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Side Lobe Reduction of a planar array antenna by
complex weight control using SQP algorithm and
Tchebychev method
A. Hammami,R. Ghayoula,and A. Gharsallah
Unit´ e de recherche : Circuits et systmes ´ electroniques HF
Facult´ e des Sciences de Tunis,
Campus Universitaire Tunis ELmanar, 2092,
Tunisie
Email: hammami.a.fst@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, we propose an efﬁcient hybrid method
based on the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm
and DolphTchebychev for the pattern synthesis of planar an
tenna arrays with prescribed pattern nulls in the interference
direction and minimum side lobe levels SLL by controlling only
the phase of each array element. The SQP algorithm is the
most widely used to solve nonlinear optimization problems. It
consists of transforming the nonlinear problem to sequence of
quadratic subproblems by using a quadratic approximation of
the lagrangian function. In order to illustrate the performance
of the proposed method, several examples of complex excited
planar array patterns with onehalf wavelength spaced isotropic
elements to place the main beam in the direction of the useful
signal while reduce the side lobe level were investigated.
Index Terms—Planar antenna arrays, Synthesis method, null
steering, sequential quadratic programming
I. INTRODUCTION
A
RRAYS antennas are used to steer radiated power to
wards a desired angular sector and to suppress or to
reduce side lobe level. The choice of the array antenna param
eters such us number elements, geometrical arrangement, and
amplitudes and phases excitation depend on the angular pattern
that must be achieved. A linear array allows beam steering in
one dimension. however, a planar array has two dimensions of
control, permitting a narrow pencil beam to be produced and
the control of the shape in both directions. Several antenna
array pattern synthesis antenna have been developed to steer
the main beam at the desired direction and to reduce the side
lobe level [1][17].
Although the large number of elements in planar arrays,
which translates into Although the large number of unknown
parameters for the optimization algorithms,Some of these
works are interested in planar array antennas pattern synthesis.
In the few years, various techniques has been used to synthesis
a planar array antenna radion pattern. For the arbitrarily shaped
coverages, the synthesis pattern techniques can be classiﬁed
into categories [17]. Mathematical optimization deterministic
techniques are based on local gradient optimization method
ologies such as Newton type algorithm, sequential quadratic
programming (SQP)[2] algorithm... Mathematical optimiza
tion stochastic techniques are global optimization methodolo
gies like genetic algorithm [17][23], Differential evolution
algorithm [11], particle swarm optimization algorithm [19] .
In this study, we propose a synthesis method for an uniform
planar array antennas based on SQP and Tchebychev algo
rithms by controlling both the amplitude and phase (complex
weights control).
The paper is organized as follows; theoretical description is
presented in section II. Section III shows the optimization
process. Section VI shows simulations and results and ﬁnally,
section VI makes conclusions.
II. THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION
Consider a planar array composed by M ×N equispaced
isotropic antenna elements arranged in a regular rectangular
array in the xy plane, with interelements spacing d = d
x
=
d
y
= λ/2 as shown in ﬁgure 2.
The planar array antenna can be seen as a linear array of
linear arrays. The total ﬁeld of a M × N elements is the
multiplication of the element radiation E
0
in the coordinates
by the the sum of the normalized excitations currents on the
array elements [15][16].
The perturbed array pattern can be written as
E
tot
= E
0
.
M
¸
m=1
N
¸
n=1
a
mn
e
j(ψmn+αmn)
 (1)
with a
mn
is the amplitude of the excitation of the element
(m, n), α
mn
represents the phase excitation of the element
(m, n),Moreover, ψ
mn
is the phase of element (m, n) relative
to the (1, 1)element.
ψ
mn
is then given by
ψ
kl
= k(m−1)d
x
sinθcosϕ +k(n −1)d
y
sinθsinϕ) (2)
with d
x
and d
y
are interelement distance along the xaxis
and interelement distance along the yaxis respectively.
The planar array radiation pattern a becomes
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X CLASS FILES, VOL. 9, NO. 6, JUNE 2011 2
X−axis
2D Array Geometry Plot
Y
−
a
x
i
s
Fig. 1. Geometry of a M ×N array of isotropic sources for ﬁeld analysis.
E
tot
= E
0
.
M
¸
m=1
N
¸
n=1
a
mn
e
j(k(m−1)dxux+k(n−1)dyuy+αmn)

(3)
with u
x
= sinθcosϕ and u
y
= sinθsinϕ)
Assuming that the current amplitude is a
mn
= a
m
× a
n
and
the phase excitation can be decomposed in progressive parts
for the row and column elements of the array. So α
mn
can be
written as
α
mn
= α
m
+α
n
(4)
As a consequence of expressions 3 and 4, the planar array
antenna radiation pattern may be written as the product of a
element pattern and two linear array factors like expression
(9).
E
tot
= E
0
.AF
m
.AF
n
(5)
where AF
m
and AF
n
are the array factor for the linear array
in the xdirection and the array factor of the linear array in
the ydirection, respectively.
AF
m
=
M
¸
m=1
e
j(k(m−1)d
x
sinθcosϕ+α
m
)
(6)
AF
n
=
N
¸
n=1
e
j(k(m−1)dysinθsinϕ+αn)
(7)
The complex weight w
mn
can be written as the following
expression:
w
mn
= w
m
.w
n
(8)
w
mn
= a
m
.e
jα
m
.b
n
.e
jα
n
(9)
Where w
m
and w
n
are the complex weight for the linear array
in the xdirection and the complex weight for the linear array
in the ydirection, respectively.
In an adaptive algorithm, several methods have been used
to compute amplitude weights a
mn
such as Hamming,
Blackman,DolphTchebychev, Hanning...[27]
A. Hanning
The coefﬁcients of a Hanning are computed from the
following equation:
ω(n) = 0.5(1 −cos(2π
n
N
)), 0 ≤ n ≤ N (10)
B. Hamming
The coefﬁcients of a Hamming window are determined by
the following equation:
ω(n) = 0.54 −0.46cos(2π
n
N
), 0 ≤ n ≤ N (11)
C. Blackman
The equation for computing the Blackman coefﬁcients is :
ω(n) = 0.42 −0.5cos(2π
n
N
) +0.08cos(4π
n
N
), 0 ≤ n ≤ N
(12)
D. DolphTchebychev
The DolphChebyshev weights are deﬁned by
ω(k) = (−1)
k
cos[Ncos
−1
[βcos(πk/N)]]n
cosh[Ncosh
−1
(β)]
), 0 ≤ k ≤ N−1
(13)
Where
β = cos[1/Ncosh
−1
(10
α
)]
The α parameter determines the level of the sidelobe attenu
ation.
The width of mainlobe 2ω
c
may be computed as follows:
ω
c
= 2cos
−1
(
1
x
0
) (14)
Where
x
0
=
cosh
−1
(
1
r
)
N−1
III. OPTIMIZATION PROCESS
Our objective is to steer the main beam in the direction
of desired signal and to reduce or to suppress interfering
signals from prescribed directions while receiving desired sig
nal from a chosen direction by complex weights (amplitudes
and phases) control. The form of optimization problem is
expressed in mathematical terms as:
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minimise −f
θ
0
,ϕ
0
(α)
subject to f
θi,ϕj
(α) = δ
ij
with
i = 1, . . . , m
e
j = 1, . . . , ne
f
θ
k
,ϕ
l
(α) ≤ δ
kl
with
k = m
e
+ 1, . . . , m
l = n
e
+ 1, . . . , n
−2π ≤ α
mn
≤ 2π with
m = 1, . . . , M
n = 1, . . . , N
(15)
Where
f
θ,ϕ
(α) = 
M
¸
m=1
N
¸
n=1
a
mn
e
j(k(m−1)dxux+k(n−1)dyuy+αmn)

2
(16)
is the matrix of the objective function, f
θ
i
,ϕ
j
(17) is the
matrix of equality constraints and f
θ
k
,ϕ
l
(18) is the matrix of
inequality constraints.
f
θ
i
,ϕ
j
=
f
θ
1
,ϕ
1
f
θ
2
,ϕ
1
. . . f
θ
me
,ϕ
1
f
θ
1
,ϕ
2
f
θ
2
,ϕ
2
. . . f
θ
m
e
,ϕ
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
θ
1
,ϕ
ne
f
θ
2
,ϕ
ne
. . . f
θ
me
,ϕ
ne
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(17)
f
θ
k
,ϕ
l
=
f
θ
me+1
,ϕ
ne+1
f
θ
me+2
,ϕ
ne+1
. . . f
θ
m
,ϕ
ne+1
f
θ
me+1
,ϕ
ne+2
f
θ
me+2
,ϕ
ne+2
. . . f
θ
m
,ϕ
ne+2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
θm
e
+1,ϕn
f
θm
e
+2,ϕn
. . . f
θm,ϕn
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(18)
(θ
0
, ϕ
0
) is the direction of the main lobe, (m
e
, n
e
) is the
equality constraints matrix size and (m
i
, n
i
) is the inequality
constraints matrix size. The most widely used algorithm
to solve the problem (15) is the Sequential Quadratic
Programming (SQP) [3][4]. The basic idea of this method
is based on linearisations of the constraints and a quadratic
model of the objective function.
The quadratic programming problem solved at each iteration
of SQP can be deﬁned as
minimise −∇f
θ
0
,ϕ
0
(α
kl
)
T
d +
1
2
d
T
M
kl
d
subject to ∇f
θ
i
,ϕ
j
(α
kl
)
T
d + f
θ
i
,ϕ
j
(α
kl
) = δ
ij
i = 1, . . . , m
e
j = 1, . . . , n
e
∇f
θ
k
,ϕ
l
(α
kl
)
T
d + f
θ
k
,ϕ
l
(α
kl
) ≤ δ
kl
k = me + 1, . . . , m
l = ne + 1, . . . , n
d ∈ R
M∗N
(19)
where M
kl
is the BFGS (Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb, and
Shanno) approximation of the Hessian ∇
2
α
L(α
kl
, λ
kl
).
The lagrangian function L is deﬁned as
L(α, λ) = −f
θ
0
,ϕ
0
(α) +
m
¸
k=1
n
¸
l=1
λ
kl
(f
θ
k
,ϕ
l
(α) −δ
kl
) (20)
where
λ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
λ
1,1
, λ
1,2
. . . λ
1,n
λ
2,1
, λ
2,2
. . . λ
2,n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
λ
m,1
, λ
m,2
. . . λ
m,n
¸
(21)
is the matrix of the Lagrange multiplier. The solution to the
QP subproblem, described on equation (20) produces a search
direction vector d
k
, which is used to form a new iterate α
k+1
.
α
k+1
= α
k
+µ
p
d
k
(22)
where, µ
p
∈]0, 1] is a suitable step length parameter.
IV. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS
To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed of theses
presented techniques, we consider three planar array antennas
of sizes 12 ×12, 16 ×16 and 20 ×20 isotropic elements with
equispaced interelement is half wavelength.
Fig. 2. Three dimensional planar antenna array Pattern with main beam
imposed at (ϕ = 50
◦
, θ = 50
◦
).
For these three examples, a sequential quadratic
programming SQP has been used to optimize the phase
excitation of the planar array antenna in order to point the
main beam in the desired direction, and Tchebychev method
has been used to optimize the amplitude excitation of planar
array antenna in order to achieve a minimum peak sidelobe
level with narrower beam width. The results obtained by
Tchebychev method were compared with Hanning, Blackman
and Hamming methods.
Figure 2 shows a 3D surface plot of the radiation pattern
of the planar array antenna with a main beam imposed at
(ϕ = 50
◦
, θ = 50
◦
) synthesized by SQP and Tchebychev
method silde lobe levels SSL is 50dB.
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−150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150
−140
−120
−100
−80
−60
−40
−20
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Dolph−Tchebychev
Hanning
Fig. 3. Planar array antenna radiation pattern with main beam at (ϕ =
50
◦
, θ = 50
◦
) obtained by uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev
amplitude weights and Hanning amplitude weights for N = 12×12 elements.
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
−7
−6
−5
−4
−3
−2
−1
0
X: 30
Y: −3.682
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Dolph−Tchebychev
Hanning
Mainlobe width= 20°
Mainlobe width= 18°
Mainlobe width= 12°
Fig. 4. the −3dB beamwidth for planar antenna array radiation pattern
obtained by uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev amplitude weights
and Hanning amplitude weights for N = 12 ×12 elements.
Figures 3and 5 present the array factors for different value
of ϕ where φ ∈] − ππ] at θ
0
= 50
◦
and the −3dB beam
width obtained by uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev,
Hanning, Blackman ant Hamming amplitudes weights for
N = 12 × 12 elements and the −3dB beamwidth of the
radiation pattern obtained these methods. Figures 4and 6 show
the beamwidth of theses radiations patterns.
The second test treats with a square array with 16×16 ele
ments. Figures 7 and 9, show the radiation pattern synthesized
by SQP algorithm and Tchebychev, Hanning, Blackman and
Hamming methods at θ = 50
◦
. The Tchebychev method can
cut down the side lobe level less than −80dB with −3dB
mainwidth is 16.
In the third example, the array elements are placed on regu
lar grid of size 20×20 with interelement spaced λ/2. Figures
11and 13 show repectively the radiation pattern of planar array
antenna of 20 ×20 elements at θ = 50
◦
) synthesized by SQP
−150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
blackman
Hamming
Fig. 5. Planar array antenna radiation pattern obtained by uniform amplitude
weights ,the Blackman amplitude weights and Hamming amplitude weights
for N = 12 ×12 elements.
20 30 40 50 60
−10
−8
−6
−4
−2
0
X: 46
Y: −2.897
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
blackman
Hamming
Mainlobe width= 12°
Mainlobe width= 19°
Mainlobe width= 24°
Fig. 6. the −3dB beamwidth planar array antenna radiation pattern obtained
by uniform amplitude weights ,the Blackman amplitude weights and Hamming
amplitude weights for N = 12 ×12 elements.
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 4849
−10
−9
−8
−7
−6
−5
−4
−3
−2
−1
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Dolph−Tchebychev
Hanning
Mainlobe width= 13°
Mainlobe width= 9°
Mainlobe width= 16°
Fig. 7. Planar array antenna radiation pattern cut at with main beam at
(ϕ = 50
◦
, θ = 50
◦
) obtained by uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev
amplitude weights and Hanning amplitude weights for N = 16×16 elements.
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−150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150
−160
−140
−120
−100
−80
−60
−40
−20
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Dolph−Tchebychev
Hanning
Fig. 8. The −3dB beamwidth planar array antenna radiation pattern
obtained by uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev amplitude weights
and Hanning amplitude weights for N = 16 ×16 elements.
−150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150
−130
−120
−110
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Blackman
Fig. 9. Planar antenna array pattern obtained by uniform amplitude weights
,the Blackman amplitude weights and Hamming amplitude weights for N =
16 ×16 elements.
28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52
−8
−7
−6
−5
−4
−3
−2
−1
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Blackman
Hamming
Mainlobe width= 9°
Mainlobe width= 13°
Mainlobe width= 17°
Fig. 10. the −3dB beamwidth of planar antenna array pattern obtained by
uniform amplitude weights ,the Blackman amplitude weights and Hamming
amplitude weights for N = 16 ×16 elements.
algorithm and Tchebychev, Hanning, Blackman and Hamming
methods.
−150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150
−150
−130
−110
−90
−70
−50
−30
−10
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Dolph−Tchebychev
Hanning
Fig. 11. Planar array antenna radiation pattern cut at θ = 50
◦
obtained by
uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev amplitude weights and Hanning
amplitude weights for N = 20 ×20 elements.
30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
−8
−7
−6
−5
−4
−3
−2
−1
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Dolph−Tchebychev
Hanning
Mainlobe width= 13°
Mainlobe width= 11°
Mainlobe width= 7°
Fig. 12. the −3dB beamwidth of Planar array antenna radiation pattern
obtained by uniform amplitude weights ,the Tchebychev amplitude weights
and Hanning amplitude weights for N = 20 ×20 elements.
The cut of the radiation pattern plot in ﬁgures 213 obtained
by using sequential quadratic algorithm SQP and Tchebychev
demonstrates the ability of this method to steer main beam
in desired direction and to reduce the side lobe level in the
direction of interfering signal by controlling only the phase
excitation of each array elements.
By comparing the results shown in ﬁgures 213 we deduced
that the method based on SQP algorithm and Tchebychev is
more adequate than others methods described above in order
to reduce the side lobe level with an acceptable mainbeam
width.
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−150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150
−120
−110
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Blackman
Fig. 13. Planar antenna array pattern cut at θ = 50
◦
obtained by uniform
amplitude weights ,the Blackman amplitude weights and Hamming amplitude
weights for N = 20 ×20 elements.
29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 5152
−7
−6
−5
−4
−3
−2
−1
0
φ(deg)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
e
(
d
B
)
Uniform Amplitude
Blackman
Hamming
Mainlobe width= 7°
Mainlobe width= 10°
Mainlobe width= 14°
Fig. 14. the −3dB beamwidth planar antenna array pattern obtained by
uniform amplitude weights ,the Blackman amplitude weights and Hamming
amplitude weights for N = 20 ×20 elements.
V. CONCLUSION
A complex weight method used to optimize the planar
array with height precision based on the sequential quadratic
algorithm SQP and DolphTchebychev method to steer the
main beam at desired direction and to reduce the maximum
side lobe level. This hybrid method exploit the advantages of
both methods:the facility and the reduced response time of the
SQP algorithm to point the main beam easily at any direction
desired and the important attenuation of the side lobe level by
DolphTchebychev method.
Simulation results showed that the proposed method is efﬁcient
for synthesizing a planar array antenna pattern ; indeed, it is
capable to reduce the side lobe level less than −80dB.
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