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6, June 2011

**Explicit Solution of Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations by an Iterative Decomposition Method
**

Adekunle, Y.A.1*, Kadiri, K.O.2, Odetunde, O.S.3

1 2 3

**Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria
**

adekunleya@gmail.com

**. Department Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
**

kadiritoyin2007@yahoo.com

**. Department of Mathematical Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State,Nigeria
**

todetunde@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract- In this paper, an iterative decomposition method is applied to solve partial differential equations. The solution of a partial differential equation of the hyperbolic form is obtained by the stated method in the form of an infinite series of easily computable terms. Some examples are given and the solutions obtained by the method are found to compare favourably with the known exact solutions. Keywords: Hyperbolic partial differential equation, iterative decomposition method, analytical solution.

I.

INTRODUCTION

An equation involving two or more partial derivatives of an unknown function of two or more independent variables is called a Partial Differential equation. The most general second order linear partial differential equation in two independent variables x and y in this paper can be expressed generally in the form + Or + + = H (x, y, u, ) (2) + + +e (1)

such as the wave equations, much attention is given to the study of this class of partial differential equation by mathematicians. Various numerical methods have been applied to solve hyperbolic partial differential equations. See Ref[4 ]. However, many of these methods, commonly used as characteristic methods require large size of computational work, and round-off error causes loss of accuracy [2]. The present paper attempts to present a method for the expilict solution of hyperbolic partial differential equation. The results obtained are compared with known analytical solution. For problems whose analytical solutions are unknown, the method will be appropriate. The paper is organised as follows: section 2 presents the iterative decomposition method, section 3 considers the method of section 2 for hyperbolic equations. In section 4, we present examples to illustrate the simplicity, efficiency and accuracy of the method. A conclusion is drawn in section 5 II THE ITERATIVE DECOMPOSITION METHOD The idea of the iterative decomposition method can be conveyed considering equation (1) as an equation in the form (4) Where k is a constant and N(u) is the nonlinear term. We may find the solution of (4) in a series form such as (5) We can decompose the nonlinear operator N as

where a, b and c are function of x and y and H is a linear function of u, , .

Thus equation (2) is called linear, and is a form of (1). The second order derivatives occur only to the first degree .If in equation (2), b2_ 4ac >0, the equation is called Hyperbolic. Since the governing equation in many phenomena of engineering, science, and mathematical physics lead to hyperbolic equations,

(6)

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From equations (5) and (6), equation (4) is then equivalent to (7) From equation (7), we define the following iterative scheme

=

{-

}

(15)

Then, the solution of equation two will be given as

(x, y) = N (

(8) We can determine the component un as far as our desired accuracy of the approximation. The n-terms

m=1, 2, 3... Thus, (9) III Application of the iterative Decomposition Method. Consider the hyperbolic equation (2) with the following initial conditions; (10) (x,0) =g(x) Using , we can put (11)

can be used to approximate the solution.

III

Numerical Experiments.

We shall now consider the application of the iterative decomposition method. Example 4. [ ] Consider the hyperbolic partial differential equation

(16) , (12) in operation form as u = H(x,y,u, , )The exact solution of this problem is (13) The inverse operator of defined as (.) = Then u(x,y) = u(x,0) + (x,y,u, and , )(x,0) + } H (14) L= Applying the inverse operator L1 to both sides of (18) where denoted is Putting equation (16) in operator form, we have (18) with the initial condition

(17)

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

Then -( } (19)

.

Then we have the exact solution

By the iterative decomposition method, after only two terms of the solution series. -( } dy dy =0 (20) IV Conclusion

Then the solution is the same as the given exact solution. Example 4.2 [ ] consider the equation

which is

Our aim in this work has been to derive an approximation algorithm for the explicit solution of hyperbolic partial differential equations. This we have been able to do via a method which does not require elaborate mathematical computation and assumptions. This method is a significant improvement over some other decomposition methods, notably the well-known Adomian Decomposition Method.

REFERENCES

(21)

[1] G. Adomian, Nonlinear Stochastic Systems and Application to Physics, Kluwer Academic Press. 1989

**With the associated initial condition u(x,0) =x (22)
**

[2] G. Adomian, Solving Frontier Problems of Physics: The Decomposition Method, Kluwer Academic Press. 1994. [3] J. Biazar, and H. Ebrahimi, An approximation to the solution of hyperbolic equations by Adomian decomposition method and comparison with characteristic method, Appl. Math. Comput. 163, 633-638. 2005.

The exact solution of the problem is The equation may be written in operator form as LU= Applying the inverse operator ,we have

[4] G. Evens, J. Blackledge, and P. Yardley, Numerical Method for Partial Differential Equations, Springer. 2000. [5] O. Taiwo, S. Odetunde, and .Y Adekunle, Numerical Approximation of One Dimensional Biharmonic Equations by an Iterative Decomposition Method, J. Math. Sc. 20 (1) 37-44. 2008

From (14) and (15)

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In this paper, an iterative decomposition method is applied to solve partial differential equations. The solution of a partial differential equation of the hyperbolic form is obtained by the stated...

In this paper, an iterative decomposition method is applied to solve partial differential equations. The solution of a partial differential equation of the hyperbolic form is obtained by the stated method in the form of an infinite series of easily computable terms. Some examples are given and the solutions obtained by the method are found to compare favourably with the known exact solutions.

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