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Mary Queen of Scots
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Mary Queen of Scots
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Teacher’s Notes: Historical Background
The Background to Mary’s Story - The Auld Alliance - The Reformation The Life of Mary Queen of Scots Topic Overview 16th Century Life Glossary
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5-14 Links Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Questions for Pupils A Royal Visit to Falkland Palace - Spring 1562 “How to make” sheets
Many thanks to J. Donald, A. Innes, K. Milne & E. Naysmith for their help with this pack whilst on an Excellence in Education through Business Links teacher placement
Mary Queen of Scots
The Background to Mary’s Story
The Auld Alliance
The Auld Alliance between Scotland and France was the result of English military aggression against both countries. When Edward I was on the Throne of England, John Balliol of Scotland and Philip IV of France drew up an offensive and defensive alliance, which became a treaty in 1295. The terms of the treaty were that if England attacked either country, then the other country would invade English territory. Although the main purpose of the treaty was military protection from England, the treaty granted dual citizenship in both countries, and many Scots took paid work as mercenaries in the French army. The dual citizenship meant that the treaty also affected every day lives by influencing architecture, law, spoken language and cuisine, for example the Scots word ‘haggis’ comes from the French ‘hachée’ which means mince meat. The treaty was strengthened by royal marriages between the two countries, for example King James V married Princess Madelaine of France and later Mary of Guise, and Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin Francis. In 1560, after more than 250 years, the treaty was officially ended when Scotland signed the Treaty of Edinburgh. This allied Scotland with England and declared Scotland to be a Protestant country.
The Reformation started in 1517 when a German monk rejected all of the church practices that were not written in the Bible. He made a protest by nailing his 95 Thesis to a church door, and the religious movement that followed was known as Protestantism after this protest. Reformation split the Church into Catholic and Protestant religions, both of which claimed to be the true road to salvation (going to heaven instead of hell).
The Reformation in Scotland
At this time the rulers of a country decided which religion the people would follow, and those who did not follow this chosen religion could be punished or even killed. The Church was central to everyday life, providing education, health, welfare and discipline. Following the correct religion also ensured salvation. It was therefore very important to the people of Scotland that the Scottish rulers chose the right religion to follow.
The rebellion that followed led to the destruction of Catholic icons. was a devout Catholic and ensured that her daughter was brought up to follow her beliefs. Mary. John Knox. with a promise that she would marry the Dauphin Francis (eldest son of the French King). but the French arrived and took the castle. did not like Mary at all. Mary of Guise took the role of Regent for Scotland in 1554. Many Protestants fled Scotland never to return. She announced that she would allow Protestants to continue to worship as they liked. Mary of Guise. Henry VIII of England converted to Protestantism. James Hamilton. The French succeeded and Mary left for France when she was 6 years old. who was now the leader of the Protestant Church. although she remained Catholic. became the Guardian of the Realm (regent) to rule in Mary’s name until she was of age to rule herself. a Catholic. Both England (Protestant) and France (Catholic) pursued this opportunity to gain power of the Scottish throne by marrying the young Queen to a royal from their country.Mary Queen of Scots King James V tried to stop people from reading Protestant texts. Earl of Arran. but the Protestant message spread quickly and made a strong impression on many people. was captured and executed on the command of Cardinal Beaton. The French took some of the rebels as slaves to work at the oars of French galleys. Although there was little persecution of Protestants in Scotland. By this time. but Scotland remained Catholic. but James V remained Catholic. and the English sent troops to support Scotland against attack by French troops. John Knox returned to Scotland in 1559 (following 19 months as a galley slave and years in exile in both England and Frankfurt) and preached against idolatry. He strongly favoured the new Protestant movement. Mary of Guise died in June 1560. King James V died in 1542. but they answered by justifying the rebellion as an attempt to free Scotland from French power rather than a religious rebellion. This led to a rebellion by Protestant Lairds who assassinated Beaton and seized St Andrews Castle. Patrick Hamilton became the first Scottish Protestant martyr when he was executed in 1528. returned to Scotland in 1561. including John Knox who became an important figure in the Reformation. The religious conflict that continued had a significant influence on the events that occurred in Mary’s life. Mary’s mother. on his return in 1546. The Scottish Parliament renounced the Pope’s authority and Catholic Mass was declared illegal. Scotland was now officially Protestant. 4 . the majority of the nobility supported the rebellion and a provisional government was established. leaving Mary to be Queen of Scots at just 6 days old. One who did return was George Wishart who. cathedrals and abbeys. and Scots did not want to lose their independence. A clause in the marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to the Dauphin Francis was that France would rule Scotland. They expected help from the English. Mary of Guise successfully portrayed the group as rebels.
Mary Queen of Scots The Life of Mary Queen of Scots • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mary’s Parents The ‘Rough Wooing’ Mary’s Life in France Arrival at Leith Mary’s Life in Scotland Marriage to Lord Darnley – a Second Husband The Murder of Riccio (Rizzio) The Murder of Lord Darnley Mary and the Earl of Bothwell Escape from Lochleven Castle Mary and Elizabeth The Caskett Letters Imprisonment The Babington Plot Trial and Execution of Mary Union of the Crowns 5 .
James V married Mary of Guise in 1538. At this time there was also religious unrest. the ‘Auld Alliance’. died of tuberculosis only 7 weeks after arriving in Scotland. Some Scottish nobles arranged a marriage treaty with Henry. his first wife. Eventually the French won. Mary’s great-uncle. and England was Protestant and France was Catholic. Mary. but they were defeated at the battle of Solway Moss on 24th November 1542. They had two sons but both died in infancy within hours of each other in 1541. Mary of Guise was James’ second wife. Already ill. Mary was taken to Inchmahome Priory on the Lake of Mentieth for her own safety. However. known as the Reformation. many Scots opposed the treaty and broke the agreement. He returned to Falkland Palace in Fife and went to bed with a high fever. James marched south with his army. 6 . known as the Reformation. Princess Madeleine of France. Both England and France wished Mary to marry a Royal from their country to gain control over Scotland. The ‘Rough Wooing’ When King James V of Scotland died. Although he was not present at the actual battle. James’ uncle. at just 6 days old. When a message came to him that his wife had given birth to a daughter instead of the hoped-for son. At this time there was religious unrest. before Mary was born. James failed to attend a meeting about this with his uncle in 1542. Because of these attacks the ‘courtship’ was known as the ‘Rough Wooing’. had broken with the Catholic church and wanted James to do the same. Henry was furious. He resorted to force and made many attacks on Scotland. Henry VIII of England. The crown had come to his family through Marjorie Bruce and he feared that a woman could not rule his nation. and so French troops helped the Scots to fight the English.Mary Queen of Scots Mary’s Parents Mary’s father was King James V of Scotland and her mother was Mary of Guise. King James V died 6 days later and Mary became Queen of Scotland. and it was agreed that Mary would marry the Dauphin (eldest son of the French King) Francis. Scotland had an alliance with France. King Henry VIII of England. James believed that the Stewart dynasty was at an end and he said ‘It cam wi’ a lass and it will gang wi’ a lass’. the defeat made James even more ill. hoping that this would unite Scotland and England. became the Queen of Scotland. Mary left for France when she was 6 years old. which made Henry very angry so he launched an invasion of Scotland. wanted Mary to marry his son Edward.
She became very close to Princess Elisabeth. She was also taught to sew. She glittered like a goddess with diamonds round her neck and on her head a golden crown garnished with pearls and rubies and one huge carbuncle. Mary of Guise. A description of her appearance reads: ‘Mary was dressed in a robe as white as lilies. not acquired. stayed in Scotland when Mary went to France and became regent in 1554. Her excellence in singing arose from a natural. ability to vary her voice. While in France Mary enjoyed riding and hunting in the French countryside. even though white was considered to be the colour of mourning in France at this time.Mary Queen of Scots So who ruled Scotland? When a country’s monarch cannot rule (in this case because Mary was a child) a regent rules the country in their place. write poetry and to play musical instruments.’ Quote by a historian.. Mary remained a devout Catholic throughout her life. Italian. The wedding took place on 24th April 1558 in Notre Dame Cathedral. At this time there was religious unrest known as the Reformation. Mary’s mother. and some countries became Protestant. Mary’s Education Mary was educated in France. She played the harp and harpsichord. however. Her immensely long train was borne by two young girls. France. Being very agile she danced admirably……. A Religious Upbringing Mary’s mother was a Catholic and she ensured that Mary was brought up as a Catholic.’ Fraser. Several tapestries worked by her with wonderful skill can still be seen in France. Mary’s Life in France Mary was brought up with the children of King Henri II of France in magnificent royal palaces. was a Catholic country. Marriage to the Dauphin At the age of fifteen Mary married the Dauphin. On the death of King James V in 1542 the Earl of Arran was appointed as regent. Francis. Mary was very fond of white and insisted on wearing white for her wedding. She learned to speak French. ‘Her writing was clear and done quickly. 7 . Spanish and Latin. Paris.
my dearest homeland. Mary of Guise. died. King Henri. She wrote this poem to express her feelings: ‘Farewell my beautiful France. There was such a tumult and cry among the people that one could not hear – so great was the clamour. They sang with instruments in praise of the newly married couple.Mary Queen of Scots The ceremony was a marvellous occasion: ‘Heralds cry ‘Largesse’ three times and throw to the people a great number of gold and silver pieces.’ Briere. Discours The Queen of Scotland and France In 1559. Mary’s father-in-law. a year after her marriage. Mary was a young widow and no longer ruled France. Then came six ships covered with cloth of gold and crimson velvet: the sails of silver linen. Mary’s mother. Farewell France! Goodbye to happy days! The ship which is breaking up our love for each other Carries only half of me As for the other part of me. Below each sail were seats for two people. in 1560 Francis became ill and died. Mary made the decision to return to Scotland in 1561.’ Breire. it will remember you always Adieu.’ 8 . Who has cared for me during my childhood. also died in 1560. Sitting there was a prince or nobleman. Having made several turns round the ball-room each ‘pilot’ took in the passing any lady he fancied and sailed through the hall. Adieu. Discours Afterwards. Mary became Queen of Scotland and France. The Young Widow Mary’s reign of France was brief. the celebrations continued at the Louvre Palace: ‘First came the little princes and their friends dressed in cloth of silver and gold with precious stones and jewels. Some throw themselves upon others for the greed which they have.
The four Marys also travelled with Mary. They had no idea where to take her or what to do with her. Mary Beaton was no doubt happy to return to Falkland Palace as her father was the hereditary keeper of Falkland and she could spend some time with her family. as the royal party disembarked. Stirling Castle. it not only included Royals and nobles. The Queen. Mary was greeted by a relatively small crowd of people and a few officials. Mary then travelled to Holyrood House. staying at royal residences such as Edinburgh Castle. whose job was to look after the buildings and estate while the royal court was away. The sun was not seen to shine two days before nor two days after. Falkland Palace and Traquair House. posed the local officials with a dilemma.’ He said that it was a bad omen. The people of the town performed plays and made speeches to welcome her. but also a large number of servants who provided for their needs. dressed in mourning but accompanied by her colourfully dressed party. He also had to make sure that it was ready when they came to stay. ‘The mist was so thick and so dark. So Lamb’s House. there could be up to 100 people living and working in a residence such as Falkland Palace. was used for her to rest while messages were sent to Edinburgh. the house of local merchant Andrew Lamb. Each royal residence had a hereditary keeper.Mary Queen of Scots Arrival at Leith Mary arrived home to Scotland on the 18th August 1561. John Knox. They sailed into Leith harbour at about 9 o’clock in the morning. Some people believe that there may have been an eclipse of the sun on that day.’ Mary’s Life in Scotland At this time the Royal Court travelled around the country. The way was lined with a cheering crowd. Mary had arrived sooner than expected and so. A person who saw this scene wrote: ‘ ……. The place was thick with mist and no one had expected her to arrive so soon. The Royal Court was quite a large group of people. there was a pageant: a number of boys singing and playing on instruments. She rode there in a grand procession. One of them came down in a cloud and delivered the Queen the keys of the town.. On hunting estates the keeper would also have to make sure that the hunting stock was protected – if someone was caught poaching on a royal estate then they were hung! 9 . the leader of the Protestant Church wrote.
Mary gave him title of King but kept all the real power to herself and he resented this. She met her cousin Lord Darnley. Mary had a very active life and loved horse riding and dancing. hunting dogs. ambitious and good looking. She also enjoyed hunting and spent time at Falkland Palace hunting game. At this time communication from one place to another was slow.Mary Queen of Scots There were a number of reasons why the royal court needed to move from one place to another. It became obvious that Darnley had married Mary just to get the throne. David Riccio. Another reason to move was that hygiene was poor. John Knox was worried she might marry a Catholic prince. Mary immediately fell in love with him. He was tall. An Unsuitable Marriage It soon became clear that Mary had made a mistake by marrying Darnley. 10 . proud and lazy. boxes of spices. Few people approved of her choice. lords and nobles wanted to marry Mary. chairs. she was the first woman to play golf. plus carts for all of the courtiers. which she did at St Andrews. there were no flushing toilets and with so many people staying in one place it tended to get a bit smelly after a while! Moving from one place to another was quite a task as not only people moved. messages were carried by a messenger on horseback. Mary began to spend a lot of time with Riccio. she soon became pregnant. 12 carts for Lord Darnley. they also took their belongings – all carried by horse and cart! Their baggage train could consist of 12 carts for the Queen. tables. hunting equipment. To rule effectively the royal court needed to travel around the country meeting with lairds and other officials. tapestries. They would bring their beds. horses. Mary also enjoyed sport and would play royal tennis when at Falkland. They were married on Sunday 29th July 1565 in Holyrood House. The Murder of Riccio (Rizzio) Lord Darnley was jealous of Mary’s friend. bedding. However. Marriage to Lord Darnley – A Second Husband Mary had to marry again to have a child who would be heir to the Scottish throne. gold and silver plate. Many princes. Lord Darnley and his friends plotted to murder him. Elizabeth I of England saw this marriage as Mary’s attempt to strengthen her claim on the English throne because Darnley had English royal blood in his veins. Darnley made every effort to charm Mary by dancing and singing and generally taking part in all the courtly pursuits. He was rude. all their clothes and bales of cloth. who was also her advisor.
The Earl of Bothwell divorced his wife and. Mary nursed him for a few days but one evening she left him and went out. 11 . He appeared to have been strangled. The Earl of Bothwell sent messengers to find out what had happened. Mary married Bothwell. her troops deserted her and Bothwell fled! Mary was taken as a prisoner to Lochleven Castle. They found Darnley and his servant dead in the garden. He died from his wounds. Lord Darnley was recovering from an illness at a house at Kirk o’ Field. Witnesses said that they heard Darnley pleading for mercy. was born 3 months later on 19th June 1566. This shocked the Scottish people. The Murder of Lord Darnley Lord Darnley was murdered a few months after his son was born. Darnley came into her room with Lord Ruthven and the other plotters. Protestant service. Others believed that the Earl of Bothwell and other conspirators had planned to blow up the house and that Mary was not involved. Lord Ruthven entered the room dressed in armour. He was then dragged away screaming and was stabbed fifty-six times outside the room. Many people believed that she was involved in the murder of Lord Darnley. Mary began to rely on Bothwell more and more. Mary surrendered. near Edinburgh. Mary and Darnley’s son. The murder is still a mystery. Some people believe that Mary was forced to marry Bothwell. Soon after she left the house was blown up. Mary had just begun supper with David Riccio and some friends in Holyrood House when they heard a noise. Mary and the Earl of Bothwell Mary was now very unpopular. which took place at Holyrood on May 15th 1567. though at the time some people believed that Mary was involved. David Riccio was frightened and hid behind Mary but they pulled him out and stabbed him. The nobles eventually met Mary and Bothwell’s army at the Battle of Carberry on 15th June 1567. Mary and Bothwell’s wedding was a solemn. It did not help that Mary did not behave like a grieving widow – she was seen playing golf at St Andrews only days after Darnley’s death. The Protestant nobles now united against Mary and Bothwell. only 3 months after Darnley’s murder. James. but he was not accused of the killings.Mary Queen of Scots In March 1566. Bothwell was asked many questions by the Scottish Parliament. We still do not know who killed Darnley.
which were well known for their elegance and whiteness. They were buried on the island. and was left in his own filth for 10 years until he died. Mary managed to raise an army but was defeated by her Scottish enemies. the Earl of Mar (1571-1572) and the Earl of Morton (1572-1581). 12 . her second attempt at escape was successful. Whilst at Lochleven Mary miscarried the Earl of Bothwell’s twins. Mary was afraid that she would now be killed. So who ruled Scotland? The infant. was now King of Scotland. The Earl of Moray was the first regent appointed during James VI childhood.’ Mary. day and night. His end was rather gruesome. He was too young to rule and so a regent was appointed to rule the country in his place. situated on an island in Loch Leven. James. However. escaped to a waiting boat and reached the shore safely. George Douglas. In desperation she fled to England and appealed to Queen Elizabeth I of England for help. He was succeeded by the Earl of Lennox (1570-1571). but the boatman recognised her hands. Escape from Lochleven Castle Mary was placed in a cramped tower in Lochleven Castle. This is what the ambassador from Venice wrote of the event: ‘Guard was continually kept in the castle. a servant at the castle. The Queen planned that a page (Willie Douglas) would place a napkin on the top of the key and then remove both without anyone noticing. except during supper when the gate was locked with a key which lay on the table where the governor took his meals. was crowned King of Scotland. When he had done this they went to the Queen and told her everything was ready.Mary Queen of Scots Bothwell’s Fate Bothwell was captured and imprisoned in the Danish fortress of Drasholm. disguised in servant’s clothes. James VI. He was chained to a pillar half his height so that he could not stand upright. where an ally of Mary’s. Mary tried to escape once by dressing up as the washerwoman who delivered laundry to the castle. she was forced to abdicate and her son. was waiting. an insane man. with help from Willie Douglas.
They thought that Mary. As a result of this enquiry Mary was kept prisoner by Queen Elizabeth I of England. Some people think that this is because Elizabeth did not want to be compared unfavourably to the beautiful Mary. Mary was also allowed to go on supervised horse rides in the countryside. was also related to the English royal family as she was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII. Mary. for nearly 19 years. Elizabeth treated Mary well but always had her guarded carefully. These were known as the Casket Letters. The Earl of Moray (who was the Scottish regent at this time) produced some letters that he claimed had been written by Mary. should be queen instead of Elizabeth. This would also make England a Catholic country again. Her gaoler for 16 of those years was the Earl of Shrewsbury.Mary Queen of Scots Mary and Elizabeth Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Anne Boleyn. played cards. a Catholic who was related to the English royal family. had visitors and kept pets. such as Tutbury Castle and Chatsworth House. These letters no longer exist and it was later decided that they were forgeries. This worried Elizabeth and she thought that Mary’s supporters might try to kill her. Elizabeth did not have children of her own so if she died then Mary would become Queen of England. daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. Whilst imprisoned at 13 . Mary was not allowed to give evidence in person. These letters appeared to prove that Mary had been involved in plotting the murder. The Casket Letters An investigation took place in York in 1568 to enquire into Mary’s involvement in Darnley’s murder. During her years of imprisonment Mary had her own servants including a physician and a secretary. She was the granddaughter of Henry VII. Some Catholics did not accept the marriage of Elizabeth’s parents because this was a Protestant wedding. Imprisonment Mary was kept prisoner in a number of different castles and grand houses. She enjoyed embroidery. Elizabeth was a Protestant and Mary was a Catholic. Elizabeth and Mary never met.
A Catholic Englishman. However. Elizabeth was still reluctant to sign the death warrant for Mary. Every letter was copied and Walsingham now had all the evidence he needed to convict Mary of treason. Unfortunately Mary suffered from poor health. In 1585 Mary found a way to smuggle letters in and out of Chartley Hall (her prison at the time) in a beer barrel. Mary’s gaoler did not allow her to communicate by letter. her councillors pressured her and she signed the order in February 1587. 14 . she was worried about what other countries would think of her if she ordered Mary’s execution. Mary’s friends plotted to set her free and restore her to the Scottish throne. Elizabeth had spies keeping an eye on Mary and always found out about the plans. Sir Francis Walsingham. The Babington Plot As a result of the numerous plots to free Mary. The night before her execution Mary wrote an elaborate will in which all of her servants were remembered. However. It was a trick set up by Elizabeth’s spy master. She carried a crucifix and a writing book. One of these plots to free Mary involved the Duke of Norfolk who wanted to marry Mary. The Trial and Execution of Mary Mary was put on trial for high treason and found guilty on 15th October 1586. allegedly named so by Mary Seaton. and one group of stalactites is called Queen Mary’s Pillar. She longed for freedom and to be reunited with her son. the Catholic religion restored in England and Mary become Queen of England. However. Mary agreed to this plot by letter. Sir Anthony Babington. Elizabeth refused to order Mary’s death without definite proof that Mary was involved in the plot. used this to send messages to Mary.Mary Queen of Scots Chatsworth House she was fascinated by local caves. He was executed when Elizabeth found out about the plot because he had planned to put Mary on the English throne in Elizabeth’s place. On the 8th February 1587 Mary was beheaded at the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle. She was dressed in black with a white veil. In these letters he suggested that Queen Elizabeth I should be killed. She had a chain around her neck and beads at her waist.
It was taken from here. She had no children. Mary’s clothes. The two parliaments. Later the dog died as it refused to eat. along with the executioner’s block. thus uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. leaving him holding a wig – Mary’s real hair was thin and grey. in the dead of night for fear of public protest. Mary removed her dress to reveal a red petticoat. Mary's body was embalmed and incarcerated in a heavy lead coffin which remained unburied in Fotheringhay Castle until 30th July 1587. were all burned in the courtyard at Fotheringhay Castle. This was so that there were no relics relating to the execution. James VI of Scotland. Union of the Crowns Queen Elizabeth I of England died in 1603. She was blindfolded. however. After three blows of the axe Mary was dead. crucifix and writing book.Mary Queen of Scots Mary was led to the scaffold and prayers were read. James had Mary’s body moved to Westminster Abbey. This meant that Mary’s son. covered in Mary’s blood. remained separate. Mary’s family line continued through James. When she embroidered these words did she know how true they would become? 15 . Mary’s dog was found hiding under her skirts. The executioner held her head up to the crowd in the hall. Mary was very composed when she laid her head on the block. The head fell to the ground. While in captivity Mary embroidered the words ‘In my End is my Beginning’. to Peterborough Cathedral. the traditional burial ground for kings and queens. also became James I of England.
Mary Queen of Scots Topic Overview • • • • • • Summary of Mary’s Life People Important to Mary’s Story The Four Mary’s Timeline of Key Events Family Tree Kings and Queens of Scotland 16 .
Elizabeth kept Mary prisoner in different castles in England for 19 years – Mary plotted with many of her supporters to escape but never succeeded. Mary never saw her son again. King of France. Mary Beaton. After the death of Henri II in a jousting accident. Her father died at Falkland Palace. Lord Darnley. travelling the country. Mary’s musician. 1548 1558 1560 1560 1561 1565 1566 1567 1568 1587 1612 17 . Fife. Mary and Francis became the King and Queen of France. Her father was James V of Scotland. had her body taken to Westminster Abbey. who was now James I of England. the eldest son of Henri II. A few months later Mary was taken prisoner by some of her subjects (people who were living under her rule) and was kept in Lochleven Castle. Mary married Francis. Mary Seaton.Mary Queen of Scots The Life of Mary Queen of Scots 1542 Mary was born in Linlithgow in 1542. She stayed at many of the great palaces including Falkland Palace in Fife. when Mary was only 6 days old – this made baby Mary the Queen of Scotland. Elizabeth I of England. Mary married her cousin. When Mary was 6 years old she was sent to France to be educated. and her 13-month-old son was crowned King James VI of Scotland. and her mother was Mary of Guise. was murdered in front of Mary at Holyrood Palace. Mary escaped and went to her cousin. Mary ruled Scotland for 4 years. Mary returned to Scotland. Mary was widowed at the age of 18. The Earl of Bothwell fled to leave Mary to her fate. Lord Darnley was murdered in February. Mary married the Earl of Bothwell 3 months later. Mary was executed at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary’s son. David Riccio. when she was 15 years old. The four Marys became her life-long friends and companions. Mary Livingston and Mary Fleming went with her to France. Mary gave birth to a son who later became King James VI. Mary was forced to abdicate. James VI of Scotland.
Also referred to in some texts as Mary de Guise or Marie de Guise. Earl of Bothwell: Mary’s third husband. Also referred to in some texts as Henry II of France. Mary Fleming: Lady-in-waiting. daughter of Lady Fleming. who died as a result of a jousting accident. who did not like Mary. Henri II of France: Mary’s father-in-law. Queen of France: Mary’s mother-in-law. Henry Stewart. John Knox: Major figure in the Reformation movement in Scotland. Mary Livingstone: Lady-in-waiting. Willie Douglas: The boy who helped Mary escape from Lochleven Castle. sister of the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine. Mary Beaton: Lady-in-waiting. Queen Elizabeth I of England: Kept Mary prisoner for 19 years and finally ordered her execution. Lord Darnley: Mary’s cousin and second husband. Mary Seaton: Lady-in-waiting. 18 . daughter of Mary’s guardian. James. Mary of Guise: Mary’s mother. who died 5 days after her birth. Francis II: Mary’s first husband. David Rizzio or Riccio: Italian musician who became Mary’s friend and confidante. Catherine de Medici. She remained Mary’s lifelong friend and companion. the hereditary keeper of Falkland Palace. James VI: Mary and Darnley’s son. Murdered by Scottish Lords. daughter of Marie Pieris a lady–in-waiting to Mary de Guise. daughter of Robert Beaton. Lord Livingstone. Regent of Scotland from 1554-1560.Mary Queen of Scots People Important to Mary’s Story James V: Mary’s father.
Mary was one of 6 children of Lord Fleming and his wife. and were about the same age as Mary Queen of Scots. by his second wife. Mary Fleming’s grandfather was James IV. She was born in 1540. She was born in 1541. The four Marys remained close friends of Mary until her death. and her grandmother was one of his mistresses. Marie Pieris. 19 . Mary Seaton never married and so was the only one to stay with the Queen whilst she was held in captivity in England. The four Marys were brought up as the Queen’s playmates at the Priory of Inchmahome.Mary Queen of Scots The Four Marys The four Marys were Mary’s ladies-in-waiting (a lady who attends a princess or queen). Jeanne de Gresnoir had been a French lady-inwaiting of Mary of Guise. Mary Seaton was the only daughter of George 6th Lord Seaton. the Hereditary Keeper of Falkland Palace in Fife. and sailed for France with Mary when she left in 1548. Mary Beaton married Alexander Ogilvie in 1566. They had three sons. Mary Livingston was the first of the four Marys to marry when she married John Sempill of Beltress in 1565. Mary Fleming married William Maitland of Lethington. Mary Fleming and Mary Livingston. who had come to Scotland as one of Mary of Guise’s maids of honour. then after his death married George Meldrum of Fyvie. They returned to Scotland with Mary in 1561. She was born in 1542. Her family home was Callander House near Falkirk. Her mother. John Sempill was in attendance of the Queen when Riccio was murdered. Mary Seaton. Janet. Mary Livingston was the eldest daughter of Alexander 5th Earl of Livingston and Lady Agnes Douglas. She was born in 1542. Mary Seaton was allowed to join the Queen when she was at Lochleven and helped Mary to escape. They were Mary Beaton. Mary Beaton was the eldest daughter of Robert Beaton of Creich.
with Mary Queen of Scots as his Queen John Knox returns to Scotland Treaty of Berwick between England and Scotland Treaty of Edinburgh concluded the Anglo/Scottish pact Latin Mass is prohibited in Scotland Mary of Guise dies Francis II dies Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland Mary marries Lord Darnley James VI is born Lord Darnley is murdered Mary marries the Earl of Bothwell Mary is taken prisoner Mary abdicates to her son. James VI The Earl of Moray becomes Regent of Scotland The Earl of Lennox becomes Regent of Scotland The Earl of Mar becomes Regent of Scotland The Earl of Morton becomes Regent of Scotland James VI begins to rule Scotland Mary Queen of Scots is executed by order of Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I of England dies and James VI becomes James I of England James makes his only return to Scotland 20 . splitting the Church into Catholic and Protestant Patrick Hamilton is burned at the stake as a heretic King James V marries Madeleine of France Madelaine of France dies King James V marries Mary of Guise Mary Queen of Scots is born King James V dies Earl of Arran becomes Regent of Scotland Mary sails for France George Wishart is executed Cardinal Beaton is killed in retaliation for the execution of George Wishart Mary of Guise (a Catholic) becomes Regent of Scotland Mary Queen of Scots marries Francis II of France Francis II becomes King of France.Mary Queen of Scots Timeline of Key Events 1503 1512 1513 1517 1528 1536 1537 1538 1542 1542 1542 1548 1546 1546 1554 1558 1559 1559 1560 1561 1560 1560 1560 1561 1565 1566 1567 1567 1567 1567 1567 1570 1571 1572 1585 1587 1603 1617 James IV marries Margaret Tudor of England James V is born King James IV is killed at the battle of Flodden Field The Reformation begins.
Henry VIII wanted Mary to marry Edward VI – England’s part of the ‘Rough Wooing’ Elizabeth I had Mary imprisoned and ordered her execution. 21 . All of King Henry VIII of England’s legitimate children died childless. King Henry VIII of England King James IV of Scotland m(i) Margaret Tudor m(ii) 6th Earl of Angus King James V of Scotland m(i) Madeleine of France m(ii) Mary of Guise Lady Margaret m Earl of Lennox Douglas King Edward VI of England Queen Mary of England Queen Elizabeth I of England Francis II of France m(i) Mary Queen of Scots m(ii) Lord Darnley King James VI of Scotland & I of England Key: m(i) = first marriage m(ii) = second marriage Lord Darnley was Mary’s cousin (King James V and Lady Margaret Douglas had the same mother) as well as her second husband.Mary Queen of Scots Stewart & Tudor Family Tree King Henry VII of England m Elizabeth of York Henry VIII had six wives.
Kings and Queens of Scotland House of Bruce 1306 – 1329 1329 – 1371 Robert I David II House of Stewart/ Stuart 1371 – 1390 Robert II 1390 – 1406 Robert III 1406 – 1437 James I 1437 – 1460 James II 1460 – 1488 James III 1488 – 1513 James IV 1513 – 1542 James V 1542 – 1567 Mary 1567 –1625 James VI [Note: The Union of the Crowns in 1603 made James VI James I of England] 1625 – 1649 Charles I 1649 – 1660 Britain at this time was a commonwealth 1660 – 1685 Charles II 1685 – 1688 James VII (James II of England) 1688 – 1649 William III and Mary II (jointly) 1649 – 1702 William III (alone) 1702 – 1714 Anne House of Hanover 1714 – 1727 1727 – 1760 1760 – 1820 1820 – 1830 1830 – 1837 1837 – 1901 George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 1901 – 1910 Edward VII House of Windsor 1910 – 1936 1936 1936 – 1952 1952 – today George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth I (Elizabeth II of England) .
Mary Queen of Scots 16th Century Life • • • • • • • • • • Life in a Royal Burgh Life in Falkland Palace Trade Transport Housing Sanitation Clothing Food Types of Food Pastimes 23 .
The two main classes were known as ‘Freemen’ and ‘Unfreemen’. and were heavily fined if caught without it. they did have to pay for this privilege. 24 . Carrying a light was also important as the streets were uneven and there was no form of street lighting to show people the way in the dark. One of these privileges was to be able to trade with any other town. Life in the burgh started at sunrise and ended at sunset. except on annual market and fair days when they came together to trade. They were obliged to grind their corn at the public mill. Even though they were forced to use these mills they had to pay for doing so. such as Falkland. If people went out when it was dark they had to carry a light to show the watchman on duty that they were not up to any mischief. There were very strict rules as to what different classes of people were allowed to do. Only the king or queen could make a town a burgh. They had to take turns doing watch duties. which was owned by the local laird or by the local monastery. trying to grow enough for their families to live on throughout the year and looking after any animals they owned. They had to have full battle equipment ready to be able to fight for their King or queen. were special. patrolling the streets at night to make sure that all was safe. independent communities who had very little to do with each other. However. This was a great honour as it meant special privileges for the inhabitants. Burghs. paying a ‘tithe’ or tenth of the corn they took to the mill. Unfreemen spent their days farming their plots of land.Mary Queen of Scots Life in a Royal Burgh Towns at this time formed separate. Only freemen could follow a trade or craft.
Falkland Palace also had a bakehouse where bread was made. and rushes would have covered the floor. dry rooms with stone floors and no windows. as well as a water trough and a large table to prepare food. with small windows that could be used for defence if needed. Tapestries may have been hung on the walls. Windows of the guard’s room Entertainment and Business The great hall was the largest room at Falkland Palace. These The bakehouse were cold. The great hall Fireplace in the great hall Cooking The kitchen for Falkland Palace was under the great hall so that food did not have to be carried far before it was served. eating. and for discussing business or conducting trials. The kitchen contained a large fireplace where all of the cooking was done. The large fireplace provided heat for the room. There was a guard’s room at the side of the doors. it is not complete today because of damage caused by Cromwell’s troops. it contained a lot of germs so people drank a lot of ale. The great hall was used for entertaining. Food was stored in cellars.Mary Queen of Scots Life in Falkland Palace Entering the Palace Heavy wooden doors guarded the entrance to Falkland Palace. There is a very small room underneath the guard’s room which may have been used as a prison or holding cell for people awaiting trial in the great hall. There would also be a brewhouse at the palace where ale was made. Water was often not good to drink at this time. Fresh food could still only be stored for a short while in these rooms before it spoilt. Storage cellar 25 .
This game. The Queen’s Bedroom Toilets Toilets were simply holes in the ground. which took waste into a cesspit or a ditch at the foot of the wall. is different to lawn tennis. this toilet has a decorative cover over the hole for safety. Other people would have slept in the great hall or at inns in the burgh. and candles would have provided lighting. and the court. Image of Royal Tennis court 26 . There would also be a fireplace in the room to provide heating. Today. including chests for clothing. Toilet Chapel There is a Catholic chapel at Falkland Palace which Mary would have attended. Tapestries would have been hung on some walls to provide decoration and help to keep the room warm. These rooms would have contained a bed and a small amount of furniture.Mary Queen of Scots Sleeping Important members of the royal court would have bedchambers to sleep in. The Chapel Royal Royal Tennis Court Mary enjoyed playing royal tennis when she stayed at Falkland Palace.
expensive cloth and silver were also imported. People from outside burghs had to sell their goods at the nearest local burgh market. When merchant ships arrived in port officials called ‘Custumars’ supervised their unloading. They were only allowed to sell raw goods that had not been made into anything. and the goods exchanged were: Low Countries Scottish traders gave salt and animal skins in return for corn and spices. It was illegal for goods to be traded at the harbour. flax and hemp. Scottish traders gave salt. plums and dried figs. spices. there were many pirates in the 16th century. then taken to the mercat cross (market). oats and beans. The main countries that Scotland traded with. Foreign trade was dangerous. Only freemen were allowed to sell goods. Taxes were charged on all goods brought into or taken out of the burgh. 27 . so for a town to be made into a royal burgh was great honour. Peddlars would roam the countryside with their small goods for sale. Scottish traders gave linen cloth and yarn for wheat. where each trader was allocated a booth or stall. France Baltic Sea area England Scottish traders gave cloth and animal skins in return for wines. Goods brought into the burgh were weighed and valued at the tron (a weighing machine). only freemen were allowed to trade abroad. prunes. cloth and animal skins in return for iron. But this was a dangerous occupation and wild animals and raiders could attack them.Mary Queen of Scots Trade Local Trade Trading was very restricted at this time. Goods could only be traded at burgh markets. Trading was done mostly on a barter system – that is they swapped the goods brought from Scotland for goods to take back. chestnuts. Overseas Trade Again. tar. Not only was there a risk of storms or getting lost due to poor navigation. Luxury items such as furniture. walnuts. pitch. They taxed the goods and made sure that they went to the tron and then mercat cross for trading. and could only buy goods at certain times of the day. Unfreemen were not allowed to trade or even work for freemen.
with roofs of thatched straw and heather. herbs and food. costing about £10. Housing for the Rich Richer people lived in stone-built houses with glass in the windows. Travel was best on horseback as carts and wagons made slow progress on the rough ground. Often there was only one room downstairs with a bare earth floor. Transport by water was the best way of moving goods around. Sometimes there was a loft above for sleeping in and storing hay. and curtains around the bed also helped to keep people warm. rats and insects also lived in the roof. Most of these were formed from tramped-down soil and provided a network of tracks between castles and burghs. and mice. Rooms were panelled in wood with painted pattern ceilings. the average wage was 6 shillings a year. tiring. which is the equivalent to just £71 today. Housing Housing for the Poor Poor people lived in homes that were not much better than sheds. They had two or three rooms. They were built of turf and skins. The thatched roof was a fire hazard. However. Horses themselves were very expensive.Mary Queen of Scots Transport In the 16th century there were few roads. Animals such as cattle and sheep were kept indoors in winter to give them shelter and to provide warmth for the house. Windows did not have glass. However.500 today. 28 . Travel by road was dirty. at this time the canal network had not been constructed. most Scots did not use saddles and bridles. On horseback. so this method of transport was limited to suitable rivers. Furniture was sparse but was solid and well built. you could travel about 30 miles in a day. Dogs and cats were kept to catch mice and rats. with the living quarters above the shop and storerooms below. lightly loaded. Large tapestries were hung on bedroom walls to keep in the warmth and to look nice. but only wooden shutters. slow and dangerous as there was always a risk of ambush. Although horse was the best form of transport. which is the equivalent to £2. Merchants’ Housing Trading merchants’ houses were either wood or wood and stone.
All waste and rubbish was thrown into the streets. or merchant. the toilet was nothing more than a hole in the ground. The smell must have been awful. Clothing Clothing in the 16th century not only served the purpose of keeping people dry and warm. and animals roamed the streets of the towns quite freely. and very basic for the wealthier classes. sometimes they never bathed at all. Noblility The nobility and the wealthy merchant classes had their clothes made from expensive materials like silk. Water for drinking. The richer the merchant. 29 . it also reflected social status. Peasants The peasant classes were very poor and could only afford the bare minimum of clothes. home-made cloth. cooking and washing was collected from local streams. class wore the same fashion as that wore by the nobility. They were often covered in beautiful hand-stitched embroidery. Every class.Mary Queen of Scots Sanitation Sanitation was non-existent for the peasant population. Middle or Merchant Class The middle. when they used animal skins sewn together. Even in Falkland Palace. They wore nothing on their feet unless it was very cold. rivers and wells. especially in the summer. rank and profession had its own distinctive dress. People did not bathe very often. where the kings and queens stayed. the finer his clothes. The material was a coarse. satin and velvet imported from France and the Low Countries. Laws called ‘Sumptuary Laws’ were passed in the early 15th century to stop people dressing ‘above their station’ (in a manner which is not suited to their position in society).
Mary Queen of Scots Food Food for the Poor Poor soil. imported from France. Wild herbs were used for flavouring. There were four different types of bread: manchet (the finest). Eating Utensils Eating utensils were made of wood or pewter. 30 . As hunting was a popular pastime for the royal court. sour-milk cheese. hare. Most families only had one pot or cauldron. dried fruits and nuts and a wide range of fresh meat and fish. The poor would drink either water from rivers or ale. and it is likely that French cooks worked for many Scottish courts. Bread was expensive at this time. soup. butter. ravelled and mashloch (the rougher types). In coastal areas seaweed was also eaten. with the slices eaten cold or cooked on a griddle to make a thick oatcake. Some drinking vessels. and so was only eaten by the richer classes. The rich would keep silver dishes on their dressers for display only. especially the traditional Scot’s quaich. salted mutton. made by soaking and cooking oatmeal in water or milk. as well as influencing cooking methods and recipes. Meat or fish was boiled. were made from stag’s horns. so all of the food was cooked together. rabbit and game birds caught during the hunt. restricted the food types available to the poor. Wild honey and wild fruits were the only sweet foods available. Spices were also imported to flavour foods. Their diet included fresh fruits. combined with lack of money. The basic food of a peasant family consisted of barley bannocks. Food for the Rich The rich could afford to import food so they had a much more varied diet. Food was cooked in three main ways: spit roasted. The Scottish alliance with France had a great influence on the food of the rich. trencher (the second best). sheep’s-head broth and fish. The rich drank wine. bad weather and inefficient farming methods. venison. oven baked and pot boiled. It was eaten warm or left to go cold and sliced. and the liquid used to make soup. oatcakes. they would have eaten boar. Porridge was an important part of the diet. The French introduced the practice of eating desserts. Vegetables were only eaten in soups.
Mary Queen of Scots Types of Food Seafood Salmon Salt herrings Skate Haddock Flounders Pike Bream Roach Carp Trout Speldies (dried fish) Crab Winkles Oyster Mussel Lobster Eel Vegetables Colewart Kale/ cabbage Pease Beans Onions Radishes Seaweed Parsley Beet Lettuce Meat Salted mutton Goose Beef Ox feet Pullet Capon Hen Duck Swan Rabbit Hare Venison Boar Game birds Other Skink (soup) Spices Porridge Prunes Oatcakes Walnuts Bread Chestnuts Barley bannocks Oranges Butter Pears Eggs Apples Sour-milk cheese Plums Tripe Berries Meal kale custocks (meal and kale formed into a loaf and cut up) Flummery (jelly made from the husks of oats) Almonds Dates 31 .
were also popular with the wealthy. They would hunt for deer and boar. and teams would play football (although this was a rough game. These cruel games are against the law today. Poorer people played a game which is similar to cricket. Falconry. Games such as cards. was also a popular pastime. more like rugby). with ladies using a smaller bird such as the Merlin. They often involved an animal being badly injured or killed in fighting. 32 . which usually involved playing tricks and practical jokes. Some ‘entertainments’ of this time used animals and were very cruel. On these days the town council provided entertainment such as minstrels. players and acrobats. such as royal tennis and golf. hunting with birds of prey.Mary Queen of Scots Pastimes Hunting with horses and dogs was a popular pastime for the wealthy in the 16th century. There were public holidays in the 16th century. Sports. such as St Andrews Day and May Day. People would also spend time practising archery. Someone would be appointed the ‘Lord of Misrule’ and would organise all of the fun. such as bear baiting or cock fighting. dice and backgammon were also popular. The people themselves used to dress up and perform plays.
Formal written agreement between two or more states. A soldier who fights for a foreign army or money. Worship of idols – an idol is an image of a god.Mary Queen of Scots Glossary Citizenship Eclipse (solar) Icon Idolatry Martyr Mercenaries Persecution Pewter Poaching Regent Relic Renounce Salvation Stalactites Treason Treaty Tuberculosis Membership of a state or nation. When the moon passes between the sun and the earth. An icicle-shaped mass of calcium carbonate hanging from the roof of a cave. A person who dies rather than give up their religious beliefs. A mixture of tin and lead. with its rights and duties. Betrayal of the monarch or country. Going to heaven instead of hell. A person or thing regarded as a symbol of belief. 33 . Harassment or maltreatment of someone because of their race or religious belief. An infectious disease of the lungs. blocking out the light from the sun. childhood or illness of its monarch. considered to be holy. To catch game or fish illegally on someone else’s land. The ruler of a country during the absence. A possession of a saint. To formally give up a claim or right.
Spring 1562 How to make a Ruff How to make a Boys Hat • How to make a Girl’s Head-dress • • • • • • 34 .Mary Queen of Scots Teaching Material 5-14 Links Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Questions for Pupils A Royal Visit to Falkland Palace .
people and events from the past and suggest why they might be considered significant. Suggest a variety of sources of information about the past and what use they might be to someone studying a particular topic. and for aspects of continuity. • Describe features of life in 16th century Scotland [16th Century Life] • Appreciate the role of the church in 16th century Scotland [Background to Mary’s Story: The Reformation] • Describe the life of Mary Queen of Scots and understand the significance of events that occurred during her life [The Life of Mary Queen of Scots] Change. Explain the meaning of the word heritage and give some examples. Give some reasons for the differences. continuity. and why they are considered to be part of Scotland’s heritage. • Use a variety of resources to research the life of Mary Queen of Scots 35 . discuss why these places are preserved. • Put a number of events from Mary’s life onto a detailed timeline [The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. events and societies of significance in the past: Describe the diversity of lifestyles of people in the past. • Describe features of life in 16th century Scotland [16th Century Life] • Compare the life of a peasant to that of a Freeman or a Royal [16th Century Life] Describe some features of societies. Topic Overview] The nature of historical evidence: Describe ways in which people remember and preserve the past. cause and effect: Make a comparison between present and past lifestyles/circumstances/features. Topic Overview] • Track events from history in a timeline [The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. • Compare features of life in 16th century Scotland with life today [16th Century Life] • Understand how some of Mary’s decisions and the Union of the Crowns has affected life today [The Life of Mary Queen of Scots] Time and historical sequence: Put a series of events with their dates in chronological order.Mary Queen of Scots Links to the 5-14 Curriculum Level C/D Knowledge and understanding: people in the past People. and why they should do this. • Following a visit to one of the places where Mary stayed.
• Present conclusions giving reasons/justify these with reference to evidence. Cross Curricular Links Language: • Reading for information during research. or of Mary and Francis’ marriage. and between truth and fiction. Carrying out tasks: • Select and record specific information for a given purpose from a variety of sources. • Listening for information during reports from other groups in the class. Drama: • Dramatising part or all of Mary’s life.Mary Queen of Scots Skills – enquiry Using the Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities and Questions for Pupils provided. Music and Dance: • Listening to music of the 16th century and learning dances from the time. Art: • • Drawings of fashion/ clothing of the time. 36 . • Make simple judgements about the usefulness/reliability of information and evidence. communicating key points clearly. • Suggest relevant sources of information that might assist in a particular enquiry task. • Writing reports. the following enquiry skills will be developed: Preparing for tasks: • Plan a sequence of activities or tasks for tackling an enquiry. • Giving aural reports to the class. Religious Education: • Catholic/Protestant beliefs. Using images from Falkland Palace for art. • Distinguish in an elementary way between fact and opinion. Review and reporting on tasks: • Present findings in a report. • Identify a variety of straightforward sources from which relevant information might be collected. • Select simple and straightforward techniques to process/ classify straightforward information in a variety of ways.
37 .g. • Research John Knox and his role in the Reformation of Scotland by using books and the internet. • Pupils could write a report of an interview with Mary on her arrival. food and language. Compare them for similarities/ differences and look for fact or opinion. The Reformation • Pupils could be given the text on the Reformation (Background to Mary’s Story) and asked to highlight the important facts and then present them as bullet points. • Create pictures of Mary and Francis’ wedding from the descriptions given. etc.g. Arrival at Leith • Compare two stories in newspapers today (e. or write two different reports each reflecting a differing view of the arrival (e. The Background to Mary’s Story The Auld Alliance • Investigate the influences of the Auld Alliance on Scottish architecture. pupils could write a short script to show a day in the life of Mary. which extends BC/AD and includes John Knox. The questions can also be used as guidance for class discussion. and a report of an interview with John Knox about the arrival of Mary.Mary Queen of Scots Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities Questions relating to each area of Mary’s story are provided in this pack. Other suggestions for teaching and learning activities are outlined below. bias and exaggeration. or by research using the internet and books. The Scotsman and the Daily Record) – consider how the same story is reported differently by the two papers. Present findings to the class. • Pupils could write a newspaper account of the arrival of Mary at Leith. • Research key characters in the Reformation in groups by using books and the internet. one positive and the other negative). The Life of Mary Queen of Scots The ‘Rough Wooing’ • Use the questions as guidance to discuss the key points of the ‘rough wooing’ Mary’s Life in France • Using facts about Mary’s life in France. • Create a timeline to show the arrival of Christianity and other key events. which they can then dramatise. These can be completed by pupils using the information provided in this pack. Write a report or present findings to the class.
at the end of this section. Mark these on a map. • Read the fictional short story ‘A Royal Visit to Falkland Palace’. Think about which rooms would be required in a modern palace.Mary Queen of Scots Mary’s Life in Scotland • Research the places where Mary stayed in Scotland. Murder of Riccio (Rizzio) • Dramatise the murder of Riccio. flee to France or flee to England. • Use the section Life in a Royal Palace (in 16th Century Life) to find out about how life would have been for Mary and her Royal Court when staying at Falkland Palace. • Visit one of the places where Mary stayed (Falkland Palace in Fife offers a Mary Queen of Scots programme for schools). • Dramatise an argument between Mary and Darnley regarding his desire for more power and her reluctance to give him more power. how she feels now and what she thinks about her future. Mary’s Marriage to Lord Darnley • Pupils could imagine they are Mary and write an entry in her diary or a letter to a friend shortly after her marriage to Darnley when she found out about his true character. • Discuss the options Mary had when her army was defeated – should she stay in Scotland. • Discuss with pupils who they think was responsible for Darnley’s murder. and why Mary was a threat to Elizabeth. imprisoned at Lochleven Castle. • This may be an appropriate time to study life in 16th century Scotland (also included in this pack). Escape from Lochleven Castle • Pupils could write a newspaper report or script for television news about Mary’s escape from Lochleven Castle. and how the content of the rooms would differ today. Murder of Lord Darnley • Pupils could write an imaginary account of the investigation into Darnley’s murder – what evidence (real or circumstantial) is there? • Create a short ‘Crimewatch’ type programme appealing for help to solve the mystery. Write a diary entry which expresses her thoughts about the past. What were the advantages and disadvantages of each option? • Discuss why this was an important turning point in history. Mary and the Earl of Bothwell • Pupils could imagine that they are Mary. Mary and Elizabeth • Discuss the relationship between Mary and Elizabeth. The Casket Letters 38 . • Learn and perform dances of the 16th century (contact The National Trust for Scotland) • Create paintings and collages to show Mary’s life in Scotland. Express her thoughts and disappointment.
fabric. Pupils could write a version of the Casket Letters. • Pupils could write a newspaper report or script for television news about the trial or execution of Mary. People Important to Mary’s Story • Select one or more of the individuals in Mary’s life and write a summary of who they were and their role in Mary’s story. hygiene and pastimes. the question cannot be ‘who am I?’!). including housing. or appear on a chat show (like Parkinson or The Kumars). e. Use a variety of techniques. food. including the motivations for their actions. Imprisonment • Compare the conditions in which Mary was imprisoned with the ‘classic’ image of being imprisoned. including housing. • Play ‘who am I?’ by providing stickers with the names of people in Mary’s life on them.Mary Queen of Scots • • • Discuss the motives for the Casket Letters. Topic Overview Summary of Mary’s Life • Create a timeline of the events in Mary’s life.g. The Babington Plot • Discuss the motives for the Babington Plot. collage. Pupils could dramatise the investigation hearing about Mary’s involvement in Darnley’s murder. paint. 39 . hygiene and pastimes. considering what information would need to be included to give the impression that Mary was involved in the murder of her husband. food. The Trial and Execution of Mary • Dramatise the trial or execution of Mary. clothing. • Extend the timeline to include significant events before Mary was born and those after she died. Compare life in 16th century Scotland with life today. take part in role play and be interviewed in the ‘hot seat’ about your role in Mary’s life. The Union of the Crowns • Discuss the significance of the Union of the Crowns on life today. Stick a name on each child’s back (without them seeing the name) and they must find out who they are by asking other children questions (note. or with prisons today. Use the images of portraits included in this pack to create paintings or models of clothing worn at the time. Life in 16th Century Scotland • • • Compare the life of the rich with that of the poor. • Using the information obtained in the task above. • Discuss the illustration of the execution of Mary. clothing.
• Write a set of answers. • Pupils could create a quiz or board game about the life of Mary Queen of Scots. Other Suggestions: • Dramatise the life of Mary Queen of Scots.Mary Queen of Scots The Family Tree of the Stewarts & Tudors • Use this to assist with discussions about the relationship of key people in Mary’s story. Kings and Queens of Scotland • Use this to follow the line of monarchs to today. • Create a timeline of the monarchs. and ask pupils to write questions for the answers. 40 .
5. When did John Knox return to Scotland? 12. What religion was Mary’s mother? 7. What reason. What were the terms of the treaty? 3. Who was the first Scottish Protestant martyr? 8. Which important figure in the Reformation was taken as a slave to work at the oars of the French galleys? 11. What happened as a result of Wishart’s execution? 10. Which two religions did the Reformation split the Church into? 2. Who was King of Scotland when this happened? 5. What religion was Mary? 41 . Give two examples of royal marriages which strengthened the alliance. Why was religion important to people in the 16th century? 3. other than religious beliefs. What religion was Scotland when Mary returned from France? 16. How did the treaty influence every day life in Scotland? 4. Which country sent troops to support Scotland against attack from the French in 1560? 15. What happened as a result of John Knox preaching against idolatry? 13. When did the treaty officially end? The Reformation 1. did those who were rebelling against Mary of Guise and the Catholic religion give for their actions? 14. Why was there an alliance between Scotland and France? 2.Mary Queen of Scots Questions The Background to Mary’s Story The Auld Alliance 1. What were the religions of France and England when Mary became Queen of Scotland? 6. Who commanded the execution of George Wishart? 9. Which English king converted England to Protestantism? 4.
When did Mary arrive at Leith? 2. leader of the Protestant Church. Mary of Guise. When did Mary become queen of France? 8. how were Mary and Lord Darnley related? 3. How old was Mary when she became a widow? 9. 5. How did John Knox. When did Mary and Darnley marry? 4. describe Mary’s arrival? 4. Name some of the places where Mary stayed. Who helped the Scots to fight the English? 6. How old was Mary when she married Francis? 6. how did Darnley change? The Murder of Riccio (Rizzio) 1. Marriage to Lord Darnley 1. Give examples of some pastimes which Mary enjoyed. How old was Mary when she left for Scotland? 2. Why did England attack Scotland? 5. Who was Mary brought up with? 4. How did Mary feel when she left France? Arrival at Leith 1. Who was Mary to marry as a result of the ‘rough wooing’? Mary’s Life in France 1. How old was Mary when she became queen of Scotland? 2. How did Elizabeth view Mary and Darnley’s marriage? 5. Before they were married. Why did Mary need to marry again? 2. Describe how Mary looked for her wedding. Who was Riccio? 42 . Where was Mary taken when she first arrived at Leith? 5. Describe the scene when Mary travelled to Holyrood Palace. Give examples of some of the things Mary learnt during her time in France. Mary’s Life in Scotland 1. Did Mary’s mother. Why did they want this to happen? 4. Which two countries wanted Mary to marry a royal from their country? 3. 7. go with her? 3. Why did the royal court travel around Scotland? 2. 3. What was the weather like? 3.Mary Queen of Scots The Life of Mary Queen of Scots The ‘Rough Wooing’ 1. After they were married.
Were these letters genuine? Imprisonment 1. Was Mary allowed to give evidence at the investigation into Lord Darnley’s death? 4. What religion was Elizabeth? 3. What happened to the Duke of Norfolk when he tried to free Mary? The Babington Plot 1. What was Bothwell’s fate? Escape from Lochleven Castle 1.Mary Queen of Scots 2. Why did Elizabeth think that Mary’s supporters would try to kill her? 4. Who were the main suspects in Darnley’s murder? 3. Describe the events of Darnley’s murder. Which royal did Mary go to for help after she escaped? Mary and Elizabeth 1. 2. What religion was the marriage ceremony? 3. Describe the events of Riccio’s murder. Create a family tree to show how Mary and Elizabeth were related. Who did Mary rely on more after Darnley’s death? Mary and the Earl of Bothwell 1. What did these letters appear to prove? 3. 2. How soon after Darnley’s death did Mary and Bothwell get married? 2. 5. Who produced the Casket Letters? 2. What did Sir Anthony Babington suggest in his letters to Mary? 4. 2. Describe Mary’s escape from Loch Leven Castle. 3. How did the Protestant nobles react to this marriage? 4. Describe the events which led to Mary’s abdication. Did Mary and Elizabeth ever meet? The Casket Letters 1. The Murder of Lord Darnley 1. Describe some of the pastimes Mary could do during her imprisonment. How did Mary respond to this idea? 43 . How did Mary smuggle letters in and out of Chartley Hall? 3. Name some of the places where Mary was kept prisoner. What happened as a result of this investigation? 5. Why was Mary not allowed to communicate by letter? 2. 2. Why did Darnley plot to murder Riccio? 3.
When was Mary beheaded? 4. Who was intercepting these letters? 6. Describe some of the events of Mary’s execution. 5. Why did James VI of Scotland also become James I of England? 2. When did this happen? 44 . Why were Mary’s belongings burnt? The Union of the Crowns 1.Mary Queen of Scots 5. Why did Elizabeth delay in signing the death warrant for Mary? 3. When was Mary found guilty of treason? 2. What crime was Mary now accused of? The Trial and Execution of Mary 1.
45 . 1560 King Francis II of France. Mary’s husband. died. 1567 Mary was executed. 1563 Mary married Lord Darnley. 1542 1548 Mary married Francis.Mary Queen of Scots The Life of Mary Queen of Scots Research the life of Mary Queen of Scots to complete the timeline below by filling in the date or the event. Dauphin of France. Mary was born. 1566 Lord Darnley was murdered.
Lord Darnley was murdered. Mary married Lord Darnley.Mary Queen of Scots The Life of Mary Queen of Scots Answers Research the life of Mary Queen of Scots to complete the timeline below by filling in the date or the event. Mary married Francis. Mary became Queen of France. Mary went to France. Mary was executed. Mary’s husband. died. Mary abdicated. Mary returned to Scotland. Dauphin of France. 1542 1548 1558 1561 1562 1563 1565 1566 1567 1567 1587 Mary was born. 46 . King Francis II of France. James is born. David Rizzio was murdered.
who was dressed in the manner of all the lower domestic servants in a suit of coarse grey cloth. His outfit was completed by a pair of coarse woollen breeches which reached to just above his knees. or sark. where fine French cuisine was already being prepared for the evening meal. and had been since the Court had arrived from St Andrews a few days before. He 47 . a servant boy. Queen Mary had come to Falkland to relax and join in the hunt for stags and wild boar. the servants were hurriedly carrying out their duties in preparation for her return from the day’s sport. Mary Tudor. the firebreathing Knox could sleep peacefully in his bed. it was fashioned like the dress of the gentlemen of the court. but he knew that Mary Stuart would never follow the same course that her cousin. The heat was intense and the smoke and steam filled his lungs and caused him such discomfort that he felt that he would choke at any minute. James was accompanied by his young assistant. When James entered the kitchen he was reminded. situated next to the turnpike stair in the east range. or fustian. James himself wore clothes which indicated his higher status among the servants. He felt that his fair Scots queen would continue to follow the teachings of her own church. James detested the reformers and most especially their chief spokesman. John Knox.Mary Queen of Scots A Royal Visit to Falkland Palace Spring 1562 In the Palace of Falkland everything was in a state of turmoil. So. Many people loved her youthful beauty and were captivated by her gay laughter. On his head the boy wore a broad flat cap made from thick blue cotton. It consisted of a worn black doublet over a white cotton shirt. for nothing could be gained by burning the reformers at the stake. So it was with a keen sense of devotion to his young mistress that James turned his attention to the task of organising the provisions for the queen’s supper table. as always. the yellowing tinges of which showed that it was no longer the newest of garments. as far as James was concerned. as it was then called. at present. for no martyr’s blood would be spilt in Scotland. Although Mary had been crowned Queen of Scots at the age of 9 months. The Master of the Queen’s Household. she had been brought up in the French Court and had reigned as Queen Consort of that country. but he also knew that her promise not to interfere with an individual’s right to follow the dictates of his own conscience was a genuine one. had followed in England. of the vision of hell he had heard the priest talk about at Mass. Francis de Bissoy. To the royal household the young queen was still something of a novelty: only 7 months had passed since she had landed at Leith on that day of the storm and fog. but there were others who doubted the sincerity of her intentions. One who did not doubt his young queen was James Merschall who was in charge of the royal larder. and. James’ first visit was to the palace kitchen. had told him to visit the servants in the kitchen and the bakehouse to find out what was required from the larder. Although it was made of a coarse woollen cloth. passed down from another servant in part payment of the boy’s wages. He had heard all the arguments of the reformers who feared that a Catholic queen would endeavour to destroy the newly established religion.
Mary Queen of Scots
always felt extremely sorry for the kitchen servants who had to work in this stifling atmosphere and he could not wait to get back to the fresh coolness of the larder. Everything in the great vaulted kitchen was as usual that day. The large open fire was filled with iron pots hanging on tripods blackened by the heat of the burning coals. Two large salmon were boiling in a huge pot in preparation for the servant’s meal. Salmon was one of the most common of Scots fish and James had often heard the servants complain about the number of times they had to eat it every week. The cook told James that the queen had ordered a supper which consisted of soup a la reine, followed by friars’ fish, and venison soaked in claret. The meal was to be completed with a confection of pears and apples mixed with the best French wine. So James returned to the larder to despatch the necessary provisions for the preparation of these delicacies. A haunch of venison had been sent to the kitchen the previous night as it had to be soaked in the claret for at least 6 hours before it was cooked. However, James still had to supply the kitchen staff with veal, fowl and herbs; the main ingredients of the rich, white soup, which the mother of Mary Queen of Scots, Marie of Guise, had introduced to Scotland from France. He also sent his young assistant down to the stank, or fish pond, which was situated to the west of the palace stables, to produce the finest red trout for the dish known as friars’ fish. This also consisted of assorted herbs and spices, lemon, anchovies and Rhenish wine. James’ next visit was to the bakehouse in the south range to find out what provisions were needed by Alexander Carpentyn, the queen’s baker. Although the bakehouse was always very hot, James never thought that the atmosphere was as oppressive as that of the kitchen. He knew that this was mainly due to the fact that the bread was all baked in the oven, so the intense heat was not able to circulate all around the room. He found Carpentyn resting against one of the great stone walls and soon heard that all that was needed from the larder was some of the bruised grain which would be mixed with flour and bran to make ‘ravelled bread’ for the servant’s meal. The highest quality white bread, which was called ‘manchet’, would not be baked that day as there had already been enough made the day before to serve the needs of the queen and her court. At this point James’ servant returned from fetching the red trout from the stank and was chatting quietly to the bakehouse servants. James knew that the lad loved to linger here to watch the oven being opened and the sweet-smelling, new-baked loaves being removed. However, there was work to be done so there was no time to be wasted. As they were leaving the bakehouse James noticed the young lad slipping two oatcakes under his blue cotton cap. He had warned the boy so often about stealing but as he always got hungry at this time of day there was no point attempting to dissuade him from this heathen habit. As they were returning to the larder through the courtyard of the palace, James and the boy heard the blast of the hunting horn coming from far off in the great oaks of Falkland Wood. James could picture the scene as the young queen and her retinue gave chase to the stags with their pointed antlers. The hunt was obviously well advanced so it would not be long until the royal party returned, ravenous for fine French cuisine.
Mary Queen of Scots
The blast of the hunting horn was also heard in the royal apartments where Mary Beaton, one of the queen’s ladies-in-waiting, was sitting by an open window. She was embroidering a small decorative panel which incorporated the royal emblems of Scotland, England and France; the thistle, the rose and the fleur de lys. Mary Beaton set aside her embroidery and gazed out of the window at the lush greenery of Falkland Park. The new leaves on the massive oaks shone in the weak, early afternoon sunlight. How she loved Falkland! Of course, her family had special associations with the palace as her father, and his father before him, had been hereditary keepers of the stylish building. How well she remembered playing hide-and-seek as a child with her mother, Jeanne Gresoner, a Frenchwoman who had come over to Scotland with Marie of Lorraine. It had therefore been no surprise when Mary had been picked to accompany the young Mary Queen of Scots to France. Mary Beaton had liked living in France but she sorely missed her native Scotland. So it was with a light heart that she now savoured the delights of Falkland. Certainly, the little palace could not compare with the grand French hunting palace of Fontainbleau, but the beauty of its architecture and its homely comforts endeared it more to her than the spacious elegance of any French palace. Mary Beaton put down her embroidery and rose to summon the ladies of the queen’s chamber, Thore and Francoise, who had to help her arrange the clothes which the queen would wear at supper that night. Mary herself was dressed in a simple gown of black, white and lilac. Although this dress was one which signified that the court was still in mourning for the queen’s late husband, Francois II, the ladies-in-waiting were now allowed to wear their ‘second dule’, a relaxation of the first period of mourning which dictated they wear all black. Thore and Francoise entered the room chattering excitedly of the news they had heard from one of the pages. Apparently the queen had killed three stags that day and the hunt was now nearly at an end. Mary quickly organised the young girls in their work. If the hunt was at an end, the queen would soon return and would want to change from her fur-lined riding habit into a more suitable court dress. Thore picked a black camlet, or mohair, dress from the queen’s cabinet and laid it on the four-poster bed which was draped in velvet of the queen’s favourite green. The neck of this mourning dress was stiffened with buckram, a coarse linen fabric, and mounted with white lace and ribbons. A little white ruff embroidered with pearls, a black velvet heart-shaped cap and a white gossamer veil were also laid out on the bed. From the queen’s jewellery chest Mary picked out a necklace of rubies and pearls with a belt to match and, finally, a little gold crucifix was laid on top of the veil. As the last touches were being put to this arrangement by the three bright-eyed young girls, horses could be heard galloping towards the palace. The hunt was over, and the queen, delighted with her success, would soon be with them.
Mary Queen of Scots
How to make a Ruff
1. Cut two strips of cotton or crepe paper 1 metre long by 15 cm wide. If using material, sew hems on the edges. 2. Fold the material in half along the length, and sew a running stitch close to the fold. Make sure you tie a knot at the end of the thread. 3. When you have sewn along both pieces of material, pull the end of the thread until the material is the right length to go around your neck. Then tie a knot to stop the gathers coming undone. Do this to both pieces. 4. Put the two gathered pieces of material together and sew them one on top of the other, close to the fold. Tie a knot in the thread at both ends. 5. When you have sewn both pieces of material together, cut a piece of bias binding 4 cm wide by 60 cm long. Fold the bias binding in half length wise. 6. Place the gathered fabric in the middle of the length of bias binding, so that the folded edge of the gathered fabric is sandwiched in the bias binding. Sew all of the pieces together, and along the folded bias binding without fabric in it. 7. Pull apart all the sections to make the ruffle wide. Tie around your neck.
thread. 6. Turn out so that the right side is showing. braid. 5. heavy vilene. Put the piece of stiffening in the brim. Decorate with braid. Clip the curves. 2. Fold the loose edge of the brim over and slip stitch to the edge of the crown. etc. feathers. and press with an iron. beads. 3. trimming if required. 4. Piece A is the crown of the hat. Fold the brim pieces (B) the right way out. beads. Pin piece A to one B piece. There are three pattern pieces. Piece C is also cut twice. 51 . feathers. Sew this together. using up the excess fabric by making even-sized pleats of about 3 cm. 7. and this is cut once. match up the pins. hiding all the raw edges. Zig-zag stitch around the outside of piece A and the inside edges of both B pieces. Place the right sides of both B pieces together and sew the outside edges together. With the right side of fabric together. Mark out quarters on the A piece and on one side of the B pieces. and is cut twice in the same fabric as the crown.Mary Queen of Scots How to make a Boy’s Hat Materials needed: 50 cm of 90 cm wide fabric (velvet or taffeta). in buckram or heavy vilene for stiffening. Place the C pieces on top of each other and sew (or iron) together to make a double thickness. Piece B is the brim. 1. being careful not to catch the other side of the brim (the other B piece). Push the crown (piece A) up to make it stick out.
to make a tube. Leave one of the long sides and zig-zag stitch the edge. iron on heavy vilene 25 x 50 cm. black elastic 12 cm long. 2. sew the velvet to the bottom edge of one of the pieces of felt. Sew only on the felt side. and sew them across the piece of felt that has the velvet attached to it. 9. One piece of braid should be sewn over the join between the felt and velvet. Take some pieces of braid that are the same length as the felt. and sew along each side of the felt. and two in heavy vilene. Sew two running stitches close to the edge and gather the fabric to the width of the bottom of the felt. Then put the other piece of felt directly on top and sew along the edge with broderie-anglaise sandwiched in between the two layers of felt. Cut a piece of 1_ cm-wide. 1 _ cm thick black elastic. black velvet 70 x 40 cm. With the right side of the felt to the right side of the velvet. Fold over the free edge of the felt. 7. 5. piece A is the head-band and piece B is the hood. Take the edges of the velvet. and place it on the top edge of one of the pieces of the felt with the right side up. beads. 3. right sides together. Iron the two pieces of vilene to the velvet pieces. tuck inside all raw edges and slip stitch to the edge of the velvet. There are two pattern pieces. 4. 6. 52 . Place it so that the fancy edge faces the bottom of the felt. 1. right sides together. Cut one of piece B in black velvet. 8. thread. Cut two pieces of A in black velvet. starting from the bottom. Take a piece of broderieanglaise 40 cm long. Open out the felt head-band. You can also sew beads or strings of ‘pearls’ or sequins on the head-dress. Sew the elastic as shown in the illustration. Fold the two sides of the felt. broderie-anglaise. and sew up the first 10 to 15 cm of the side seams. trim and turn the right way out.Mary Queen of Scots How to make a Girls Head-dress Materials needed: Black felt 25 x 50 cm. Take piece B (velvet) and hem three of the edges. braid.
Mary Queen of Scots Images 53 .
Mary Queen of Scots Mary in White Mourning. 1559-61 © Scottish National Portrait Gallery 54 . after Francois Clouet. c.
c. 1544 by Master John www.Mary Queen of Scots Mary I.uk 55 .npg.org.
after the Nicholas Hilliard miniature of 1578 www.uk 56 .npg.org.Mary Queen of Scots Mary.
James Hepburn. 4th Earl of Bothwell Artist unknown © Scottish National Portrait Gallery .
David Riccio Artist unknown © Copyright the British Museum www.ac.thebritishmuseum.uk .
Mary Queen of Scots Execution of Mary at Fotheringhay Castle. 1587 Artist unknown © Scottish National Portrait Gallery 59 .
10 February 1567) © National Museums of Scotland .Kirk o’ Field (Contemporary sketch of the murder of Darnley.
1547 Artist unknown www.uk .npg.org.Edward VI. c.
npg. artist unknown www. 1575. c.Mary Queen of Scots Elizabeth.uk 62 .org.
Queen of Scotland © National Portrait Gallery . Mary.npg. London www.org.Mary Queen of Scots Henry Stuart.uk 63 . Lord Darnley.
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