.[119] Designed and developed by Airbus. Thales and Diehl Aerospace. with networked computing modules to support different applications. This enables the widespread use of laser beam welding manufacturing techniques — eliminating rows of rivets and resulting in a lighter. navigation charts. and an aircraft logbook.[108] Carbon-fibre reinforced plastic.[116] Avionics architecture The A380 employs an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture.[117] and Dassault Rafale. performance calculations. The data networks are switched. composite materials comprise more than 20% of the A380's airframe. glass-fibre reinforced plastic and quartz-fibre reinforced plastic are used extensively in wings. such as the F-22 Raptor. All are accessible to the pilot from two additional 27 cm (11 in) diagonal LCDs. This flowing. it can be repaired using conventional aluminium repair techniques. The wings of Singapore Airlines other commercial airliners are partitioned span-wise into sections.[118] The main IMA systems on the A380 were developed by Thales Group.[122] [123] It eliminates the bulky manuals and charts traditionally carried by pilots. the NSS has enough inbuilt robustness to eliminate onboard backup paper documents. It is also the A planform view of an Airbus A380 belonging to first to have a smoothly contoured wing cross section.[119] Together with IMA.Airbus A380 8 Advanced materials While most of the fuselage is aluminium. tail surfaces. fuselage sections (such as the undercarriage and rear end of fuselage). The A380's network and server system stores data and offers electronic documentation.[109] [110] [111] The A380 is the first commercial airliner to have a central wing box made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic. providing a required equipment list.[120] This reduces the amount of wiring required and minimises latency. first used in advanced military aircraft. F-35. and doors. continuous cross section optimises aerodynamic efficiency.[121] . full-duplex.

HID lighting is used for brighter. cockpit.[127] [128] Pipelines are typically made from titanium and the system features both fuel and air-cooled heat exchangers.5 cm (17.[142] [143] The 10-abreast configuration on the 747-400 typically results in seats 44.5 in) wide.[125] The aircraft's 350 bar (35 MPa or 5. During certain manoeuvres.[130] eliminating constant speed drives and improving reliability. they augment the primary actuators. cargo and other fuselage areas. They are used as electro-hydrostatic actuators (EHA) in the aileron and elevator. the A380 produces 50% less cabin noise than the 747-400 and is pressurised to the equivalent of 1520 m (5000 ft) altitude versus 2440 m (8000 ft) on the 747-400. in addition to saving weight. giving them better reliability than their pneumatic or hydraulic equivalents.[135] Passenger provisions Onboard features expected to reduce travel fatigue include a quieter interior and greater cabin air pressure than prior aircraft. or levels in between.[136] [137] The A380 has 50% more cabin area and volume. reducing the amount of debris stirred up during landing. wide enough to accommodate two passengers side-by-side. LEDs are employed in the cabin.3 in) to 52. instead of a secondary hydraulic system.[141] A380 economy seats are up to 48 cm (19 in) wide in a 10-abreast configuration on the main deck. The cabin lighting features programmable multi-spectral LEDs capable of creating a cabin ambience simulating daylight.[139] [140] In an industry where economy seats range from 41.5 cm (16.[132] On the outside of the aircraft. saving weight and reducing maintenance.3 cm (20.[129] The A380 uses four 150 kVA variable-frequency electrical generators.0 ft) extra headroom versus the 747-400.6 in) in width. bigger overhead bins. The A380 features electrically actuated thrust reversers. electric and hydraulic motors to drive the slats as well as electrical backup hydrostatic actuators (EBHA) for the rudder and some spoilers. The electrical power system is fully computerised and many contactors and breakers have been replaced by solid-state devices for better performance and increased reliability.[125] The A380-800 layout with 519 seats displayed The A380 features a bulbless illumination system.[138] Seating options range from 4-abreast in first class up to 11-across in economy.[102] [134] The two outboard engines do not have reversers. Self-contained electrically powered hydraulic power packs serve as backups for the primary systems.Airbus A380 9 Systems Power-by-wire flight control actuators are used for the first time in civil service to back up the primary hydraulic flight control actuators. as Airbus designed the aircraft with ample braking capacity to not require their use. The . actuators and other components for overall weight reduction.000 psi) hydraulic system is an improvement over the typical 210 bar (21 MPa or 3. this cabin arrangement allows multiple seat configurations. and 60 cm (2.[126] [127] First used in military aircraft. night.[144] The A380's full-length upper and lower decks are connected by two stairways.[131] The A380 uses aluminium power cables instead of copper for weight reduction. The 350 bar pressure is generated by eight de-clutchable hydraulic pumps. larger windows. whiter illumination.[124] They have self-contained hydraulic and electrical power supplies. The hydraulics system architecture also differs significantly from other airliners. fore and aft. The A380 was initially planned without thrust reversers.000 psi) system found in other commercial aircraft since the 1940s.[133] However Airbus elected to fit the two inboard engines with thrust reversers in a late stage of development. higher pressure hydraulics reduce the size of pipelines.

[163] Airbus designed the A380 according to these guidelines. FAA opposed this at an early stage.[148] [149] Proposed amenities resembled those installed on earlier airliners. and while the U. for Korean Air. Emirates introduced "shower spas" in first class on its A380s. with manufacturers. some A380 operators have installed amenities consistent with other aircraft in their respective fleets. the "80-metre box" was created.[152] 10 Integration with infrastructure and regulations Ground operations In the 1990s. the airport gates allowing planes up to 80 m (260 ft) wingspan and length to be accommodated.[155] [156] A year later. and restaurants.[151] Due to delivery delays. ICAO. while adding extra features for passengers in premium cabins. Runway lighting and signage may need changes to provide clearance to the wings and avoid blast damage from the engines and taxiway shoulders may be required to be stabilised to reduce the likelihood of foreign object damage caused to (or by) the outboard engines. aircraft manufacturers were planning to introduce larger planes than the Boeing 747. including self-serve snack bars. In a common effort of the International Civil Aviation Organization. airports and its member agencies. particularly 1970s wide-body jets. Qantas debuted a new first class seat-bed and a sofa lounge at the front of the upper deck on its A380s. up to 840 passengers. the FAA and EASA agreed to let the A380 operate The A380's 20-wheel main landing gear on 45 m runways without restrictions.[147] and advertised the installation of relaxation areas such as bars.[159] along with a bar lounge and seating area on the upper deck.[152] [153] Initial operators typically configured their A380s for three-class service.[153] and redesigned business class seating.[139] In addition to lounge areas.[88] Planned and announced configurations go from 407 passengers. with 10 first. which overhang more than 25 m (82 ft) from the centre line of the aircraft.[157] [158] In late 2008.[169] [170] and can land or take off on any runway that can accommodate a 747. duty-free shops. each featuring a leather seat with a separate bed.[160] [161] and in 2009 Air France unveiled an upper deck electronic art gallery.[150] Business class on the first Singapore Airlines Industry analysts suggested that the customisation options on the A380 planes slowed down production speeds and raised costs. and 439 economy class seats. 76 business.S.[168] The A380-800 is approximately 30% larger in overall size than the 747-400.[150] which largely gave way to regular seats for more passenger capacity. Singapore Airlines and Air France debuted new seat designs on different aircraft before their installation on the A380.[39] and Airbus lists the typical three-class layout as accommodating 525 passengers.[166] [167] in July 2007.[162] premium economy sections.[145] [146] Airbus's initial publicity stressed the comfort and space of the A380's cabin.[164] [165] and to operate safely on Group V runways and taxiways.[171] .[154] center suites could to be joined to create a double bed. beauty salons. for Air Austral.[150] Airbus later acknowledged that some publicised cabin proposals were unlikely to be installed.[149] and noted that it was ultimately up to the airlines to configure the interior. Launch customer Singapore Airlines debuted partly-enclosed first class suites on its A380s in 2007.Airbus A380 maximum certified carrying capacity is 853 passengers in an all-economy-class layout.

7 nmi (13 km) for medium/small. visiting a number of airports around the world.4 km).[175] Using two jetway bridges the boarding time is 45 min. 5 nmi (9.[173] The A380 requires service vehicles with lifts capable of reaching the upper deck. and "Light" ICAO aircraft categories. The ICAO also recommends that pilots append the term "Super" to the aircraft's callsign when initiating communication with air traffic control. and "Medium"/"Light" aircraft three minutes for time based operations. Replacing a blanket 10 nautical miles (19 km) separation for aircraft trailing an A380 during approach. These compared with the 4 nmi (7. In September 2006. with representatives from the JAA.4 km).3 km) and 6 nmi (11 km) spacing applicable to other "Heavy" aircraft.[171] as it is distributed on more wheels than in other passenger aircraft with a total of 22 wheels. Another A380 following an A380 should maintain a separation of 4 nmi (7. the ICAO recommended that provisional separation criteria for the A380 on takeoff and landing be [178] substantially greater than for the 747 because preliminary flight test data suggested a stronger wake turbulence. [179] These criteria were in effect while the ICAO's wake vortex steering group. and Airbus. non-A380 "Heavy" aircraft are required to wait two minutes. and 8 nmi (15 km) for light. On departure behind an A380.[182] In August 2008. designed to replicate the landing gear of the A380. 6 nmi (11 km) for Heavy.[183] . the new distances were 6 nmi (11 km). in order to distinguish the A380 from "Heavy" aircraft. using an extra jetway to the upper deck it is reduced to 34 min. 8 nmi (15 km) and 10 nmi (19 km) respectively for non-A380 "Heavy". Eurocontrol.[177] Takeoff and landing separation In 2005.[176] The A380 test aircraft have participated in a campaign of airport compatibility testing to verify the modifications already made at several large airports.Airbus A380 11 Airbus measured pavement loads using a 540-tonne (595 short tons) ballasted test rig. except for four more wheels via the incorporation of six wheels on each main body gear. the ICAO issued new interim recommendations. the working group presented its first conclusions to the ICAO. maximum ramp weight. "Medium".[172] It was determined that the pavement of most runways will not need to be reinforced despite the higher weight.4 km) for Super (another A380).[174] as well as tractors capable of handling the A380's A380 being serviced by three separate jetways at Frankfurt Airport: two for the main deck and one for the upper deck.[173] The A380 landing gear is in a similar layout as the 747. the FAA. refined its 3-year study of the issue with additional flight testing. the ICAO issued revised approach separations of 4 nmi (7.[180] [181] In November 2006. The rig was towed over a section of pavement at Airbus' facilities that had been instrumented with embedded load sensors.

According to this estimate. thus providing a better payload/range performance.[191] Air France-KLM. Lufthansa. exceeded only by the Antonov An-225. parallel to the design of the A380.771 VLAs if [196] congestion increases.[194] A380-800 freighter Airbus originally accepted orders for the freighter version. In May 2010.[19] According to Lawrence.4–73 m or 260–240 ft). Airbus top sales executive and chief operating officer John Leahy confirmed plans for an enlarged variant.[184] British Airways and Emirates will be the first customers to receive this new option. estimates the demand for passenger VLAs at 590 and that for freighter VLAs at 370 for the period 2007–2026. to 573 t ( lb).[190] Cathay Pacific.[19] Prototype at the 2005 Paris Air Show In 2007. the rise of mid-size aircraft and market fragmentation reduced VLAs to niche market status. those with more than 400 seats) plans.[195] However. demand could reach up to 1. and approximately 900 passengers in economy-only configuration.Airbus A380 12 Future variants Improved A380-800 From 2013.[19] The two analysts' market forecasts differed in the incorporation of spoke-hub and point-to-point models. the 747-8.[197] . The increases are made possible by optimising the fly-by-wire control laws to reduce flight loads. has ordered a higher weight A380-800 variant.[186] A380-900 Emirates.[56] [57] [58] Market In 2006. production has been suspended until the A380 production lines have settled with no firm availability date. as an option.[187] This version would have a seating capacity of 650 passengers in standard configuration.[192] Kingfisher Airlines. Airbus will offer. Airbus announced that A380-900 development was postponed.[188] Airlines that have expressed interest in the model include Emirates. Airbus also estimates a demand for 415 freighters in the category 120-tonne plus. Airbus estimated a demand for 1. The A380 will be used on relatively few routes. In November 2007. which would be slightly longer than the A380-800 (79. industry analysts Philip Lawrence of the Aerospace Research Centre in Bristol and Richard Aboulafia of the consulting Teal Group in Fairfax anticipated 880 and 400 A380 sales respectively by 2025. Boeing. Airbus conducted the most extensive and thorough market analysis of commercial aviation ever undertaken. Most of this demand will be due to the urbanisation and rapid economic growth in Asia.[185] Vietnam Airlines has shown interest in the higher-weight variant. Maximum take-off weight is increased by 4 t (8800 lb). the A380-900.283 passenger planes in the VLA category for the next 20 years if airport congestion remains at the current level. justifying its VLA (very large aircraft. which offers the only competition in that class.[19] while according to Aboulafia. offering the second largest payload capacity of any cargo aircraft. making such plans unjustified. the largest A380 customer.[189] Virgin Atlantic. between the most saturated airports. until production of the A380-800 has stabilised. improved maximum take-off weight.[193] as well as the leasing company ILFC.

which in June 2010 Total orders for the A380 stand at 234 as of 31 May 2011.Airbus A380 At one time the A380 was considered as a potential replacement for the existing Boeing VC-25 serving as Air Force One. there were 244 orders for the A380-800.[200] As of February 2011. as assembling only three planes in the US would not make financial sense. were either cancelled (20) or converted to A380-800 (7). but due to the delays and the falling exchange rate of the US dollar.[202] 13 Orders and deliveries Airbus A380 firm net orders and deliveries (cumulative by year) Eighteen customers have ordered the A380.[198] [199] but in January 2009 EADS declared that they were not going to bid for the contract.3 million (about €360 million or £229 million). there should be around 200 deliveries by that time. A380-800F. increased its order by 32 aircraft to 90 total.[206] A380 firm net orders. depending on equipment installed. or nearly 40% of all A380 orders at the time. on current projections. by year [207] [208] 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Orders A380-800 78 0 10 0 34 0 0 10 0 0 10 10 0 24 −17 0 33 −10 1 9 0 12 4 0 10 2010 32 0 18 [209] 2011 2 Total [210] [211] [212] 236 A380-800F 7 Deliveries A380-800 0 0 [213] 11 0 52 [213] .[204] [205] A total of 27 orders originally placed for the freighter version. Delivery takes place in Hamburg for customers from Europe and the Middle East and in Toulouse for customers from the rest of the world. The break-even for the A380 was initially supposed to be reached at 270 units. it increased to 420 units. EADS CFO Hans Peter Ring said that break-even (on the aircraft that are delivered) could be achieved as early as 2015. the average list price of an A380 was US$ 375. despite the delays. including one VIP order by Airbus Executive and Private Aviation.[47] In 2010.[201] As of March 2010. following the production delay and the subsequent suspension of the freighter programme.[203] [204] The biggest customer is Emirates.

It does not include operators that have ordered A380s or taken delivery of or announced details of inaugural flights but not yet commenced commercial passenger flights. 25 May 2011. Emirates is currently the largest operator of the A380 with 15 in service of its 90 on order. although Air France has also operated the A380 on the even shorter Paris to London route during summer 2010. including non-commercial operators. see List of Airbus A380 orders and deliveries. France.[214] Lufthansa Airbus A380 being towed to the hangar after testing. The shortest route that the A380 flies regularly is from Dubai to Jeddah with Emirates for a flight time of only 3 hours. Airline Air France Emirates Korean Air Lufthansa Qantas First commercial flight 20 November 2009 1 August 2008 17 June 2011 6 June 2010 [77] [215] [216] [217] [78] 20 October 2008 Singapore Airlines 25 October 2007[73] . ready for its first scheduled flight on 6 June 2010 from Frankfurt to Johannesburg.Airbus A380 14 Commercial operators The following table lists airlines whose A380 aircraft have commenced commercial passenger flights. Air France Korean Air takes delivery of its first Airbus A380 at Toulouse-Blagnac Airport. itself the largest amount of any carrier. For further information.

[218] [219] • On 4 November 2010. the Boeing 747-8 (blue). crew or people on the ground despite debris falling onto the Indonesian island of Batam.Airbus A380 15 Incidents and accidents The A380 has been involved in one significant aviation incident as of 30 June 2011. There were no injuries to the passengers. and the Airbus A380-800 (pink). the Antonov An-225 (green). Investigators later determined the cause of the explosion to be an oil leak in the Trent 900 engine. resulting in a series of related problems. Other operators of Rolls-Royce-powered A380s were also affected. .[220] Qantas subsequently grounded all of its A380s that day subject to an internal investigation taken in conjunction with the engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce plc. the Hughes H-4 Hercules (gold). Qantas Flight A size comparison between four of the largest aircraft. suffered an uncontained engine failure. and forcing the flight to return to Singapore.[221] Specifications External images Airbus A380-800 cutaway Airbus A380-800 cutaway from [222] Flightglobal. en route from Singapore Changi Airport to Sydney Airport.

400 mi) [228] 310.41 m (27.58 m (110. 634 mph.9 ft) body landing gear 12.600 nmi. 551 knots) 2750 m (9020 ft) [164] 2900 m (9500 ft) [164] 15.46 m (40.472 US gal) .14 m (23.45 m (80. 323.9 ft) [223] Wheel track Outside fuselage width Outside fuselage height Maximum cabin width 7.5 33.9 m (164 ft) Main deck 44.6 ft) 6.5° 571000 kg ( lb) 569000 kg ( lb) 391000 kg ( lb) 366000 kg ( lb) 276800 kg ( lb) 89200 kg ( lb) 176 m3 (6200 cu ft) [225] 592000 kg ( lb) 590000 kg ( lb) 427000 kg ( lb) 402000 kg ( lb) 252200 kg ( lb) 149800 kg ( lb) 1134 m3 (40000 cu ft) [226] Cabin length Wing area Aspect ratio Wing sweep Maximum taxi/ramp weight Maximum take-off weight Maximum landing weight Maximum zero fuel weight Typical Operating empty weight Maximum structural payload Maximum cargo volume Maximum operating speed at cruise altitude Maximum design speed in dive at cruise altitude Take off run at MTOW/SL ISA Range at design load Service ceiling Maximum fuel capacity [89] Mach 0.93 m (147.2 ft) wing landing gear [223] 36.75 m (261.400 km (8.2 ft) [223] [224] A380-800F 12 couriers Length overall Wingspan Height Wheelbase [223] 33. 510 knots) [227] Mach 0.6 ft) 79. 587 mph.85 m (120.6 ft) 24. 6. 9.400 km (5.58 m (21.893 US gal).4 ft) Upper deck 845 m2 (9100 sq ft) 7.6 ft) Main deck 5.73 m (238.500 mi) [89] 10.472 US gal) option 13115 m (43028 ft) 323.546 L (85.Airbus A380 16 Measurement Cockpit crew Seating capacity A380-800 Two [89] 525 (3-class) 644 (2-class) 853 (1-class) 72.96 (at cruise altitude: 1020 km/h.92 m (19.546 L (85.89 (945 km/h.4 ft) 8.000 L (81.4 ft) Upper deck (floor level) 49.300 nmi. . pdf). 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flightglobal. aspx?itemid=9139)PDF ( 26 External links • Official Airbus A380 page ( MB) • Everything about the A380 at FlightGlobal.content. Hearst Magazines.pdf)PDF (5.Airbus A380 • Popular Mechanics (March 2001).com/en/aircraftfamilies/a380/) • Airbus A380 Navigator (http://events.aspx) • A380 Airplane Characteristics (http://www.html) • Special Report on the A380 ( DATA_CONSULT/ dq=Airbus+A380).aspx?itemid=9140) .com/A380/Default1. Hotels in the Sky (http://books. MB) • A380 cutaway diagram ( ( Navigation/177/205274/Everything+about+A380.

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Richard Arthur Norton (1958.knapp. Craig Butz. Meeples. MetalDimples338. Raptus Regaliter Cattus Petasatus. Poli08. Zantastik. DanielHolth. Hman1001. Anfield. Hqb. Muckysock94. TarmoK. ARC Gritt. SDC. Chris 73. Sovxx. JodyB. CesarB. Russavia. Tom harrison. Sargdub. ZooCrewMan. Joe Katzman. Lumidek. Hhbhh. Raj2004. Palmiped. Leandrod. Avono. Sunny Gill265. FT2. AznShortBoi8021. Denniss. Simhedges. Radinahmed. BorisG. Kristaga.jpg  Source: http://en. Monbro. JamesBWatson. Madslj. Ligulem. MER-C. Persian Poet Gal. Lufter. Tonyle. KnowledgeOfSelf. Samuell.php?oldid=438046612  Contributors: 100percentrecord.Monniaux. Eno1. Armando. Etm157. Gaius Cornelius. Discospinster. Prvc. Aldis90. Chirags. Pilgaard. Attilios. Wackywace. Edcolins. Bddrey. Derek. BlindingCranium. Inkypaws. Scewing. Mikeyblueyes1988. Rydel. Mgw89. Shencypeter. SMC. Michael Johnson. ABF. Minna Sora no Shita. Mhking. Rehnn83. Bobbyman2211. Androstachys. Scholariusx. Sandstein. InigmaWiki. JIP. MoHasanie. N. Lightmouse. 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