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1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Introduction to HRM Job satisfaction Definition of job satisfaction Job satisfaction- A Conceptual Frame Work Models of job satisfaction Organizational and personal determinants of job satisfaction Literature review Industrial profile-overview of Indian banking Catholic Syrian bank organizational profile Need for the study Objectives of the study Research methodology Limitations of the study

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Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization's goals and objectives.


Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation or aptitude, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and job re-engineering. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.

Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job; an affective reaction to ones job; and an attitude towards ones job. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviours. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.


One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (19241933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies,

causing a shift from skilled labour and piecework towards the more modern of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylors work. Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions.


AFFECT THEORY Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work

(e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/arent met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.










Theory Template:JacksonApril 2007. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of ones job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine ones disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzbergs Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employees motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those aspects of the

job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.

Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. Ameta-

analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.


Job satisfaction is a multi-variable and indescribable concept. There are number of factors that influence job satisfaction of employees. These factors can be classified into two categories. They are a) Organizational and b) Personal variables.

a) The organizational determinants of job satisfaction play a very important role. The employees spend major part of their time in organization so there are number of organizational factors that determine job satisfaction of the employees. The job satisfaction in the organizations can be increased by organizing and managing the organizational factors. The organization determinants of job satisfaction are as follows:i ) Wages: Wage can be described as the amount of reward that a worker expects from the job. Wages are an instrument of fulfilling the needs as every worker expects to get an appropriate reward. The wages are supposed to be fair, reasonable and equitable. A feeling of job satisfaction is felt by attaining fair and equitable rewards.

ii) Nature of Work: The nature of work has significant impact on the job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is highly influenced by the nature of work. Employees are satisfied with job that involves intelligence, skills, abilities, challenges and scope for greater freedom. Job dissatisfaction arises with a feeling of boredom, poor variety of tasks, frustration and failures. iii) Working Conditions: Employees are highly motivated with good working conditions as they provide a feeling of safety, comfort and motivation. On contrary, poor working conditions brings out a fear of bad health in employees.


iv) Job Content: Factors like recognition, responsibility, advancement, achievement etc can be referred to as job content. A job that involves variety of tasks and less monotonous results delivers greater job satisfaction. A job that involves poor content produces job dissatisfaction. v ) Organizational Level: The jobs that are at higher levels are viewed as prestigious, esteemed and opportunity for self-control. The employees that are working at higher level jobs express greater job satisfaction than the ones working at lower level jobs.

vi) Opportunities for Promotion: Promotion can be reciprocated as a significant achievement in the life. It promises and delivers more pay, responsibility, authority, independence and status. So, the opportunities for promotion determine the degree of satisfaction to the employees. vii) Work Group: There is a natural desire of human beings to interact with others and so existence of groups in organizations is a common observable fact. This characteristic results in formation of work groups at the work place. Isolated workers dislike their jobs. The work groups make use of a remarkable influence on the satisfaction of employees. The satisfaction of an individual is dependent on largely on the relationship with the group members, group dynamics, group cohesiveness and his own need for affiliation.


viii) Leadership Styles: The satisfaction level on the job can be determined by the leadership styles. Job satisfaction is greatly enhanced by democratic style of leadership. It is because democratic leaders promote friendship, respect and warmth relationships among the employees. On contrary, employees working under authoritarian and dictatorial leaders express low level of job satisfaction.

b) The personal determinants also help a lot in maintaining the motivation and personal factors of the employees to work effectively and efficiently. Job satisfaction can be related to psychological factors and so numbers of personal factors determine the job satisfaction of the employees. They are as follows:i) Personality: The personality of an individual can be determined by observing his individual psychological conditions. The factors that determine the satisfaction of individuals and his psychological conditions is perception, attitudes and learning. ii) Age: Age can be described as a noteworthy determinant of job satisfaction. It is because younger age employees possessing higher energy levels are likely to be having more job satisfaction. In older age, the aspiration levels in employees increase. They feel completely dissatisfied in a state where they are unable to find their aspiration fulfilled,


iii) Education: Education plays a significant determinant of job satisfaction as it provides an opportunity for developing ones personality. Education develops and improvises individual wisdom and evaluation process. The highly educated employees can understand the situation and asses it positively as they possess persistence, rationality and thinking power.

iv) Gender Differences: The gender and race of the employees plays important determinants of Job satisfaction. Women, the fairer sex, are more likely to be satisfied than their male counterpart even if they are employed in small jobs. The job satisfaction can also be determined by other factors like learning, skill autonomy, job characteristics, unbiased attitude of management, social status etc. It is important for managers to consider all these factors in assessing the satisfaction of the employees and increasing their level of job satisfaction.



Job satisfaction is simply defined as the affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Price, 2001). In other words, it is an affective reaction to a job that results from the comparison of perceived outcomes with those that are desired (Kam, 1998). Shortly, job satisfaction describes the feelings, attitudes or preferences of individuals regarding work (Chen, 2008). Furthermore, it is the degree to which employees enjoy their jobs (McCloskey and McCain, 1987). And also, it is possible to see a number of theories developed to uderstand its nature in literature. Vroom (1964), need/value fulfilment theory, states that job satisfaction is negatively related to the discrepancy between individual needs and the extent to which the job supplies these needs. On the other hand, Porter and Lawler (1968) collect the influences on job satisfaction in two groups of internal and external satisfactory factors. According to them, internal satisfactory factors are related the work itself (such as feeling of independence, feeling of achievement, feeling of victory, selfesteem, feeling of control and other similar feeling obtained from work), Whereas external satisfactory factors are not directly related to work itself (such as good relationships with colleagues, high salary, good welfare and utilities). So, the influences on job satisfaction can be also divided into work-related and employee-related factors (Glisson and Durick, 1988). On the other hand, Arvey and Dewhirst (1976), took 271 scientists as a study sample, and found that the degree of job-satisfaction of the workers with high achievement motivation exceeded that of workers with low achievement motivation. Also autonomy is an important concern for employees job satisfaction. For example, Abdel-Halim (1983) investigated 229 supervisory and

non-supervisory employees in a large retail-drug company and concluded that individuals who have high need-for-independence performed better and were more satisfied with high participation for non-repetititive tasks (Kam, 1998). Additionally, administrative styles, professional status and pay are known as important factors influencing job satisfaction. For example, Carr and Kazanowsky (1994) successfully showed that inadequate salary was very lelated to employees dissatisfaction. And recent studies showed that a participative (democratic) management style was mostly prefered by todays managers to increase their employees job satisfaction (Dogan and bicioglu, 2004; Knoop, 1991). Consequently, numerous researches have been going on job satisfaction for many years. And it is common thought that job satisfaction influencesorganizational behavior, namely it positively affects employee working performance and organizational commitment, and negatively influences employee turnover (Agarwal and Ferrat, 2001; Poulin, 1994; Chen, 2008). Moreover, the relationships between job satisfaction and many variables such as motivation, stress, salary, promotion, role conflict, distributive and procedural justice, role ambiguity, autonomy, workload, leadership style, educational level, emotional intelligence are still being analyzed in different fields as an attractive and important subject of management literature (Ross and Reskin, 1992; Aghoet al., 1993; Stordeur et al., 2001; Chu et al., 2003; Kafetsios and Zampetakis, 2008). For example, Sengin (2003), and Hinshaw and Atwood (1984) identify variables that influence employee job satisfaction as: (1) demographic variables: education, experience, and position in the hiererchy; (2) Job characteristics: autonomy, tasks

repetetivenes, and salaries; and (3) organizational environment factors: degree of professionalization, type of unit. And Mrayyan (2005) says that the variables of encouragement, feedback, a widening pay scale and clear job description, career development oppurtunity, supportive leadership style, easy communication with colleagues and social interaction positively affect job satisfaction, whereas role stress has a negative influence on it. Similarly, the research made by Chu and his friends (2003) demonstrates that satisfaction is positively related to involvement, positive affectivity, autonomy, distributive justice, procedural justice, promotional chances, supervisor support, co-worker support, but it is negatively related to negative affectivity, role ambiguity, work-load, resource inadequacy and routinization.


OVERVIEW OF INDIAN BANKING The Banking Sector The banking system in India is significantly different from that of other Asian nations because of the countrys unique geographic, social, and economic characteristics. India has a large population and land size, a diverse culture, and extreme disparities in income, which are marked among its regions. There are high levels of illiteracy among a large percentage of its population but, at the same time, the country has a large reservoir of managerial and technologically advanced talents. Between about 30 and 35 percent of the population resides in metro and urban cities and the rest is spread in several semi-urban and rural centers. The countrys economic policy framework combines socialistic and capitalistic features with a heavy bias towards public sector investment. India has followed the path of growth-led exports rather than the export led growth of other Asian economies, with emphasis on self-reliance through import substitution. These features are reflected in the structure, size, and diversity of the countrys banking and financial sector. The banking system has had to serve the goals of economic policies enunciated in successive five year development plans, particularly concerning equitable income distribution, balanced regional economic growth, and the reduction and elimination of private sector monopolies in trade

and industry. In order for the banking industry to serve as an instrument of state policy, it was subjected to various nationalization schemes in different phases (1955, 1969, and 1980). As a result, banking remained internationally isolated (few Indian banks had presence abroad in international financial centers) because of preoccupations with domestic priorities, especially massive branch expansion and attracting more people to the system. Moreover, the sector has been assigned the role of providing support to other economic sectors such as agriculture, smallscale industries, exports, and banking activities in the developed commercial centers (i.e., metro, urban, and a limited number of semi-urban centers). The banking systems international isolation was also due to strict branch licensing controls on foreign banks already operating in the country as well as entry restrictions facing new foreign banks. A criterion of reciprocity is required for any Indian bank to open an office abroad. These features have left the Indian banking sector with weaknesses and strengths. A big challenge facing Indian banks is how, under the current ownership structure, to attain operational efficiency suitable for modern financial intermediation. On the other hand, it has been relatively easy for the public sector banks recapitalize, given the increases to in nonperforming assets (NPAs), as their

Government dominated ownership structure has reduced the conflicts of interest that private banks would face. Financial Structure The Indian financial system comprises the following institutions: 1. Commercial banks

a. Public sector b. Private sector c. Foreign banks d. Cooperative institutions (i) Urban cooperative banks (ii) State cooperative banks (iii) Central cooperative banks 2. Financial institutions a. All-India financial institutions (AIFIs) b. State financial corporations (SFCs) c. State industrial development corporations(SIDCs) 3. Nonbanking financial companies (NBFCs) 4. Capital market intermediaries


CATHOLIC SYRIAN BANK-ORGANIZATION PROFILE The genesis of Indian Banking is associated to a large extent with Swadeshi Movement, which inspired many Indians to promote Swadeshi Banks in the beginning of the 20th Century. The enterprising founders of Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd also found this period to be a moment of opportunity to promote the establishment of a bank. Thus was born The Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd, Nine decades ago, on 26th November 1920 to be exact at Thrissur, which in later years acquired the unique distinction of being a centre with the highest concentration of banks in the South. The founder directors of the bank were people of eminence known for their foresight, integrity and initiative. The policy they laid down has been consistently upheld by the successive generations who guided the destiny of the institution. The bank commenced business on January 1st, 1921 with an authorized capital of Rs.5 lakhs and a paid up capital of Rs. 45270/During the first two decades of its functioning, the Bank concentrated only in Kerala. Banks and credit institutions which proliferated especially in Kerala received a jolt and many of them came to their doom following the crash of the Travancore National Quilon Bank in 1938 followed by Palai Central Bank in1960.

During the period many small banks came to the verge of collapse shaking the confidence of the public and what followed was a process of consolidation. The strategy of mergers and amalgamations of small banks with bigger banks brought the number of banks within controllable limits, thereby making the industry's base strong. In 1964-65, The Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd took part in taking over the liabilities and assets of five small/medium sized banks in Kerala. The expansion programme initiated during these years gathered momentum in the subsequent years. In August 1969, the Bank was included in the Second Schedule to the Reserve Bank of India Act 1934. In 1975, the Bank attained the status of "A" Class Scheduled Bank when its total Deposits crossed Rs.25 crores. The necessity of imparting training to staff looked very important and a modest beginning was therefore, made in setting up a Training College in 1975. In the same year the Bank entered the field of foreign Exchange. At a very early stage, the Bank recognized mechanization as an effective tool of management and streamlined its accounting procedures by introduction of Data processing system. From November 1975, reconciliation of inter-branch accounts was mechanized by using IBM Data processing machines. The decade of the seventies saw the evolution of a new culture in Indian Banking. Nationalization of banks imposed "Social Control" and imparted new ethos to commercial banking. What followed was a massive expansion of bank branches with a distinct thrust on remote rural belts. Special schemes were formulated to cater to the diverse credit needs of small scale industries, road transport operators,

agriculturists, and other self employed entrepreneurs. The Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd did not lag behind in taking up the challenge and more than 75% of its clientele belong to small and economically weaker strata of Society. The Bank has a strong rural base with around 80% of the branches in rural and semi- urban areas. Investments in money market and capital market instruments are being expanded and steps are being taken to have an in house equity research wing so as to face the challenges of the future. The Bank has also geared up its machinery to increase its market share of corporate finance in the days to come. The real inner strength of a growing organization lies in its staff resources. The Bank has been singularly fortunate all these years in creating an environment in which the employees at all levels could play their role. Their contribution to the growth of this institution has been invaluable. The Bank has a very dynamic team on its Board of Directors who is guiding the destiny of the Bank leading to growth and prosperity. At present, the bank has a network of 364 branches which includes NRI/SSI/Industrial Finance and Service branches. The Bank also plans to open more number of branches in a phased manner.



CORPORATE VALUES This reflect what the, as an organization is an important to do everything. These values guide the relationships with customers, employees, shareholders etc. The corporate values are; Fairness and trust Integrity and respect Equity and justice Performance effectiveness and efficiency CORPORATE VISION By the year 2010, CSB aims to become a truly global bank with presence all over India and at strategic centers / location abroad, absorbing the latest in information technology, on the best of sound banking principles and traditions. VISION 2011 The bank aims to achieve, by the year 2011

A total business volume of Rs.20,000 crores by deeper penetration in the market,

A net worth level of Rs.700 crore, to add shareholder value, and A total network of 450 branches, to enhance its geographical reach.


To serve the customers in an effective, efficient and professional manner building thereby mutually beneficial relationship to enhance shareholder value


1. Accounts department 2. Board and shares department 3. Credit department 4. Credit monitoring department 5. Asset recovery department 6. EDP centre 7. Inspection department 8. Planning and marketing 9. Premises and development 10.Staff department 11.IT department 12.International bank division

Products and services


Insurance Deposits Advances RTGS NEFT International money transfer NRI services


Job satisfaction of the employees should be taken care since it leads to qualitative and quantitative improvement in performance. Pleasure in job enhances production and hence mental satisfaction. Because of the specialized works in modern industries, the work lacks intrinsic interest and therefore the worker finds no incentive for work. Under these circumstances, it is reasonable to provide interest in work and make the job satisfactory and pleasant. It is only from the data of scientific research that the management is able to know the factors contributing to job satisfaction and then only can necessary steps be taken to improve job satisfaction.


The present study an investigation of factors that influence employee job satisfaction in Catholic Syrian Bank aims to analyze the job satisfaction level of employees and to make suggestions to improve the same.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To analyze the satisfaction of employees towards the job To identify the factors which influence job satisfaction in catholic Syrian bank To provide suggestions for improving job satisfaction RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This will include the following:

Population: Employees of catholic Syrian bank


Sampling size: It will be confined to 50 Sampling area: The sampling area will be selected by catholic Syrian bank headquarters. Sampling method: simple random sampling- simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population) Data collection: Data collection plays important role in this study. It can be collected from various sources. I have collected the data from two sources which are given below

.Primary data Personal investigation Observation method Information from correspondents Information from superiors of the organization Secondary data

Published sources such as journals, news papers and magazines etc. Unpublished sources such as company internal reports Website like Catholic Syrian Banks official site. And some other sites are also searched to find data.

For data analysis tables, graphs, charts etc could be selected

The prime difficulties which I face in collection of information are discussed below:28

1. Short time period: the time constraint will be a factor in conducting a research. A detailed research cannot be conducted within a limited period. 2. Data collected was based on questionnaire and interview method only.

QUESTIONNAIRE An Investigation of The Factors That Influence Employee Job Satisfaction In Catholic Syrian Bank I am MBA student of Everonn IIPS Thrissur. I am doing project on the above topic. For the completion of this project I kindly request your valuable opinions and suggestions and I expect your cooperation also to fill the questionnaire given below.

Name: Company: Gender: 1. To which age group do you belong? a) Below 30 years b) 30-40 years c) 40-50 years d) 50 above 1. Educational qualification a) Graduate b) Post graduate c) Others please specify 1. How long you have been working in this industry? a) Below 5 years b) 5-10 years c) 10-15 years d) 15-20 years e) 20 above 1. What category best describes your position here? a) Clerical b) Technical c) Managerial d) Accounting e) Other please specify 1. Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements No: Strongly Agree agree No Disagree Strongly opinion disagree


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I am satisfied with salary provided I enjoyed the Benefits I am satisfied with Pension plans My job is repetitive and boring Working hours is flexible Working environment is very good I feel secure in this job I have opportunity to use new technologies Training and development programmes conducted time to time I received recognition from supervisor I am satisfied with the overall relationship with supervisor I have cordial relationship with peers

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I have maintained good relationship with subordinates I am well satisfied with company rules and regulations I have maintained good communication with supervisor I am satisfied with promotional opportunities I am satisfied with the techniques of performance appraisal adopted by the bank I have Maintain excellent relationship with management Workload given to me according to my ability I received performance linked salary I am satisfied with bonus and incentives given










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I am satisfied with welfare schemes my manager gives me with continuous feedback to help me to achieve I am proud to work for the company I am satisfied with my understanding of how my goals are linked to company goals

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Compared with a year ago, how would you describe your overall job satisfaction today? a) Much more satisfied b) Somewhat more satisfied c) Same level of satisfaction as last year d) Some what less satisfied e) Much less satisfied

Any suggestions: