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Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
Evolving Fuzzy Classification Systems from
Numerical Data
Pardeep Sandhu
Department of Electronics
& Communication,
Maharishi Markandeshwar
University, Mullana,
Haryana, INDIA
er.pardeepsandhu@gmail.co
m
Shakti Kumar
Computational Intelligence
Laboratory
Institute of Science and
Technology, Klawad,
Haryana, INDIA
shaktik@gmail.com
Himanshu Sharma
Department of Electronics
& Communication,
Maharishi Markandeshwar
University, Mullana,
Haryana, INDIA
himanshu.zte@gmail.com
Parvinder Bhalla
Computational Intelligence
Laboratory
Institute of Science and
Technology, Klawad,
Haryana, INDIA
parvinderbhalla@gmail.com
Abstract — Fuzzy Classifiers are an important class of fuzzy
systems. Evolving fuzzy classifiers from numerical data has
assumed lot of significance in the recent past. This paper
proposes a method of evolving fuzzy classifiers using a three
step approach. In the first step, we applied a modified Fuzzy
C–Means Clustering technique to generate membership
functions. In the second step, we generated rule base using
Wang and Mendel algorithm. The third step was used to
reduce the size of the generated rule base. This way rule
explosion issue was successfully tackled. The proposed
method was implemented using MATLAB. The approach
was tested on four very well known multi dimensional
classification data sets. The bench mark classification data
sets contain: Iris Data, Wine Data, Glass Data and Pima
Indian Diabetes Data sets. The performance of the proposed
method was very encouraging. We further implemented our
algorithm on a Mamdani type control model for a quick
fuzzy battery charger data set. This integrated approach was
able to evolve model quickly.
Keywords — Linguistic rules, Fuzzy classifier, Fuzzy logic,
Rule base.
I. INTRODUCTION
The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic was introduced
by Lotfi A. Zadeh through his seminal paper in 1965 [1].
Both these, fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic act as a
powerful methodology for dealing with imprecision and
nonlinearity in an efficient way [2], [3]. As far as the need
of fuzzy set theory is concerned, there are numerous
situations in which classical set theory of 0‘s and 1‘s is not
sufficient to describe human reasoning. Thus, for such
situations we need a more appropriate theory that can also
define membership grades in between ‗0‘ and ‗1‘ thereby
providing better results in terms of human reasoning.
Fuzzy set theory attempts to do this.
Further this theory of fuzzy logic leads to the
development of fuzzy logic based systems, the systems
which are capable of making a decision on the basis of
knowledge or intelligence provided to the system through
linguistic rule bases. As a particular combination of input
is given to the system, system on the basis of knowledge
embedded into it in the form of linguistic rules makes a
decision and processes those inputs. As the intelligence of
these systems depends upon linguistic rule base, these
systems are also called as Fuzzy Rule Based Systems
(FRBSs) [4]. These systems have been successfully
applied to a wide range of problems from different areas
presenting uncertainty and vagueness in different ways
[5], [6], [7]. These FRBS‘s can be categorized as
knowledge based systems and data driven systems. There
are two ways of providing knowledge to the systems. In
first type of systems called knowledge driven modeling,
the rule base is provided by an expert who has the
complete knowledge of the domain while in second type
of models called data driven models, this rule base is
generated from available numerical data [8].
In data driven systems to automatically generate the
rule base, a number of classical approaches like Hong and
Lee‘s Algorithm [9], Wang and Mendel Algorithm [4],
[6], [10], [11], [12], Online Learning Algorithm [13],
Multiphase Clustering Approach [14] and soft computing
techniques like Artificial Neural Networks [15], [16], [17],
Genetic Algorithm [18], [19], Swarm Intelligence based
techniques [20], Ant Colony Optimization [21], Particle
Swarm Optimization [22], Biogeography based
Optimization [23], Big Bang – Big Crunch Optimization
technique [24] are available in the literature [25].
This paper is based on an integrated approach that
makes use of a modified Fuzzy C–Means Clustering
approach (FCM) [26] and Wang and Mendel method [6].
The approach was implemented in MATLAB for fuzzy
classification problems [27] of Iris data of Fisher [28],
Wine data, Glass data, Pima Indian Diabetes (PID) data
and Battery Charger data (control problem) [29]. A system
was evolved using set of training examples and system‘s
performance was then evaluated using test data set for the
given system. The system performances were evaluated in
terms of Average Classification Rate (for classification
problems) and Mean Square Error (for control problem).
The paper is organized as follows: Section II introduces
Fuzzy Logic Based Systems. Section III discusses the
proposed integrated approach and WM method for rule
base generation. In section IV the result analysis along
with the comparative study for above mentioned standard
data sets are shown and section V includes conclusions.
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II. FUZZY RULE BASED SYSTEMS
Fuzzy logic is a mathematical approach to emulate the
human way of thinking and learning [30]. This logic is an
extension of classical set theory which says a fuzzy set is a
class of objects with a continuum of grades of
membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership
mapping the elements of a domain, space or universe of
discourse ‗U‘ to the interval {0, 1}. If ‗U‘ is a collection
of objects denoted by x, then a fuzzy set ‗A‘ in the
universe of discourse ‗U‘ can be defined as a set of
ordered pairs as shown in equation (1) [5], [8]:
{ } A x
x
A
x
A
i i
e ¬ = ) ( , u (1)
Here x refers to i
th
element of the set and µ
A
(x
i
) is the
membership grade of x
i
in set ‗A‘.
Fuzzy Logic Based Systems or Fuzzy Rule Based
Systems (FRBS) are intelligent systems those are based on
mapping of input spaces to output spaces where the way of
representing this mapping is known as fuzzy linguistic rules.
These intelligent systems provide a framework for representing
and processing information in a way that resembles human
communication and reasoning process.
Figure 1. Fuzzy Logic System
Each fuzzy rule based system, typically possesses a
fuzzy inference system (shown in Figure 1) composed of
four major modules: Fuzzification module, Inference
Engine, Knowledge Base and Defuzzification module
[31]. The fuzzification module performs the
transformation of crisp inputs into fuzzy domain values. It
is mainly done to find the belongingness of data sets to
different membership functions. The fuzzification can be
performed by either with the help of domain experts or
directly from the available numerical data. These fuzzy
domain values are then processed by inference engine
which is composed of composition, implication and
aggregation processes. The method of processing the
inputs is supplied by the knowledge base and rule base
module as it contains the knowledge of the application
domain and the procedural knowledge. Finally, the
processed output of inference engine is transformed from
fuzzy domain to crisp domain by defuzzification module.
One of the biggest challenges in the field of modeling
fuzzy rule based systems is the designing of rule base as it
is characterized by a set of IF–THEN linguistic rules. This
rule base can be defined either by an expert or can be
extracted from numerical data using any computerized
techniques as mentioned in section I. A rule in fuzzy
domain can be represented by equation (2):
Rule: IF antecedent……THEN consequent……. (2)
The antecedent part provides the input variable
conditions using IF statements and consequent provides
the output using THEN statements. For example, if X and
Y are the input and output universes of discourse of a
fuzzy system with a rule base of size ‗N‘, then the rule
will be of the form as shown by equation (3):
Rule i
th
: IF x is A
i
THEN y is B
i
(3)
Where, x and y represent input and output fuzzy
linguistic variables respectively, and A
i
Є X and B
i
Є Y
(1≤ i ≤N) are fuzzy sets representing linguistic values of x
and y [5].
In Mamdani type systems the consequent is represented
using fuzzy sets while in Sugeno type systems, it is a
fuzzy singleton. Also in TSK type systems, it is a function
of inputs [23].
III. PROPOSED APPROACH
We first broke the system identification problem into
three sub–problems and solved these one by one as
follows:
1. Classify all the relevant input and output domains
into various membership functions using modified
FCM method [26].
2. Apply Wang and Mendel algorithm [6] for creating
a fuzzy rule base, evolved as a combination of rules
generated from numerical examples and linguistic
rules supplied by human experts.
3. Keep the number of rules to bare minimum. We
used a rule reduction technique as proposed in [32],
[33] to keep the rule base as compact as possible.
The backbone of this approach is the Wang and Mendel
algorithm [6] which has proved to be very effective.
Suppose the given set of desired input–output data pairs
is:
( ) ( ),....... ; , , ; ,
) 2 ( ) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1
y x x y x x (4)
Here x
1
, x
2
are inputs and y is the output. The problem
formulation consists of generating fuzzy rules and to use
these rules to determine a mapping from inputs (x
1
, x
2
) to
output (y).
The following steps present our integrated approach:
Step 1: Divide the input output spaces into fuzzy
regions:
We divide input spaces into desired number of
membership functions using modified FCM [26].
Assuming that the domain intervals of inputs x
1
, x
2
and
output y (equation (4)) lies in [x
1

, x
1
+
], [x
2

, x
2
+
] and
[y

, y
+
]. Here, the domain interval means the values for a
particular variable will lie in this interval. Each of these
input and output, spaces are partitioned into (2N+1)
regions. The number N can be different for each of the
variables. E.g. if the value of N = 2, then there will be five
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membership functions [6]. A number of other methods
are also available to divide the input output spaces into
fuzzy regions.
Step 2: Generate fuzzy rules from given input–output
data pairs:
In this step, first the degree of a given data set (x
1
(i)
,
x
2
(i)
; y
(i)
) into different fuzzy membership functions are
determined.
Second, assign a given data set (x
1
(i)
, x
2
(i)
; y
(i)
) to the
region with maximum degree and obtain one rule from
one data set.
Step 3: Assign a degree to each rule:
A degree to each generated rule can be assigned using
following formula of equation (5):
( ) ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
y x x rule D
C B A
u u u × × = (5)
That is the product of membership grade of input x
1
in
fuzzy set ‗A‘, membership grade of input x
2
in fuzzy set
‗B‘ and membership grade of output y in fuzzy set ‗C‘.
Also at this point if an expert is available and he assigns
his degree of belief in the correctness of a particular data
set then that degree ‗m‘ must be multiplied with the above
expression.
Step 4: Create a combined fuzzy rule base:
The combined fuzzy rule base is assigned rules from
either those generated from numerical data or linguistic
rules (we assume that a linguistic rule also has a degree
that is assigned by the human experts and reflects the
expert‘s belief of the importance of the rule). Also, if there
is more than one rule having same antecedents but
different or same consequents then rule with maximum
degree is to be selected. In this way, both numerical and
linguistic information are represented by a common
framework– the combined fuzzy rule base.
Step 5: Determine a mapping based on the combined
fuzzy rule base:
Defuzzification strategy is used to determine the output
control for given inputs. This step performs nothing but
the same operation as defuzzification module performs in
a fuzzy inference system.
Step 6: Rule reduction:
This step is used to reduce the number of redundant
rules from the rule base. Thus the main objective of this
step has been to deal with rule explosion issue which if
left untackled may lead to a rule base with unmanageable,
large number of rules in the rule base.
This procedure can easily be extended to general multi–
input multi–output cases. So, the approach can be viewed
as a very general ‗model–free trainable fuzzy system‘ for
a wide range of applications, where model free means no
mathematical model is required for the problem and
trainable means the system learns from examples and
expert rules, and can adaptively change the mapping when
new examples and expert rules are available.
IV. RESULT ANALYSIS
This section presents the performances obtained by our
integrated approach that uses modified Fuzzy C–Means
Clustering [26] and Wang and Mendel algorithm [6] to
evolve fuzzy rule based systems. We applied our approach
on four very well known classification data sets from
machine learning repository and one control data set. In
each experiment, the input and output domain intervals are
fuzzified using modified FCM approach. The training data
samples are selected from available data sets in
correspondence with the peaks of the input membership
functions. This sequence is used to train the systems
which are then tested using testing data sets.
A. Example 1: Iris Data Classification Problem
The proposed approach has been applied on Iris Data
classification problem. The Iris data set is a widely used
benchmark for classification and pattern recognition
studies [27], [28]. The dataset contains 150 samples of
data (50 samples for each species) with four attributes as
inputs, Sepal Length, Sepal Width, Petal Length and Petal
Width and three classes of iris plants namely: Iris Setosa,
Iris Versicolor and Iris Virginica as output. All the input
variables have measurement units in centimeter while the
output is the type of iris plant. The learning sequence
includes 24 data samples while the system is tested on all
150 data samples. By applying the proposed method on
the learning sequence, a set of 24 classification rules (one
rule per training data sample) is obtained. From this
combined rule base, the redundant rules are then removed
using rule reduction algorithm [32], [33] and the final rule
base composing 4 rules are shown in Table I.
TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION RULE BASE FOR IRIS DATA CLASSIFIER
Sepal
Length
Sepal
Width
Petal
Length
Petal
Width
Class
SL–L SW–M PL–L PW–L Setosa
SL–M SW–L PL–M PW–M Versicolor
SL–M SW–L PL–H PW–M Virginica
SL–M SW–L PL–H PW–H Virginica
Here, L – Low, M – Medium, H – High
TABLE II. CLASSIFICATION RATES FOR IRIS DATA CLASSIFIER
(PROPOSED APPROACH)
Number
of Rules
Setosa Versicolor Virginica
Average
Rate
4 98.00% 100.00% 94.00% 97.33%
3 98.00% 100.00% 90.00% 96.00%
Table II shows the class wise classification rates along
with the effect of variations in the size of the rule base.
Table III presents a comparative analysis of different
algorithms with the proposed integrated approach for Iris
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data set. The different parameters taken for comparison
include number of input fuzzy sets, number of rules, and
classification rates. The table clearly demonstrates that a
high performance Iris data classifier can be designed using
a smaller length learning sequence and a compact set of
rules as shown in Table I.
TABLE III. COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED APPROACH WITH OTHER APPROACHES (IRIS DATA)
Algorithm
Number of Input
Fuzzy Sets
Number of
Rules
Classification Rates
(Testing Data)
Hong and Lee‘s Algorithm [9] 8 6.21 95.57%
Particle Swarm Optimization [22] — — 96.80%
α–Cut based Fuzzy Learning Algorithm [34] 8.21 3 96.21%
Fuzzy Classifier Ensembles based Algorithm [35] — — 90.70%
Genetic Algorithm [36] — 10.10 90.67%
LEM–2 Method [37] — — 92.30%
Proposed Approach 10 4 97.33%
B. Example 2: Wine Data Classification Problem
The Wine data set is also one of the most well–known
data sets in machine learning literature [27]. The data has
been obtained from the chemical analysis of wines grown
in the same region in Italy but derived from three different
cultivars. The chemical analysis determines the quantities
of thirteen constituents found in each of the three types of
wines. These thirteen constituents are: Alcohol, Malic
Acid, Ash, Alcalinity of Ash, Magnesium, Phenols,
Flavanoids, Non–Flavanoid Phenols, Proanthocyaninsm,
Color Intensity, Hue, OD280/OD315 of Diluted Wines
and Proline. This dataset contains 178 samples of data (59
samples for Class ‗1‘, 71 samples for Class ‗2‘ and 48
samples for Class ‗3‘ Wine). Out of these thirteen
attributes, following six attributes are used to model Wine
Data Classifier: Alcohol, Ash, Flavanoids, Hue,
OD280/OD315 and Proline [38]. The training data set
contains 28 data samples and testing data set contains 178
samples.
In this case, the proposed approach successfully
generated 28 rules which were reduced to 7 rules by
applying rule reduction algorithm [32], [33] as shown in
Table IV. The performance of the evolved Wine data
classifier is shown in Table V in terms of classification
rates. Table V also shows the variations in the
classification rate by varying the number of rules. Table
VI shows the comparison of the proposed approach with
other approaches.
TABLE IV. CLASSIFICATION RULE BASE FOR WINE DATA CLASSIFIER
Alcohol Ash
Flavan
oid
Hue OD Proline Class
M L M M M H 1
M M M M M M 1
M M M M M H 1
L L L M L M 2
L M M M M L 2
M L M M M L 2
M L L L L M 3
Here, L – Low, M – Medium, H – High
TABLE V. CLASSIFICATION RATES FOR WINE DATA CLASSIFIER
(PROPOSED APPROACH)
Number
of Rules
Class ‘1’ Class ‘2’ Class ‘3’
Average
Rate
7 100.00% 100.00% 95.83% 98.87%
6 100.00% 98.59% 95.83% 98.30%
5 96.61% 97.18% 95.83% 96.62%
4 96.61% 95.77% 95.83% 96.06%
TABLE VI. COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED APPROACH WITH OTHER APPROACHES (WINE DATA)
Algorithm
Number of Input
Attributes Used
Number of
Rules
Classification Rates
(Testing Data)
Evolutionary Approach [38] 6 5 98.90%
eClass Classifier [39] 13 7 95.90%
SANFIS Learning Algorithm [40] 13 3 99.43%
Hyper – Cone Membership Function Approach [41]
— —
92.95%
IPCA Algorithm [42]
— —
87.60%
Proposed Approach 6 7 98.87%
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C. Example 3: Glass Data Classification Problem
The glass data set [27] is a nine–dimensional data set
with 214 samples from seven classes, also taken from
Irvine Machine Learning Repository. Here, this data set
has been chosen because it involves many classes. The
nine input attributes are: Refractive Index (RI), Sodium
(Na), Magnesium (Mg) Aluminum (Al), Silicon (Si),
Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Barium (Ba) and Iron (Fe).
Out of these nine attributes the last two attributes Barium
(Ba) and Iron (Fe) are excluded in this paper due to very
small variations in their sample points. The output classes
indicate different types of the glasses: class ‗1‘ as
Building_windows_float_processed, class ‗2‘ as Building
_windows_non_float_processed, class ‗3‘ as Vehicle_
windows_float_processed, class ‗4‘ as Vehicle_windows_
non_ float_processed, class ‗5‘ as Containers, class ‗6‘ as
Tableware and class ‗7‘ as Headlamps. Although the
original data set contains seven classes but it doesn‘t have
any data sample from class ‗4‘. The learning sequence
contains 56 data samples while the testing sequence is
composed of all 214 data samples. For this classifier the
proposed method first generated a rule base of 37 rules
which was reduced to 20 rules (shown in Table VII) by
using rule reduction algorithm [32], [33]. The class wise
classification results for the modeled Glass data classifier
for the given test data set are specified in Table VIII.
Table IX shows a comparison of Glass classifiers for
different algorithms. The results show that the
classification rate of 71.49% can be achieved with lesser
training data set and with lesser number of rules.
TABLE VII. CLASSIFICATION RULE BASE FOR GLASS DATA CLASSIFIER
RI Na Mg Al Si K Ca Class
M L H M H M L 1
H H H L M L M 1
H M H L M L M 1
L L H M H M L 2
L M H M H L L 2
L H H M M L L 2
M L H M M M L 2
M M H M M M L 2
H L L L H L H 2
H L L H L M H 2
H H L L M L M 2
L M H M M M L 3
L H M H L M L 5
L H L L H L L 6
M H L H H L M 6
M H M M M L M 6
L H L H H L L 7
M H L M H M L 7
M H L H H L L 7
H H M M L L L 7
Here, L – Low, M – Medium, H – High
TABLE VIII. CLASSIFICATION RATES FOR GLASS DATA CLASSIFIER (PROPOSED APPROACH)
Number
of Rules
Class ‘1’ Class ‘2’ Class ‘3’ Class ‘5’ Class ‘6’ Class ‘7’
Average
Rate
20 68.57% 80.26% 17.64% 92.30% 66.66% 86.20% 71.49%
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TABLE IX. COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED APPROACH WITH OTHER APPROACHES (GLASS DATA)
Algorithm
Number of Input
Fuzzy Sets
Number of
Rules
Classification Rates
(Testing Data)
Weighted Vote Method [43] 15 18, 24 68.22%
Genetic Algorithm [44] 27 14 84.10%
Neural Network with Pruning Algorithm [45] — — 63.28%
Rule Weight method [46] — 61 64.89%
Proposed Approach 21 20 71.49%
D. Example 4: Pima Indian Diabetes Data Classification
Problem
This data set [27] is related to the diagnosis of diabetes
(with or without the disease) in an Indian population that
lives near the city of Phoenix, Arizona. The data base
contains 768 data samples (500 samples for class ‗0‘ and
268 samples for class ‗1‘) with eight input attributes as:
Number of Times Pregnant (NTP), Plasma Glucose
Concentration a 2 hours in an oral glucose tolerance test
(PGC), Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) (DBP), Triceps
Skin Fold Thickness (mm) (TSFT), 2–Hour Serum
Insulin (mu U/ml) (HSI), Body Mass Index (weight in kg/
(height in m)
˄2
) (BMI), Diabetes Pedigree Function
(DPF), AGE (in years) and with two output class
variables (0 indicating tested negative for diabetes and 1
indicating tested positive for diabetes). The rule base
generated by the proposed approach contains 10 rules,
shown in Table X. Table XI presents the classification
rates obtained through our approach and Table XII
presents the comparison of this approach with other
algorithms.
TABLE X. CLASSIFICATION RULE BASE FOR PID DATA CLASSIFIER
NTP PGC DBP TSFT HSI BMI DPF AGE Class
L L M L L L L L 0
L L M M L L L L 0
L L M M M M L L 0
L L M M M M M L 0
M L L L L L L L 0
M L M L L L L M 0
M L M L L L M M 0
M L M M L M L M 0
L M M M L M M M 1
M L M M L M M M 1
Here, L – Low, M – Medium
TABLE XI. CLASSIFICATION RATES FOR PID DATA CLASSIFIER
(PROPOSED APPROACH)
Number of
Rules
Class ‘0’ Class ‘1’ Average Rate
10 79.40% 82.46% 80.46%
9 76.80% 86.94% 80.33%
E. Example 5: Battery Charger Design Problem
Nickel Cadmium (Ni–Cd) Battery Charger is a typical
example of fuzzy control problem [24], [29]. To design an
intelligent battery charger, two inputs have been taken,
one is Temperature whose range is 0° to 50°C (in terms of
corresponding voltage) and second is Temperature
Gradient as obtained by taking time derivative of the
conditioned signal as obtained from temperature sensor,
varied from 0 to 1 mV/10s and an output Charging
Current whose value depends on the present temperature
of the battery and at how much rate it is increasing. The
input and output variables identified for rapid Ni–Cd
battery charger along with their universes of discourse are
listed in Table XIII and Table XIV [24]. Here, the goal is
to design a charger in such a manner that the required
charging current is supplied to the battery without
damaging it, due to increase in temperature or excessive
current supply. Here, the combined rule base generated by
applying the proposed algorithm is composed of 14 rules
which are reduced to 6 rules by removing the
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contradictory rules and are shown in Figure 2 [24] and in
Table XV as well. Table XVI presents the comparison of
the Mean Square Errors calculated from the proposed
approach and other algorithms.
TABLE XII. COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED APPROACH WITH OTHER APPROACHES (PID DATA)
Algorithm
Number of Input
Attributes
Number of Input
Fuzzy Sets
Number of
Rules
Classification Rates
(Testing Data)
HNFB
1
Model [47] 8 — 98 78.39%
Conventional Encoding [48] 4.4 22 8.9 74.40%
Evolutionary Approach [48] 4.2 23.3 9.7 72.90%
C4.5 Decision Tree [49] — — — 74.70%
Proposed Approach 8 16 10 80.46%
Figure 2. Fuzzy Model for Battery Charger
TABLE XIII. INPUT VARIABLES FOR RAPID NI–CD BATTERY
CHARGER ALONG WITH THEIR UNIVERSES OF DISCOURSE
Input Variable Minimum Value Maximum Value
Temperature (
◦
C) 0 50
Temperature Gradient
(
◦
C/sec)
0 1
TABLE XIV. OUTPUT VARIABLE FOR RAPID NI–CD BATTERY
CHARGER ALONG WITH ITS UNIVERSE OF DISCOURSE
Output Variable
Minimum Value Maximum Value
Charging Current (A) 0 4
TABLE XV. RULE BASE FOR BATTERY CHARGER
Temperature
Temperature
Gradient
Charging Current
Low Normal Ultrafast
Low High Ultrafast
Medium Normal High
Medium High Medium
High Normal Trickle
High High Trickle
TABLE XVI. COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED APPROACH WITH
OTHER ALGORITHMS (BATTERY CHARGER)
Algorithm Mean Square Error
Genetic Algorithm [8] 0.130
Particle Swarm Optimization [8] 0.040
Hybrid Learning [26] 0.008
Proposed Approach 0.060
Figure 3. Surface View of the Modeled Battery Charger
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Figure 3 is the three–dimensional graphical representation
of the modeled battery charger with inputs temperature,
temperature gradient on X–axis and Y–axis and output
charging current on third axis.
V. CONCLUSION
Evolving fuzzy classifiers and fuzzy controllers from
numerical data is a highly computationally complex problem.
In this paper we applied an integrated approach to fuzzy
model identification. Our approach uses modified FCM for
fuzzification, the classical Wang and Mendel algorithm for
rule generation and a rule reduction technique to counter rule
explosion issue. We found the approach to be very effective
for fuzzy classification as well as for fuzzy control system
identification. We successfully applied our approach to
extract rule bases from numerical data for four well known
data sets. The proposed method was successfully validated on
classification problems of Iris Data, Wine Data, Glass Data,
Pima Indian Diabetes Data sets, and control problem of
Battery Charger Data Set. The experimental results in terms
of classification rate and Mean Square Error seem to be very
encouraging. The method appears to be very efficient in
evolving both fuzzy classification and control systems from
given data sets.
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