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6, 2011

Inception of Hybrid Wavelet Transform using Two Orthogonal Transforms and It’s use for Image Compression

Dr. H.B.Kekre, Senior Professor, Computer Engineering Department, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University) Vile Parle(W), Mumbai, India. hbkekre@yahoo.com, Dr.Tanuja K. Sarode

Assistant Professor Computer Engineering Department, Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Bandra(W), Mumbai, India. tanuja_0123@yahoo.com

Sudeep D. Thepade

Associate Professor Computer Engineering Department, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University) Vile Parle(W), Mumbai, India. sudeepthepade@gmail.com

Abstract—The paper presents the novel hybrid wavelet transform generation technique using two orthogonal transforms. The orthogonal transforms are used for analysis of global properties of the data into frequency domain. For studying the local properties of the signal, the concept of wavelet transform is introduced, where the mother wavelet function gives the global properties of the signal and wavelet basis functions which are compressed versions of mother wavelet are used to study the local properties of the signal. In wavelets of some orthogonal transforms the global characteristics of the data are hauled out better and some orthogonal transforms might give the local characteristics in better way. The idea of hybrid wavelet transform comes in to picture in view of combining the traits of two different orthogonal transform wavelets to exploit the strengths of both the transform wavelets. The paper proves the worth of hybrid wavelet transforms for the image compression which can further be extended to other image processing applications like steganography, biometric identification, content based image retrieval etc. Here the hybrid wavelet transforms are generated using four orthogonal transforms alias Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Walsh transform (DWT) and Discrete Kekre transform (DKT). Te comparison of the hybrid wavelet transforms is also done with the original orthogonal transforms and their wavelet transforms. The experimentation results have shown that the transform wavelets have given better quality of image compression than the respective original orthogonal transforms but for hybrid transform wavelets the performance is best. Here the hybrid of DCT and DKT gives the best results among the combinations of the four mentioned image transforms used for generating hybrid wavelet transforms. Keywords-Orthogonal transform; Wavelet transform; Hybrid Wavelet transform; Compression.

century [19,20]. Generally, wavelets are purposefully crafted to have specific properties that make them useful for image processing. Wavelets can be combined, using a "shift, multiply and sum" technique called convolution, with portions of an unknown signal(data) to extract information from the unknown signal. Wavelet transforms are now being adopted for a vast number of applications, often replacing the conventional Fourier transform [23,24,25,26]. They have advantages over traditional fourier methods in analyzing physical situations where the signal contains discontinuities and sharp spikes[27,28,29]. In fourier analysis the local properties of the signal are not detected easily. STFT(Short Time Fourier Transform)[29] was introduced to overcome this difficulty. However it gives local properties at the cost of global properties. Wavelets overcome this shortcoming of Fourier analysis [28,29] as well as STFT. Many areas of physics have seen this paradigm shift, including molecular dynamics, astrophysics, optics, quantum mechanics etc. This change has also occurred in image processing, blood-pressure, heart-rate and ECG analyses, DNA analysis, protein analysis, climatology, general signal processing, speech, face recognition, computer graphics and multifractal analysis. Wavelet transforms are also starting to be used for communication applications. One use of wavelet approximation is in data compression. Like other transforms, wavelet transforms can be used to transform data then, encode the transformed data, resulting in effective compression [24]. Wavelet compression can be either lossless or lossy. The wavelet compression methods are adequate for representing high-frequency components in two-dimensional images. Earlier wavelets of only Haar transform have been studied. In recent work [4,7,11,13] the wavelets of few orthogonal transforms alias Walsh [16,17,18], DCT [14,15], Kekre [21,22] and Hartley[1,2,3] are proposed. The wavelet transforms in many applications are proven to be better than respective orthogonal transforms [8,9,10,12]. The paper presents the innovative hybrid wavelet transform generation method, which generates hybrid wavelet transform of any two orthogonal transforms. This concept of hybrid wavelet transform can acquire the positive traits from both the orthogonal transforms used to generate it. The hybrid wavelet generation concept opens up new avenues of selection of orthogonal transforms for hybrid and their use in particular image processing application

I.

INTRODUCTION

Wavelets are mathematical tools that can be used to extract information from many different kinds of data, including images [4,5,6,7]. Sets of wavelets are generally needed to analyze data fully. A set of "complementary" wavelets will reconstruct data without gaps or overlap so that the deconstruction process is mathematically reversible and is with minimal loss. The wavelets are results of the thought process of many people starting with with Haar's work in the early 20th

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to gain some upper edge over individual orthogonal transforms or respective wavelet transforms. The paper presents the use of hybrid wavelet transforms generated using Discrete Walsh Transform (DWT), Discrete Kekre Transform (DKT), Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for image compression. The experimental results prove that the hybrid wavelet transforms are better than the respective orthogonal transforms as well as their wavelet transforms. II. GENERATION OF HYBRID WAVELET TRANSFORM

⎡ a11 ⎢a 21 A=⎢ ⎢ M ⎢ ⎢a p1 ⎣ a12 a 22 M a p2 L a1 p ⎤ L a2 p ⎥ ⎥ M M ⎥ ⎥ L a pp ⎥ ⎦

⎡b11 b12 L b1q ⎤ ⎢b b22 L b2 q ⎥ 21 ⎥ B=⎢ ⎢ M M M M ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢bq1 bq 2 L bqq ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

[K ] ∗ [K ]t = [D ]

(3)

where, D is the diagonal matrix. The hybrid wavelet transform of size NxN generated from any two orthogonal transforms satisfies this property and hence it is orthogonal. B. Non Involutional An involutionary function is a function that is it’s own inverse. So involutional transform is a transform which is inverse transform of itself. The Hybrid wavelet transform is non involutional transform C. Transform on Vector The hybrid wavelet transform (say ‘K’) of one-dimensional vector q is given by.

Q = K ∗q

(1)

[]

(4)

**And inverse is given by
**

q = K

[ ]t ∗

Q μ Ti

ij ∗μ Tj

(5)

(2)

Where Qij is the value at ith row, jth column of matrix Q and the term μ in normalization factor can be computed as given below through equations 6, 7 and 8.

μ

Such that

μ T1

T2

T

t =T T AB AB

(6)

=μ

=μ

μ A1 B1 ,

μ A1 B2 ,

The hybrid wavelet transform matrix of size NxN (say ‘TAB’) can be generated from two orthogonal transform matrices ( say A and B respectively with sizes pxp and qxq, where N=p*q=pq) as given by equations 1 and 2.Here first ‘q’ number of rows of the hybrid wavelet transform matrix are calculated as the product of each element of first row of the orthogonal transform A with each of the columns of the orthogonal transform B. For next ‘q’ number of rows of hybrid wavelet transform matrix the second row of the orthogonal transform matrix A is shift rotated after being appended with zeros as shown in equation 2. Similarly the other rows of hybrid wavelet transform matrix are generated (as set of q rows each time for each of the ‘p-1’ rows of orthogonal transform matrix A starting from second row upto last row). III. PROPERTIES OF HYBRID WAVELET TRANSFORM

μ

μ

T3

=μ

μ A1 B3

μ A1 Bq Tq + 2 =L=μ T2q =μ A2

A3 =μ

M

μ μ

μ

Tq

=μ

(7)

Tq +1

=μ

T2q +1

=μ

T2q + 2 =μ

=L=μ

T3q

=μ

M

μ T(p −1)q +1 T2q + 2 =L=μ T3q A3

The crossbreed of two orthogonal transforms results into hybrid wavelet transform, which itself satisfies the following properties. A. Orthogonal The transform matrix K is said to be orthogonal if the following condition is satisfied.

Where with reference to equation 1, given as equation 8.

μ A and μ B can

be

AA

t

= μ

A

=

⎡μ A1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ M ⎢ 0 ⎣

0 μ A2 M 0

L L M L

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ M ⎥ μ Ap ⎦

0 0

(8)

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**

t

BB

= μ

B

⎡μ B1 ⎢ 0 = ⎢ M ⎢ 0 ⎣

0 μ B2 M 0

L L M L

⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ M ⎥ μ Bq ⎦

0

Where Iij is the pixel intensity value at ith row, jth column of image I and the calculation of the term μ in normalization factor is as given above through equations 6, 7 and 8. IV.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

**D. Transform on Two-Dimensional Image The hybrid wavelet transform of two-dimensional image I is given by.
**

Q = K ∗I∗ K

[]

[ ]t

(9)

**And inverse is given by
**

q = K

[ ]t ∗

I

ij

⎛μ ∗ μ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Ti Tj ⎠

∗ K

[]

(10)

The test bed used in experimentation for proving the worth of hybrid wavelet transform consists of 11 color images of size 256x256x3and is shown in figure 1. On each image all the three alias orthogonal transform, wavelet transform and hybrid wavelet transform are applied. In transform domain the high frequency data is removed and the images are transformed inversely back to spatial domain. To judge the performance of the orthogonal transform, wavelet transform and hybrid wavelet transform in compression; the original images are compared with these modified images (having the data loss as compression) using mean squared error (MSE). In all size data compression percentages are considered as 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, 75% and 70%. The average of such MSEs for all images for respective transform and considered percentage of data compression is taken for performance analysis.

Figure 1: The test bed of eleven original color images belonging to different categories and namely (from left to right and top to bottom) Aishwarya, Balls, Bird, Boat, Flower, Dagdusheth-Ganesh, TajMahal, Strawberry, Scenery, Tiger and Viharlake-Powai.

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**

Figure 2: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), cosine wavelet transform (DCT wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of DCT taken with Hartley (DCT_DHT) and Kekre transforms (DCT_DKT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression.

Figure 2 shows the average of mean squared error (MSE) differences of the original and respective compressed image pairs plotted against percentages of data compression from 955 to 70% for image compression done using Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), cosine wavelet transform (DCT wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of DCT taken with Hartley (DCT_DHT) and Kekre transforms (DCT_DKT). Here the performance of hybrid wavelet transforms (DCT_DKT and DCT_DHT) is the best as indicated by minimum MSE values over the respective DCT and DCT wavelet transform.

Figure 3: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Walsh transform (DWT), Walsh wavelet transform (Walsh wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of Walsh transform taken with Hartley (DWT_DHT) and Cosine transforms (DWT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

The average of mean squared error (MSE) differences of the original and respective compressed image pairs for image compression done using Discrete Walsh transform (DWT), Walsh wavelet transform (Walsh wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of Walsh transform taken with Hartley (DWT_DHT) and Cosine transforms (DWT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression are plotted in figure 3. Here the performance of hybrid wavelet transforms (DWT_DHT and DWT_DCT) are better than the Walsh transform and are almost similar to the Walsh wavelet transform. The DWT_DCT hybrid wavelet transform marginally performs better in case of 95% and 80% data compression.

Figure 4: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Hartley wavelet transform (Hartley wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of Hartley transform taken with Walsh (DHT_DWT) and Cosine transforms (DHT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression.

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Figure 5: Performance comparison of Image compression using Discrete Kekre transform (DKT), Kekre wavelet transform (Kekre wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of Kekre transform taken with Cosine transforms (DKT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

Figure 4 gives the average of mean squared error (MSE) differences of the original and respective compressed image pairs for image compression done using Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Hartley wavelet transform (Hartley wavelets) and the hybrid wavelet transforms of Hartley transform taken with Walsh (DHT_DWT) and Cosine transforms (DHT_DCT) with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression. Here except 95% data compression in al other percentages of data compression, the performance of hybrid wavelet transforms (DHT_DWT and DHT_DCT) are better than the Hartley transform and are almost similar to the Hartley wavelet transform with DWT_DCT proved to be marginally better. In case of image compression using hybrid wavelet transform (DKT_DCT) generated using discrete Kekre transform (DKT) and discrete Cosine transform (DCT), the performance is almost similar to the Kekre wavelet transform but better than the Kekre transform as shown in figure 5.

Figure 6: Overall performance analysis of Image compression using the orthogonal transforms, their respective wavelet transforms and newly introduced hybrid wavelet transforms for Cosine, Kekre, Walsh and Hartley transforms with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

Figure 6 gives overall performance comparison of image compression using all the proposed hybrid wavelet transforms with respective orthogonal transform and wavelet transform based compression methods for various percentages of data compression from 70% to as high as 95%. Overall the best performance is given by DCT_DKT (hybrid wavelet transform of Cosine transform with Kekre transform) followed by DCT_DWT and DCT_DHT (hybrid wavelet transform of Cosine transform taken respectively with Walsh transform and Hartley transform). In all the respective orthogonal transforms the hybrid wavelet transforms have shown better quality of image compression.

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Figure 7: The compression of flower image using the hybrid wavelet transform (DCT_DHT Wavelet) generated using Discrete Cosine transform and Discrete Hartley transform with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

Figure 8: The compression of flower image using the hybrid wavelet transform (DCT_DKT Wavelet) generated using Discrete Cosine transform and Discrete Kekre transform with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression

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Figure 9: The compression of flower image using the hybrid wavelet transform (DCT_DWT Wavelet) generated using Discrete Cosine transform and Discrete Walsh transform with respect to 95% to 70% of data compression.

Figures 7, 8 and 9 have shown the compression of flower image for various hybrid wavelet transforms with respect to the 955 to 70 % of data compression. The subjective quality of compression in all cases is quite acceptable as negligible distortion is observed in original and compressed images even at the 95% data compression. Even the objective criteria (i.e. mean squared error) values of differences between the original and compressed images are minimal. V.

CONCLUSION

The innovative concept of the hybrid wavelet transforms generation using any two orthogonal transforms is proposed in the paper. Here the hybrid wavelet transforms are generated using Discrete Walsh Transform (DWT), Discrete Kekre Transform (DKT), Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for image compression. The experimental results prove that the hybrid wavelet transforms are better than the respective orthogonal transforms as well as their wavelet transforms. The various orthogonal transforms can be considered for crossbreeding to generate the hybrid wavelet transform based on the expected behavior of the hybrid wavelet transform for particular application. After proving the worth of hybrid wavelet transforms for the image compression future work could include the extension of the concept to other image processing applications like steganography, biometric identification , content based image retrieval etc. VI.

[1] [2] [3] [4]

REFERENCES

R. V. L. Hartley, "A more symmetrical Fourier analysis applied to transmission problems," Proceedings of IRE 30, pp.144–150, 1942. R. N. Bracewell, "Discrete Hartley transform," Journal of Opt. Soc. America, Volume 73, Number 12, pp. 1832–183 , 1983. R. N. Bracewell, "The fast Hartley transform," Proc. of IEEE Volume 72, Number 8, pp.1010–1018 ,1984. Dr. H.B.kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Adib Parkar, “A Comparison of Haar Wavelets and Kekre’s Wavelets for Storing Colour Information

in a Greyscale Image”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Volume 1, Number 11, December 2010, pp 3238. [5] Dr. H.B.kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Adib Parkar “Storage of Colour Information in a Greyscale Image using Haar Wavelets and Various Colour Spaces”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Volume 6, Number 7, pp.18-24, September 2010. [6] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Juhi Jain, Naman Agrawal, “IRIS Recognition using Texture Features Extracted from Walshlet Pyramid”, ACM-International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2011),Thakur College of Engg. And Tech., Mumbai, 26-27 Feb 2011. Also will be uploaded on online ACM Portal. [7] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Face Recognition using Texture Features Extracted form Walshlet Pyramid”, ACEEE International Journal on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJRTET), Volume 5, Issue 1, www.searchdl.org/journal/IJRTET2010 [8] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Juhi Jain, Naman Agrawal, “Performance Comparison of IRIS Recognition Techniques using Wavelet Pyramids of Walsh, Haar and Kekre Wavelet Transforms”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Number 2, Article 4, March 2011, http://www.ijcaonline.org/proceedings/icwet/number2/2070-aca386 [9] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Face Recognition using Texture Features Extracted from Haarlet Pyramid”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Volume 12, Number 5, December 2010, pp 41-45. Available at www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume12/number5/1672-2256 [10] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Juhi Jain, Naman Agrawal, “IRIS Recognition using Texture Features Extracted from Haarlet Pyramid”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Volume 11, Number 12, December 2010, pp 1-5, Available at www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume11/number12/1638-2202. [11] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Performance Comparison of Image Retrieval Techniques using Wavelet Pyramids of Walsh, Haar and Kekre Transforms”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA) Volume 4, Number 10, August 2010 Edition, pp 1-8, http://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume4/number10/866-1216 [12] Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Akshay Maloo, “Query by image content using color texture features extracted from Haar wavelet pyramid”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA) for the special edition on “Computer Aided Soft Computing Techniques for Imaging and Biomedical Applications”, Number 2,

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**

Article 2, August 2010. http://www.ijcaonline.org/specialissues/casct/number2/1006-41 Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using ColorTexture Features Extracted from Walshlet Pyramid”, ICGST International Journal on Graphics, Vision and Image Processing (GVIP), Volume 10, Issue I, Feb.2010, pp.9-18, Available online www.icgst.com/gvip/Volume10/Issue1/P1150938876.html N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao, “Discrete Cosine Transform”, IEEE Transaction Computers, C-23, pp. 90-93, January 1974. W. Chen, C. H. Smith and S. C. Fralick, “A Fast Computational Algorithm For The Discrete Cosine Transform”, IEEE Transaction Communications, Com-25, pp.: 1004-1008, Sept. 1977. George Lazaridis, Maria Petrou, “Image Compression By Means of Walsh Transform”, IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Volume 15, Number 8, pp.2343-2357, 2006. J. L. Walsh, “A Closed Set of Orthogonal Functions”, American Journal of Mathematics, Volume 45, pp. 5-24, 1923. Zhibin Pan, Kotani K., Ohmi T., “Enhanced fast encoding method for vector quantization by finding an optimally-ordered Walsh transform kernel”, ICIP 2005, IEEE International Conference, Volume 1, pp I - 573-6, Sept. 2005. Charles K. Chui, “An Introduction to Wavelets”, Academic Press, 1992, San Diego, ISBN 0585470901. Ingrid Daubechies, “Ten Lectures on Wavelets”, SIAM, 1992. Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using NonInvolutional Orthogonal Kekre’s Transform”, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Advances in Engineering (IJMRAE), Ascent Publication House, 2009, Volume 1, No.I, pp 189-203, 2009. Abstract available online at www.ascentjournals.com Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Archana Athawale, Anant S., Prathamesh V., Suraj S., “Kekre Transform over Row Mean, Column Mean and Both using Image Tiling for Image Retrieval”, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering (IJCEE), Volume 2, Number 6, October 2010, pp 964-971, is available at www.ijcee.org/papers/260-E272.pdf K. P. Soman and K.I. Ramachandran. ”Insight into WAVELETS From Theory to Practice”, Printice -Hall India, pp 3-7, 2005. Raghuveer M. Rao and Ajit S. Bopardika. “Wavelet Transforms – Introduction to Theory and Applications”, Addison Wesley Longman, pp 1-20, 1998. C.S. Burrus, R.A. Gopinath, and H. Guo. “Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transform” Prentice-hall International, Inc., New Jersey, 1998. Amara Graps, ”An Introduction to Wavelets”, IEEE Computational Science and Engineering, vol. 2, num. 2, Summer 1995, USA. Julius O. Smith III and Xavier SerraP“, An Analysis/Synthesis Program for Non-Harmonic Sounds Based on a Sinusoidal Representation'', Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC-87, Tokyo), Computer Music Association, 1987. S. Mallat, "A Theory of Multiresolution Signal Decomposition: The Wavelet Representation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 11, pp. 674-693, 1989. Strang G. "Wavelet Transforms Versus Fourier Transforms." Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 28, 288-305, 1993. head in the Department of Computer Engg. at Thadomal Shahani Engineering. College, Mumbai. Now he is Senior Professor at MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS. He has guided 17 Ph.Ds, more than 100 M.E./M.Tech and several B.E./ B.Tech projects. His areas of interest are Digital Signal processing, Image Processing and Computer Networking. He has more than 270 papers in National / International Conferences and Journals to his credit. He was Senior Member of IEEE. Presently He is Fellow of IETE and Life Member of ISTE Recently 11 students working under his guidance have received best paper awards. Two of his students have been awarded Ph. D. from NMIMS University. Currently he is guiding ten Ph.D. students. Dr. Tanuja K. Sarode has Received Bsc.(Mathematics) from Mumbai University in 1996, Bsc.Tech.(Computer Technology) from Mumbai University in 1999, M.E. (Computer Engineering) degree from Mumbai University in 2004, Ph.D. from Mukesh Patel School of Technology, Management and Engineering, SVKM’s NMIMS University, Vile-Parle (W), Mumbai, INDIA. She has more than 12 years of experience in teaching. Currently working as Assistant Professor in Dept. of Computer Engineering at Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai. She is life member of IETE, member of International Association of Engineers (IAENG) and International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. Her areas of interest are Image Processing, Signal Processing and Computer Graphics. She has 90 papers in National /International Conferences/journal to her credit. Sudeep D. Thepade has Received B.E.(Computer) degree from North Maharashtra University with Distinction in 2003. M.E. in Computer Engineering from University of Mumbai in 2008 with Distinction, currently submitted thesis for Ph.D. at SVKM’s NMIMS, Mumbai. He has more than 08 years of experience in teaching and industry. He was Lecturer in Dept. of Information Technology at Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Bandra(w), Mumbai for nearly 04 years. Currently working as Associate Professor in Computer Engineering at Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering, SVKM’s NMIMS, Vile Parle(w), Mumbai, INDIA. He is member of International Association of Engineers (IAENG) and International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. He is member of International Advisory Committee for many International Conferences. He is reviewer for various International Journals. His areas of interest are Image Processing Applications, Biometric Identification. He has about 110 papers in National/International Conferences/Journals to his credit with a Best Paper Award at International Conference SSPCCIN-2008, Second Best Paper Award at ThinkQuest-2009 National Level paper presentation competition for faculty, Best paper award at Springer international conference ICCCT-2010 and second best research project award at ‘Manshodhan-2010’.

[14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

[19] [20] [21]

[22]

[23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

[28] [29]

AUTHORS PROFILE Dr. H. B. Kekre has received B.E. (Hons.) in Telecomm. Engineering. from Jabalpur University in 1958, M.Tech (Industrial Electronics) from IIT Bombay in 1960, M.S.Engg. (Electrical Engg.) from University of Ottawa in 1965 and Ph.D. (System Identification) from IIT Bombay in 1970 He has worked as Faculty of Electrical Engg. and then HOD Computer Science and Engg. at IIT Bombay. For 13 years he was working as a professor and

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The paper presents the novel hybrid wavelet transform generation technique using two orthogonal transforms. The orthogonal transforms are used for analysis of global properties of the data into fre...

The paper presents the novel hybrid wavelet transform generation technique using two orthogonal transforms. The orthogonal transforms are used for analysis of global properties of the data into frequency domain. For studying the local properties of the signal, the concept of wavelet transform is introduced, where the mother wavelet function gives the global properties of the signal and wavelet basis functions which are compressed versions of mother wavelet are used to study the local properties of the signal. In wavelets of some orthogonal transforms the global characteristics of the data are hauled out better and some orthogonal transforms might give the local characteristics in better way. The idea of hybrid wavelet transform comes in to picture in view of combining the traits of two different orthogonal transform wavelets to exploit the strengths of both the transform wavelets.

The paper proves the worth of hybrid wavelet transforms for the image compression which can further be extended to other image processing applications like steganography, biometric identification, content based image retrieval etc. Here the hybrid wavelet transforms are generated using four orthogonal transforms alias Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Walsh transform (DWT) and Discrete Kekre transform (DKT). The comparison of the hybrid wavelet transforms is also done with the original orthogonal transforms and their wavelet transforms. The experimentation results have shown that the transform wavelets have given better quality of image compression than the respective original orthogonal transforms but for hybrid transform wavelets the performance is best. Here the hybrid of DCT and DKT gives the best results among the combinations of the four mentioned image transforms used for generating hybrid wavelet transforms.

The paper proves the worth of hybrid wavelet transforms for the image compression which can further be extended to other image processing applications like steganography, biometric identification, content based image retrieval etc. Here the hybrid wavelet transforms are generated using four orthogonal transforms alias Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), Discrete Hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Walsh transform (DWT) and Discrete Kekre transform (DKT). The comparison of the hybrid wavelet transforms is also done with the original orthogonal transforms and their wavelet transforms. The experimentation results have shown that the transform wavelets have given better quality of image compression than the respective original orthogonal transforms but for hybrid transform wavelets the performance is best. Here the hybrid of DCT and DKT gives the best results among the combinations of the four mentioned image transforms used for generating hybrid wavelet transforms.

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