Mohammad Nasuha b.

Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203

REMEDIAL IN TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS Part A. Question 1.

Why do we need to plan for remedial programs? The term remedial means or implies that something is being done to correct educational situations which need to be repaired. The purpose of a remedial program is to assist the student in overcoming deficiencies such as:  ineffective teaching  inadequate curriculum.  repeated failure or poor work habits  dislike of school  slow maturation.

 Oppressive or inconducive environment.  Slow learner  Emotional or physical problems The remedial program shall comprise one or more of the following: a. repetition of a phase, block, course or rotation; b remedial work to be done during a period of time in which the student is not participating in the activities of another scheduled block, unit or rotation (with the exception of electives); c remedial work to be done during a scheduled phase, block, course or rotation. This option is reserved for a remedial program that is designed to correct limited, circumscribed deficits. Teachers in remedial program have to assist students in acquiring effective study skills and the self-confidence they need to reenter an academic 1

Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 environment.Mohammad Nasuha b. These tests are easy to administer as their coverage is extensive for testing 2 . It can also be used to design and prepare the individual based on each learner’s needs.  Survey test  Teacher-made test  Computer managed test  Attitudinal measures. but they also may need to have the knowledge to detect challenges their students may have and provide them with access to a broader system of additional services that are required to address their challenges. Teachers also may encounter students with learning or physical disabilities that require additional expertise. However there are many methods that teachers can use to collect information on learners’ difficulties in mathematics such as :  Standardized test. Identify the various methods that teachers can collect information on learners’ difficulties in mathematics? There are no intensive diagnostic assessment methodology available for teachers to use whenever the teachers faced learners with difficulties in mathematics. The teachers have to find one method that is suitable that can cater to the need of each individual. Question 2. Standardized tests are used to identify learners for remedial program. Teachers should not only possess an understanding of how to help these students achieve their goals.

With the advancement of electronics computers and various form of media have paved ways for testing on remedial learners as to ascertain the learners’ level of ability and achievement. Teacher-made tests could provide the teachers with immediate and reasonable insight into the learners mathematical ability. All the results could give information in creating meaningful program for the learner. The results should guide the teachers to plan and place emphasis on the components of mathematics needed in the remedial program. These analyses could help teachers in designing remedial program that cater for each individual. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 computational skills. The result from the computer-managed tests can be immediately analysed and measurement of strength and weakness of the learners can be done. These tests can be used to gauge the learners strength and weakness. The results of the tests could give the teachers some ideas of the learners’ strength and weakness. Attitudinal measurement can provide and reveal interesting notion or awareness and information about groups of learner as well as about individual learner. Survey tests are adopted from workbooks designed to asses specifically the skill level of each mathematical learners. understanding of concepts and problem solving. Survey tests are adopted from workbooks designed to asses specifically the learners’ mathematical skill level. This 3 . Teacher-made tests can be done dailoy.Mohammad Nasuha b. These tests can provide teachers with analyses of learners’ strength and weakness in various key mathematical skills and concepts. The results can be used to guide teachers the components of mathematics which should be given emphasis in a remedial program. weekly or once a fortnight. Computer-managed tests is a norm nowadays.

" There are many strategies for remedial learners that teachers can choose. Question 3.Mohammad Nasuha b.  Learner projects  Mathematical games and puzzle  Camouflaged drill  Peer group tutoring  Computer assisted instruction 4 . recreation. Beside assessing attitude. They are :  Individualized instruction  Small group instruction  Whole class instruction. this methodology can be used to determine the learners’ interests. All these factors can be useful in preparing a meaningful program thus improving the learners’ achievement in mathematics. Strategies are only tools and "they should not be expected to work equally well in all situations. work and learning can also be ascertained. Discuss the strategies that can be applied to help remedial learners. Specific interests in school. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 type of information could result a positive effect as it provide an insight in a remedial program.

These activities require planning by both the teachers and learners. The teacher can vary the instruction by using different models such as mathematical games. Another strategy is mathematical games and puzzles which can be used as supplement to mathematical instructions. history of mathematics. selected group will receive demonstration on a specific skill which is deficient. Teachers can analyze the results and prescribe remedial activities using workbooks. clocks. volume. in 5 . It can be done either individually. Learner project strategy means developing activities in which learners applying their skills in a variety of interesting and motivating ways. Areas of activities are abacus. It may be administered at the beginning of the school year to determine the specific deficiencies and area which needed attention. prime numbers. The teachers’ role and assistance is vital in planning and executing the learning activities. mathematic skills kit. calculator. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 Individualized instruction program is used as a diagnostic prescriptive approach for the remediation of mathematical skills. negative numbers. While other assignments wre given to the rest of the class. calculators and camouflaged drill in order o motivate learners and help them to understand mathematical concepts. angles. There’s a follow-up assessment on the accomplishment of the learners for a particular topic. This is done by breaking the class into small groups in accordance to their skill deficiencies. computer and others. magic squares. Small group and whole class instruction is usually conducted whenever there’s a general weakness exhibited by the learner. teacher prepared material and computer.Mohammad Nasuha b. songs.

Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 small group or to the whole class. Learners can also use the computer to connect to the internet in order to access the web. All these addition would ignite the interest of the learners. Peer group tutoring is another strategy in helping remedial learners. All these activities would be done under the teachers supervision. By using computer. The games are selected to meet both the deficiency needs and the recreational needs of the learner. Camouflaged drill is an important remediation strategy. Exercise for the learner is camouflaged by several methods such as: learners take an active role in planning and learners doing all the work under the teachers supervision.Mohammad Nasuha b. a teacher can add in interesting and colourful graphics. Computer assisted instruction means using computer and other ICT media to make the remedial more interesting. Tutoring by a friend or peer is effective whenever a teacher is not around to supervise. Using computer would also help teachers to modify the lesson to reach the learners level of achievement. 6 . Peer tutors are often directed or are required to follow a particular course of action or plan whenever the learners need assistance.

means having the minimum amount of working knowledge for everyday purposes. To be literate in math. The algebraic skills everyone should know are the following: • Given a formula and values that can be used in the formula. 7 . as opposed to being and expert. This means that an individual will become competent to deal with mathematics involved in the real world or situation problems that is related to nature. does not mean you should know the mechanics of these skills enough to do them without looking them up or using a calculator. What is mathematics literacy? Mathematics literacy is the ability to read and write and it comes in varying degrees. future and occupational life. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 Question 4. Among the situation would be :  Measurement: Another obvious concept. it is someone who correctly applies the skills they do have to given situations. Mathematics literate also means that the individual will be able to deal with mathematics situation in the current. The true "math literate" is not someone who has lots of math knowledge.Mohammad Nasuha b. Everyone should know both traditional and metric measures of length. weight (or mass). and they should know how to convert between these measures. volume. time and temperature. but also be able to know in what situations these skills may be appropriate. What does it mean to be "literate" in math? Literate. society and culture. area. calculate an answer using correct order of operations. The goal of mathematics education is to assist students to become mathematics literate.  Algebra: Here is where things get controversial.

and triangles without looking them up. bisect an angle. degrees.e. complimentary. • • Convert size on a scale model or map to actual dimensional size. including the types. similar angles. (bisect a line. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 • • • • Solve a simple (linear or rational) formula for any variable in the formula. write a linear equation (y = mx + b) for the line between those two points. congruence. draw a graph by plotting points. • • Given a linear equation. • Understand the Cartesian Coordinate system in two and three dimensions. squares. supplementary.e. parallel lines.  Geometry: • Knowing the various area and circumference formulas for circles. rectangles.. Given any function. all angles add to 180 degrees) • Use theorems to find measures that cannot easily be measured (i.Mohammad Nasuha b. basic theorems (i. Solve linear equations of the form Ax + B = C. radians. Be familiar with all the properties of lines and angles: acute.) • Know and use the Pythagorean theorem 8 . draw a graph. etc. obtuse. Solve ratio problems of the form x/A = B/C. • Knowing all the basic three dimensional shapes from cylinders to icosahedrons.. • Know all the properties of triangles. etc) • Be able to do basic constructions using compass and straight edge. etc. Given two points. use similar triangles to determine heights of buildings.

misleading or ambiguous questions. given a situation. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203  Statistics: • Given a set of data. pie chart. such as blind study vs. • Understand concepts of standard deviation. OR. they should be able to determine which concepts could be used. • Understand how rephrasing arguments. or whatever is appropriate. Moreover. Know common logical fallacies. The list above represents the math concepts we run into all the time. XOR.  Logic: • Understand basic logical operators.Mohammad Nasuha b. Understand how studies can be invalidated. mode. if and only if. etc. linear distribution vs.) changes the arguments. • • Understand problems of data collecting and gathering a random sample. and how multiple interpretations of data can be made. NOT. but a full 9 . and could easily come up with situations where each one could be used. and graph data as a histogram. bell curve distributions. median. find mean. if then vs. • Understand how statistics can be abused. double blind study. correlation. (contra positives. etc. • • Identify valid and invalid arguments. etc. AND. To do this requires not just a familiarity with math. A person who is literate in math should have no problems with any of the above concepts.

economics. nor is it restricted to arithmetic. politics. Creating a test of math literacy would have to focus on testing this understanding. Mathematics is not numerology.Mohammad Nasuha b. everything that we do will involve mathematics. social science. There is no shortage of open problems. not just a bunch of math problems to solve. and occasionally by mathematicians themselves. environment. long papers not supported by previously published theory). As a matter of fact. in which everything has already been worked out. Mathematicians publish many thousands of papers embodying new discoveries in mathematics every month. Pseudo mathematics is a form of mathematics-like activity undertaken outside academia. It is also important as a tool in understanding a variety of topics and issues in life. The aim of mathematics education is to help learners become mathematically literate. nor is it accountancy. consisting of proof-attempts made in an isolated way (that is. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 understanding. Mathematics literacy is important for individual’s current and future life as an intelligent citizen. The misconceptions involved are normally based on: 10 . What are the common misconceptions in mathematics? Mathematics is not a closed intellectual system. art and music. business. Question 5. The relationship to generally-accepted mathematics is similar to that between pseudo science and real science. It often consists of determined attacks on famous questions.

 Mathematics provide exact answer when actually mathematics are never so clear cut especially when using real-life situations.  lack of familiarity with. In reality. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203  misunderstanding of the implications of mathematical rigor  attempts to circumvent the usual criteria for publication of mathematical papers in a learned journal after peer review. This will make life unbearable. Many people or individuals loath mathematics. All it takes is self confidence and hard work. and therefore  underestimation of. the existing literature.  Mathematics is irrelevant to life. The reality is that everyone can do mathematics. These individuals have developed such attitudes due to several reasons. boring and tedious subject and seemingly unimportant to one’s life.  Learning mathematics will make people less sensitive to the aesthetic aspect of life. . Only certain and privilege people can learn mathematics well due to their special and rare abilities. Among the misconception about mathematics are:  Mathematics require special brain. mathematics are involved in many ways and it is interesting as well as enjoyable. often in the belief that the journal is biased against the author. hates mathematics. 11 . fear mathematics and the like.  Mathematics dealt with complex issues and advanced mathematical concepts.Mohammad Nasuha b. These attitudes are reinforced by classes that present mathematics as a dry.

 Understanding and using functions. relations and pattern. There are several learning skill that learners have to become proficient. The skills are:  Problem solving  Communication skills related to mathematics.  Integrations of topic within mathematics  Relating mathematics to other subjects and to the learner’s real world. Develop a remedial program to develop this skill.Mohammad Nasuha b.  Probability and statistics  Approximation and estimation  Using number sense and number systems effectively  Computational ability – both written and mental computations – with rational and some irrational numbers  Two and three dimensional geometry including both synthetic and algebraic argument in geometry. Question 1. Identify a specific mathematical learning skill that is difficult for students to acquire. computers etc) to solve mathematical problems 12 . Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 Part B.  Understanding and using mathematical structures  Measurement  Algebra  Trigonometry  Discrete mathematics intuitive foundations of calculus  Using technology (calculators.

This is to instill confidence to the learners. The are related to problem solving and decision making. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 In my opinion. After the learners have completed the exercises. The teacher would also study student related factors such as gender. Using these medium would make the subject interesting and can enhanced the memory for remedial learners. First the problem is shown in to the learners. the most difficult mathematical learning skill that a learner in an elementary school would be solving problem. they would go through the questions to get the correct answer. The teacher would read and explain the problem to the learners. These skills are capable of being acquired and then transformed from conscious control to automatic processes and can be developed through instruction. motivation factor and interest. An example for a remedial program in order to develop this skill is by using computer and LCD. The problem would be solved through a step-by-step procedures. the teacher would diagnose each individual learning style. The teacher would also determine the learners strength and weakness. Problem solving requires cognitive skills. The problem would be shown on the screen. The teacher would also examine the topic and content in order to pinpoint the learners level of achievement. After the first step has been done. Before any remedial program is done. Usage of a variety of colour would interest the learner and prolong the concentration span of the learners. the learners would try to solve the second problem under the supervision of the teacher. intelligence. The teacher would ask questions regarding the problem and get feedback on the learners understanding of the problem. 13 . age.Mohammad Nasuha b.

the teacher would assess the learners achievement and determine the adequacy and flexibility of the program. The activities of the club are planned so that members would show genuine appreciation of mathematics. reading and building mathematics sentences correctly. each player would randomly take a number. Before the game start. The game is based on the basic number and mathematics calculation. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 After the exercise. Question 2. Mathematic club permits unlimited investigation of mathematical topics and applications beyond the scope of the school curriculum. It could help the students the skill of counting.Mohammad Nasuha b. Ipoh is one of the various clubs in the school. One of the activities of the club is organizing a board game called ‘GMATH’. The player 14 . The target of the students will be divided into two groups. It is a game that could help students learn mathematics through game as it was more fun. It also help teacher as it can become a teaching tool. The game can be played by four players. its development and application of mathematics in everyday life. If the learners couldn’t get the correct answers. Mathematics club in SK Seri Ampang. The objective of the game is to accumulate points through the correct mathematics equation. Describe an extra-curricular club activity in your school that provides mathematical knowledge to students. GMATH can be played in a class at any suitable time. the teacher would add extra medium to make the learners really understand.

Example of a GMATH board game.. x. At the beginning of the game.Mohammad Nasuha b. each player will take nineteen tiles to ensure every players have twenty tiles when the players turn come. The symbol tiles cannot be exchanged except the = symbol. The next player would build another equation by continuing the first equation. Each player will also take five of the tile with the symbols. it will be permitted but no point will be given during the exchange. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 with the biggest number will start the game and other players would follow accordingly. Points are given for every numbers on the tiles. The player will start the game by building a mathematics equation in the middle of the board. . If the player insists on changing the symbol tile. = 3 2 + 1 2 1 = 0 5 1 15 .+.

E. http://www. Dr. 3. Kidin Shahran.remedialprograms for teachers. (2007).). OH:Merrill. Dr. Open University Malaysia.& Semel. SBEM3203 Remedial In Teaching ang Learning Mathematics..com/ 16 .E. Abas 770501026577001 SBEM3203 REFERENCE 1. Prof. Language assessment and intervention for the learning disable child(and ed. Mansor Fadzil & Prof. Columbus. Kuala Lumpur 2.(1984).com/ http://www.americanteachers. Mohd. Wiig.Mohammad Nasuha b.

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