Benefits of performance app««

1. Increased motivation and job satisfaction. 2. Clear understanding of what is expected and what needs to be done to meet expectations. 3. Opportunity to discuss aspirations and any guidance, support or training needed to fulfill these aspirations. 4. Improved working relationships with the superior. 5. Opportunity to overcome the weaknesses by way of counseling and guidance from the superior. 6. Increased sense of personal value as he too is involved in the appraisal process II/ For the appraiser: 1. Opportunity to develop an overview of individual jobs. 2. Opportunity to identify strengths and weaknesses of appraisees. 3. Increased job satisfaction. 4. Opportunity to link team and individual objectives with department & organizational objectives. 5. Opportunity to clarify expectations that the manager has from teams and individuals. 6. Opportunity to re-prioritize targets. 7. Means of forming a more productive relationship with staff based on mutual trust and understanding. 8. Due to all above Increased sense of personal value III/ For the company: 1. Improved performance throughout the organization due to: ‡ Increased sense of cohesiveness and loyalty. ‡ Managers are better equipped to use their leadership skills and to develop their staff. ‡ Effective communication of organization¶s objectives and values. 2. Improved overview of tasks performed by each member of a group. 3. Identification of ideas for improvement.

limited control over work. and help foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem. Creation and maintenance of a culture of continuous improvement. is organized. Job design involves administrative areas such as: job rotation. ============================================ What are features of "good" job design? Good job design accommodates employees' mental and physical characteristics by paying attention to: . 5. how many tasks are done. Job design is sometimes considered as a way to help deal with stress in the workplace. and in what order the tasks are done. It takes into account all factors which affect the work. ===================================== Is there a difference between job design and workplace design? Job design and workplace design are often used interchangeably because both contribute to keep the physical requirements of a job reasonable. work breaks. In comparison. and the body position that all influence the way a person does his or her work.4. or an entire job. excessive working hours. task/machine pacing. require a reasonable amount of mental activity. and limited understanding of the whole job process. job enlargement. workplace design concentrates on dealing with the workstation. Job design refers to administrative changes that can help improve working conditions. Job design helps to determine: what tasks are done. and working hours. have reasonable strength requirements. Communication to people that they are valued. A well designed job will encourage a variety of 'good' body positions.how has management viewed job design since industrial revolution? What is "job design"? Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks. delays in filling vacant positions. and organizes the content and tasks so that the whole job is less likely to be a risk to the employee. shiftwork. repetitive motions and awkward body positions. repetitiveness. ========================== ==== How can job design help with the organization of work? Job design principles can address problems such as: work overload. isolation. how the tasks are done. Define job design. the tools. work underload. Good workplace design reduces static positions.

official position description. accountability.muscular energy such as work/rest schedules or pace of work. Typically. Identification of major job requirements (MJRs) which are the most important duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled. where. work habits. and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities. Identification of knowledge. The goal is to make adjustments as conditions or tasks change within the workplace. Good job design: allows for employee input. and the circumstances in the workplace. balances static and dynamic work. There are two key elements of a job analysis: 1. The primary source of MJRs is the most current. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job. minimizes energy expenditure and force requirements. skills and abilities (KSAs) required to accomplish each MJR and the quality level and amount of the KSAs needed. Job design is an ongoing process. that can be documented. provides good work/rest schedules. Work Design (Job Engineering): Work design allows employees to see how the work methods. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees. you may choose to examine the various tasks of an individual job or the design of a group of jobs. Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. and when as well as giving the employees choice where ever possible. . They are the main purpose or primary reasons the position exists. Most job analyses deal with KSAs that are measurable. Approaches to job design include: Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. 2. provides feedback to the employees about their performance. for how long. includes training so employees know what tasks to do and how to do them properly. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility. Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. In job design. gives employees a sense of accomplishment. layout and handling procedures link together as well as the interaction between people and machines. A JOB ANALYSIS SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT. BEFORE A JOB DESIGN IS DONE. and mental energy such as boring versus extremely difficult tasks. =================================== ======= What are common approaches to job design? Achieving good job design involves administrative practices that determine what the employee does. possession of KSAs is demonstrated by experience. allows for an adjustment period for physically demanding jobs. and produce meaningful differences between candidates. Employees should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs.

complexity. Source documents for KSAs may be the position description. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis. skills. The goal of KSAs is to identify those candidates who are potentially best qualified to perform the position to be filled. was the task idea. they are most useful when they provide meaningful distinctions among qualified candidates. This task specifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. standards. skill. or training. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency. viz. Relationships Supervision given and received. Engineering approach. radioactive substances. equipment. Human approach and The Job characteristic approach. proposed by FW Taylor and others. Engineering Approach The most important single element in the Engineering approaches. duration. and abilities does it take to perform this job? What is the result of the person performing the job? How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization? What is the job's contribution toward the organization's goals? The process may seek to obtain information about the: work worker context within which the job exists SINCE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Approaches to Job Design USING SOCIO TECHNICAL SYSTEMS There are three important approaches to job design. hostile and aggressive people. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes. ========================================== Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas: Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. describing in detail the task which he is to accomplish . What does or should the person do? What knowledge. etc. effort.. skill. Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job.education. Equipment may include protective clothing. and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. . As advocated fragmentation and routinisation of work to reap the advantages of specialisation. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. . Requirements The knowledges. a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job. Relationships with internal or external people." The principles offered by scientific management to job design can be summarised thus: l Work should be scientifically studied. "The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions. HRM standard qualifications and job classification standards. . and dangerous explosives.

One widely publicised approach to job enrichment uses what is called job characteristics model and this has been explained separately in the ensuing section. satisfaction and performance should be integrated in the job design. These principles to job design seem to be quite rational and appealing because they point towards increased organisational performance. pay and job security. (e) Feedback: The degree to which the job itself provides workers with clear. Feedback allows for feelings of satisfaction for a job well done by providing knowledge of results. Hence. (b) Task identity: The degree to which the job allows workers to complete whole tasks from start to finish. (d) Autonomy: The degree to which the job allows workers freedom in planning and scheduling and the methods used to complete the job.l Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient. behavioural scientists have found that some job incumbents dislike specialised and routine jobs. inter-personnel relations. they suggest that motivation. organisational policies. any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions which are defined as follows: (a) Skill variety: The degree to which the job requires that workers use a variety of different activities. work itself. All of the job dimensions impact workers psychologically. . the employee may not be satisfied even if the required maintenance factors are provided. leading to higher levels of output. Specialisation and routinisation over a period of time result in job incumbents becoming experts rather quickly. But. enhancing need satisfaction through what is called job enrichment. The first three dimensions affect whether or not workers view their job as meaningful. The Job Characteristics Approach The Job Characteristics Theory states that employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. rather than disjointed portions of the job. THE emphasis is on the psychological needs of the employees in designing jobs. (c) Task significance: The degree to which the job significantly impacts the lives of others both within and outside the workplace. viz. Two types of factors. recognition. The employee will be satisfied with his job and he will be more productive if motivators are introduced into the job content. (i) motivators like achievements. Human Relations Approach The human relations approach recognised the need to design jobs in an interesting manner. As such. Thus. he asserts that the job designer has to introduce hygienic factors adequately to reduce dissatisfaction and build motivating factors. advancement and growth and (ii) hygiene factors (which merely maintain the employee on the job and in the organization) like working conditions. l Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job. Despite the assumed gains in efficiency. The employee is dissatisfied with the job if maintenance factors to the required degree are not introduced into the job. l Employees should be trained to perform the job. recognition and responsibilility. In the past two decades much work has been directed to changing jobs so that job incumbents can satisfy their needs for growth. According to this approach. responsibility. Autonomy determines the extent of responsibility workers feel. talents and skills in order to successfully complete the job requirements. l Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. direct and understandable knowledge of their performance.

The model says that internal rewards are obtained by an individual when he learns that he personally has performed well on a task that he cares about . (c) high quality work performance. These three critical psychological states lead to the outcome such as (a) high internal work motivation. (d) high general job satisfaction. (b) high growth satisfaction. Its computation is as follows: Motivating Skill variety + Task identity + Task significance potential = x Autonomy x Feedback score Jobs that are high on motivating potential must be high at least in one of the three factors that lead to meaningful work and must be high in both autonomy and feedback and vice versa. (e) high work effectiveness and (f) low absenteeism and turnover .The core job dimensions can be combined into a single predictive index called the Motivating Potential Score.

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