"# #$IRVI%& '%I(' S, a )*nici+al cor+oration, ,"S'-$ $L%M"N., an/ $$R"N N!M$N .efen/ants. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Case No. 10 L 75

PLAINTIFF’S MEMORANDUM OF LAW N"& co)es t0e Plaintiff, Mark R. McCoy, an/ t0ro*10 0is M%M"R$N.-M "# L$&, f*rt0er clarifies an/ s*++orts 0is M" I"N #"R L%$V% " PR%S%N S&"RN C"MPL$IN S 2%#"R% '% C"-R $LL%(IN( '%R% "

CRIM%S $N. "##%NS%S $N. P-RS-$N % "

" 2% %3$MIN%. -N.%R "$ '

'% ILLIN"IS CRIMIN$L C".% "# 1456, 775 ILCS 58107-4 IN S-PP"R '%R%"#.

S%9. $N. $##I.$VI

QUESTIONS PRESENTED 1. Can a +ri:ate in/i:i/*al ;0o alle1es c0ar1es of a cri)inal offense +resent t0ose c0ar1es /irectly to a co*rt ;it0o*t t0e ai/ or inter:ention of a +olice a1ency or State<s $ttorney=



&0ere t0e ;or/ >)a1istrate? ;as for)erly *se/ @y Co*rts, as no; t0ere are no officers actin1 *n/er t0at title +ro+er, ;0at 0as @eco)e of t0at office an/ t0e /*ties for)erly eAercise/ t0ereof=

BRIEF ANSWER !es, a +ri:ate in/i:i/*al )ay @rin1 c0ar1es alle1in1 a cri)inal offense /irectly to a co*rt ;it0o*t t0e ai/ or inter:ention of a +olice a1ency or State<s $ttorney for t0e +*r+ose of 0a:in1 t0e acc*se/ arreste/ to ans;er t0e c0ar1es. 0e office of )a1istrate ;as reor1aniBe/ *n/er t0e 1470 Constit*tion of t0e State of Illinois to @e an $ssociate ,*/1e, as a titlin1 sc0e)e, ;0ic0 /i/ not /is+ense ;it0 t0e office, @*t )erely rena)e/ itC an/ in /oin1 so, kee+in1 inforce, all of t0e +o;ers an/ /*ties +re:io*sly assi1ne/ to )a1istrates, a)on1 ;0ic0 is iss*in1 ;arrants of arrest. STATEMENT OF FACTS "n #e@r*ary 17, 7004, t0e Plaintiff, Mark McCoy, ;as /etaine/ an/ @eaten @y +olice officers actin1 for t0e City of #air:ie; 'ei10ts, Illinois, s*@seD*ent to a traffic sto+. Plaintiff ;as arreste/, confine/ for a +erio/ of ti)e, an/ release/ after recei:in1 traffic citations an/ an *n:erifie/ co)+laint. .*rin1 t0at ti)e, @e1innin1 ;it0 t0e traffic sto+ an/ en/in1 ;it0 0is release, McCoy ;as :icti) of an/8or ;itness to 0e


:iolations of la; fo*n/ in Illinois stat*tes, co))itte/ @y t0e arrestin1 officers, ,os0*a $le)on/ an/ $aron Ny)an. 0e Plaintiff ;as affor/e/ a +ro@a@le ca*se 0earin1 @efore t0e 'onora@le Ran/all Eelly of t0e ;enty-#irst ,*/icial Circ*it

of St. Clair Co*nty, Illinois, +er Plaintiff<s c0allen1e to t0e officer<s alle1ation of any +ro@a@le ca*se to effect a traffic sto+. S*@seD*ently, all c0ar1es ;ere /is)isse/ @y t0e 'onora@le Ran/all Eelly, sa:e for one c0ar1e @ein1 /is)isse/ on State<s )otion. Plaintiff file/ t0e +resent ci:il co)+laint on #e@r*ary 17, 7010, na)in1 ,os0*a $le)on/ an/ $aron Ny)an as /efen/ants. #ile/ ;it0 t0is case on $*1*st 5, 7010 is Plaintiff<s +resent Motion for Lea:e to Present S;orn Cri)inal Co)+laints, ;0ic0 0as not @een 0ear/ /*e to a lea:e 1rante/ @y ,*/1e LeC0ein +*rs*ant to t0e Ser:ice Me)@er<s Ci:il Relief $ct. Plaintiff 0as +ersiste/ in atte)+tin1 to @rin1 c0ar1es a1ainst t0e officers, ,os0*a $le)on/ an/ $aron Ny)an, for :iolations of la; s*ffere/ @y or ;itnesse/ to @y t0e Plaintiff. $ctin1 on infor)ation i)+arte/ to t0e Plaintiff @y t0e 'onora@le Ran/all Eelly, ;0ic0 Plaintiff @elie:es ;as not entirely acc*rate, :erifie/ cri)inal co)+laints ;ere ten/ere/ to t0e Clerk of t0e Circ*it Co*rt of St. Clair Co*nty @y /eli:erin1 to t0e clerks t0e ori1inal co)+laints ;it0 notary seals an/ ;et-ink si1nat*res, ;0ic0 are fo*n/ in t0e file for case 10-MR-717. 0e


s*@stance of t0e co)+laints are in confor)ance ;it0 t0e reD*ire)ents set fort0 in Illinois Stat*tes 775 ILCS 58111-6. $t t0e ti)e of t0is ;ritin1, Plaintiff 0as atte)+te/ to +resent 0is co)+laints, or 0as inD*ire/ as to t0e +roce/*re for +resent)ent, ;it0 so)e St. Clair Co*nty $ssociate ,*/1es, t0en Clerk of t0e Circ*it Co*rt an/ no; State<s $ttorney 2ren/an Eelly, C0ief ,*/1e ,o0n 2arice:ic, an/ for)er St. Clair Co*nty State<s $ttorney Ro@ert 'ai/a. 0ese in/i:i/*als 0a:e eit0er

i1nore/ or ref*se/ to 0ear t0e Plaintiff<s clai)s. Plaintiff @elie:es t0at 0e is +er)itte/ to @rin1 t0ese c0ar1es @efore a F*/1e so t0at 0e )ay s;ear o*t 0is co)+laint a1ainst officers $le)on/ an/ Ny)an. $s a res*lt of t0e fore1oin1, 0en Clerk of t0e Circ*it

Co*rt, 2ren/an Eelly, +ersonally recei:e/ Plaintiff<s co)+laints *n/er t0e +ro)ise t0at t0ey ;o*l/ @e +ro+erly file/. $s a res*lt, Mr. Eelly file/ t0e +resent Miscellaneo*s Re)e/y Case 10-MR-717 on @e0alf of t0e Plaintiff, ;it0in ;0ic0 t0e ori1inal co)+laints are file/. Plaintiff 0as a++eare/ t;ice @efore t0e 'onora@le 2rian 2a@ka in res+onse to t0is case. In t0e first a++earance, Plaintiff )a/e 0is case for @rin1in1 cri)inal co)+laints a1ainst officers $le)on/ an/ Ny)an. 'e +resente/ ,*/1e 2a@ka ;it0 a t0e case of Lin/D*ist :. #rie/)anGs, Inc. 655 Ill. 767, H N.%.7/ 575 *+on ;0ic0 0e relie/ for @rin1in1 c0ar1es


;it0o*t t0e assistance or inter:ention of a +olice a1ency or state<s attorney. ,*/1e 2a@ka re:ie;e/ t0e +ro:i/e/ case an/ )et a1ain ;it0 Plaintiff in a s*@seD*ent stat*s 0earin1. .*rin1 t0at 0earin1, ,*/1e 2a@ka confir)e/ t0e 0ol/in1 in Lin/D*ist as 0a:in1 not @een o:ert*rne/ in any s*@seD*ent Illinois $++ellate "+inions. 0at case /i/ +ro:i/e for a +ri:ate in/i:i/*al ,*/1e

@rin1in1 a cri)inal co)+laint @efore a >)a1istrate?.

2a@ka ;as *nclear on t0e a++lica@ility of t0e ;or/ >)a1istrate? re1ar/in1 any F*/icial officers +resently ser:in1, statin1 t0at t0e ;or/ a++ears to a++ly only to cases of antiD*ity ;0ere s*c0 officers ;ere 0earin1 co)+laints @ro*10t @efore t0e) for t0e +*r+ose of iss*in1 ;arrants of arrest. $lt0o*10 t0e la; is still >1oo/ la;?, it a++ears t0e a:en*e for +resent)ent 0as c0an1e/ o:er ti)e ;it0 t0e eli)ination of t0e +osition of )a1istrates, t0erefore ren/erin1 t0is +roce/*re ineffecti:e. 0e State

a++eare/ to, for so)e reason, to 0a:e /one a;ay ;it0 t0e +osition of )a1istrate an/ instea/ instit*te/ +roce/*res for in/i:i/*als ;restlin1 ;it0 s*c0 iss*es to @rin1 t0eir co)+laints @efore +olice a1encies or State<s $ttorneys. 0e only re)ainin1

iss*e at t0is ti)e ;as ;0et0er t0ere are any >)a1istrates?, or +ersons e)+o;ere/ to 0ear t0e Plaintiff<s co)+laints an/ iss*e arrest ;arrants for t0e +*r+ose of @rin1in1 t0e acc*se/ @efore a Co*rt to ans;er c0ar1es.


,*/1e 2a@ka /i/ )ake clear t0at t0e State<s $ttorney 0as *lti)ate /iscretion to +rocee/ ;it0 t0e +rosec*tion of cri)inal offenses, yet t0e Plaintiff )aintaine/ t0at @efore t0at /iscretion )ay @e eAercise/, 0e still 0as a ri10t to 0a:e c0ar1es +resente/, @efore t0e State<s $ttorney can /ecline any +rosec*tion. 0e Plaintiff )erely ;is0es to +resent 0is

co)+laints @efore a +erson a*t0oriBe/ @y la; to 0ear sai/ co)+laints an/ act *+on s*c0 infor)ation *+on a fin/in1 of +ro@a@le ca*se, an/ iss*e ;arrants for t0e arrest of sai/ +ersons so acc*se/. $t t0at +oint, t0e )inisterial /*ty of t0e F*/icial official is satisfie/ an/ t0e +roce/*ral /*ties t0ere@y s0ift to t0e State<s $ttorney. DISCUSSION Questio !. 0e iss*e @efore t0e co*rt, as e:i/ence/ @y t0e

contents of t0is case file, is 0o; to /is+ense ;it0 s;orn cri)inal co)+laints c0ar1in1 :iolations of cri)inal la; a1ainst t;o in/i:i/*als. 0e co)+laints are s;orn, or :erifie/, @y t0e

co)+lainant *n/er oat0 an/ /is+layin1 a notarial seal. Plaintiff<s co)+laints confor) to t0e stat*tory reD*ire)ents for t0e +ro+er for) an/ contents of a co)+laint. 775 ILCS 58107-4, an/ constit*te a c0ar1e ;0ic0 is in ;ritin1 an/ acc*ses +ersons ;it0 t0e co))ission of an offense. 775 ILCS 58107 H 0ere is little /o*@t t0at ;0at t0is Co*rt 0as @efore


it is ;ritten state)ents +resente/ to a co*rt acc*sin1 +ersons of 0a:in1 co))itte/ offenses, ;0ic0 a)o*nt to a co)+laint ;0ic0 is :erifie/, or s;orn to *n/er +enalty of +erF*ry, @efore +ersons a*t0oriBe/ to a/)inister oat0s, as reD*ire/. Villa1e of &illo;@rook :. Miller, $++.1455, 77 Ill.$++.7/ 60, 717 N.%.7/ H04, Peo+le :. SieA, $++.14I7, 64 N.%.7/ HI, 617 Ill.$++. 557. $ co)+laint, in ;ritin1 an/ s;orn to, is s*fficient for t0e iss*ance of an arrest ;arrant. Peo+le :. -nite/ States #i/elity J (*aranty Co.,1475, 76H Ill.$++. 117. 2efore 1oin1 f*rt0er, ;e )*st ask t0is D*estion. If t0e la; +ro:i/es for arrests, are t0ere any ;0o are eAe)+t fro) arrests= Plaintiff asserts t0at )any @elie:e +olice are eAe)+t fro) arrests. 0e stat*tes +ro:i/e so)e 1*i/ance in t0is res+ect.

775 ILCS 58107-7 Persons eAe)+t fro) arrest. Ka) %lectors s0all, in all cases eAce+t treason, felony or @reac0 of t0e +eace, @e +ri:ile1e/ fro) arrest /*rin1 t0eir atten/ance at election, an/ in 1oin1 to an/ ret*rnin1 fro) t0e sa)e. K@) Senators an/ re+resentati:es s0all, in all cases, eAce+t treason, felony or @reac0 of t0e +eace, @e +ri:ile1e/ fro) arrest /*rin1 t0e session of t0e (eneral $sse)@ly, an/ in 1oin1 to an/ ret*rnin1 fro) t0e sa)e. Kc) 0e )ilitia s0all in all

cases, eAce+t treason, felony, or @reac0 of t0e +eace, @e +ri:ile1e/ fro) arrest /*rin1 t0eir atten/ance at )*sters an/ elections, an/ in 1oin1 to an/ ret*rnin1 fro) t0e sa)e. K/)


,*/1es, attorneys, clerks, s0eriffs, an/ ot0er co*rt officers s0all @e +ri:ile1e/ fro) arrest ;0ile atten/in1 co*rt an/ ;0ile 1oin1 to an/ ret*rnin1 fro) co*rt. Plaintiff fails to fin/ any;0ere in t0at section an eAe)+tion for +olice officers. It /oes s+ecifically )ention s0eriffs, @*t +olice officers are )*nici+al or state e)+loyees an/ not officers of t0e co*rt. 0e stat*te e:en all*/es to

s0eriffs @ein1 not eAe)+t if t0ey are not atten/in1 co*rt or 1oin1 to an/ fro) co*rt. 0is )eans t0at if a +olice officer

co))its a cri)e t0ere is no a++arent stat*tory or co))on la; eAce+tion for t0eir not @ein1 s*@Fect to arrest, or @*r/enin1 t0e co)+lainant ;it0 first a++roac0in1 an a/)inistrati:e a1ency for re/ress. 0is is not to say t0at Plaintiff 0as not so*10t re/ress t0ro*10 t0e State<s $ttorney, F*/1es, or +olice a1encies. 2ren/an Eelly, ;0ile ser:in1 as Circ*it Clerk, 0as first-0an/ kno;le/1e of Plaintiff<s co)+laints. Ro@ert 'ai/a, ser:in1 as State<s $ttorney, an/ ,o0n 2arice:ic, C0ief ,*/1e, @ot0 recei:e/ notice of Plaintiff<s intent to file sai/ c0ar1es. Plaintiff also a++roac0e/ ,*/1e Vincent Lo+inot in o+en co*rt, only to @e tol/ @y Lo+inot t0at 0e ;o*l/ not 0ear t0e co)+laints. -+on contactin1 t0e Illinois State Police, Plaintiff ;as tol/ t0at 0e )*st contact t0e #2I for :iolations of 0is Ci:il Ri10ts. &0en contactin1 t0e St. Clair Co*nty S0eriff<s office, Plaintiff ;as


tol/ t0at 0e )*st contact t0e State Police. &0en a++roac0in1 t0e State<s $ttorney<s office /irectly, Plaintiff ;as /enie/ an o++ort*nity to s+eak ;it0 t0en State<s $ttorney Ro@ert 'ai/a, @ein1 tol/ @y t0e +erson 1reetin1 0i) at t0at office t0at, > 0e State<s $ttorney ;orks for t0e +olice.? ,*/1e Ran/all Eelly /i/ state t0at a +ri:ate in/i:i/*al )ay @rin1 c0ar1es a1ainst anyone t0ro*10 a co)+laint, @*t 0is /irection )istakenly +lace/ t0e on*s on t0e Circ*it Clerk for recei:in1 an/ filin1 t0at co)+laint. In F*ris/ictions ;0erein t0e a++lica@le stat*tes or r*les +er)it a +ri:ate citiBen to instit*te cri)inal +rocee/in1s @y co)+lainin1 /irectly to a F*/icial officer or to t0e 1ran/ F*ry, t0e ri10t of a +ri:ate citiBen to instit*te s*c0 +rocee/in1s in/e+en/ently of t0e +rosec*tin1 attorney is clear. 55 $.L.R.6/ 767. Illinois Stat*tes /o not /istin1*is0 ;0o )ay +resent a co)+laint @efore a co*rt, @*t t0ey like;ise /o not +recl*/e +ri:ate in/i:i/*als fro) )akin1 a co)+laint. In seekin1 t0e arrest of an in/i:i/*al for t0e co))ission of an offense, ;0ic0 +rece/es any for)al +rosec*tion @y t0e State, Illinois Stat*tes +ro:i/e for t0e iss*ance of an arrest ;arrant *+on co)+liant ;0en s*c0 co)+laint is +resente/ to a co*rt c0ar1in1 t0at an offense 0as @een co))itte/. 775 ILCS 58107-4 Ka) &0en t0is reD*ire)ent 0as @een satisfie/, t0e co*rt >s0all? eAa)ine *+on oat0 or affir)ation t0e co)+lainant or any ;itnesses. I/. L%)+0asis $//e/M $ ;arrant is *s*ally iss*e/ @y a


F*/icial officer, F*stice of t0e +eace, or )a1istrate *+on a co)+laint )a/e *n/er oat0. Ein/re/ :. Stitt 51 Ill. I01, 1H54 &L 5657 KIll.) Illinois 0as like;ise i/entifie/ a /*ty o;e/ @y citiBens to a++ear @efore a )a1istrate ;it0 kno;le/1e of a cri)e so t0ey )ay )ake a co)+laint for t0e +*r+oses of 0a:in1 t0e acc*se/ arreste/ an/ 0el/ to ans;er. %nri10t :. (i@son 714 Ill. 550, 75 N.%. 5H4. ,*/icial officers +ossess t0e *lti)ate a*t0ority in /eter)inin1 ;0et0er +ro@a@le ca*se eAists for t0e +*r+ose of iss*in1 ;arrants of arrest, e:en if t0ey are not cons*lte/ at t0e o*tset. S+eakin1 to t0is iss*e, as to ;0at co*rse of action to follo; ;0en face/ ;it0 a fail*re of a +rosec*tin1 attorney to act, s*c0 co)+laints )ay @e +resente/ to a )a1istrate for f*rt0er in:esti1ation ;0erein t0e acc*se/ ;ill @e 0el/ +en/in1 re:ie; of a 1ran/ F*ry. Peo+le :. Parker, 67I Ill. 57I, N.%.7/ 11. It is not only t0at t0e Plaintiff 0as ten/ere/ s;orn co)+laints, @*t 0as like;ise a:aile/ 0i)self for eAa)ination as to t0eir contents, ;0ic0 is reD*ire/ @efore a co*rt )ay iss*e a ;arrant of arrest. Peo+le :. 'oo+er, 14H4, 1I7 Ill..ec. 46, 166 Ill.7/ I54, 557 N.%.7/ 5HI, certiorari /enie/ 111 S.Ct. 7HI, I4H -.S. 411, 117 L.%/.7/ 764. See also Villa1e of &illo;@rook :. Miller, s*+ra. #ail*re of t0e +erson iss*in1 a ;arrant of arrest to eAa)ine t0e co)+lainin1 +arty, actin1 solely *+on t0e infor)ation containe/ in t0e ;ritten co)+laint itself, ;ill ren/er t0e ;arrant /efecti:e for ;ant of confor)ity


;it0 reD*ire)ents t0at t0e co)+lainant @e eAa)ine/ *n/er oat0. Peo+le :. Er*)ery, $++.1455, 7I Ill.$++.7/ 74H, 770 N.%.7/ 7I1. In all cases ;0atsoe:er, t0ere )*st @e a s;orn co)+laint file/ +rior to trial @efore t0e la; ;ill s*++ort an arrest. 7H0 Ill. at 155, 117 N.%. at I6I. #ro) t0ese facts, it is clear t0at t0e Plaintiff 0as satisfie/ all of t0e reD*ire)ents necessary for @rin1 c0ar1es a1ainst t0ose ;0o) 0e, on infor)ation an/ @elief, co))itte/ an offense a1ainst t0e la;s of Illinois, t0at @ein1C co)+laints are in ;ritin1, are s;orn to, 0a:e @een +resente/ to a co*rt ;it0 Plaintiff a:ailin1 0i)self to @e eAa)ine/ *n/er oat0. 0erefore,

t0ere is no /o*@t t0at t0e ri10t of an in/i:i/*al to @rin1 c0ar1es as 0ereto /escri@e/, /irectly @efore a co*rt is ;it0o*t D*estion. Questio ". In li10t of t0e fore1oin1 s*++ort of a +ri:ate

in/i:i/*al @rin1 c0ar1es @efore a co*rtC it 0as @een @ro*10t to t0e Plaintiff<s attention t0at t0e la; re:ie;e/ @y t0is Co*rt in t0e case of Lin/D*ist :. #rie/)anGs, Inc., s*+ra., ;0ic0 0as @een /eter)ine/ to @e 1oo/ la;, al@eit antiD*ate/, @y t0e *se of t0e ;or/ >)a1istrate? ;0en i/entifyin1 @efore ;0o) co)+laints )ay @e )a/e, is in D*estion as it a++lies to t0e Plaintiff<s intentions. Illinois Stat*tes /o not )ake reference to t0e ;or/ )a1istrate, @*t )erely *ses t0e ;or/, >co*rt? in i/entifyin1 t0e so*rce of ;0ere a co)+laint )ay @e )a/e. 775 ILCS 58107 4 s*+ra.


Illinois Stat*tes /efine a co*rt as a +lace ;0ere F*stice is a/)inistere/, ;0ic0 also incl*/es a F*/1e. 775 ILCS 58107-10. $s to t0e /efinition of a F*/1e, t0e Stat*tes i/entify a +erson +erfor)in1 F*/icial f*nctions @y la;. 775 ILCS 58107-16. 0erefore, it is clear t0at ;0en *se/ in t0e Stat*tes, t0e ;or/s F*/1e an/ co*rt are essentially interc0an1ea@le. &0ere an in/i:i/*al )ay +resent a co)+laint to a co*rt, 0e )ay +resent s*c0 c0ar1e to a F*/1e. It is not *n0ear/ of for associate F*/1es to eAa)ine co)+lainants for t0e +*r+ose of iss*in1 ;arrants of arrest. See Peo+le :. Er*)ery, S*+ra, an/ t0e Illinois Constit*tion 0as @een inter+rete/ to say t0at no +erson )ay @e arreste/ *nless t0ere @e a s;orn co)+laint +resente/ @efore a F*/1e, not;it0stan/in1 c0ar1es file/ @y infor)ation or in/ict)ent. Peo+le eA rel. :. Leinecke, 740 Ill. 550, 175 N.%. 516C Peo+le :. Clark, 7H0 Ill. 150, 117 N.%. I67C 'o*s0 :. Peo+le, 75 Ill. IH7. 0e D*estion as to ;0at @eca)e of )a1istrates, as reference/ in Lin/D*ist, is ans;ere/ @y t0e Illinois Constit*tion itself. 0ere, it s*ccinctly an/ *neD*i:ocally

states t0at t0eir ne; office title s0all @e t0at of $ssociate ,*/1e, >t0eir? i)+lyin1 a +ro+erty o;ners0i+ in t0at title @y +ersons ser:in1 in t0at ca+acity at t0e ti)e of t0e ratification of t0e 1470 Illinois Constit*tion, an/ all of t0e la;s an/ r*les


t0eretofore a++lica@le to )a1istrates are to re)ain in force an/ a++ly to $ssociate ,*/1es as /efine/ @y t0at Constit*tion. Constit*tion of t0e State of Illinois, 1470, Sc0e/*le, Section I. ,*/icial "ffices. #ro) t0is +oint, t0ere is little reference or /isc*ssion re1ar/in1 t0e rele:ance of t0e ;or/ )a1istrate in conte)+orary Illinois F*ris+r*/ence. 'o;e:er, ;0en cons*ltin1 t0e s*+re)e la; of t0e State of Illinois, t0at @ein1 t0e Constit*tion for t0e State of Illinois, ;e fin/ so)e 1*i/ance. Prior to t0e a/o+tion of t0at Constit*tion, t0e fra)ers of t0at /oc*)ent con:ene/ *n/er t0e a*s+ices of a constit*tional con:ention. 2efore D*otin1 fro) t0e teAt of t0e or1anic la; for t0e State, Plaintiff felt it +r*/ent, for conteAt*al +*r+oses, to also in:esti1ate an/ D*ote fro) t0e official recor/ of t0at Con:ention<s +rocee/in1s, ;0ic0 are +rinte/ *n/er t0e title >Record of Proceedings, Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention, Daily Journals – December 8, !"! – Se#tember $, ransition

!%&.? $lt0o*10 s*c0 /oc*)ents )ay @e :ie;e/ at @est as +ers*asi:e a*t0ority, ;0ereas a constit*tion is t0e +ri)ary a*t0ority for all la; for t0e State, t0e recor/ of any con:ention ;0erein t0e intent of t0e fra)ers can @e st*/ie/ s0o*l/ @e in:al*a@le in inter+retin1 t0e a++lication of t0e Constit*tion. $s to t0e /isc*ssion of )a1istrates, relatin1 to t0at Con:ention, Plaintiff )akes reference to t0e follo;in1


eAcer+ts fro) t0at Con:ention<s Procee/in1s, incl*/in1 a /isc*ssion on t0e rena)in1 sc0e)e fo*n/ in Plaintiff<s %A0i@it $N Pro+osal No. I06. Intro/*ce/ @y Mrs. Einney an/ Mr. Peccarelli. Pro+oses t0at t0e title of )a1istrate @e c0an1e/ to s )ore s*ita@le title. Referre/ to t0e Co))ittee on t0e ,*/iciary. Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 166, ,o*rnal of Marc0 6, 1470. Presi/ent &it;erN ,*/iciary. ClerkN No. I06P.ele1ates '. Einney an/ Peccarelli. Pro+oses t0at t0e title of )a1istrate @e c0an1e/ to a )ore s*ita@le title. Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e I06, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of Marc0 6, 1470. Mr. #ayN .o yo* ;ant )e to finis0 t0e 1eneral state)ent= #ine. I )i10t say 0ere, yo* all kno; t0at t0e s*+re)e co*rt at t0e +resent ti)e 0as eAercise/ so)e :ertical assi1n)ent. &e /o ;ant toP;ant not to +ro:i/e any :ertical assi1n)ent for a )a1istrate, 0o;e:er, so t0at ;e ;on<t 0a:eP;e ;on<t conte)+late any )a1istrate @ein1 on t0e a++ellate co*rt or on t0e s*+re)e co*rt. &e /oPan/ ;e are not @efore yo* no; to 1i:e yo* o*r i/ea of ;0at ;e are 1oin1 to /o ;it0 res+ect to )a1istrates, @*t I ;ill F*st let yo* kno; t0at t0e co))ittee is 1i:in1 serio*s consi/eration, at least, to changing the 'ord( calling a magistrate something other than )magistrate*+ ,e might very 'ell call him associate -udge, +artic*larly if t0at la@el @eco)es a:aila@le @y :irt*e of o*r /oin1 a;ay ;it0 t0e /istinction @et;een associate circ*it an/ circ*it F*/1e. 0at is a +ossi@ilityC @*t for t0e +resentPt0e +reli)inary re+ortP;e are contin*in1 to *se t0e ;or/ >)a1istrate.? L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 5H5, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of $+ril 15, 1470. Mr. N*/el)anN 0is ;on<t take lon1. Mr. C0air)an, la/ies an/ 1entle)en, t0is section tr*ly is noncontro:ersial. $s a )atter of fact, it<s so noncontro:ersial I 0a:en<t e:en +re+are/ anyt0in1 for yo*. It<s on +a1e 105C it relates to t0e ter) of office for F*/icial officers, an/ t0e act*al c0an1ePt0e only act*al c0an1ePas yo* ;ill note, is t0e incl*sion of t0e ol/ office of magistrate, 'hich, for the #ur#ose of this section, 'e


have renamed )associate -udge,+ an/ ;e incl*/e a ter) of office for t0e ne; >associate F*/1e? of fo*r years. 0e ter) of office for t0e s*+re)e co*rt, t0e ter) of office for t0e a++ellate co*rt, an/ t0e ter) of office for t0e circ*it co*rt re)ains as it ;as. &e sa; no reason to c0an1e, nor ;ere any c0an1es s*11este/ to *s. Relati:e to magistrates or the ne' )associate -udges,? if yo* ;ill, se:eral s*11estions ;ere )a/ePone, t0at t0ey contin*e to ser:e at t0e +leas*re of t0e circ*it F*/1es, as is t0e case no;. $not0er s*11estion ;as )a/e t0at t0ey @e 1i:en lon1er ten*re t0an ;e /eci/e/ to 1i:e t0e)C for eAa)+le, t0e s*11estion ;as )a/e t0at t0ey @e 1i:en ten*re of siA years, ot0er s*11estions ;ere )a/e t0at t0ey r*n on a retention @allot fro) ti)e to ti)e, an/ ot0ers t0at t0ey @e 1i:en life-ti)e ten*re an/ @e re)o:e/ only for ca*se. I can<t tell yo* t0at ;it0 any 0onesty t0at ;e reFecte/ any s*11estion stron1ly in fa:or of any ot0er s*11estion, @*t t0e consens*s ;as t0at t0ey s0o*l/ 0a:e so)e ten*reC an/, @y acco))o/ation, t0e co))ittee arri:e/ at fo*r years. &e t0ink it<s so)et0in1 less t0an t0e ter) of circ*it F*/1es @eca*se t0ey are, in fact, so)et0in1 less t0an circ*it F*/1es. 0at )ay 0a:e @een t0e @asic rationale, F*st as t0e circ*it F*/1es are so)et0in1 less t0an a++ellate an/ s*+re)e F*/1es, an/, er1o, t0eir ter)s are so)et0in1 less t0an a++ellate an/ s*+re)e F*/1es. So the only real effect of the change in this section 'as the addition of the magistrate, no' called )associate -udge,+ if yo* ;ill, an/ 1i:in1 0i) ten*re of fo*r years, an/ t0en, of co*rse, s*@Fect to rea++ortion)ent, @y t0e circ*it F*/1es. $n/ if t0ere are any D*estions, I ;o*l/ @e 0a++y to /isc*ss t0e) ;it0 yo*. L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 7716 - 771I, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 1, 1470. Mr. N*/el)anN Ma1istrates are notPif yo* @*y o*r +ro+osal to change the name of magistrate to associate -udgesPassociate F*/1e, rat0erPdon.t be concerned 'ith the 'ord )magistrate+ any more, because 'e have done a'ay 'ith it* L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 7714, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 1, 1470. Mr. #ayN Mr. Presi/ent an/ fello; /ele1ates, ;e are no; at section 1I ;0ic0 a++ears on +a1e 16 of yo*r @ook an/ relates only to ter)s of office. It /oes not c0an1e t0e ter)s of t0e F*/1es of t0e s*+re)e an/ a++ellate co*rts, ;0ic0 re)ains at ten yearsC it /oes not c0an1e t0e ter)s of t0e circ*it F*/1es ;0ic0


re)ains at siA yearsC an/, as yo* kno;, ;e conte)+late t0at t0e +resently eAistin1 associate circ*it F*/1es ;ill @eco)e circ*it F*/1es, so t0eir ter) ;ill re)ain at siA yearsC @*t it /oes +ro:i/e, for t0e first ti)e, for a ter) for the magistrates, 'hich 'e no' call associate -udgesPit 1i:es t0e) a ter) of fo*r years. $s far as I kno;, t0ere are no +en/in1 a)en/)ents to t0is section an/ I ;o*l/ )o:e its a/o+tion on first rea/in1 an/ s*@)ission to Style an/ .raftin1. L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 7750, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 7, 1470. Mr. #ayN Q No;, ;e 1o on an/ +ro:i/e t0at t0ere s0all @e one circ*it co*rt for eac0 F*/icial circ*it ;0ic0 s0all 0a:e s*c0 n*)@er of circ*it an/ associate F*/1esPthat #hrase right there is intended to mean magistrates('e.ve named them no' associate -udgesPas )ay @e +rescri@e/ @y la;. In ot0er ;or/s, t0ere is no c0an1e in t0at +art. It lea:es it to t0e le1islat*re to /eci/e 0o; )any F*/1es t0ere ;ill @e.Q L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 7777, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 7, 1470. Mr. #ayN Q 0en t0e lastPan/ t0is is so)e;0at contro:ersial @eca*se t0e )inority takes a /ifferent +ositionP;e +ro:i/ePan/ t0is is a c0an1e fro) t0e eAistin1 set*+P;e reco))en/ t0at t0e s*+re)e co*rt @e 1i:en t0e +o;er to +ro:i/e @y r*le for t0e )atters to @e assi1ne/ to t0e associate -udges* /hese are the old magistrates. 0is is in line ;it0 t0e t0inkin1 of t0e co))ittee t0at ;e )*st look to t0e s*+re)e co*rt to really 1*i/e an/ a/)inister t0e o+eration of t0e F*/icial syste). No; ;e 0a:e so)e sc0e/*le +ro:isions in t0ere. 0e first one is t0at on t0e effecti:e /ate of t0is article, associate -udges and magistrates shall become circuit -udges and associate -udges res+ecti:ely of t0eir circ*it co*rts, an/ all la's and rules of court theretofore a##licable to associate -udges and magistrates shall remain in force and be a##licable to the #ersons in their ne' offices *ntil c0an1e/ @y t0e (eneral $sse)@ly or t0e s*+re)e co*rt as t0e case )ay @e. L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 7777 777H, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 7, 1470. Mr. #ayN Q No; o:er on +a1e I5 yo* ;ill see set fort0 in o*r co))ittee re+ort t0e rationale for t0e eli)ination of t0e +resent associate circ*it F*/1e /istinction, an/ t0is is a +oint


t0at ;e 0a/ 1reat *nani)ity of o+inion fro) t0ose ;0o testifie/ @efore *s. &e feel t0at t0is is /esira@leP/esira@le fleAi@ilityP to lea:e t0is s0o*l/ eli)inate t0e /istinction @et;een t0e +resently associate circ*it F*/1es an/ t0e circ*it F*/1es. 0ere ;ill still @e t;o classes t0o*10Pthere 'ill be t'o classes of -udges, because 'e are elevating the magistrates and 'e are going to call them associate -udges, and they 'ill not be on the same ran0 'ith the circuit -udges. L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 777H, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 7, 1470. Mr. #ayN Q /here is no reason no' 'hy, 'hen 'e elevate the magistrates, that the magistrates can.t do the same and #rovide courts( hold courts in the smaller communities. I kno; t0is 0as @een a +ro@le). .ele1ate ,i) Parker talke/ to *s a@o*t t0is. 0ere are so)e of t0ese s)all to;ns ;0o<:e lost t0eir F*stices of t0e +eace, an/ t0ey /on<t 0a:e any F*/1e to t*rn toC e:en on s)all t0in1s like traffic tickets, t0ey 0a:e to 1o to t0e co*nty seat. 2*t I /on<t t0ink freeBin1 into t0e constit*tion t0e reD*ire)ent of one circ*it F*/1e +er co*nty is t0e ans;er to t0at. No;, on +a1e 57 yo* ;ill see t0e rationale for t0e elimination of the magistrate classification and changing the magistrate title to associate -udge. 0is is anot0er )atter t0at o*r co))ittee is in *nani)o*s a1ree)ention LsicM. &e 0a:e trie/ consistently to ele:ate t0e )a1istrates. &e, as yo* kno;, 0a:e reD*ire/ t0e) no; to @e la;yers, an/ ;e are 1i:in1 t0e) ;0at ;e t0ink is a @etter titleC an/ ;e 0o+e t0at ;e ;o*l/ 1i:e t0e) @etter F*ris/iction @y +er)ittin1 t0e s*+re)e co*rt to +ro:i/e t0eir F*ris/iction t0ro*10 r*le. L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Pa1e 777H 7774, Ver@ati) ranscri+t of ,*ly 7, 1470. $ /etaile/ analysis on t0e treat)ent of )a1istrates is fo*n/ in t0e Co))ittee Pro+osals. Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Co))ittee Pro+osals. Pa1e 447 - 447. %li)ination of Ma1istrate Classification an/ C0an1in1 Ma1istrate itle to $ssociate ,*/1e. Partic*larly ill*)inatin1 is a /issent fo*n/ at Pa1e 447, /enote/ ;it0 section 55a, ;0ic0 is a /issent on ot0er s+ecifics of t0e reor1aniBation of t0e F*/iciary, @*t nonet0eless s+ecify t0e +o;ers of t0e for)er title of >)a1istrate?, no; associate F*/1e, ;it0 iss*in1 arrest ;arrants.


R.issentN .ele1ates Rac0*nas an/ Einney res+ectf*lly /issent fro) t0ose +ro:isions ;0ic0 ;o*l/ +er)it K1) le1islati:e re/*ction or eli)ination of t0e )ini)*) allocation of F*/1es @et;een C0ica1o an/ s*@*r@an Cook Co*nty an/ K7) t0e election of all circ*it F*/1es fro) Cook Co*nty at lar1e. .ele1ate Einney s*11este/ t0e lan1*a1e allo;in1 t0e le1islat*re to /i:i/e circ*its into s)aller *nits for election or selection only, @*t is not seekin1 to enlar1e electi:e areas in any circ*it. S0e ;o*l/ also reD*ire t0at any /i:ision in Cook Co*nty a++ly to @ot0 t0e city an/ t0e s*@*r@an area, not F*st to one or t0e ot0er. 2ase/ on testi)ony of /o;nstate /ele1ates concernin1 /istances, e)er1ency nee/s, an/ t0e lo; :ol*)e of F*/icial @*siness in so)e co*nties, s0e s*11ests it )ay @e acce+ta@le to s)aller co*nties to +ro:i/e for a Scirc*it or associate F*/1eS fro) eac0 co*nty ot0er t0an Cook, t0e ter) 1associate -udge1 @ein1 *se/ to /enote t0e F*/icial officer +resently classifie/ as a )a1istrate, ;it0 li)ite/ F*ris/iction, @*t em#o'ered to issue arrest and search 'arrants an/ 0ol/ +reli)inary 0earin1s. L%)+0asis $//e/M Recor/ of Procee/in1s, SiAt0 Illinois Constit*tional Con:ention, .aily ,o*rnals O .ece)@er H, 1454 O Se+te)@er 6, 1470, Co))ittee Pro+osals. Pa1e 447. .issent to +ro+ose/ a)en/)ent to $rticle VI of t0e Illinois Constit*tion relatin1 to t0e ,*/icial .e+art)ent. 0e fr*it @orne fro) t0at Con:ention c*l)inates in t0e ransition Sc0e/*le of t0e 1470 Constit*tion ;0ic0 rea/sN Section I. ,*/icial "ffices Ka) "n t0e effecti:e /ate of t0is Constit*tion, $ssociate ,*/1es an/ )a1istrates s0all @eco)e Circ*it ,*/1es an/ $ssociate ,*/1es, res+ecti:ely, of t0eir Circ*it Co*rts. 2ll la's and rules of court theretofore a##licable to 2ssociate Judges and magistrates shall remain in force and be a##licable to the #ersons in their ne' offices *ntil c0an1e/ @y t0e (eneral $sse)@ly or t0e S*+re)e Co*rt, as t0e case )ay @e. L%)+0asis $//e/M K@) KRe)o:e/) Kc) KRe)o:e/) K/) -ntil ot0er;ise +ro:i/e/ @y la; an/ eAce+t to t0e eAtent t0at t0e a*t0ority is inconsistent ;it0 Section H of $rticle VII, t0e Circ*it Co*rts s0all contin*e to eAercise t0e non-F*/icial f*nctions :este/ @y la; as of .ece)@er 61, 1456, in co*nty co*rts or t0e F*/1es t0ereof. Illinois Constit*tion of 1470.


CONCLUSION Questio !. 0e Plaintiff 0as /rafte/ co)+laints alle1in1

t0e co))ission of offenses a1ainst t;o in/i:i/*als ;0o so 0a++en to also @e e)+loye/ as +olice officers for t0e City of #air:ie; 'ei10ts, Illinois. 0ese co)+laints are s;orn to, in accor/ance

;it0 la;. 'e 0as atte)+te/ to @rin1 t0ese co)+laints to t0e attention of F*/icial officers, +olice a1encies, an/ officers e)+o;ere/ ;it0 t0e a*t0ority to act on s*c0 co)+laints. 0ere is

no reD*ire)ent, for anyone ;is0in1 to alle1e t0e co))ission of an offense, to +resent t0e) to anyone ot0er t0an a F*/icial officer e)+o;ere/ to iss*e ;arrants of arrest. Illinois la; )akes no /istinction as to ;0o )ay file a co)+laint, an/ a*t0ority 0as @een +resente/ ;0ic0 affir)s t0e ri10t of +ri:ate in/i:i/*als to +*rs*e s*c0 re)e/y. $rrest for a cri)e, an/ +rosec*tion of a cri)e, in:ol:e t;o /ifferent +roce/*res. $rrests are initiate/ @y s;orn co)+laint, in/ict)ent, or infor)ation an/ iss*e/ @y F*/icial officers, @e t0ey calle/ F*/1es or )a1istrates. #or t0e +*r+ose of t0is )e)oran/*), t0e ;or/s F*/1e K@ot0 associate or circ*it le:els), )a1istrates, an/ co*rts are interc0an1ea@le. $ s;orn co)+laint +resente/ to a co*rt, ;0ic0 is s;orn to *n/er +enalty of +erF*ry, reD*ires t0e F*/1e to eAa)ine t0e co)+lainant *n/er oat0 an/ *+on a fin/in1


of +ro@a@le ca*se )*st iss*e a ;arrant for t0e arrest of t0e +erson or +ersons t0erein na)e/. Questio ". Prior to t0e Illinois Constit*tion of 1470,

)a1istrates ;ere reco1niBe/ as F*/icial officers e)+o;ere/ ;it0, a)on1 ot0er t0in1s, eAa)inin1 co)+lainants alle1in1 offenses an/ iss*in1 ;arrants of arrest. .*rin1 t0e Constit*tional Con:ention of 1470, it ;as +ro+ose/ to c0an1e t0e title of )a1istrate to t0at of associate F*/1e, /*e in-+art to ne1ati:e connotations associate/ ;it0 t0at office. 0e /*ties of )a1istrate ;ere not

altere/ in any ;ay, @*t t0e final effect of s*c0 re-titlin1 eAists in t0e ransition Sc0e/*le of t0at Constit*tion. 0ere is

e:en e:i/ence t0at t0e )a1istrate, or associate F*/1e, le:el of t0e F*/iciary re)aine/ in +lace, @*t *n/er;ent a si)+le na)e c0an1e. $)on1 t0ose /*ties, lies t0e res+onsi@ility to iss*e ;arrants of arrest. &0at ;as once a F*/icial office kno;n as )a1istrate, is no; t0e sa)e office kno;n as associate F*/1e. 0erefore, at a )ini)*), ;0at so)e +re-1470 cases refer to as )a1istrates ;0en s+eakin1 to t0e iss*ance of ;arrants of arrest, are no; associate F*/1es ;0o retain an/ +ossess all of t0e sa)e +o;ers eAercise/ @y )a1istrates. $ssociate F*/1es in Illinois are e)+o;ere/ to 0ear all co)+laints, e:en t0ose +resente/ @y +ri:ate in/i:i/*als, for t0e +*r+ose of esta@lis0in1 +ro@a@le ca*se *n/er t0e Constit*tion, an/ iss*in1 ;arrants for t0e arrest of sai/ in/i:i/*als.


WHEREFORE, in li10t of t0e fore1oin1 D*estions +resente/ an/ ans;ere/ in PL$IN I##<S M%M"R$N.-M "# L$&, Plaintiff reD*ests t0is Co*rt to affor/ 0i) a 0earin1 ;0ere iss*es +resente/ @y ;ay of 0is M%M"R$N.-M "# L$&, ;0ic0 f*rt0er s*++orts an/ clarifies 0is ori1inal M" I"N #"R L%$V% S&"RN C"MPL$IN S 2%#"R% $N. '% C"-R " PR%S%N

$LL%(IN( CRIM%S $N. "##%NS%S

" 2% %3$MIN%. -N.%R "$ '

'%R% ", )ay @e +resente/ to t0is

Co*rt for re:ie; an/ any a++ro+riate, corres+on/in1 action +er)itte/ @y la;.

Res+ectf*lly s*@)itte/,

Mark R. McCoy, Plaintiff



Plaintiff’s Exhibit A

-525. Elimination of Magistrate Classification and Changing Magistrate Title to Associate Judge It is an unfortunate fact that the public views the magistrate as the same as, or as a near blood relative to, the old justice of the peace and police magistrate of the pre 1964 era. We have been urged by the representatives of the Illinois Circuit Court Magistrates Association (does not include Cook County Magistrates) to eliminate the title of magistrate. The urging was in fact a plea to the effect that "whatever else you do or do not do, eliminate the title of magistrate". The Committee on Constitutional Convention Proposals of the Illinois Judicial Conference, and a number of non-delegate and delegate witnesses, have recommended that the title "magistrate" be changed to "associate judge". This keys in with that Committee's recommendation to eliminate the associate judge classification and create a single class of circuit judge. This Committee agrees, because of the negative image created by the title, its damaging effect upon judicial morale, and the consequent unfortunate impact upon the judicial system. Lest the Committee be charged with inconsistency in keeping the magistrate level of the circuit court judiciary, although changing the name to associate judge, while at the same time eliminating the original associate judge classification for reasons which may appear equally relevant to a complete abolition

-53of the magistrate or associate judge classification, we suggest that the issues, though somewhat similar, are not parallel. As a preliminary observation, the Committee notes that some testimony was offered on, and the Committee on its own initiative considered, the desirability of a single class of trial judiciary in the Circuit Court. There is clear merit to such a proposal. The Committee concluded, however, that there is a sound and defensible basis for retaining the magistrate (associate judge) level of judiciary, notwithstanding that it may to some degree perpetuate the negative public image of these judicial officers as being of lesser or inferior status to circuit judges, and may also perhaps risk the "class" distinctions which presently mar, to some extent, the relations of circuit and associate judges. The principle difference that this Committee sees is in the potential of the magistrate (associate judge) class as a training and proving ground for lawyers seeking a career in judicial service. This is not to suggest that the magistrate's responsibilities are not difficult or important. Quite the contrary. This Committee has said, and affirms, that magistrates engage in what may be the most important aspects of judicial service. By pure volume magistrates handle most of the judicial business in many circuits. Legal training and judicial competence at this level of service are critical, and it is hoped that magistrates will be appointed who possess the characteristics


-54essential for competent judicial service. Having said this, however, the problem still remains of attracting the qualified lawyer to a type of service which requires a total commitment to a massive number of routine cases, as well as to the more unusual, but less frequent, litigation. Many lawyers, hopefully, will look to this service as an opportunity for advancement into higher levels of judicial service. Indeed this was one of the original justifications for the establishment of the magistrate class. Statistics as to how many magistrates since 1964 have actually moved up the ladder are not easy to come by, but the hope persists that this service will indeed be the stepping stone for advanced judicial service. One way of making the position attractive is to increase the salary. This has been done several times since 1964. Another is to give the office a more prestigious title. This proposal seeks to do so. In the last analysis what this Committee is saying is that many qualified lawyers who cannot or do not wish to compete for higher level judicial offices may be receptive to starting their careers at the level of magistrate. The Committee hopes to encourage this movement and looks upon its recommendation for a change in name from "magistrate" to "associate judge" as a worthwhile step in that direction.



-55The recommended change in title does not itself make any change in the existing method of selection of magistrates. That matter is dealt with in Section 12. 6. Supreme Court to Determine Matters Assignable to Magistrates This Section now provides that the General Assembly shall limit or define the matters to be assigned to magistrates. All bar association proposals for constitutional judicial revision offered in 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1961 gave this authority to the Supreme Court on the logical premise that the kinds of cases that judicial officers should hear was more properly a matter of internal judicial administration than of legislative concern. Somewhere in the compromise that resulted in the 1961 adoption (as also happened in the 1957 proposal) the authority of the legislature was substituted for the Supreme Court. The legislature has by detailed legislation defined the matters to be heard by magistrates. (Ch. 37, Ill. Rev. Stat. Sec. 621 et seq., 1969). Additionally, the legislature has authorized the Supreme Court by rule to specify additional categories of matters assignable to magistrates (Id. Section 627). The Supreme Court has responded by adopting Rule 295. Given this history, and the relationship of matterthis [sic] to the administrative authority of the Supreme Court, it appears to this Committee that the power to determine matters assignable to

-56magistrates should reside in the Supreme Court. One is hard put to find any truly plausible basis for insistence upon legislative authority in this area.


7. Change in Language Re Masters in Chancery Section 8 provides that "There shall be no masters in chancery or other fee officers in the judicial system". The Committee proposal eliminates the words "masters in chancery or other" keeping the ban on fee officers. In the Committee's view the change is more stylistic than substantive. The change will not restore the master in chancery fee system which prevailed prior to the new Judicial Article since as a fee officer the master would be barred under the language which is retained. If the State wishes to provide a salaried judicial officer to perform the functions of the old master in chancery on a non-fee basis to litigants, it should be permitted to do so. It is quite probable that such authority presently exists but the deletion of the specific words is deemed desirable for two reasons: (1) the reference to masters in chancery is a redundancy as it is included in the more generic term "fee officers", and (2) the employment of the title "master in chancery" may appear to be barred even if the title is used for a salaried rather than a fee officer.*

-56a*Dissent: Delegates Rachunas and Kinney respectfully dissent from those provisions which would permit (1) legislative reduction or elimination of the minimum allocation of judges between Chicago and suburban Cook County and (2) the election of all circuit judges from Cook County at large. Delegate Kinney suggested the language allowing the legislature to divide circuits into smaller units for election or selection only, but is not seeking to enlarge elective areas in any circuit. She would also require that any division in Cook County apply to both the city and the suburban area, not just to one or the other. Based on testimony of downstate delegates concerning distances, emergency needs, and the low volume of judicial business in some counties, she suggests it may be acceptable to smaller counties to provide for a circuit or associate judge" from each county other than Cook, the term "associate judge" being used to denote the judicial officer presently classified as a magistrate, with limited jurisdiction, but empowered to issue arrest and search warrants and hold preliminary hearings.




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