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Significance of the Study: Management of Agora Management is the part and parcel of everyone life. It is not only related in the business, it also affects human life as well as social life. The length of human life is short but the length of business is so large. So, we can say that management is a very and relevant tropic right now. It’s also important for us to know about the difference between space and parts of management. We are the standard of business Studies, so if is out question that management is a very important topic of our syllabus. If the word comes in business then the word management comes with it. After knowing all these as a student I cannot let it go. As a part of study and also my personal intention I chose this topic. Management is a small word which starts with word manage. It dreams to gather things together. So we can easily say form its meaning it main objective in together. Employers are the owner of the firm or the representative assigned by owner. So management starts form that stage and we can say that the management born form there. This is the top level. The first design what will be the structure of the firm and how they going to operate these organization. The also decide has much the power they give to employ. All these things will work or proper management. If the owner or employer failed to make proper management stage if will ruins all the recourse of the owner which is not accepted. Employees are the servants that operate the management according to. The instruction they are given by their employees. If they have not proper management they will lose their direction and their effort or labor wouldn’t bring any good for the organization on the other hand they will failed to follow the instruction given by several superior for a single task. As a result the chain of command brakes and the whole things turned in to mass. Methodology: To accomplish this term paper two types of data sources have been used: ? Primary Data ? Secondary Data
? Customer’s policy. ? Its seasonal management. ? Office management. ? Its information system. ? Its automation. ? It process of activities. ? Department wise procurement. ? Security system etc. ? Departmentalization. Agora Super Store. ? Control system. ? Its skill development procedure.Background Understanding the historical context from which some of today's organizational structures have developed helps to explain why some structures is the way they are but Agora using a structured which is . ? It’s working system. ? Inter personal relationship. ? Its strategy. ? Communication structure.Primary sources are: • Customer’s attitude towards Agora • Agora’s Sales Person Behavior • Checkout Counter System • Flyers & Banners placement for discount • Salesperson’s Comments • Interviewing Customer Manager Secondary sources are: • Agora’s Web • Competitors Report • Newspaper Articles • Other Web Articles Analysis: ? From this study report we can get to know the managerial activities of Agora which can be listed below: ? How an organization works. ? Its stone system. ? Departmental process. ? Human recourse management.
the structure of Agora evolves as the organization grows and changes over time. historydevelopment. a range of choices are possible. unless the organization is very small. Second. the emergence of the traditional organizational structure in Agora provides additional detail regarding how this affected the practice of management. and technology that assists in forming relationships with their suppliers. the number of people and jobs that are grouped together are decided by the Managers. At one end of the spectrum. or the span of control—the number of employees reporting to a single manager. I have decided to write my term paper on the Agora. Part of the reason. Third. a leading one stop shopping mall in Bangladesh. Because of this unique management process. Agora formula for success simply put is their relationship with customers. This is related to the number of people that are to be managed by one person. but the structures were developed or are consciously designed to enable the organization to accomplish its work. the managers of Agora have to make decisions as they develop an organizational structure. although they may not be explicitly aware of these decisions. This is referred to as the division of labour.more horizontally capitalizing on the innovativeness of their employees. places Agora as the top discount retailer. jobs are highly specialized with employees performing a narrow range of activities. First. the way decision-making authority is to be distributed is determined. Fourth. as this section discusses. First. Typically. is that organizational structure of Agora that has a certain inertia—the idea borrowed from physics and chemistry that something in motion tends to continue on that same path. Agora is synonymous with market at low prices and name brand quality products. From the very beginning of Agora was thriving. the jobs are grouped in some way or in other words jobs are departmentalized. while at the other end of the spectrum employees perform a variety of tasks. Second. employees. and Growth Sam Agora to become the top discount . In making each of these design decisions. The company basis of success and foundations cannot be credited to the current management. The structure of Agora is unique in some respects. the organization's work must be divided into specific jobs.
To maintain a profit. Agora needs to do research on the locations that it moves to. the convenience of shopping hours that extend far into the evening. milk and sugar) are often sold as loss leaders. Agora comprises meat.retailer. Relationships need to be looked at closely especially between the employees and suppliers so that it becomes one of give. dairy. Agora usually make massive outlays for newspaper and other advertising and often present elaborate in-store displays of products. and trust and not so one sided. that is. Agora attempt to make up for the low margins with a high overall volume of sales. Its basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof at relatively low prices. . Agora usually offer products at low prices by reducing margins. produce. The customs and the people need to be thoroughly looked into so a new store opens as smoothly as possible. pharmacy products. and pet supplies. It is now a part of a chain that owns or controls other supermarkets located in Dhaka. Certain products (typically staples such as bread. Most supermarkets also sell a variety of other household products that are consumed regularly household cleaning products. frequently. clothes. And see what the company could do to improve. medicine. and with sales of higher-margin items. and baked goods departments along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various nonfood items such as household cleaners. The Mega Corporation has eliminated top competitors such as Nandan and PQS to reign supreme over the discount retailing market. Agora at a glance Agora is a supermarket that is a departmentalized store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. take. discount retailing evolved due to frugality during year 2000. It is larger in size and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store. this increases the opportunities for economies of scale. and some sell a much wider range of non-food products. Agora opened the first outlet in Dhanmondi in 2000. Meeting could be held with business owners and locals to answer in questions or concerns. with negative margins. Other advantages include ease of parking and. Agora occupies a large floor space on a single level and is situated near residential areas in the Dhaka in order to be convenient to consumers. Following international trend.
Milk. and other essential items are located in the rear and other out of the way places. Objectives of Agora The following is an overview of the case analysis of Agora. Its initial success was based on the "Pile it high. The overall environment for Agora and its competitors is changing from a productoriented atmosphere towards an emphasis on satisfying all of a consumer's needs. bread. grocery chains are changing the importance on satisfying the consumer in order to keep their profit margins high. The front of the store or Front-End is where one might find point of sale machines or cash registers. This is conducive to generation of dual-income families and a growing amount of adult singles with busier lifestyles. In order for Agora to remain competitive it wants to re-evaluate its future opportunities for growth without compromising its profits. Agora have plans to implement self-checkout devices in their stores in an attempt to reduce labor costs as well as bringing complete customer satisfaction. Here. Marketing Strategy of Agora Agora's growth over the last 6 years has involved a transformation of its strategy and image. In the year 2001 Agora's brand image was so negative that consultants advised the company to change the name of . This is purposely done to ensure maximum time spent in the store. sell it cheap" approach of the founder management of Rahim Afrooz. The disadvantage of this was that the stores had a poor image with middle-class customers. Interior of Agora: Agora’s interior is similar to most supermarkets in design and layout due to trends in marketing. where a group of four or five machines is supervised by a single assistant. Agora has intention to reduce labor costs further by shifting to self-service check-out machines.Customers usually shop by putting their products into shopping carts (trolleys) or baskets (self-service) and pay for the products at the check-out. At present. Industry-wide. customers have a 'one-stop' shopping experience. Some examples include the move towards a 'superstore' witnessed by some of Agora's competitors. strolling past other items and capitalizing on impulse buying. It produce tends to be near the entrance of the store.
which can undermine its appeal to upmarket customers even though it actually sells a wide range of upmarket products. 'No-one tries harder for customers'. We deliver this through our values. That is to appeal to all segments of the market”. • The management in the mid 2000. has taken the bold step of trying not to focus on the usual corporate mantra of "maximising shareholder value".8% share of ASDA and 15. with a 29. It has been innovative and energetic in finding ways to expand. but there is a clear focus on customer service at the top level of the company. including the upmarket "Finest" and low-price "Value". which are generally considered to be more profitable for a supermarket as it retains a higher portion of the overall profit than it does for branded products. The company has taken the lead in overcoming customer reluctance to purchasing own brands. such as making a large-scale move into the convenience-store sector. • Diversification: The company has a four-pronged strategy: o "Core Dhaka business" . compared to the 16. It did not accept this advice. The underlying aim is of course to make higher profits. The company's mission statement reads.That is. "They've pulled off a trick that I'm not aware of any other retailer achieving. which the major supermarket chains have traditionally shunned. yet by early 2003 it was the largest retailer in Dhaka. which had been the leading competitoe until it was beaten by Agora in 2004. "Our core purpose is. This phrase is used by Agora to describe its aspiration to appeal to upper. • One plank of this inclusivity has been Agora's use of its own-brand products. and 'Treat people how we like to be treated'". During its long term dominance of the supermarket sector Nandan’s retained an image as a high-priced middle class supermarket which considered itself to have such a wide lead on quality that it did not need to compete on price. This strategy has been abandoned since losing the number 1 spot to Agora and particularly since the adaption of new management in 2004 that has established a new customer-focused strategy closer to that of Agora. 'To create value for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty'. grocery retailing in its home market.its stores. . and was indifferent to attracting lower-income customers into its stores. medium and low income customers in the same stores.0% share of the grocery market according to retail analysts TNS Superpanel. According to Citigroup retail analyst David McCarthy.6% share of third-placed NANDAN. Key reasons for this success include: • An "inclusive offer". By contrast ASDA's marketing strategy is focused heavily on value for money.
o "Non-food business" . It also has done quite well in non-food sales in Ireland. DVDs • Confectionery • Cosmetics • Clothing and footwear • Dairy products • Diet foods . but Agora has been exceptionally successful. but Agora has generally implemented them more effectively. energy drink. including non-food Value and Finest ranges. CDs are one of the best examples.Many supermarket chains have attempted to diversify into other areas. with Agora Gulshan promising to sell all chart CDs (except compilations) for Tk. and thus made most profit.Agora has taken the lead in its sector in expanding into areas like dairy and utilities. etc) • Baby foods and products • Bakery • Books. Agora sells an expanding range of own-brand and as well as local and international non-food products.50. It usually enters into joint ventures with major players in these sectors. and magazines. such as: • Beverages products (juices. contributing its customer base and brand strength to the partnership. By late 2004 it was widely regarded as a major competitive threat to traditional high street chains in many sectors. Other supermarkets in Dhaka have done some of the same things. 70. including supermarket tabloids • Car care products • CDs. Agora typically sells many different types of items. newspapers.00 compared with local music stores selling the same for around tk.00 Retailing services" . from clothing to consumer electronics to health and beauty to media products.
Agora — along with the other major supermarkets — is experiencing price deflation. while individual cases can be cited. in their bid to highlight their claim of a Agora monopoly. Agora is increasingly a target for people in Dhaka who disapprove of the effects supermarket chains can have on farmers. but the supermarkets' critics. • Agora's 2004 Adminstore acquisition led to local and national protests. In March 2005 the Office of Fair Trading published an audit of the workings of its code of practice on relationships between supermarkets and their suppliers. suppliers and smaller competitors: • The group has been criticised for its tactics. including allegedly misleading consumers with a "phoney" price cut. The company responds by claiming that it follows industry-best practice and sources locally where it can to meet customer demand. It reported that no official complaints had been received against Agora or any of the other major supermarkets. • Agora is also censured by those who think that it infringes upon the interests of farmers and smaller suppliers. However.• Electrical items • Feminine hygiene products • Frozen foods • Fruits and vegetables • Housecleaning products • Meat • Medicines and first aid items • Personal hygiene and grooming products • Snacks Agora Supermarket: Controversy Friends Of The Earth campaign logo. contested that suppliers were prevented from . including Friends of the Earth. These campaigns have not hindered Agora's expansion programme very much. Agora's other store openings and expansions are sometimes contested by campaign groups.
although likely to be difficult and take time. 4. . if realistically managed. Find alternative sources to supply resources to Marks and Spencer stores abroad. The retailing companies (such as Agora) are consistent with the goal of EU accession which provides an external anchor but most persuasive is the fact that the focus on service delivery to the people. The combination of quality and price under various brand name offers customers value for their money. will reinforce popular support for such retailing companies (such as Agora). Increase marketing efforts. I have examined and evaluated the operations of Agora. Evaluation of Current Objectives and Current Strategy Conclusion: Let us conclude by saying that there are good reasons to feel confident that these retailing companies such as Agora. will succeed. The government program has identified improved performance as a key objective of reform and this offers clarity of purpose which can be widely understood. I recommend the following in order to ensure continued success for the future of all Marks and Spencer stores: 1. Agora Superstore: Recommendations & Conclusion Recommendations: With multiple stores in Dhaka. and develop new resources. In May 2004. and called for more rigorous supervision of the supermarkets. Strengthen existing resources. Agora is a leader in superstore retail organizations. 2. 3. A further report by the Office of Fair Trading in August 2005 concluded that the aims of the Code of Practice were being met. which led to concerns over employees continuing to work despite poor health (faced with a reduced income otherwise). Agora announced it was reducing sick pay in an attempt to reduce levels of unplanned absence. add complementary resources.complaining by fear of losing business. LTD including its strengths and weaknesses.
as required. . We would be pleased to react positively to any government request for technical and financial assistance.We believe these retailing companies (such as Agora) will benefit from the involvement of civil society organizations which have an inherent interest in improving government performance and in monitoring and providing objective feedback that is essential to any self-correcting system. We are particularly glad to have contributed in this report as further support to the retailing companies (such as Agora) being introduced by the authorities. The World Bank stands ready to support these retailing companies (such as Agora) with knowledge and financial assistance.