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6, June 2011

**Hole Filing IFCNN Simulation by Parallel RK(5,6) Techniques
**

(Hole Filing by Parallel RK(5,6))

Sukumar Senthilkumar*

Universiti Sains Malaysia School of Mathematical Sciences 11800 USM Pulau Pinang MALAYSIA E-mail: ssenthilkumar1974@yahoo.co.in ssenthilkumar@usm.my

**Abd Rahni Mt Piah
**

Universiti Sains Malaysia School of Mathematical Sciences 11800 USM Pulau Pinang MALAYSIA E-mail: arahni@cs.usm.my

Abstract— This paper concentrates on employing different parallel RK(5,6) techniques for hole-filing via unique characteristics of improved fuzzy cellular neural network (IFCNN) simulation to improve the performance of an image or handwritten character recognition. Results are presented according to the range of template selected for simulation.

Keywords- Parallel 5-order 6-stage numerical integration techniques, Improved fuzzy cellular neural network, Hole filing, Simulation, Ordinary differential equations.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Parallel computing techniques are used to carry out computations simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems are often can be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved concurrently. It is a simultaneous process of multiple computing resources to solve a computational problem easily and quickly. In real time it is practically believed by researchers that a possible way of solving many significant computationally intensive problems in science and engineering is by employing parallel algorithms effectively. From the literature, it is observed that most of the real time problems are solved by adapting Runge-Kutta (RK) methods which in turn are applied to compute numerical solutions for various problems, which are modeled in terms of initial value problems as in Alexander and Coyle [3], Evans [4], Hung [5], Shampine and Watts [6] and Shampine and Gordon [7]. Shampine and Watts [6] developed mathematical codes for Runge-Kutta fourth order method to solve many numerical problems. Runge-Kutta formula of fifth order has been

This research work is carried out by the first author under a post doctoral fellow scheme at the School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA. *Corresponding Author.

developed by Butcher [8-10] to solve many computational problems. Evans and Sanugi [11] developed parallel integration techniques of Runge-Kutta for step by step solution of ordinary differential equations to obtain results. Ponalagusamy and Ponammal [12-14] developed new parallel fifth order algorithm to solve robot arm model, time varying network for first order initial value problems and new generalised plasticity equation for compressible powder metallurgy materials with results on stability region for test equation. Keyes et al. [15] provided a survey towards applications requiring memories and processing rates of largescale parallelism, leading algorithmicist applications of parallel numerical algorithms. Further, focused on practical medium-granularity parallelism, approachable through traditional programming languages. Gear [16] gave the potentiality behavior for parallelism in solving real time problems using ordinary differential equations. A survey of potential for parallelism in Runge-Kutta techniques and parallel numerical techniques for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations are demonstrated by Norsett and Jackson [17] and Jackson [18]. Using fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta method, a parallel mesh chopping algorithm for a class of initial value problem is illustrated by Katti and Srivastava [19]. Harrer et al. [20] introduced explicit Euler, predictor-corrector and fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithms for simulating cellular neural networks. The RK-Butcher algorithm has been introduced by Bader [21, 22] for finding truncation error estimates, intrinsic accuracies and early detection of stiffness in coupled differential equations that arises in theoretical chemistry problems. Senthilkumar and Piah [23] implemented parallel Runge-Kutta arithmetic mean algorithm to obtain a solution to a system of second order robot arm. In this paper a new attempt has been made to employ parallel RK(5,6) algorithm for hole filing problem under IFCNN environment. Oliveira [24] introduced a popular sequential RK-Gill algorithm to evaluate effectiveness factor of immobilized enzymes.

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Computing value is easy in case of implementing VLSI CNN chips, thereby making real-time operations possible. Roska [28] and Roska et al. [29] have presented the first widely used simulation system which allows simulation of a large class of CNN and is especially suited for image processing applications. It also includes signal processing, pattern recognition and solving ordinary and partial differential equations, as in Gonzalez et al. [30]. The existing RK-Butcher fifth order method hole filing problem has been studied by Murugesh and Badri [32] via CNN simulation model. Similarly, hole filing problem has been analyzed by Murugesan and Elango [50] by means of existing RK fourth order method under CNN simulation. Dalla Betta et al. [46] implemented CMOS implementation of an analogy programmed cellular neural network. Anguita et al. [31] discussed in detail about parameter configurations for hole extraction in cellular neural networks. Zadeh [35] and Zadeh et al. [36] introduced the concept of fuzzy sets (FSs) theory. Different notions of higher-order FSs have been proposed by different researchers. Recently, fuzzy cellular neural network (CNN) model [43-45] has attracted a great deal of interest among researchers from different disciplines. A locally interconnected, regularly repeated, analogue (continuous- or discrete-time) circuits with a one-ortwo-or three-dimensional grid architecture called CNNs introduced by Chua and Yang [25-26] and Chua [27]. Each cell (neuron) in CNN is a non-linear dynamic system coupled only to its nearest neighbors. Because of this local interconnection property, CNNs have been considered specifically suitable for very-large-scale integration implementations. Shitong et al. [37] proposed improved fuzzy cellular networks to incorporate the novel fuzzy status containing the useful information beyond a white blood cell into its state equation, resulting in enhancing the boundary integrity. Laiho et al. [38] proposed template design for CNNs with 1-bit weights. This paper is ordered as follows. A brief introduction on improved fuzzy cellular non-linear network is presented in section 2. Section 3 deals with the performance of hole-filler template design and simulation results. Section 4 discusses parallel RK(5,6) numerical integration techniques. Finally, concluding remarks is presented in section 5. II. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF IFCNN

sufficiently utilized. FCNN is a locally connected network [37] and the output of a neuron is connected to the inputs of every neuron/cell in its r × r neighborhood, and similarly the inputs of a neuron are only connected to the outputs of every neuron in its r × r neighborhood. It is apparent that feedback (not recurrent) connections are presented in detail. The architecture of IFCNN is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Architecture of IFCNN

The state equation of IFCNN is given by,

c

dxij dt

=

**−1 xij + ∑ A(i, j; k , l ) ykl + Rx c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j ) B(i, j; k , l )ukl % ∧ ( Af min (i, j; k , l ) + ykl ) +
**

(1)

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

∑

% ∨

+ I ij +

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

The capability of the conventional cellular neural network to solve different kinds of image processing problems and the capability of fuzzy logic to cope with uncertainty in images are the inherent features of FCNN [37]. Moreover, it also has inbuilt connections with mathematical morphology. The unique characteristic of IFCNN is incorporating novel fuzzy status with feed-forward and feedback templates in FCNN such that the useful information beyond the region can be

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

( Af max (i, j; k , l ) + ykl ) + ( B f min (i, j; k , l )ukl ) +

+

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

% ∧

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j ) c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j ) c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

% ∨

( B f max (i, j; k , l )ukl ) + ( Ff min (i, j; k , l ) xkl ) + ( Ff max (i, j; k , l ) xkl )

% ∧

% ∨

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and the input equation of Cij is given by,

considered in the above template to congregate the IFCNN’s symmetric requirements. (2) III. A BRIEF SKETCH ON HOLE-FILLER AND SIMULATION

RESULTS

uij = Eij ≥ 0,

1 ≤ i ≤ M; 1 ≤ j ≤ N. the output equation of Cij is given by,

yij = f ( xij ) =

1⎡ xij + 1 − xij − 1 ⎤ , ⎦ 2⎣

In a bipolar image, all the holes are filled and remains unaltered outside the holes, in case of hole filing IFCNN simulation [46-50]. Allow R x = 1, C = 1 and take +1 to (3) represent the black pixel and –1 for the white pixel. If the bipolar image is input with U = u ij into IFCNN and images

{ }

1 ≤ i ≤ M; 1 ≤ j ≤ N. The constraints /conditions are given by Afmax(i,j;k,l) = Afmin(k,l;i,j); Afmax(i,j;k,l) = Afmax(k,l;i,j); Ffmax(i,j;k,l) = Ffmin(k,l;i,j); Ffmax(i,j;k,l) = Ffmax(k,l;i,j); 1 ≤ i ≤ M; 1 ≤ j ≤ N. (4)

having holes are enclosed by the black pixels, then initial state values are set to be xij (0) = 1 . The output values are obtained as y ij (0) = 1,1 ≤ i ≤ M ,1 ≤ j ≤ N from equation (1). Consider the templates A, B and independent current source I as

⎡0 a 0⎤ A = ⎢a b a ⎥ , ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 a 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦

a > 0, b > 0

(6)

xij (0) ≤ 1 ;1 ≤ i ≤ M; 1 ≤ j ≤ N.

u ij (0) ≤ 1 ;1 ≤ i ≤ M; 1 ≤ j ≤ N.

A(i, j; k , l ) = A(k , l ; i, j )

From the above Eqs. (1) - (4), ∧ , ∨ , Nr(i,j), and A are identical as in FCNN. Comparing (4) with FCNN, the only one discrepancy between the equation is the novel fuzzy status.

~ ~

⎡0 0 0 ⎤ B = ⎢0 4 0 ⎥ , ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

I = -1

where the template parameters a and b are to be determined. In order to make the outer edge cells become the inner ones, normally auxiliary cells are added along the outer boundary of the image and their state values are set to be zeros by circuit realization resulting in zero output values. The state equation (1) can then be rewritten as

(

ckl ∈N r ( i , j )

∧

~

( Ff min (i, j; k , l ) + xkl ) +

(5)

dxij dt

= − xij +

% ∨

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

% ∧

( Af min (i, j; k , l ) + ykl ) +

ckl ∈N r ( i , j )

∨

~

( Ff max (i, j; k , l ) + xkl ) +

c ( k ,l )∈N r ( i , j )

( Af max (i, j; k , l ) + ykl ) + 4uij (t ) − I .

(7)

xkl ))

is adhered to Eq. (1), which obviously reflects the required information where Ffmin(i,j;k,l) and Ffmax(i,j;k,l) indicates the connected weights between cell Cij and Ckl respectively. Hence, the complete template determines the connection between cell and its neighbors, consists of (2r × 1) and (2r × 1) matrices A, B, Ffmin and Ffmax. The symmetric matrices are

For instance, here the cells C(i+1,j), C(i-1,j), C(i,j+1) and C(i,j-1) are non-diagonal cells. Designing of hole-filler template [31] and its various sub-problems are discussed using CNN simulations [46-50]. Figures 2 and 3 show the hole filing of an image (before and after) by employing a parallel RK(5,6) type-III technique. The settling time Ts and computation time Tc for different step sizes are considered for the purpose of comparison. The settling time Ts is the time

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from start of computation until the last cell leaves the interval [-1.0, 1.0]

which is based on a specified limit (e.g., |dx/dt|< 0.01). The computation time Tc is the time taken for settling the network and adjusting the cell for proper position once the network is settled. The simulation shows the desired output for every neuron/cell. Specifically, note that +1 and -1 indicate the black and white pixels, respectively. The marked selected template parameters a and b are restricted to the shaded area, as shown in figure 4 for the simulation. IV. PARALLEL RUNGE-KUTTA FIFTH ORDER TECHNIQUES: A BRIEF OVERVIEW

Figure 2(a). Original image and hole filed image

A. Parallel Runge-Kutta 5-Order 6-Stage Type-I Technique A parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type-I technique [1214] is one of the simplest method used to solve ordinary differential equations. It is an explicit formula which adapts the Taylor’s series expansion in order to obtain the approximation. A parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type-I & technique is used to determine yj and y j , j = 1, 2,3,....m such that

y n +1 = y n + [

Figure 2(b). Original image and hole filed image

7 32 2 32 7 k1 + k 3 + k 4 + k 5 + k 6 ] 90 90 90 90 90

(8)

Figure 2. Hole filing before and after adapting type-III parallel RK(5,6) technique

Thus, the corresponding parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type –I technique of Butcher array represents 0

2 5 1 4

Figure 3. Hole filing before and after employing type-III parallel RK(5,6) technique

2 5 11 64

3 16 9 32

5 64

5 16

1 2 3 4

1

− 27 32

35 28

3 4

0

9 16

−9 28

7 90

− 12 7

2 90

8 7 32 90 7 90

0

Figure 4. Range of the template

32 90

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The 6 stage 5th order algorithm with 5 parallel and 2 processors, by selecting a43 = 0 to evaluate k3 and k4 simultaneously is given by

.

0

**k1ij = Δtf ( xij (t n )) ,
**

2 Δt 2 k = Δtf ( xij (tn + ) ) + k1ij , 5 5

ij 2

1 3 2 . 5 1 2 2 3 4 5

1 3 4 25 1 4 6 81 6 25

-3

**Δt 11 5 ij * ij k3 = Δtf ( xij (tn + ) ) + k1ij + k2 = k3 ij , 4 64 64 Δt 3 5 ij * k = Δtf ( xij (tn + ) ) + k1ij + k2 = k4 ij , 4 16 16
**

ij 4

15 4 50 81 10 75 125 192 8 81 8 75

− 90 81

36 75

**Δt 9 275 ij 3 ij 9 ij k = Δtf ( xij (tn ) ) + k1ij − k 2 + k3 + k 4 2 32 32 4 16 *ij = k5 ,
**

ij 5

−6 75

23 192

**3 9 35 ij 12 ij 8 ij ij k6 = Δtf ( xij (tn + Δt ) − k1ij + k2 − k4 + k5 4 28 28 7 7 *ij = k6 . (9)
**

Therefore, the final integration is a weighted sum of the five calculated derivatives which is given as

tn+1

0

0

− 812 192

125 192

Therefore, the final integration is a weighted sum of four calculated derivatives per time step which is given by

y n +1 = y n + h[

tn

∫

f ( x(t ))dt =

**Δt ij ij ij [7k1ij + 32k3ij + 12k4 + 32 k5 + 7 k6 ]. 90
**

(10)

**23 125 81 125 k1 + k3 − k5 + k6 ] . 90 192 192 192
**

(12)

The 6 stage 5th order algorithm with 5 parallel and 2 processors by selecting a65 = 0 to evaluate k5 and k6 simultaneously is given by

.

B. Parallel Runge-Kutta 5-Order 6-Stage Type-II Technique A parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type-II technique [1214] is also one of the simplest method used to solve ordinary differential equations. It is an explicit formula which adapts the Taylor’s series expansion in order to obtain the approximation. A parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type-II & technique determines yj and y j , j = 1,2,3,....m such that

**k1ij = Δtf ( xij (t n )) ,
**

ij k 2 = Δtf ( xij (t n +

1 Δt ) ) + k1ij , 3 3 2 Δt 4 6 ij k2 , ) ) + k1ij + 3 25 25

ij k 3 = Δtf ( xij (t n +

yn +1 = yn + h[

**23 125 81 125 k1 + k3 − k5 + k6 ]. 90 192 192 192
**

(11)

Thus, the corresponding parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage technique of type-II Butcher array represents

ij 15k 3 Δt k1ij ij k = Δtf (t n + ) + − 3k 2 + 2 4 4 2 6 ij 90 ij 50 ij 8 ij ij k 5 = Δtf ( xij (t n + Δt ) + k1 − k 2 − k 3 + k 4 3 81 81 81 81 *ij = k5 ij 4

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ij k6 = Δtf ( xij (tn +

4 Δt 6 ) ) − k1ij + 5 75 *ij = k6 . 36 ij 10 ij 8 ij k2 + k3 + k 4 75 75 75

(12)

Therefore, the final integration is a weighted sum of five calculated derivatives per time step which is given by

**Therefore, the final integration is a weighted sum of the five calculated derivatives which is given by
**

tn+1

tn

∫

f ( x(t ))dt =

**Δt ij ij [23k1ij + 125k3 − 81k5ij + 125k6 ]. 192
**

(13)

17 250 k1 − k3 + 306 153 442 8192 31 k4 + k5 + k6 ]. 255 9945 234 yn +1 = yn + h[

(15)

C. Parallel Runge-Kutta 5-Order 6-Stage Type-III Technique A parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type-III technique [1214] is another simple method used to solve ordinary differential equations. It is also an explicit formula which adapts the Taylor’s series expansion for an approximation. A parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage type-III technique & determines yj and y j , j = 1, 2,3,....m such that

The 6 stage 5th order algorithm with 5 parallel and 2 processors by selecting a54 = 0 to evaluate k5 and k4 simultaneously is given by

.

**k1ij = Δtf ( xij (t n )) ,
**

ij k 2 = Δtf ( xij (t n +

Δt 1 ) ) + k1ij 5 5 2 Δt 39 ij 5 ij k1 + k2 , )) + 5 160 32

17 250 k1 − k3 + 306 153 442 8192 31 k4 + k5 + k6 ]. 255 9945 234 yn +1 = yn + h[

ij k 3 = Δtf ( xij (t n +

(14)

ij 4

ij ij 2k 3 Δt k1ij 5k 2 *ij = k4 k = Δtf (t n ) + − + 2 24 24 3

Thus, the corresponding parallel Runge-Kutta 5-order 6-stage technique of type-III Butcher array represents 0

ij k 5 = Δtf ( xij (t n + Δt

1 3 ij 1 ij 3 * ) + k1ij − k 2 − k 3 = k5 ij 16 4 16 8

1 5 2 . 5 1 2 3 16

1

1 5 39 160 1 24 1 8 5 32

9 ij k1 + 14 15 ij 8 ij 12 ij 8 ij k 2 + k 3 − k 4 + k5 . 14 7 7 7

ij k6 = Δtf ( xij (tn + Δt ) ) −

(16)

Therefore, the final integration is a weighted sum of the five calculated derivatives which is given by

−5 24 −3 16

15 14

2 3 1 4 8 7 12 7 442 255 8 7 8192 9945 31 234

tn+1

tn

∫

f ( x(t ))dt = Δt[−

ij 4 ij 5

ij 17 k1ij 250k3 − + 306 153 ij 6

(17)

8192k 31k 442k ]. + + 255 9945 234

−9 14

V.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

− 17 0 306

− 250 153

In this paper, hole filing problem is addressed under IFCNN model using parallel RK(5,6) techniques and its validity is illustrated by simulation results. It is observed that the hole is

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filled and the outside image remains unaffected, that is, the edges of the images are preserved and are intact. The templates of the cellular neural network are not unique and this is important in its implementation. The significance of this work is to improve the performance of handwritten character recognition because in many language scripts, numerals and in images etc., there are many holes and the CNN described above can be used in addition to the connected component detector. It is also noticed that IFCNN preserves the boundary integrity. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The first author would like to extend his sincere gratitude to Universiti Sains Malaysia for supporting this work under its post doctoral fellowship scheme. Much of this work was carried out during his stay at Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2011. He wishes to acknowledge Universiti Sains Malaysia’s financial support. REFERENCES

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[38] M. Laiho, A. Paasio, J. Flak and K. A. I. Halonen, “Template design for cellular nonlinear networks with 1-bit weights”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 904-913, 2008. T. Yang, L. B. Yang, C. W. Wu, L. O. Chua, “Fuzzy cellular neural networks: Theory”, In Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Cellular Neural Networks and Applications, pp.181186, 1996. T. Yang, L. B. Yang, “The global stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks”, IEEE Transactions on Circuit and Systems-I, Vol. 43, pp. 880-883, 1996. T. Yang and L.B. Yang, “Fuzzy cellular neural network: A new paradigm for image processing”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, Vol. 25, pp. 469-481, 1997. T. Yang and L.B. Yang, “Application of fuzzy cellular neural networks to Euclidean distance transformation”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I, CAS-44, pp. 242-246, 1997. A. Kandel, “Fuzzy Techniques in Pattern Recognition”, John Wiley, New York, 1982. R.R. Yager and L.A. Zadeh (eds), “An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic in Intelligent Systems”, Kluwer, Boston, 1992. J.A. Nossek, G. Seiler, T. Roska and L.O. Chua, “Cellular neural networks: Theory and circuit design”, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, Vol. 20, pp. 533-553, 1992. G. F. Dalla Betta, S. Graffi, M. Kovacs and G. Masetti, “CMOS implementation of an analogy programmed cellular neural network”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-Part–II, Vol. 40, pp. 206–214, 1993. C.L. Yin, J.L. Wan, H. Lin and W.K. Chen, “Brief Communication: The cloning template design of a cellular neural network”, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 336, pp. 903-909, 1999. L. O. Chua and P. Thiran, “An analytic method for designing simple cellular neural networks”, IEEE Transactions on Circuitsand Systems-I, Vol. 38, pp. 1332-1341, 1991. T. Matsumoto, L.O. Chua and R. Furukawa, “CNN cloning template: hole filler”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 37, pp. 635-638, 1990. K. Murugesan and P. Elango, “CNN based hole filler template design using numerical integration technique”, LNCS 4668, pp. 490-500, 2007. Senthilkumar was born in Neyveli Township, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India on 18th July 1974. He received his B.Sc in Mathematics from Madras University in 1994, M.Sc in Mathematics from Bharathidasan University in 1996, M.Phil in Mathematics from Bharathidasan University in 1999 and M.Phil in Computer Science & Engineering from Bharathiar University in 2000. He also has a PGDCA and PGDCH in Computer Science and Applications and Computer Hardware from Bharathidasan University which he obtained in 1996 and 1997, respectively. He has a doctoral degree in Mathematics and Computer Applications from National Institute of Technology [REC], Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. Currently, he is a post doctoral fellow at the School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Prior to this appointment, he was a lecturer/assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science at Asan Memorial College of Arts and Science, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. He has published many good research papers in international conference proceedings and peer-reviewed/refereed international journals with high impact factor. He has made significant and outstanding contributions to various activities related to research work. He is also an associate editor, editorial board member, reviewer and referee for many scientific international journals. His current research interests include advanced cellular neural networks, advanced digital image processing, advanced numerical analysis and methods, advanced simulation and computing and other related areas. Abd Rahni Mt Piah was born in Baling, Kedah Malaysia on 8th May 1956. He received his B.A. (Cum Laude) in Mathematics from Knox College, Illinois, USA in 1979. He received his M.Sc in Mathematics from Universiti Sains Malaysia in 1986. He obtained his Ph.D in Approximation Theory from the University of Dundee, Scotland UK in 1993. He has been an academic staff member of the School of Mathematical Sciences; Universiti Sains Malaysia since 1981 and at present is an Associate Professor. He was a program chairman and deputy dean in the School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia for many years. He has published various research papers in refereed national and international conference proceedings and journals. His current research areas include Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD), Medical Imaging, Numerical Analysis and Techniques and other related areas.

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This paper concentrates on employing different parallel RK(5,6) techniques for hole-filing via unique characteristics of improved fuzzy cellular neural network (IFCNN) simulation to improve the per...

This paper concentrates on employing different parallel RK(5,6) techniques for hole-filing via unique characteristics of improved fuzzy cellular neural network (IFCNN) simulation to improve the performance of an

image or handwritten character recognition. Results are presented according to the range of template selected for simulation.

image or handwritten character recognition. Results are presented according to the range of template selected for simulation.

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