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It accepts raw data from us, process it and gives meaningful information as required by user as per given instruction. Characteristics of a Computer (a) Computer is very fast. (b) Computer is accurate. (c) They can process millions of instructions per second. (d) Computer is very versatile. (e) Computer works at constant efficiency. (f) Perform repetitive tasks very well without error. (g) Computer can store information for future retrieval or use. (h) Computer can communicate with other computer systems. History of Computers 450 BC - ABACUS The Egyptians developed it and Improvements made by Chinese & Japanese. 1614 AD - Napier's Bones Developed by John Napier Scottish Mathematician. A set of 11 rods further divided into 9 diagonal numbered parts, based on logarithms. Improved in 1917 AD. 1620 AD - Slide Rule William Oughtred developed it, which is an analog device. 1642 AD - Pascal's Adding Machine Blaise Pascal, a French Philosopher consisted o mechanical gears. It is forerunner of all mechanical machines. 1694 AD - Gottfried Calculating Machine Developed by Gottfried Von Leibnitz, a German Mathematician who was an improvement over Pascal's adding machine. All the above were based on mechanical precision and since mechanical precision was not that accurate during those days the reliability of the machines was rather questionable. 1880 AD - Jacquard Punched Cards Machine Joseph Jacquard, French textile manufacturer, developed a machine, which used punched cards to make intricate patterns on woven cloth. Absence of hole = Leading to warp thread raised Presence of hole = Leading to warp thread not raised This basic principle of one or other of the two states is the fundamental basis of the binary coding system used in computers. 1623 AD - Binary Codes The first use of binary codes for numerical representation by Francis Bacon. 1822 AD - Difference Engine & Analytical Engine Charles Babbage, English Professor of Mathematics developed both of them. In Difference Engine the level difference between the values computed for a formula, remains the same. For example, Compute the Squares of first 6 natural numbers
Computer Fundamental By Raju Sharma/2
Number Square 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 25 6 36 We compute the level of differences 2 times since we have squared the numbers and find that the level difference at the 2nd instances are equal as below :Squares 1st Difference 2nd Difference 1 1 4 4 - 1 = 3 3 - 1 = 2 9 9 - 4 = 5 5 - 3 = 2 16 16 - 9 = 7 7 - 5 = 2 25 25 - 16 = 9 9 - 7 = 2 36 36 - 25 = 11 11 - 9 = 2 Similarly, if we work out the cubes, the third level difference will be equal. Based on this principle Charles Babbage developed ANALYTICAL ENGINE which could calculate up to 20 decimals at about 60 additions per minute. However, financial constraints and inadequate technological advancements (electricity was discovered only in 1840's), his devices remained unfinished. But for his pioneering work he is called the FATHER OF COMPUTER. Similarly, Lady Ada Lovelace is famous as the First Programmer, for having devised a suitable use of Binary Number system for programs and data to be fed into the Analytical Computer. GEORGE BOOLE developed the application of logic in computers, which when applied to mathematical operation came to be known as Boolean Algebra. 1889 AD - Card Punching & Reading Machine
Herman Hollerith, a census statistician at the US Census Bureau developed card punching and reading machines. He formed his own company later, "The Computing Tabulating Recording Company" which is better known today as one of the largest manufacturers of computers - IBM or International Business Machine Corporation Headquartered in the USA. 1906 AD - Thermionic Valves Lee De Forest, in 1906, made a breakthrough in developing the technology of "Thermionic Valves". 1937-1944 AD - MARK I Computer Howard Aiken with IBM's support built the first automatic Electro-mechanical computer using relays and switches. The BUGS There is a well known fable about Mark I which indication to the adoption of the word "BUG" for use in computers. Once Mark I developed a certain fault and no amount of effort was spared to locate the same. Every portion of the huge Mark I, computers of those days used to be monstrously big machines occupying several rooms, was thoroughly searched for the fault. After spending considerable time and effort it was found that on one of the electrical connections of the "Back-Plane Panel" of the machine a "MOTH" had got struck bringing the machine to a grinding halt. The moth was removed when Mark-I started functioning. It was then stated that "Mark I was 'Debugged'."
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Bug was incorporated into the computer vocabulary to mean all kinds of errors and like-wise debugging meant removing those errors. These two words are commonly used words now in relation to both the hardware and software of computer. 1946 AD - ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator were developed for World War II use. After this the progress in the Digital Computers has been simply stupendous (amazing).
JOHN VAN NEUMANN Outlined the basic requirements for the design of modern digital computers. These relate to the binary coding scheme for data representation, storage of data and program within the computer, the manipulation of programs by other programs, choice of alternative procedures and use of input- output devices for feeding data and retrieving information. Generation of computers First Generation -: (1946 - 1954) Use Vacuum Tubes Use Assemble language for programming large in size slow processing Example : IBM 704, IBM 709, EDVAC, UNIVAC etc. Second Generation -: (1955-1964) Use of transistors instead of vacuum tube Increased Operating speeds & improved Storage devices High speed card readers Used high-level languages such as FORTRAN (1956), COBOL (1960), Line printers and magnetic tape transport units. Reduction in size, improved reliability, reduction in operating cost. Example : IBM 1400, IBM 7040, CDC 3600, GE635, B300 Third Generation -: (1965-1974) Use of IC (Integrated Circuit) Starting use of Semiconductor Memory (RAM or ROM) More miniaturization Reliability and Accuracy Example : IBM 370, Honeywell 200, B2000 Fourth Generation -: (1975-up till now) Use of VLSIC (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit) and Magnetic Oxide Semiconductor Operating system speed in nano & pico sec. Refinement of I/O units. Reduction in size. Refinement of HLL and software packages for DBMS Reduced operating cost, recording of errors. Fifth Generation -: (Development continued...) Will be use ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuit) Use Artificial Intelligence Super Computer. This type of computer will understand natural languages like English, Hindi etc. and programmer have to instruct only what to do, not how to do. These computers will have full ability to understand sounds and visions & it will reduce the burden of programming.
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Classification of Computer Computer can be classified into four part :1. MicroComputer -: There are two types of Microcomputer (a) Home Computer : Use TV for Output Use Cassette/floppy as backing storage Low Cost (A few thousand of rupees) Use for Home education, Home games etc. (b) Floppy or Hard disk for backing storage Used by Small business and company department More powerful Micros have Mini like Capacities called Super Computer Types of Business Computer :PC PC - AT PC - XT PC - AT 286 PC - AT 386 PC - AT 486 Pentium I/II/III/IV 2. Mini Computer -: Multi User, Multi Tasking, Faster than MicroComputer, Larger memory capacity, Larger C.P.U./A.L.U. Cost a few lacks of rupees Need site preparation and air conditioned environment Need UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) 3. Main Frame -: Faster than Mini computer Cost a few ten lacks of rupees Used by Big companies, banks and government
puter :Use a Separate VDU for output
4. Super Computer -: Have greater processing power Used as whether forecasting Used in Oil exploration, Energy conservation, Nuclear Reactor, Safety Analysis etc. Application of Computer Today computer is going to be an essential part of our life. In many part of life, we can think life without computer. It is useful at so many places among someone are:(a) Education (b) Library (c) Medical Science (d) Engineering (e) Agriculture (f) Industry (g) Scientific Research (h) Traffic Control (i) Design (j) Checking of Examination Paper (k) Media (l) Airways & Railways Ticket Reservations Computer System Computer System consists of :a) Hardware Hardware is the consist of the mechanical, electrical and electronics part of the Computer. b) Software Software is the set of detailed step by step instructions called program through which user instruct the computer to do something. c) Heartware or Liveware - Heartware is the people who schedule the operation of hardware and write or modify the software. d) Firmware Firmware are the routines or programs that are stored in read-only memory (ROM). Unlike RAM, ROM retains programs intact even in the absence of electrical power. Startup routines and low-level input/output instructions are stored in firmware.
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HARDWARE Hardware may be classified as :1. CPU (Central Processing Unit) 2. Peripherals 1.) CPU - CPU may also be classified as :a) CU (Control Unit) - The CU controls and directs the operations of the entire computer system. The control unit retrieves computer instructions in proper sequence, interprets each instruction and then directs the other parts of the computer system for the execution. b) A.L.U. (Arithmetic & Logic Unit) - The ALU actually carries out Arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction etc. and Logic operations like comparison of values etc. c) Main Memory - Memory is the mind of the computer. It may be classified as:- i) RAM (Random Access Memory) - It is a temporary memory used for storing data or instructions during processing. Any storage location can be directly accessed using its address. RAM loses its contents when the power is turned off and hence is also known as Volatile Memory. While the computer is on, information can be written onto the RAM chips and read from them. ii) ROM (Read Only Memory) - It is a permanent memory which contains basic information the CPU needs when you first turn on the computer as well as at other times during the operation of the computer. This information is written onto the chip during manufacture. Information can only be read, and no new information can be written onto the ROM. There is also some kind of ROM:a) PROM b) EPROM c) EEPROM 2. PERIPHERALS :- It can be classified as :a) Input - Data is accepted as Input through the standard Input device. A number of storage devices are using now a days as * Keyboard * Joystick
* Mouse * OCR * MICR * Punch card Reader etc. b) Output - Processed data is delivered as Output through input/output device. A number of output devices are also available as * Printer * Plotter * Screen (Monitor) etc. c) Backing Storage or Secondary Storage - These devices are used to store the data for a long time permanently. A number of backing storage devices is also available as * Floppy 31/2" (Capacity - 1.44 MB) 5-1/4" (Capacity - 1.2 MB) * Harddisk Capacity from 20 MB to 40 GB and above * Zip drive * CD-ROM * Magnetic Tape * Cartridge Tape etc.
22810845 Fundamental of Computer
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