Offshore Wind Summer 2011 | Offshore Wind Power | Wind Power

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QUAY
QUESTIONS
INVESTMENT PLANS
IN
DEEP
BENEATH THE
SURFACE
Moving forward
ACTION PLANS
Cover Sponsor
OW_SUMMER_CVRNEWHR.indd 1 23/6/11 12:35:55 Untitled-2 1 24/6/11 16:27:03
info@res-offshore.com
www.res-offshore.com
OFFSHORE WIND WAVE ENERGY TIDAL ENERGY
RES Offshore
RES Offshore offers development, engineering, construction and O&M
services for utility-scale renewable energy projects.
From offshore wind to wave and tidal, we bring to projects the
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EXCELLENCE IN
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RES Offshore 210x297_25112010.indd 1 23/11/2010 15:14:57
Untitled-2 2 18/4/11 12:21:56
3
CONTENTS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
4 Viewpoint
6 Enabling action
The Crown Estate’s role in propel-
ling the industry forward
9 Pivotal period
Alistair Welch on the latest from
Renewable UK
12 All change
Ian D Bonnon looks at future
growth in the offshore market
15 Well equipped
Robert Gerald discusses the special-
ist skill set needed to work in the
marine environment
21 High performance
A glimpse of the Active Stator, a
variable speed drive development
25 Bidding for success
An update on offshore wind installa-
tion and service provider A2SEA
29 Broadening horizons
Foreign investment in Denmark’s
offshore wind industry
32 Training ground
Fife’s ambitions to become a hub for
renewable energy
36 Growing up fast
An engineering consultancy makes a
major renewables acquisition
39 Raising standards
Sally Caswell explains the specialist
services that one company has to
offer
42 Balanced outlook
Teeside’s answer to the challenges
of the offshore wind supply chain
45 Natural resources
Johanna Lagan explains why
Northern Ireland offers excellent
offshore opportunities
49 Top facilities
How Inverclyde is attracting renewa-
bles businesses that are looking to
expand
53 Future development
Steve Welch looks at the facilities
on offer at Cromarty Firth
57 Ready for connection now
Meeting the grid connection chal-
lenges of Europe’s drive for renew-
able energy
65 Site statistics
The Met Office give their analysis of
the wind in key regions
69 Moving forward
Jonathan Reynolds finds out about
new developments at OrbisEnergy
73 Economic solutions
The growth and change surrounding
one diving company
77 Cutting out the bottlenecks
Joseph Ho explains how the turbine
assembly process can be speeded
up
81 Alternative Ulster
Alistair Welch visits a company
that’s diversifying into the offshore
wind sector
85 Making decisions
Laura Hall advises on selecting the
right burial tool for your offshore
windfarm project
90 Filling the gap
Robert Gerald reports on a new
boatshare scheme that offers flex-
ibility
93 Career development
What Siemens are looking for when
recruiting renewables staff
98 Gigawatch
e n g i n e e r i n g
Managing Editor Steve Welch
Consulting Editor Mike Farish
Senior Sub Editor Theone Wilson
Contributors Alistair Welch, Ian D Bonnon, Robert
Gerald, Gayle Nicol, Sally Caswell, Johanna Lagan, Neil
Lochiel, Jonathan Reynolds, Dave March, Joseph Ho,
Laura Hall
Art Editor Hannah Reid
Business Development Manager
Ann Goldthorp
© 2011 Steve Welch Media
Published in association
with ENERGY ENGINEERING magazine
by Steve Welch Media,
6A New Street, Warwick,
CV34 4RX
United Kingdom
Tel +44 (0)1926 408244
Fax: +44 (0)1926 408206
e: info@energyengineering.co.uk
For subscription details for
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
please email steve@energyengineering.co.uk
or call +44 (0)1926 408244
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QUAY
QUESTIONS
INVESTMENT PLANS
IN THE
DEEP
BENEATHTHE
SURFACE
Moving forward
ACTION PLANS
Cover Sponsor
OW_SUMMER_CVR.indd 1 22/6/11 14:29:02
Cover image
courtesy of Osiris
Marine Services









Contents
Untitled-22 3 22/6/11 17:55:24
M
ost people will be familiar
with the ‘80:20’ rule of
business. In offshore wind
developments it appears that despite
only accounting for 20 percent of the
cost of a project, cables are responsi-
ble for 80 percent of insurance claims
- and that is a conservative estimate;
the actual figure could be closer to
10:90.
So, what can we do about it and
when should we be making the deci-
sions to act? Fundamentally, what
steps can be taken to reduce cable
risk on a project whilst maintaining
effective cost management? This is
not the place for definitive answers as
these will always be project specific,
but I hope to raise certain pertinent
issues.
The life cycle of offshore wind
projects is well understood, but
often lacking is consideration of cable
‘installability’. This results in a less
than robust approach to risk manage-
ment that leads, ultimately, to insur-
ance claims.
Unfortunately, this scenario plays
out on a consistent basis as a conse-
quence of tighter supply chains and
a sector-wide lack of competence in
cable installation. The remedy is to
identify and mitigate contractual and
installation risk as early as possible
in building a firm base around which
project risk can be managed.
The early stages of any project
will naturally involve consideration of
environmental impact, geological and
soil survey, technology optioneering
and cable routing. At this point the
interface between technical, com-
mercial and environmental challenges
is managed. However, as the relevant
experts tend to come from different
entities with different processes there
is the possibility of disconnection in
this formative stage - the foundations
of the project can be poorly cast.
So, what are the solutions? At
Intertek Metoc we advise that consid-
eration of risk management systems
begins from day one of a project.
Firstly, it is worth developing the
risk management system and risk
register in draft format. This should
include six key elements: technical,
environmental, processes, proce-
dures, resources and interfaces.
Holding regular risk workshops
with key experts in the above areas
which address the risk for each
stage of project delivery is advisable.
Decisions made at this time will influ-
ence the risk profile later in the prod-
uct lifecycle.
When conducting all elements of
work, such as cable routing, use the
processes to manage the interfaces
and evolve the risk management
system organically. Furthermore, be
wary of false economy; you should
recognise that there is no ‘discounted
solution’ - the most effective mitiga-
tion is the one that reduces risk most
cost-effectively compared to the
costs associated with failure.
Finally, a project needs a robust
team, with the right technical exper-
tise working in an integrated manner,
who are fully engaged with the risk
management process and understand
its pivotal role.
The benefits of this approach
should be realised in the early
identification and mitigation of risk,
increased robustness of contract
negotiation and enhanced manage-
ment of installation. By making risk
management comprehensive, starting
early to engender the correct mind-
set, managing it throughout and mak-
ing it a central pillar of decision mak-
ing, a comprehensive understanding
of cost versus risk can be achieved
and ultimately this leads to timely and
cost-efficient offshore wind projects.
www.metoc.co.uk
James Hunt, Head of Offshore Development and Cables at
Intertek Metoc, advises on the best approach to risk management
Viewpoint
4

SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
Untitled-9 4 22/6/11 13:54:48
Ensuring renewable energy for
this generation. And the next.
Intertek METOC is a leading international
consultancy providing specialist technical services
in the marine, coastal and river environments.
> Marine Environmental Consultancy
> Cable Routeing and Engineering
> Site Investigation and Survey Management
> Marine Planning Operations
> Marine Construction Management
Whatever your project requirements,
Intertek METOC can offer comprehensive
marine expertise that will ensure its
success, for generations to come.
Intertek METOC. Where engineering meets the environment
Find out how we can help you, visit www.metoc.co.uk or contact Natalie Griggs;
call 01428 727800 or email natalie.griggs@intertek.com
Untitled-19 1 22/6/11 15:48:57
6
MONITOR
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
Images courtesy of
www.chpv.co.uk
T
he whole business of gaining
consents for the Round 3
offshore wind programme is
likely to cost the companies involved
around £400million. It might cost
more - and take longer - but for a
relatively minor seeming investment of
just £11million by another organisa-
tion that is closely involved, which as
it stresses is neither a developer nor a
utility nor a contractor of any sort.
That is the amount of money
being invested over the period 2010-
16 by The Crown Estate into what
it describes as a series of ‘enabling
actions’ intended to facilitate and
even accelerate the progress of the
whole Round 3 programme towards
actual implementation. The rationale
for the investment is provided by
Chris Lloyd, development manager at
The Crown Estate, who heads up the
initiative. Lloyd explains that while the
developers for each individual project
are focused on the specifics of those
projects there still remains a range of
more generic, ‘strategic’ issues that
are common across the whole of
Round 3. Moreover the very new-
ness of large scale, offshore windfarm
development at the distances from
the shore involved in Round 3 mean
that there is not the pool of relevant
commonplace knowledge and estab-
lished practice that might exist in a
more mature industry.
Lloyd says that The Crown Estate
is ideally positioned within the indus-
try to fulfil this role. He points out,
for instance, that the organisation
has individuals who are delegated to
each of the development consortia
involved in the programme. Hence
it can act to disseminate information
throughout all the consortia whether
that information originates in the spe-
cific experience of a single project or
through broader scale initiatives that
it carries out itself.
According to Lloyd, five general
areas have been identified as appro-
priate for enabling actions to be car-
ried out. These are:
• planning and consenting
• supply chain and skills
• health and safety
• grid and technology
• project economics and finance.
Actions have already been taken in
each one of them and outlays either
made or committed so far have been
considerable. Lloyd says that some
£2.5million was spent last year with
the same amount scheduled to be
Enabling action
Mike Farish discusses the way in which The
Crown Estate is propelling Round 3 forward
Untitled-12 6 22/6/11 14:36:08
7
MONITOR
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
spent this year. Another £2million
should go next year with a smaller
amount in succeeding year as the
industry transitions through the con-
senting process. Apart from Lloyd,
each of those areas has one fulltime
member of The Crown Estate’s staff
attached to it. Further resourcing,
he says, means that at any one time
the equivalent of around ten people
within the organisation are working
on relevant activities.
Of the initiatives that have taken
place so far the series of supply chain
familiarisation events held around the
UK last year and this have probably
been the most visible. But Lloyd says
a number of others have been car-
ried out. One of them, for instance,
was a survey of birdlife and marine
mammals in the waters involved in
Round 3 that Lloyd believes to have
possibly been the most comprehen-
sive of its type carried out anywhere.
It involved, he says, a hundred aircraft
flights carrying human observers. In
support of this work, he adds, the
organisation also helped fund the
development of some interesting
new technology - in this case a gyro-
scopically stabilised high magnification
camera that allowed for accurate
photography of seabirds without the
aircraft getting too close to them.
Meanwhile, on the health and
safety front Lloyd says that work
carried out under the initiative led
to the identification of a previously
unsuspected problem with the short
wave radios used to support com-
munication with the shore by work-
ers actually on offshore turbines.
Quite simply the combination of the
distances from the shore involved in
many Round 3 installations and the
closeness to the sea surface at which
operations are carried out on such
installations would have meant that
existing devices would not work.
Much of the work has now result-
ed in the publication of various sets
of guidelines that are available from
The Crown Estate’s website. These
include documents relating to aerial
surveys and mammal monitoring.
Interestingly, procedures are already
in place to deal with the possibility
of archaeological finds being made
as Round 3 progresses, though Lloyd
admits that so far none have.
For the future, though, Lloyd antici-
pates that the emphasis of the enabling
actions programme will shift from
aspects concerned with the physical
nature of the sites involved to the com-
mercial viability of the installations that
will be built on them. To this end a
consultation document has now been
produced with details of two projects
that are aimed at developing relevant
business models dealing with total
project costs. One will deal with ‘spa-
tial dependencies’ and the other with
‘cost reduction pathways’. Ultimately,
as Lloyd observes, the cost of energy is
what will determine the success of the
whole programme. As such, an under-
standing how this might vary accord-
ing to location will be of fundamental
importance. Implicitly the need for such
work underlines the extent to which
Round 3 is in every sense advancing
the concept of offshore wind power
generation into completely new areas
for which there is simply no existing
knowledge base. ■
www.thecrownestate.co.uk
Untitled-12 7 22/6/11 14:36:36
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11_Energy Engineering June 2011.indd 1 15/06/2011 14:57:59
Untitled-19 2 22/6/11 15:48:24
9
DEVELOPMENT
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Pivotal period
Ahead of Offshore Wind 2011, Alistair Welch
visited Renewable UK and discovered that
when it comes to securing the future of the
UK’s offshore wind market, it appears that
cost is everything
T
he year ahead could prove
to be a pivotal 12 months
in the future of the UK’s off-
shore wind industry according to Paul
Reynolds, offshore wind development
manager at Renewable UK.
Speaking to Reynolds and the
newly appointed head of offshore
renewables Kristina Gamst, the mes-
sage from Renewable UK ahead of
the Liverpool Offshore Wind 2011
event was clear: cost reduction is key
to ensuring commercial viability.
There is a certain nervousness in
the sector following the Committee
on Climate Change’s (CCC) recent
report that cast doubt on offshore
wind’s long-term commercial poten-
tial. “With government cuts and the
treasury reclassifying the ROC subsidy
as public spending there has been
an increased focus on cost, which, in
turn, has led to increased focus on the
sector. If the government thinks we
are too expensive then it potentially
threatens the entire sector,” explains
Reynolds.
“We are an expensive technology;
capital costs have doubled over the
last five years. However, we’ve got
a handle on that and they should go
down from now on,” he continues.
“We are constantly thinking about
cost reduction, always looking at ways
the industry can drive down costs.”
Renewable UK is currently lobby-
ing the government and working with
industry players to ensure that off-
shore wind development continues to
progress. Without government sup-
port, the worst-case scenario is that
manufacturers who have stated their
intention to invest in the UK’s offshore
wind market might renege on their
Images courtesy of
www.chpv.co.uk
Untitled-16 9 22/6/11 15:07:56
10
DEVELOPMENT
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
commitment.
However, the likelihood of such
a gloomy possibility is remote. With
Round 2 projects beginning to reach
maturity and progress being made
all the time on the more ambi-
tious Round 3 sites, offshore wind’s
potential ought to become increas-
ingly visible and increasingly credible.
Nevertheless, it is still incumbent on
those working in the sector to address
the issue of cost reduction in order
to assuage government and public
reticence.
As Reynolds sees the situation,
government policy and cost reduction
mechanisms are inextricably linked.
“The key point for us is that if the
government supports the sector then,
ultimately costs will begin to fall, if they
remove their support then we won’t
see costs coming down substantially.
“Up to this point the sector has
borrowed from onshore turbines and
the oil and gas industry. The next
wave of turbine design should lead to
substantial cost reduction.
The whole process by which we
install and maintain offshore windfarms
is set to get better and better.
“We are number one in the world
at the moment. However, other
European countries, in particular
Germany, are coming up fast and if
we don’t cement our lead and get
investment nailed down then we
could loose that lead.”
The conference at Offshore Wind
2011 will include a session addressing
cost reduction. If the offshore wind
sector is to be sustainable then the
costs associated with it must fall: ‘The
Cost Challenge’ session, chaired by
Duncan Clark, Commercial Manager
of The Crown Estate, will question
how those involved in offshore wind
can contribute to driving down costs.
The June event will also see
Renewable UK release their Offshore
Economics Report. The report will
include cost projections for offshore
developments up to 2022 alongside
outlining the general economic ben-
efits of a mature offshore wind mar-
ket. It is hoped that the report will go
a long way to restoring confidence in
the potential of offshore wind to form
a key part of the UK’s renewables
provision.
“A key goal in moving forward is
the building of economies of scale,”
says Kristina Gamst. Gamst has
recently joined Renewable UK follow-
ing work in civil engineering project
management. Her brief as Head of
Offshore Renewables covers marine
technologies (wave and tidal gen-
eration) in addition to offshore wind.
She believes that increasing efficiency
throughout the offshore supply chain
and building economies of scale are
key factors in tackling cost reduction
within the sector.
“I hope to be a strong presence
in developing best-practice within
the supply chain,” she says. “I have
only been at Renewable UK for two
weeks, but already I am working with
the government on supporting the
ongoing development of the offshore
wind sector.”
In addition to its involvement in
cost-reduction strategy, Renewable
UK is working on improving health-
and-safety protocol for offshore
projects and is compiling a supply
chain charter that will provide best-
practice guidelines for companies
working together.
“We have new developments and
new supply chain interest happening
all the time. I think we are in a good
position. What we really need now
is a clear statement of commitment
from the government,” concludes
Reynolds.
www.renewable-uk.com
Offshore Wind Energy Conference
Images courtesy of
www.chpv.co.uk
Untitled-16 10 22/6/11 15:09:03
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14276_ENERGY_297x210.indd 1 13/06/2011 17:23
Untitled-19 3 22/6/11 15:47:24
12
DEVELOPMENT
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
T
he offshore wind industry in
Europe has recently started
to expand rapidly and, if cur-
rent predictions are correct, this is
set to continue through a phase of
remarkable growth over the next
decade, culminating with offshore
wind becoming a major contributor
to the electricity supply for several
North European counties.
In the UK, the industry is led by
government strategy, with the majority
of windfarm sites allocated by competi-
tive tender within distinct rounds; there
have been three plus one extension
rounds in the UK and one in Scotland
to date. The early allocated sites have
seen projects developed close to shore
and in shallow waters; however this is
set to change with Round 3 in the UK.
The German market is about
to enter a phase of maturity. The
first turbines of the milestone Bard
Offshore 1 project in the North Sea
have recently become operational
and other significant projects are
now in development and build, or
well advanced through the various
planning stages. There is also evi-
dence that the many other countries
throughout Europe are gearing up
for offshore windfarm development,
with the recent announcement by the
French government being a typical
example.
The figure opposite shows future
offshore wind growth predictions for
European countries.
Offshore wind is also progressing
further afield, with the US market look-
ing to have its first projects in the water
during 2013. China already has some
shallow water sites generating power
and around 1,000MW worth of further
sites are in advanced stages of prepara-
tion. Korea has also published plans for
offshore developments.
So, the overall picture seems to be
one of significant growth in the global
industry over the next decade. While
this is extremely positive, there are
some significant challenges to be over-
come if the projected growth rates are
to be achieved.
The most challenging aspect of all
offshore wind development is financ-
ing, because investor confidence is
intrinsically linked to government policy
and incentives. Whilst available invest-
ment funds have improved for new
developments since the credit crunch,
there are doubts about whether there
is enough finance available to support
all of the proposed developments on
a worldwide basis. In addition, while
countries that have consistent policy,
financial tariffs and incentives are
more likely to lead the way in realis-
ing the projected growth, the jury is
still out on what the best approach
is. Technology-specific fixed or semi-
fixed tariff models seem to the cho-
sen financial support mechanism in
Europe but the framework for finding
and offering a suitable tariff price is
still a matter of debate and getting it
wrong can have catastrophic results.
As markets mature then innova-
tion in financing offers further oppor-
tunities for investors. This is likely to
be the case with offshore wind in the
longer term and already there are
new approaches underway. Currently
the re-financing of windfarms once
they have reached operation is
attracting investors; this approach
removes the main construction risks
for investors and, for developers,
frees up cash to invest onto their
next windfarms.
Another major industry issue is the
lack of qualified and experienced peo-
ple. The current situation is that projects
are stretched when it comes to finding
people available with the right qualifica-
tions and solid experience and clearly
this will become exaggerated as we go
into the predicted period of unprece-
dented growth. Other feeder industries,
such as offshore oil and gas, are already
experiencing similar problems as a
result of an ageing skills base in a volatile
market. The investment in people and
training must begin immediately as it is
critical to realising the projected industry
growth. Failure to do this is potentially a
very serious issue.
Consenting still remains a long and
drawn out process, especially in the UK
and the US. Consent for the recent
All change
Ian D Bonnon, Senior Vice President and Head
of Offshore Wind at GL Garrad Hassan, looks
at future growth in the offshore market
Untitled-2 12 22/6/11 10:08:03
13
DEVELOPMENT
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Humber Gateway project in the UK
marked the end of a barren period of
24 months, during which not a single
offshore windfarm in the UK received
consent. Streamlining the process and
reference to research and develop-
ment projects on environmental issues
will hopefully help in the future.
Supply chain issues have long been a
problem for the offshore wind industry.
In the past, a shortage of installation
vessels, offshore turbines, offshore sub-
station transformers and high voltage
subsea cables have all given concern
as potential road blocks to smooth
development plans. There is evidence
that as the European industry starts to
mature then some of these issues are
being tackled. However, there is little
doubt that careful advanced planning is
essential to avoid any problems during
the development phase of a project. In
many cases this involves placing reser-
vation orders for key components and
services up to two years in advance.
A variety of contract models have
been tried over the recent years: the
early experience of turbine supplier led
EPCs has given way to models where
a number of contractors are appointed
(typically five to seven major contracts)
and the developer, with the assistance
of a project management contractor
in some cases, then takes responsibil-
ity for co-ordinating the supply and
installation of the offshore windfarm.
This second approach reduces contract
costs; however a large part of this sav-
ing must be invested into the large
management team needed to ensure
construction progresses smoothly and
successfully. Various announcements
have been made regarding potential
EPC offerings. Of current projects, only
Greater Gabbard in the UK is being
built under an EPC contract, though
excluding the turbine supply in this
case. It would seem likely that a variety
of contract forms will continue to be
used, depending on project owner
capability and appetite.
Overall, the offshore windfarm
industry is on the cusp of massive
growth and development. The issues
for those working within the industry
are to manage the challenges of achiev-
ing this remarkable projected expan-
sion whilst also providing a safe envi-
ronment for all involved. The rewards
will be to contribute to the birth of a
major new energy industry which we
will surely look back at with pride as
the pioneers of a new age in energy
production. The current revolution in
offshore wind energy is comparable to
any of the previous shifts in energy pro-
duction seen over the last century.

www.gl-garradhassan.com
Untitled-2 13 22/6/11 10:10:20
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Untitled-19 4 22/6/11 15:46:49
15
COVER STORY
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Well equipped
Working in the marine environment requires a
specialist skill set - Robert Gerald finds out more
O
siris Marine Services is a
varied organisation. The
company carries out eve-
rything from civil engineering works
to installation services and their to-do
list could include general construc-
tion, welding, underwater inspection
or cutting out obsolete structures.
In the offshore wind section of the
business, though, the tasks undertak-
en are often cable support services
and tower access.
“We have personnel who are
both divers and riggers who conduct
cable pulls and look after activities
on the surface of what’s going on
while the diver can be in the water
at the same time,” says Aiden West,
Managing Director of Osiris.
Established 16 years ago, the
group has been heavily involved in
the offshore wind sector for the
last six to seven years. The sector
has its own division within the com-
pany, with multiple teams working
on projects, and represents 50-60
percent of the group’s turnover. “As
a company, it is the most desirable
type of work we do,” says West.
The current team is made up of a
mixture of full-time employees and
contract workers. At the moment
there are about 40 sub-contractors
and a dozen permanent staff. This
is because in the marine environ-
ment companies need to be able to
expand to their client’s requirements
but also to contract when there is
less activity.
The group has worked off the
coast of Belgium and all round the
UK - essentially, they are equipped
to work anywhere but mainly focus
on the UK offshore wind market. In
part this is because the UK and other
countries with more offshore inter-
ests have high safety standards that
may not be replicated elsewhere.
The past year has seen Osiris
invest hugely in its resources and
equipment. The company has a new
indoor unit of 16,000ft
2
and another
outdoor space of the same size. This
has given Osiris the ability to do a
lot of in-house preparation. “We
can now fabricate a lot of what we
need. We can take a contract or
a tender and look at it and know
which elements we can immediately
do in-house. That is the aim of the
company - to provide this overview,
a one-stop service so the client is
dealing with just one phone number,”
West states.
In terms of equipment, the group
has spent £380,000 on bespoke
equipment, including large launch and
recovery systems to give a means of
transferring a diver into the water
and recovering him safely. “We have
three of these systems now - state-
of-the-art stainless steel winches,”
adds West. “Our new equipment
makes a whole range of opera-
tions possible. When working in the
renewables sector you have to up
your game in terms of procedures
and equipment because larger wind-
farms have more sustained require-
ments.”
Osiris has a continuous process
of reinvestment, with 75-80 percent
of the net profits going back into
the equipment every year. This has
allowed steady growth for the past
decade and means that there is
enough equipment to provide back-
Untitled-14 15 22/6/11 14:39:08
16
COVER STORY
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
up on the job. In fact, the company
has three times the equipment that it
needs to ensure that there will be no
delays due to equipment failure.
With health and safety being a
pressing concern, some develop-
ers are moving away from diving.
However, West is confident that his
team will always operate according
to strict health and safety procedures.
“Diving is viewed as risky but work-
ing on the surface is also a huge
risk - more people are being hurt
above the water line than below,”
he argues. “We have so many pro-
cedures and a team of very experi-
enced, highly qualified divers who will
not entertain anything that is unsafe.”
He also emphasises that developers
have to separate out what they want
economically and balance this with
safety requirements, because safety
does not come cheaply. For exam-
ple, if Osiris needs more men to
improve safety they will request this
-their requirements may include extra
supervisors or people on standby.
Interestingly, Osiris has worked on
nine different windfarms and at least
six of these had a stated ambition
of no divers. In West’s experience,
though, operating without a div-
ing team is likely to lose developers
money in the long term. It could hold
up the windfarm if operators then
discover - as is likely - that in fact
they do need divers. In this scenario
other vessels will have to wait while
developers create a budget, find the
divers, get them inducted and get
them in the water; companies can
lose money very quickly in this way.
The best solution, says West, is to
have divers doing other things but to
have them present. To this extent,
Osiris is now providing cross-trained
personnel who started out as divers
but are now qualified riggers or can
drive smaller inspection ROVs.
While ROVs are used for inspec-
tion purposes, West notes that unlike
a diver, they can’t touch something
or look at it as closely. Whereas an
ROV can give a quick overview, a
Untitled-14 16 22/6/11 14:39:47
17
COVER STORY
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Untitled-14 17 22/6/11 14:41:08
18
COVER STORY
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
diver can have a conversation with
you. ROVs have sonar on board but
you need very large ROVs to exceed
the conditions in which a diver can
work. Additionally, an ROV can be
affected by the current just as much
as a diver and costs a lot of money.
Across the board, West has found
that there is no set way of work-
ing that meets every client’s needs,
meaning Osiris has to be flexible.
“We work 24 hours, seven days a
week,” he says. “Some clients only
want you to work in daylight, some
don’t want to do transfers at sea - it
depends very much on the client.
We are currently involved in three
offshore wind projects working to
three different sets of criteria.”
Like all work in the offshore sec-
tor, diving is affected by weather
conditions. However, it is not so
much winter and summer that create
downtime but rather wave height
and tidal speed, which may vary
regardless of the season. “We have
a maximum working wave height
of 1.5m when not using a cage,”
explains West. “It’s all tied up with
the diver launch and recovery - once
he’s in, he won’t be affected if it’s
deep, but we will have to get him
out safely. We can work in a tide
speed of up to 0.8knots.”
It’s important that the company
closely monitors the speed and direc-
tion of the tide. This may be different
in different sections of the windfarm,
particularly with the larger sites now
being built. “If the tide is hitting the
monopile then it can affect you once
you leave the protection afforded
by the structure. With the larger
windfarms there might be flat water
in one location but not elsewhere,”
West confirms.
Round 3, West concludes, is going
to be “a wake-up call” with excep-
tionally high costs for developers. For
the other companies involved, there
may be a lot of consolidation as the
work will go to the best providers.
Smaller companies will need to be
cost-effective and to maintain good
relationships with developers - both
areas in which Osiris is certain it can
provide the best solutions for its
clients.
“For offshore wind, the basic for-
mula is in place - a wind turbine on
top of a tower,” says West. “We are
never going to change this concept
although there will be alterations in
size and foundations. However, ener-
gy is not going to be cheap anymore
and there will be big changes in the
way this works.”
www.osirismarineservices.com
Untitled-14 18 22/6/11 14:41:41
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21
INNOVATION
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
High performance
The experts at
Converteam give a
brief introduction to
the Active Stator
T
he ability of a commercial
engineering company to
remain competitive in difficult
financial markets is heavily depend-
ent on the quality of its technical
expertise and management support
in pursuing innovative solutions that
deliver improved performance to
the end customer. Converteam has
demonstrated its ability to follow this
market led approach in the past, and
the Active Stator development is
one of its latest examples, aimed at
several of Converteam’s core markets
such as renewable power generation
as well as one of its more traditional
sectors, marine propulsion.
Active Stator is a variable speed
drive (power electronic converter
plus rotating machine) development
aimed at delivering improved power
density, efficiency and reliability whilst
remaining cost competitive and meet-
ing, or preferably exceeding, the per-
formance of the current generation
of drives.
Power density is improved by
integrating the rotating machine and
the associated power electronic con-
verter, thereby minimising duplication
of functions and simplifying interfaces.
Also, unlike conventional machines,
Active Stator employs trapezoidal
current waveforms and air gap flux,
and near unity power factor, maximis-
ing the exploitation of the machines
active material.
Power density and efficiency are
improved by employing a power
electronic converter topology
that permits natural commutation
whenever possible, but permits
forced commutation when beneficial.
Unlike a voltage source pulse width
modulated drive, the converter
operation switching frequency is equal
to stator fundamental frequency, the
latter being a function of machine
topology, and being minimised so as to
reduce the size, complexity and power
losses of switching components.
Efficiency and reliability are
improved by employing simple, robust,
whole wafer, compression mounted
power semiconductor devices with a
low forward voltage drop.
Early development of the Active
Stator concept was part funded by
the Technology Strategy Board and
carried out by Converteam in col-
laboration with Dynex Semiconductor
Ltd and the University of Nottingham.
A significant interim deliverable was
the 150kW Active Stator demonstra-
tor. This low power demonstrator
has been installed and tested at both
University of Nottingham, on an AC
grid, and at Converteam’s Electric
Ship Technology Demonstrator, on a
DC grid. The low power of the dem-
onstrator made it relatively easy to
connect a load machine to the
Active Stator drive under test, and
successfully demonstrate steady state
and transient behaviour with a view
to Active Stator’s two target markets
of marine propulsion and the poten-
tially much larger market of direct
drive wind turbine generators, both of
which operate at low speed and have
a quadratic steady state torque versus
speed characteristic.
The first commercial Active Stator
machine was ordered by the UK
Ministry of Defence. In this case
emphasising power density as a
key requirement, Converteam has
designed and is building the Advanced
Propulsion Motor (APM), a machine
that is up to three times more power
dense than previous generations
of marine propulsion motor but
without sacrificing other aspects of
performance. To maximise power
density the machine is liquid dielectric
cooled. The wound rotor is illustrated
in figure one.
BELOW
Figure 1: Liquid
Cooled Wound
Rotor for APM
Untitled-6 21 21/6/11 17:06:20
22
INNOVATION
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
BELOW
Figure 2: DECC 3
MW Active Stator
PMGs in B2B
Configuration
The second (and third) com-
mercial Active Stator machine(s) are
being designed and built on a UK
Department of Energy and Climate
Change (DECC) supported contract.
The contract will deliver two 3MW
direct drive Active Stator Permanent
Magnet Generators (PMGs) that will
be connected and tested in a Back-
to-Back (B2B) configuration.
Emphasising increased power den-
sity, the direct drive PMGs will be 20
percent smaller than equivalent three
phase machines, but that increase in
power density could be traded for
increased efficiency, and therefore
reduced through life costs.
In all variable speed drives, the
power electronic converter is, relative
to the machine, the more complex
component, and offers the greater
opportunity for improving overall drive
reliability. In Active Stator, the integrated
power electronic converter is immersed
in liquid dielectric for cooling. (see
figure three). This has the advantage of
significantly increasing the power density
of the electronic commutator, but it
also removes it from the influences of
the external environment (temperature
and humidity changes, particulate
contaminants, etc.) This allows the
electronic commutator to be integrated
with the machine, regardless of the
environment the machine is installed
in, and helps improve electronic
commutator reliability.
Electronic commutator reliability
is also improved by the “keep it sim-
ple” strategy. As part of the work to
improve overall drive reliability, the
Active Stator gate card has a reduced
component count relative to the gate
card of an equivalent (current gen-
eration) voltage source drive, and
there are fewer of them. Published
studies have shown four times
improvement in reliability for Active
Stator drives relative to equivalent
voltage source drives.
As mentioned previously, the 150
kW demonstrator has already been
tested on an AC and DC grid. For
connection to AC grids Active Stator
is available with a network bridge
employing a PWM strategy that con-
trols the current harmonics injected
by the drive into the grid and meets
the UK (G5/4) guidelines.
Active Stator is also compatible with
DC grids, and is a key component of
Converteam’s Fully DC Architecture.
Moving to a fully DC Architecture can
provide significant advantages: reduced
CAPEX; and reduced OPEX and
therefore increased revenue. Moving
the conversion from AC to DC closer
to the generator can increase the ben-
efit. Active Stator facilitates a fully DC
Architecture.
As Europe engages itself not only
in a very ambitious expansion of
renewable power generation (offshore
and onshore wind, wave and tidal)
but also in grid configuration (super
grid), Active Stator PMG is an ideal
candidate for future large offshore and
onshore wind turbines. ■
www.converteam.com
RIGHT
Figure 3: Active
Stator Electronic
Commutator
Stack (suitable for
liquid dielectric
immersion)
Untitled-6 22 21/6/11 17:07:10
02489_EE_Q&A_without_Product_A4_size-v1 AW OL.indd 1 19/10/2010 15:08
Untitled-1 17 25/10/10 09:43:57
Anyone can hire a vessel.
Having the right people and knowhow is what makes it a success.
www.A2SEA.com
Untitled-19 5 22/6/11 15:46:09
25
INSTALLATION
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Bidding for success
Theone Wilson speaks to
a company that’s developing a
presence in offshore wind
O
ffshore wind installation and
service provider A2SEA
has recently seen more
and more interest in its work from UK
Round 3 developers. “It started out
with initial meetings with the different
offshore zones three years ago and
then more meetings after the zone
winners were announced. We’re start-
ing to pick up this year with more solid
discussions which hopefully will lead
to further commitments during next
year or 2013,” says Ole Jacob Nielsen,
Business Development Manager at
A2SEA.
It’s a far cry from the early days of
offshore wind, when there were only
one or two projects to bid for each
year and only one major competitor for
A2SEA. In the last five years, both the
number of projects and the number of
competitors has steadily increased, and
A2SEA is now working on a range of
different windfarms. At the moment
its main jobs are foundation work on
the London Array windfarm and install-
ing the 5MW REpower turbines at
Ormonde; A2SEA is also involved at
the Sheringham Shoal project, where
the group will carry out turbine instal-
lation, managing the 3rd party vessel
GMS Endeavour. This proves A2SEA’s
capabilities in managing the installation
and the full marine spread.
Established in the year 2000 as a
one-man entrepreneurial company,
the group has grown rapidly. Its head
office and main support functions are
in Fredericia, Denmark, but the com-
pany now has a presence in Germany
and the UK. The group’s swift success
is perhaps highlighted by the fact that
in the summer of 2009 Dong Energy
Group bought 100 percent of its shares.
In order to secure further investments
this move was followed by Siemens
Wind Power taking a 49 percent stake
in the company; by the end of this year
the company’s shares will be split 51/49
percent between Dong Energy Group
and Siemens Wind Power.
Currently offering transport, instal-
lation and servicing of offshore wind-
farms, A2Sea’s fleet is comprised of
four units. Two of these are self-pro-
pelled vessels, which can stabilise on
the seabed but cannot jack out of the
water. The others are jack-up barges,
which are not self-propelled but can
jack fully out of the water. The group
has also placed an order for a new
second-generation installation vessel,
which is being built at the moment and
will be delivered in the third quarter
of 2012.
“We will be a key player in the
market by developing the right skills
and investing in the right vessels, and
we will increase the scope when it
comes to managing projects,” says
Nielsen. Operations and maintenance,
an area that is becoming more and
Untitled-3 25 21/6/11 15:56:04
26
INSTALLATION
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
more important to the market as more
turbines are installed, is of particular
interest. “We’ve had a number of
service jobs during the years and can
only expect that service operations and
maintenance will become an increas-
ingly important part of the business,”
Nielsen explains. He adds that the key
players in the industry need to consider
this side of things more carefully, but he
expects progress soon to be made as
sites move further offshore and more
turbines get in the water.
In Nielsen’s opinion, Round 3 will
raise a number of other pressing issues.
In order to have the right equipment,
bring down costs and move towards
making offshore wind competitive with
lower subsidy, he suggests there has
to be a platform whereby the utility
companies or the windfarm owners
can give a long-term commitment to
the supply chain. “Looking back there
have been very short-term commit-
ments and that has meant having to
modify existing equipment,” he states.
“Hopefully Round 3 will not be split
into too many small projects otherwise
the potential for this will be lost.”
Companies in the supply chain may
also have to alter their working meth-
ods to gain maximum benefit from the
work on offer. A2SEA has an idea for
this - a ‘taskforce approach’. This means
simply integrating part of the supply
chain process. “We would like to be
able to offer, together with partners, a
complete management of the marine
spread so that you get installation of
cables, foundations and turbines in one
package. We won’t be offering design
or steelworks but will offer an installa-
tion package from one company - us
- which owns and operates the equip-
ment and has the necessary experi-
ence,” Nielsen clarifies. This interface
management will mean that everyone
is working towards a common goal; the
company will be able to move equip-
ment and resources around and use
them in the best possible manner.
Involving the supply chain as early as
possible will also be key to efficiency in
Round 3. “We still haven’t really seen
this happen, but a lot of mistakes can
be avoided with earlier involvement of
the supply chain,” says Nielsen. “It gives
time to choose the right equipment,
plan the project and plan the resources
needed.”
With work on the Round 3 zones
taking place simultaneously, opera-
tors need to ensure that there will be
enough capacity to carry out all the
work. Currently, Nielsen confirms, the
orders placed see a sufficient balance
between supply and demand for ves-
sels. However, future business will be
affected by the speed at which Round
3 moves - how fast will these projects
be constructed? For example, in many
cases developers are realising that they
will need access both to vessels and to
personnel with the relevant expertise
to operate the vessels; there are only a
limited number of these available.
The most important matter, though,
is that the cost of offshore wind needs
to be brought down so that the industry
becomes commercially competitive.
Government subsidies are likely to
decrease and this means that cost
reduction is high on the agenda. Turbine
costs, in particular, can be brought down
by getting more megawatts out of one
turbine; increased size and efficiency
will mean a more streamlined industry.
In practical terms, this means installing
heavier, larger components in deeper
water at the same cost as today.
“The weather is the main challenge
to this - as we move deeper offshore
we can only expect worse weather
conditions,” says Nielsen. “As a com-
pany we are considering how we can
increase the criteria to which we work
to become more effective throughout
the year. We have a 24-12-24-12 aim:
to load a full vessel in 24 hours, install
a turbine in 12 hours (including jack up,
installation, jack down and reposition-
ing), take 24 hours maximum time from
mechanical installation until the turbine
is ready to produce power and install
all components in minimum 12m/s
wind. We need to increase our wind
and wave criteria - then we would get
more days out of the year. It’s definitely
possible.”
As a young industry, the technol-
ogy used in the offshore wind sector is
not yet fully developed. Nielsen hopes
Untitled-3 26 21/6/11 15:57:29
27
INSTALLATION
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
to see some new foundation designs
emerging over the next few years.
“The right foundations for the future
have not yet been found,” he states.
“Jackets are going to be a major part
of foundations. We will also need new
equipment to install them.” A2SEA
is also looking at how the installation
and O&M vessels of the future will be
designed. Smaller vessels to transfer
personnel will be required but over-
all transportation will, Nielsen says,
“require something different.” Future
jack-ups may have flexible accommoda-
tion modules on board; there could be
hotel vessels deployed or the windfarm
itself might have accommodation set
up. Another solution would be to cre-
ate a floating port out at sea for the
smaller vessels. At this stage only time
will tell which is the best idea.
While lessons can be learnt from
the oil and gas industry, Nielsen
emphasises that this is not the same
sector. Essentially, there is not the same
amount of money available. In some
areas, such as health and safety, the oil
and gas industry can show the way,
but the specific conditions and require-
ments of the offshore wind sector
must be held in mind. The main point
is that in contrast to oil and gas, the
offshore wind industry and its supply
chain still have a long way to go before
they are fully mature.
At the end of 2010 A2SEA enjoyed
a market share of around 50 percent;
with six to eight major competitors
in the marketplace now, though, the
competitive landscape is changing
dramatically. The company’s main
markets are still in Northern Europe,
with the UK leading the way followed
by Germany, the Netherlands, France,
the Mediterranean and Scandinavia.
However, the Asian and the US mar-
kets are also rapidly pulling forward.
Both Nielsen and A2SEA know that
the industry and the market on which
the business depends are changing fast
- but it looks like A2Sea is also moving
with the times. Nielsen concludes: “We
have the experience, the know-how
and the people to help bring down the
cost of energy and keep projects on
track - we are a very good choice if you
value safety, adaptability and experi-
ence.” ■
www.a2sea.com
Untitled-3 27 21/6/11 15:58:17
Fife is at the heart of
Scotland’s low carbon
future
Fife is set to lead the way in a number of
renewable and low carbon technologies including
offshore wind, carbon capture & storage and
hydrogen fuel cells.
World class R&D facilities at St Andrews University,
a highly skilled workforce and exciting new
developments like the Hydrogen Office make Fife
an integral part of Scotland’s renewable energy
offer.
The combination of an excellent engineering
supply chain and world class facilities including
the Energy Park, home to BiFab, make Fife the
natural choice for companies aiming to supply the
massive offshore wind market in the North Sea.
To find out more about location or supply chain
opportunities visit our website
www.investinfiferenewables.co.uk
or contact
Barbara Whiting on 08451 555555 ext 492184
or email
barbara.whiting@fife.gov.uk
Renewables
Untitled-19 6 22/6/11 15:43:43
29
INVESTMENT
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Broadening
horizons
Invest in Denmark and the Offshore Centre
Danmark are working together to attract foreign
investment in the country’s offshore wind industry
O
ffshore Centre Danmark
(OCD) is to join forces
with Invest in Denmark
in an attempt to market the
Scandinavian country’s offshore wind
energy sector to foreign companies.
Invest in Denmark, an offshoot of
the Danish Ministry of Foreign affairs,
exists to attract foreign investment
in knowledge-intensive areas of the
Danish economy. The organisation
plans to use OCD’s November
event “Offshore Wind International
Business2Business” (OWIB) as a plat-
form to market the country’s growing
offshore wind market to international
companies.
“OWIB is one of the largest
events in the offshore wind sector
and is the obvious venue for Invest
in Denmark to enter into a dialogue
with foreign companies. The idea
of gathering operators, producers,
suppliers, energy companies and
advisors for a kind of speed dating
is unique, and we see the event as
an obvious opportunity to market
Denmark internationally,” explains
Invest in Denmark Project Manager
Kim Schultz.
He continues: “Denmark enjoys
a high status among other countries
in the offshore wind sector and it
is clear that we should seize this
opportunity to market our country
to companies abroad with a view
to having them establish themselves
in Denmark. Our aim is to create
Danish jobs in this rapidly growing
sector.”
OWIB is an international forum
where companies can conduct infor-
mal meetings with new suppliers
market themselves to potential cus-
Untitled-7 29 22/6/11 13:18:38
30
INVESTMENT
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
tomers. Participants at the OWIB are
provided with a list of all those who
have signed up. They can then ask to
have meetings with representatives
from specific businesses, energy com-
panies or industry organisations.
Leading turbine manufacturers
Vesats and Siemens Wind Power,
both of whom attended last year’s
event, will again be present along-
side energy companies DONG and
Vattenfall plus a number of interna-
tional sub-suppliers.
“We are very pleased that Invest
in Denmark is involved in this year’s
OWIB because it underlines the
international appeal of the event. Last
year, 2,200 contacts and appoint-
ments about further meetings were
made in the course of one single
day. There is no doubt that Invest
in Denmark will obtain many rel-
evant contacts, and we consider
this to be a seal of approval for our
event,” comments OCD Renewables
Manager Morten Holmager.
Offshore Centre Danmark is a
national knowledge and innovation
centre for the Danish offshore sec-
tor. Since the centre was founded in
2003, it has organised conferences
and networking events and initiated
development projects with a view
to strengthening development and
employment in the offshore sector.
Participation in international collabo-
rations such as POWER cluster and
South Baltic OFFER ensures that the
spotlight is turned on to opportuni-
ties for international collaboration in
the wind turbine sector.
OWIB 2011 will take place on 9
November in Esbjerg, Denmark. The
emphasis of the event is on network-
ing between companies working
within the offshore sector. The event
is visited by business form all levels
of the supply chain including: devel-
opers; manufacturers; installers and
construction, engineering and service
companies.
www.investindk.com
www.owib.dk
Untitled-7 30 22/6/11 13:19:08
– Irish Sea offshore wind farm logistics
– Design and build of turnkey substation
platforms and foundations
– Next generation turbine foundations
– Design and build of metmast platforms
and foundations
– Prototype and mass production
of other marine renewables
T: +44(0)2890 534389
E: sales@harland-wolff.com
www.harland-wolff.com
CONTACT
– Irish Sea offshore wind farm logistics
– Design and build of turnkey substation
platforms and foundations
– Next generation turbine foundations
– Design and build of metmast platforms
and foundations
– Prototype and mass production
of other marine renewables
T: +44(0)2890 534389
E: sales@harland-wolff.com
www.harland-wolff.com
CONTACT
Untitled-19 7 22/6/11 15:43:00
32
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
Training
ground
Along the Firth of Forth,
colleges, industry and
the council are working
together as Fife aims
to become a hub for
the renewable energy
economy. Alistair Welch
visited the region to
learn more about the
schemes in place to
promote relevant skills
and knowledge
Untitled-1 32 22/6/11 09:58:47
33
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
M
ethil waterfront in Fife is
typical of the industrial
landscape along the Firth of
Forth: the quays, warehouses and fac-
tories associated with the area’s heavy
engineering heritage. However, the
dock is also representative of a willing-
ness within the region to harness the
potential of renewables.
Burntisland Fabrications (better
known as BiFab) has one of its manu-
facturing facilities here. The company,
which built its reputation on fabrica-
tion for the offshore oil and gas indus-
try, is now a key player in the offshore
wind sector with a number of sig-
nificant contracts to produce turbine
jackets. In order to meet the demands
of this new sector the company needs
to ensure it continues to attract and
employ people with the right skills.
Furthermore, down the waterfront
sits the Hydrogen Office - a project
designed to support the develop-
ment of renewable, hydrogen fuel cell
and energy storage technologies in
Scotland, as well as provide an educa-
tional resource for local schools.
Education and training are at the
forefront of efforts to develop the
region of Fife into a Scottish and UK-
wide hub for excellence in renewable
energy. The council (Invest in Fife
Renewables), higher education colleg-
es and industry are working together
to develop a skills-base to meet the
requirements of an evolving energy
market.
Fife’s two main colleges, Carnegie
and Adam Smith, have devised a
range of apprenticeships and techni-
cal training programmes to equip the
workforce with key skills for local
industry.
Speaking to journalists at Carnegie’s
recently opened Whitlock Energy
Collaboration Centre, the centre’s
chief Jim Brown explained that the
college’s apprenticeship courses had
been developed in dialogue with
industry to ensure they were tailored
to their particular requirements.
“Collaboration is the key word: our
courses respond to what employers
need. The goal of the centre is to
gear up the workforce to meet future
opportunities in the energy sector. “
Situated on Carnegie’s Rosyth cam-
pus, the Energy Centre, which focuses
on sustainable engineering and renew-
able energy, is just yards away from
the large facility of engineering support
services company Babcock. Babcock,
an international company with a wide
portfolio of activities including defence
and energy, is heavily involved with
Fife’s apprenticeship programmes.
Babcock currently employs 168
apprentices drawn from Carnegie and
nearby Adam Smith College. Likewise,
Bifab is another key supporter of the
training scheme. The fabrications com-
pany has 70 apprentices developing
their skills across a number of relevant
trades.
Both Carnegie and Adam Smith
Colleges are offering a mixture of
renewables specific training and
courses in the more traditional
mechanical and engineering skills. This
balance reflects what local employers
are looking for. Within a relatively
new sector, such as offshore wind,
there is still great demand for estab-
lished skills and trades. Both Babcock
and Bifab see the renewables market,
in particular offshore wind, as a key
growth area into which they can
diversify their core experience.
Bifab operations director Martin
Adam explained: “We are heavily
involved in the training programmes.
All our apprentices come through
Carnegie and we are comfortable with
what they can offer. Nevertheless,
the skills we are looking for really stay
the same. However, although the
skills base to take fabrications from oil
and gas exists, if we didn’t invest in
apprentices those skills would erode.
We don’t necessarily need people
to be “up-skilled” specifically for the
renewables market; we need people
with excellent traditional engineering
skills.”
Babcock’s Director of Commercial
Business Joe McShane added that the
168 apprentices currently engaged
at Babcock were typically working
in established fields such as welding,
pipe-fitting, mechanics and electronics.
However, he explained that as Babcock
moves into new markets, in particular
offshore wind, such skills will have signifi-
cant transferable potential. “Mechanical
and electrical skills will become increas-
ingly important as the offshore wind
sector continues to grow,” he said.
“Our traditional business of doing
refits on warships is disappearing. As
Untitled-1 33 22/6/11 09:59:27
34
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
we see it, the two big growth markets
in the UK are nuclear and renewables.
Fife has been quite visionary in target-
ing renewables.”
Whilst companies like Babcock
and Bifab are, as it stands, placing
the emphasis on established skills,
Carnegie is leading the way in offering
training tailored specifically to renew-
able energy industries. The college has
been instrumental in developing and
delivering the UK’s first wind turbine
maintenance apprenticeship. The
qualification, which is supported by
leading wind turbine manufacturers
Siemens, Repower and Weir Power, is
designed to meet the demand for the
highly skilled individuals required by
the sector.
In the workshop at the Whitlock
Energy Collaboration Centre I met
Rick Watson, one of the college’s
wind turbine apprentices. The 20
year old, originally from Washington
near Newcastle, had secured an
apprenticeship at Rolls Royce but
decided to join the wind turbine
course at Carnegie because he could
see the potential in the renewable
energy sector.
“I saw more prospects for the
future working on wind turbines,” he
told me. “I could see more of a career
in this particular sector. In my area, the
North East, there’s going to be a lot of
growth in the sector. For my Scottish
mates on the course, there’s obviously
a lot of potential in their areas too.”
Rick, halfway through the first year
of his apprenticeship, splits his time
between the workshop and class-
room learning the skills that employ-
ers in the sector require. Sponsored
by Repower, after 18 months at
Carnegie, Rick will then enter a three-
year placement with the company
working on turbine installation and
maintenance in his native North East.
Invest in Fife’s promotion of
renewable energy is not limited to
the apprenticeship schemes at higher
education colleges. Across the water
from Bifab’s Methil facility stands the
Hydrogen Office.
The building, which was opened
in 2009, is essentially a demonstra-
tion project illustrating the potential
of both renewable energy resources
alongside hydrogen storage and fuel
cell technology. The Hydrogen Office’s
energy system includes a 750kW wind
turbine, 30kW electrolyser, 10kW
hydrogen fuel cell and a geothermal
heat pump.
The turbine generates, on average,
in excess of 4,000 kWh of electric-
ity per day. The electricity generated
by the turbine directly provides for
the needs of the Office and surplus
electricity is used to generate hydro-
gen which is subsequently used to
generate electricity through a hydro-
gen fuel cell system. Furthermore,
geothermal heating system provides
80 percent of the buildings heating
requirements.
Untitled-1 34 22/6/11 10:00:02
Students from primary and second-
ary schools regularly visit the centre to
learn more about the science behind
wind turbines, geothermal energy and
hydrogen fuel cell technology. It is also
hoped that the Hydrogen Office will
become a significant research facility.
Although not yet fully operational,
the site will also host a test centre for
businesses and academics to carry out
testing on fuel cell technologies.
The Hydrogen Office is a key
symbol of Invest in Fife’s commitment
to raising awareness of renewable
resources and providing state-of-the-
art research provision to maximize the
sector’s benefit to the regional and
national economy.
www.investinfife.co.uk
T: +44 (0) 1274 531034
E: post@centa-uk.co.uk
VERSATILITY
Complex applications
made easy by experts
Centa technology helps you harness the
power of nature
• Quality bespoke
design capability
• Integrated
products for any
drive situation
• Robust systems;
above and below
the waves
www.centapower.co.uk
Untitled-1 35 22/6/11 10:00:40
36
CONSULTANCY
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
E
ngineering consultancy Xodus
Group has bolstered its impres-
sive renewables credentials by
acquiring an industry leading specialist
consultancy.
The deal with Anglesey based James
Ingram & Associates has brought a
powerhouse of offshore wind, wave
and tidal experience into the fold.
James Ingram has joined Xodus as
Head of Low Carbon and his team has
also transferred into the Group.
Colin Manson, CEO of Xodus
Group, says the move strengthens
Xodus’ growing reputation in renew-
able engineering. He comments: “We
have built a great reputation in the
renewable sector both in front-end
structural and subsea engineering and
through our environmental division, but
this acquisition takes us to a whole new
level. James has worked on some of the
most high profile renewable projects so
we are delighted to be bringing those
world-class capabilities in-house.”
James Ingram & Associates had built
up 10 years’ offshore wind, wave and
tidal experience with clients including
BP Alternative Energy, Scottish Power,
Keppel Group, Dexia Bank and a
Round 3 offshore wind developer.
The full service offering includes
technical and commercial project engi-
neering and due diligence and strategic
management, working across the sec-
tor with project developers, technology
suppliers, marine contractors, finance
providers and government.
Ingram says: “We had built a
solid reputation in the renewable
sector and there were strong synergies
with Xodus and its brand values, so the
time was right to join forces and pool
our capabilities. Xodus offers world-
class offshore technical expertise and is
committed to low carbon through its
new business stream, which recognises
the different drivers and models to
traditional oil and gas projects. We are
delivering a truly integrated and interna-
tional low carbon service.”
Successful contracts Ingram has
won include framework agreements
with both the UK Dept of Energy
and Climate Change (DECC) and UK
energy regulator (OFGEM). He par-
ticipated in two major offshore wind
R&D projects with the UK Energy
Technologies Institute. He has also
been involved in the offshore engineer-
ing on more than 10 wind projects in
the UK, France, Germany, Holland and
Belgium in addition to numerous wave
and tidal technology developments.
Xodus launched in 2005 and has
swiftly grown into a multi-disciplined,
integrated consultancy with expertise in
oil, gas and renewables.
Following its busiest outing at the All
Energy conference in May, the consul-
tancy is currently delivering a variety of
high profile renewable projects.
Statoil has appointed Xodus to
carry out the environmental impact
assessment (EIA) for a potential pilot
park for the world’s first full-scale
Growing up fast
Gayle Nicol reports on how the Xodus Group
continues its expansion with a major
renewables acquisition
floating wind turbine.
The Hywind turbine is based on the
Hywind Demo prototype, which has
been successfully tested by Statoil in
Norway for over a year. An area off
the north-east coast of Scotland will be
assessed as a potential candidate for
a possible first pilot park of up to five
units, generating renewable electricity
offshore.
Based on technologies from the
oil and gas industry, Hywind has been
designed for deep, rough waters. The
floating Hywind structure consists of
a slender steel cylinder filled with a
ballast of water and rocks, holding a
wind-turbine on top. It extends some
Untitled-10 36 22/6/11 14:14:16
37
CONSULTANCY
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
80m beneath the sea’s surface and is
attached to the seabed by a three-
point mooring spread.
First Minister Alex Salmond wel-
comed the project, commenting: “I’m
very pleased that Statoil is considering
an area off the north-east Scottish
coast as the location for a potential
pilot park to deploy their pioneering
Hywind technology and I congratulate
Xodus Group on being appointed to
conduct the EIA. Our nation has been
blessed with an abundance of natural
energy, with an estimated quarter of
Europe’s offshore wind and tidal energy
resource. Founded on our strong
industrial heritage in offshore engineer-
ing and innovation, Scotland’s waters
are attracting a range of clean energy
technology developments, and I hope
to see further exciting renewable ener-
gy projects such as Statoil’s Hywind
deployed here in the coming years.”
Xodus is also carrying out an EIA
for MeyGen in the Pentland Firth.The
project will consist of up to 400, 1MW
turbines generating enough energy
to power 400,000 homes. They will
be located in roughly 3.5km
2
of the
Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth off
the north coast of Scotland between
Caithness on the Scottish mainland and
the Island of Stroma.
Xodus has developed a reputation
as an industry leader in EIAs, which
was reinforced recently when it was
one of the first organisations in the
country to be awarded the Institute
of Environmental Management and
Assesment’s new EIA quality mark.
Stephen Swindell, Chief Operating
Officer at Xodus Group adds: “We
strive for extremely high standards
in our EIAs and this has been under-
lined by being one of the very first to
achieve the new quality mark. We are
experiencing a growing demand for our
low carbon services with a number of
exciting new project wins.”
www.xodusgroup.com
ABOVE: Hywind
tow from
Åmøyfjorden to
Karmøy - floating
windmill at sea in
deep water

Photography by
Øyvind Hagen/Statoi
Untitled-10 37 22/6/11 14:14:59
Leading the way in
supporting renewables
TAG Energy Solutions has created the UK’s first
offshore wind turbine tubular foundation production
plant. It is located in the North East of England.
This exciting, £20 million facility has been developed with
support from DECC, One North East and investors Platina
Partners and Environmental Technologies Fund.
The new plant is now fully operational. TAG Energy Solutions
and its partners are helping the region lead the way in
supporting renewables.
T: 01642 565500
E: enquiries@tagenergysolutions.com
www.tagenergysolutions.com
Technical by nature
QUALIFIED BY EXPERIENCE
www.gl-garradhassan.com
Renewable energy consultants
Untitled-1 36 9/5/11 11:45:42 OW_SUM_ADS.indd 8 22/6/11 17:59:33
39
MARINE
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Raising
standards
Sally Caswell of Red7Marine explains the
specialist services that the company has to offer
R
ed7Marine’s (R7M) newly-
acquired offshore support
vessel DP Reel went straight
to work after sailing into Great
Yarmouth port to mark a milestone
moment for the rapidly growing
company.
The £5million investment means
the highly versatile vessel is available to
support work for clients in the renew-
able energy and oil & gas sectors.
One of her first jobs was for
Centrica on the Lincs windfarm off
Skegness, with anchor trials and div-
ing surveys in preparation for export
cable installation.
“Her acquisition means we have
achieved our primary objective to
own and operate a fully-mobilised UK-
based DPII offshore support vessel,”
said R7M Director Mike Jones, at the
company’s diving and subsea division
base in Lefevre Way, Great Yarmouth.
“In the past we have operated
other companies’ DPII class vessels
to support our work but we always
recognised the importance of secur-
ing our own vessel so we can control
costs better and provide a more pre-
cise and efficient service to clients.
“Our intention is to continue rais-
ing standards in an industry where
we are providing our own specialist
services in offshore construction,
diving, cable laying, ROV and deep
water drilling support. The DP Reel
will help significantly in that objec-
tive,” he added.
The vessel arrives less than
three years after R7M was created
by Norfolk-based Anglian Marine
Services and Haven Ports (Marine
and Constructions Management), of
Manningtree, joining forces.
And it’s the latest feather in the
cap of a company which saw turno-
ver leap from £6million to £24million
in the three years with its workforce
growing from 45 to 125 strong, plus
60 sub-contract divers.
Jones said the DP Reel had already
undertaken a number of operations
both within the renewable and oil &
gas sectors, and was proving to be a
great success even at this early stage.
It is expected to operate next in the
southern North Sea undertaking IRM
and ROV intervention work.
She has been fitted with a
comprehensive offshore diving
system and survey suite, to meet
International Marine Contractors
Association standards, and can oper-
ate in water depth as shallow as 6m,
ideal for supporting cable laying. She
can also support diving operations
in 10m+ water depth and, being
equipped with powerful propulsion
systems, is ideal for handling aggres-
sive and unpredictable tidal flows
Untitled-15 39 22/6/11 14:43:02
40
MARINE
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
around the UK territorial waters.
The 91m x 18m vessel arrived
in Great Yarmouth from a previous
base in Italy.
Meanwhile, R7M continues to be
heavily involved in a major contract
at one of the world’s largest offshore
windfarms, Greater Gabbard, off
Suffolk.
It’s been a real test of skills and
endurance with near non-stop 24/7
operations over two years, working for
Fluor, joint partners with Airtricity in the
project. And it is being achieved with an
impeccable safety record, to date clock-
ing up more than 2,250 dives.
As well as working from vessels,
R7M has access teams working with
transition pieces on the turbines
themselves.
The contract has been extended
to the end of September - and pos-
sibly beyond - for R7M to carry out
some additional cabling work.
Not far away, R7M success-
fully completed its contract at the
Sheringham Shoal windfarm, off
Norfolk, in May where it worked
from the Ocean Dragon on the
cable-landing site; and from the jack-
up JB104, installing pull-in towers and
hydraulic containers on the substa-
tion upper decks; and from Volantis
installing monopile seabed bell
mouths and PE pipes and assisting in
the installation of j-tube extensions.
The company also worked for
three weeks for Vattenfall at the
Thanet windfarm, off Kent, with div-
ing and dredging operations to survey
for export cable joints.
Diving constitutes 50 percent of
R7M turnover with the company also
specialising in a full range of surface
construction work and ‘at height’
projects such as the access for tur-
bine transition pieces.
And it is a global player, often with
more than 20 operations under way
at any one time worldwide. Its aspira-
tions are underlined by the fact that
it is currently awaiting a consultancy
report on windpower opportunities
being developed off Maine, USA.
Headquartered at Wrabness,
Manningtree, R7M also has bases at
Ipswich, Northfleet and Exeter.
The Great Yarmouth diving and
subsea base was opened two years
ago and staffing there has increased
from 15 to 35 plus and is still grow-
ing. This year it is offering apprentice-
ships to school leavers.
Jones stressed the company’s
versatility and attention to quality
and safety standards, with particular
expertise working outside the 12 mile
limit to IMCA standards and offshore
diving ACoP. As a demonstration
of the company’s commitment to
safety, health and quality, R7M can also
announce successfully achieving IS0
9001:2008 accreditation with Lloyd’s
Register Quality Assurance (LRQA),
and recently achieved membership of
the International Marine Contractor
Association (IMCA) within the Diving
Division.
“There are very few companies
like ours which can undertake such a
range of activities, owning and oper-
ating our own equipment and using
a highly skilled, fully-employed work-
force,” he added.
For the future, R7M will continue
chasing global business in the offshore
renewables and oil and gas fields and in
power and telecoms cable installation.
www.red7marine.co.uk
Untitled-15 40 22/6/11 14:43:32
www.xodusgroup.com
Engineering, technical safety and risk, and environmental
consultancy services from Xodus Group actively support the
development of renewable energy projects.
Harnessing
natural energy
Untitled-1 29 9/5/11 11:08:45
42
SUPPLY CHAIN
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
T
AG Energy Solutions, located
on the Teesside waterfront,
already has extensive experi-
ence of offshore operations. Last year
the decision was made to utilise this
experience within the offshore wind
industry, and the company set about
building a new production facility
that will manufacture offshore wind
turbine foundations. The construction
of this facility, based in Billingham, has
sped forward in leaps and bounds.
TAG has now received all the fund-
ing for the site and the building is
nearing completion. The wide array
of machines, such as the welding
equipment that will be crucial to the
operation, are all on site too and are
being lifted into position. TAG’s Chief
Executive, Alex Dawson, is expect-
ing the site to be ready for action
around the middle of June.
The company wants to establish
itself as a key player for founda-
tions and topsides both in the UK
and Europe. The key to this is the
group’s 30 years’ experience work-
ing offshore in the oil and gas sec-
tor. Dawson indicates that, although
the offshore wind industry differs
in part, in terms of foundations the
requirements are very similar. Though
carefully designed, he explains that
foundations are produced through
“simple technology.” The challenge is
not producing them but rather con-
verting the manufacturing and instal-
lation into a slick process. “It’s about
moving an individual project towards
a production process,” Dawson says.
Additionally, he foresees long-term
prospects for the market. “When the
oil and gas industry was first taking
off, it was seen as a short-term solu-
tion, but it has lasted 30 years,” he
explains. “The offshore wind sector
looks set to follow the same route.
It’s home ground for us.”
To this extent, TAG has submit-
ted tenders for several upcoming
projects; in particular Dawson hopes
to become involved with EDF’s
Balanced outlook
Theone Wilson discovers Teesside’s answer to
the challenges of the offshore wind supply chain
Untitled-8 42 22/6/11 13:38:35
43
SUPPLY CHAIN
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Teesside windfarm, for which the
company would be ideally placed.
Meanwhile, TAG has been very
active in the German market, which is
seeing a lot of movement - the group
currently has nine tenders submitted
for German prospects.
The UK, Dawson states, has a
lot to offer but is currently “slightly
behind the curve”. In comparison,
the German sector is a lot more
advanced. The German port of
Bremerhaven, for example, has
recently seen a lot of investment into
its facilities. This means that inter-
national cooperation in the field is
developing. “We are currently having
conversations with companies across
the world, but we are very much at
the beginning of this process. The
sector needs serious collaboration,”
explains Dawson.
Certainly, there is room for devel-
opment in the UK market at the
moment. One example Dawson cites
is that of cast nodes. At the moment,
there is insufficient capacity in the UK
to produce these and TAG is getting
quotes from Germany for the items.
Despite this, there is a real oppor-
tunity for a “renaissance” in the UK
market; Dawson believes that the UK
does have the capacity to become a
leading exporter in the market as a
whole. “We have the skills but just
need to apply them,” he says.
He indicates that in the UK there
has been a lack of stimulation from
the government to encourage the
greater supply chain but the situation
is now improving; however, responsi-
bility also lies with individual compa-
nies to take the opportunities that are
available. “Companies need to stand
up and be proactive - let people know
that they are ready and waiting for
work,” Dawson explains. He senses
that much of the industry is waiting
for work to come to them rather than
going out and searching for it, and this
needs to change; key to finding these
opportunities is networking. “People
don’t know that you’re there unless
you tell them,” he adds. Dawson
himself has spent the past year rais-
ing TAG’s profile so that the industry
knows they are now available to take
on work.
To further raise awareness, TAG
has undertaken a study for The
Carbon Trust, examining how to
manufacture 100 jackets per annum.
The work has brought home the
point that offshore wind is potentially
a huge market. In fact, once the site
at Billingham is in operation Dawson
anticipates running it 24 hours a day,
seven days a week. He is confident
that there will be more than enough
demand to make this worthwhile. As
the business develops, TAG may also
look at expanding and moving into
new areas such as operations and
maintenance.
Overall, offshore wind, Dawson
concludes, fits into the UK’s energy
plans as part of a balanced energy
approach. This includes oil and gas,
nuclear and renewables. While off-
shore wind is probably some years
away from becoming commercially
viable, in Dawson’s mind it is essential
to maintain this balanced outlook on
energy. Nonetheless, the future looks
bright for anyone with the skills and
expertise to make an impact in the
sector - and that includes TAG.
www.tagenergysolutions.com
Untitled-8 43 22/6/11 13:39:18
smart at work
B
efore w
i nd pow
er and tidal
pow
er com
es brai npow
er
www.investni.com/invest
Northern Ireland has world-class engineering capabilities
and some of the best wind, wave and tidal resources in Europe.
But what really sets us apart is our people.
At our R&D centres of excellence, we design and build the
technology that captures the forces of nature, and we have
a wealth of engineering graduates with unbeatable technical
know-how.
Add to that our first-rate business infrastructure, super-port with
24-7 access and unstoppable can-do attitude, Northern Ireland is
the smart choice. Naturally.
To find out more about doing business in Northern Ireland, contact
Invest Northern Ireland
London Team
t: 0207 222 0599
e: london@investni.com
Untitled-19 9 22/6/11 15:52:52
45
PORTS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Natural resources
Johanna Lagan, Renewables Executive of International Sales and
Marketing at Invest Northern Ireland, explains why this region offers
excellent offshore opportunities
N
orthern Ireland’s location and
facilities are proving to be
ideally placed to service the
offshore energy market.
The region is in the enviable position
of having a number of excellent ports
with superb associated facilities, which
are crucially important to the offshore
energy supply chain. Indeed, not only
is the region in the right geographic
location to exploit its own enormous
natural resources of wind and tidal, but
it also boasts close proximity to the
windfarms in the Irish Sea and marine
sites off the coast of Scotland.
Northern Ireland’s ports offer excel-
lent facilities including first-rate seaward
access, good port facilities and outstand-
ing development potential, all of which
can service a range of the renewable
energy industry’s needs. They are close
to the existing Round 1, 2 and 3 licenses
in the Irish Sea as well to the Irish wind
licenses and marine licenses around the
coast of Scotland. The Crown Estate will
also be issuing both offshore wind and
marine licenses for Northern Ireland, to
run in parallel from 2012.
Boasting a total of ten ports rang-
ing from large to small, Northern
Ireland’s ports offer opportunities as
either construction or operation and
maintenance (O&M) ports in offshore
energy - wind, wave and tidal. Many
of these ports have land available for
development including the largest
ones - Belfast and Londonderry.
Already Harland and Wolff, located
within the Port of Belfast, has been the
construction base port for the Robin
Rigg (180MW) and Barrow (90MW)
offshore windfarms in the Irish Sea, and
as the assembly facility for the 400MW
sub-station for the Bard Offshore 1
windfarm in the German Bight devel-
opment area. The company has also
worked on numerous marine devices
including Seagen in Strangford Lough,
Wavebob in Galway Bay, and a proto-
type marine device to be placed off the
west coast of Scotland.
The major ports in the region are
well-connected to all areas of Northern
Ireland and the Republic of Ireland by a
good road and rail network. Between
them the ports of Belfast, Londonderry,
Larne and Warrenpoint provide some
150 fast ferry and freight sailings per
week to Great Britain, Europe and
beyond. The Port of Belfast is the busi-
est port in Ireland and is unique in hav-
ing an airport on its land.
There are numerous engineering and
construction companies, and cement
production facilities co-located with
deep-water ports, having large areas
of designated development land that is
suitable for the production of concrete
gravity bases and other products. Belfast
Harbour also hosts the Northern
Ireland Advanced Composites &
Engineering Centre (NIACE), a new
£6million research centre launched at
the beginning of 2011 and supported
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Untitled-6 45 22/6/11 12:53:05
46
PORTS
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
by industry, government and the two
universities in Northern Ireland.
Operating costs are highly competi-
tive and significantly lower than the rest
of the UK and Western Europe. Labour
costs in Northern Ireland are the low-
est in the UK - typically around 10-30
percent below the UK national average.
Add to this workforce flexibility and skills
and Northern Ireland ranks among the
most competitive locations in Europe.
Northern Ireland has much to offer
the sustainable energy sector in terms
of its skills base. Historically strong in
engineering, shipbuilding and structural
steelwork, Northern Ireland maintains an
experienced, skilled workforce. Nearly
34,000 people are employed in the
construction industry with proportion-
ately more workers in specialist building
operations in Northern Ireland than in
the rest of the UK.
Companies working in and through
Northern Irish ports have access to a
young well-educated population. The
region produces highly educated people,
consistently outperforming other UK
regions in school-leaver qualifications.
Multiple courses in universities and fur-
ther education colleges ensure skills avail-
ability for the engineering and construc-
tion sectors and include academic quali-
fications, vocational and apprenticeship
schemes. There are over 5,400 students
enrolled in construction and engineering
courses with over 1,400 graduates per
annum from the same courses.
The skills pipeline has been
enhanced further by the creation
of new wind turbine qualifications
recently launched through the fur-
ther education colleges in Northern
Ireland. The first outside the USA to
offer training for wind turbine
Big lifts and manufacturing muscle
Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries Ltd is approximately halfway through a logis-
tic supply project for Sweden’s biggest energy supplier, Vattenfall, on Ormonde
offshore windfarm. The company has a huge standing area and superb lifting
capacity that makes the prestigious ship builder an obvious choice for a logistic
supply base, supporting projects not only in the Irish Sea but also in other UK and
European OWF designated zones.
Having massive heavy handling and ‘just-in-time’ logistical support capability
has become a significant part of the overall package. Nothing is more important
to the installation process than a safe and efficient load-out and delivery which
can result in massive cost savings. And having on-site ship repair and manufactur-
ing capability provides a level of redundancy that could prove invaluable should
emergency repair work to deployment vessels and other bespoke engineering
fabrication services be required.
The main benefits of the Harland
and Wolff logistical base are:
• ISPS certified port facility having 24/7
CCTV site security
• Easy deep water access and exit to
open water
• Largest dry dock in Europe, 556m
long x 93m, with five intermediate
gate positions
• Two Goliath gantry cranes, each with
840t lifting capacity, two 60t and one
9t tower cranes. Plus a range of up to
260t transporters, fork truck and
cherry pickers
• Four quayside/wharfs complete
with shore power, potable water and
amenities
• Over 100,000m
2
storage area
• Marine design service, manufactur-
ing, paint shops, slops and ship repair
facilities.
Transferring the knowledge base from ship building through oil and gas into
manufacturing renewable energy support structures (such as jackets and topsides)
has resulted in Siemens awarding Harland and Wolff a design and build contract
for two offshore substation platforms for the Gwynt y Môr offshore windfarm.
Manufacturing will continue to be at the heart of Harland and Wolff’s commit-
ment into the renewable sector, with logistical and assembly an integral part of
the forward looking strategy.
Untitled-6 46 22/6/11 12:53:34
47
PORTS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
engineers, these specialised courses
have produced more than 200 gradu-
ates to date.
Carbon Zero is a sector initiative led
by colleges to develop a skilled workforce
in renewable energy and is targeted at
experienced engineers wanting to grow
or diversify their skills within the renewa-
bles sector. Other bodies including the
Engineering Training Council, an employ-
er-led body providing apprenticeship
opportunities, and CITB-ConstructionSkills
Northern Ireland are working with uni-
versities, schools, colleges and industry to
ensure a qualified, professional workforce
for the construction sector.
A report by GL Garrad Hassan enti-
tled ‘Opportunities for Northern Ireland
Ports in the Renewable Energy Sector’
was released last year. Commissioned
by the Carbon Trust, the report draws
attention to the region’s outstanding port
facilities. In the report, the large ports at
Londonderry, Belfast and Warrenpoint
are highlighted as offering superb facilities
for construction and for operations and
maintenance for both offshore wind and
the marine energy sector. Smaller ports
such as Coleraine, Portavogie, Strangford,
Kilkeel and Larne also offer good pros-
pects for O&M.
Northern Ireland’s ports form one part
of a compelling proposition for investors
in offshore energy who want to make the
most of the opportunities in the Irish Sea
and surrounding areas. Add in its great
location, educated and skilled workforce,
competitive costs and surrounding sup-
ply chain and you have the right mix for
success.
For more information about what
Northern Ireland has to offer visit:
www.investni.com/invest
Belfast Harbour
Covering an area of almost 2,000 acres, Belfast Harbour is one of Ireland’s
principal maritime gateways, and one of the most modern ports in Europe,
handling over 16.5million tonnes of cargo and over one million ferry passen-
gers in 2010.
But with one eye on the future, it is the fast growing offshore wind indus-
try which represents the largest business opportunity for Belfast Harbour, and
UK ports in general, over the next 15 years. The offshore wind industry plans
to install over 2,500 turbines within 150 miles of Belfast Harbour, thus making
it well positioned geographically to facilitate the establishment of a reliable
supply chain upon which to deliver this offshore wind capacity.
However, it is not just about being in the right place - ports must have the right
facilities and a proven track record in executing development projects to attract
investors. Belfast Harbour, a deep water port with no tidal restrictions offering
24/7/365 access and a long track record of project delivery, gives offshore energy
investors the ability to build the robust supply chain solutions they need.
Belfast Harbour’s existing facilities include Ireland’s longest deepwater quay,
Stormont Wharf, at over 1km long, backed with substantial quayside storage
areas, and the extensive world-class facilities operated by Harland &Wolff, with
its permanent heavy lift capability.
However, it is the recent announcement made with DONG Energy that pro-
vides even greater proof of Belfast Harbour’s ambitious plans to make Belfast
one of the UK’s leading renewable energy hubs. In February 2011, Belfast
Harbour announced plans with the Danish firm, to develop a new £40m logis-
tics hub at Belfast Harbour as a base for its Irish Sea construction operations.
The proposed development will see Belfast Harbour fund and build a new
480m long deep water quay supported by a 50 acre logistics space. The
scheme represents one of the harbour’s largest ever capital investment projects
and has the potential to kick-start Belfast and Northern Ireland’s aspirations to
become a leading player in the new green economy.
With a further 100 acres of land nearby also available for development,
Belfast Harbour is pursuing plans to develop a Marine Energy Park to build on
its recent success with DONG Energy. With an already burgeoning R&D sector
in offshore energy in Belfast (particularly in tidal energy), the proposed Park
will provide an excellent hub at which to co-locate further R&D facilities, major
manufacturing operations, integrating effectively with local companies in the
supply chain, all of which will be proximate to the world class harbour facilities
required to take product to market.
Working closely with Northern Ireland’s regional economic development
agency, Invest NI, Belfast Harbour provides a compelling business proposition
to new and established businesses seeking to participate in this exciting, and
potentially lucrative market.
Untitled-6 47 22/6/11 12:54:09
Inverclyde is emerging as a strategic location for the offshore renewable energy industry,
with the infrastructure available for Offshore Wind/Wave and Tidal Operations &
Maintenance, Fabrication, Sub-Assembly, Manufacturing and Applied R&D and Testing.
Inverclyde is one of Scotland’s 32 unitary authorities and
includes the towns of Greenock, Gourock and Port Glasgow.
For further details, please contact:
Neil Lochiel, Implementation Manager
Riverside Inverclyde
Suite G1, Clyde View, Pottery Street, Greenock PA15 2UZ
Telephone number : 01475 746475 Mobile : 07590 710782
www.riversideinverclyde.com
We offer:
� Ports, Infrastructure & Connectivity
• 200,000 m
2
existing port site
• Extended potential to 400,000 m
2
• Minimum water depths of 8.2 metres
• Bespoke office accommodation
• Land platformed and ready for
development
• Excellent road, motorway, rail and air
connectivity
� West Coast location
• Wave & Tidal
• Offshore Wind
� Government backing and support
� Testing and R&D opportunity
� Skilled workforce
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Untitled-19 10 22/6/11 15:54:19
49
PORTS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Top facilities
Neil Lochiel, Implementation Manager at
Riverside Inverclyde, argues that the region is
ideal for renewables businesses looking to expand
I
nverclyde, on banks of the the River
Clyde and including the towns of
Greenock and Port Glasgow, is
well-suited to encourage the location
of offshore renewable energy compa-
nies to create a key west of Scotland
hub. Already companies such as 2020
Renewables and Jenda Energy have
headquartered there. Inverclyde boasts
excellent port, land and office facilities;
an adaptable workforce with the techni-
cal, professional and artisan skills of the
shipbuilding and IT industries that made
Inverclyde the export capital of Scotland;
easy access to the west coast Scottish
Territorial Waters marine energy loca-
tions via well-connected ports and near-
by airports; superb infrastructure; and
close proximity to Glasgow International
Airport.
Riverside Inverclyde (ri) is an Urban
Regeneration Company driving the
delivery of a focused, integrated regen-
eration programme for Inverclyde, on
the Clyde Estuary 25 miles west of
Glasgow. A joint initiative between
the Scottish Government, Inverclyde
Council, Scottish Enterprise and the pri-
vate sector, including Clydeport, ri aims
to dramatically reshape the environmen-
tal and economic future of Inverclyde’s
waterfront.
Recent announcements of key
offshore wind renewables companies
setting up R&D facilities in Glasgow are
providing a direct focus on associated
opportunities in the west of Scotland.
Inverclyde is ideally placed to support
this by offering top-notch facilities, highly
competitive rates and flexible deals.
Inverclyde’s renewable energy loca-
tions are all contained within the arterial
A8 dual carriageway, on or immediately
opposite the waterfront. At the east
entrance to Port Glasgow, adjacent to
the M8 motorway is the 30,000m
2
, plat-
formed land development of Kelburn
intended for light industrial usage, less
than a mile away from Ferguson’s
Shipbuilding and Fabrication Yard, who
have already delivered a large carousel
barge for deepwater cable laying to the
sector. Construction work will begin
at Kelburn in November this year in
a Phase 1 speculative build of four
separate sub-dividable units suitable for
manufacturing or assembly, with a gross
internal ground floor area of 41,000ft
2
.
Two miles further west is Clydeport’s
Inchgreen port, yard and dry dock facil-
ity. Currently standing at 200,000m
2,

there is potential to double the size of
this facility up to 400,000m
2
. Inchgreen’s
current features include a 420m quay-
side, a 95m x 60m hard standing area,
minimum water depth of 8.2m, a 100m
x 80m reinforced module mat and a
305m x 47m dry dock, with cranage.
Less than a quarter of a mile away is
Riverside Business Park’s new 1,922m
2

Grade A office space of Clyde View,
home to 2020 Renewables and Jenda
Energy. Clyde View has variable suite
sizes that can be adapted for all needs
LEFT: Inverclyde
waterfront
Untitled-5 49 22/6/11 11:56:07
50
PORTS
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
ABOVE: Work
is underway at
Kelburn BELOW:
Map of the water-
front
and is designed for multi occupancy.
Land adjacent is under development to
provide a second office building of com-
parative size.
Between Clyde View and Greenock
Ocean Terminal is the 14,000m
2

Cartsdyke/Cartsburn site, platformed
and readied for office build. This is ideal
for a bespoke regional office develop-
ment. All locations are on a dual car-
riageway and within a five minute walk
of a railway station with frequent serv-
ices to Glasgow.
There is a thriving Inverclyde
Renewables Alliance Group, with
a breadth and depth of experience
including Scottish Enterprise, Clydeport,
Inverclyde Council, Mainstream
Renewable Power, Ferguson’s
Shipbuilders, Jenda Energy, 2020
Renewables, James Watt College, Turbo
Renewables and JLES, all working with
Riverside Inverclyde in developing and
positioning Inverclyde as an advanta-
geous West of Scotland location for
offshore renewables.
Inverclyde is a Regional Selective
Assistance Grant designated area.
Riverside Inverclyde’s URC status brings
flexibility and potential cost advantages
to mobile investors, providing a more
cost-effective alternative to a city centre
location.
Whether in manufacturing opera-
tions/maintenance for offshore wind,
wave and tidal manufacturing or sub-
assembly, consultancy, regional office, or
Applied R&D and testing capabilities for
marine renewables, Inverclyde can meet
investors’ needs.
Glasgow and the Clyde Estuary’s
support and drive for exploiting
Scotland’s offshore renewables potential
is firmly established. This is particularly
evident with key 2011 announcements
that include the new International
Technology and Renewable Energy
Zone in Glasgow, Scotland’s R&D capi-
tal for marine energy, and major jobs
announcements from both Doosan
Babcock and Steel Engineering at
Westway, halfway between Inverclyde
and Glasgow city centre. Major compa-
nies such as SSE Renewables, Scottish
Power Iberdrola and Mainstream
Renewable Power are located in
Glasgow and the synergies between
there, Westway and Inverclyde are pro-
viding a strong West of Scotland focal
point for marine energy.
Companies investing in Inverclyde will
be coming to an area that is transform-
ing itself and is looking positively to the
future as Riverside Inverclyde advances
its ambitious plans for the regeneration
of the waterfront, with work under-
way across seven key sites, including at
Kelburn and Cartsdyke.
While Clyde View’s two-storey
building is the keystone attraction of
Riverside Business Park, a new nursery-
build completed in February this year
is already fully operational. Sitting next
to Clyde View is the Ladyburn Business
Centre, a carefully restored former
school building offering a combination
of offices geared towards community
based enterprise and studios suitable
for use by artists. The building also has
a gallery and exhibition space which is
used to spotlight the work of local and
national talent.
Meanwhile in the town centres of
Gourock, Greenock and Port Glasgow
a series of environmental improve-
ments and public realm works funded
by the Scottish Government from its
Town Centre Regeneration Fund have
been undertaken, designed to positively
change the image of these centres and
attract footloose economic and residen-
tial investment. A £10million arts theatre
is also under construction at the East
India Harbour and will be operational by
mid 2012.
However, the most ambitious
physical regeneration project is the
comprehensive £180million, 12 year
redevelopment of historic James Watt
Dock which will see the creation of out-
standing commercial, marina and leisure
facilities set alongside modern residential
and retail space. The redevelopment of
the 107 acre dock, being carried out in a
partnership with Peel Holdings, is one of
the largest-ever individual regeneration
projects seen in Scotland. When com-
plete, some 145,600ft
2
of commercial
space will have been created, alongside
45,000ft
2
of retail space and homes for
3,200 people. ■
Riverside Inverclyde’s Renewables
brochure can be downloaded at www.
riversideinverclyde.com or contact Neil Lochiel
on 01475 755080.
Untitled-5 50 22/6/11 11:56:49
Untitled-8 19 28/3/11 16:46:54
The UK’s leading renewable energy
trade association is proud to present:
RenewableUK 2011
Annual Conference & Exhibition
– Over 300 exhibitors
– Over 4,000 delegates
– Networking & side events
25–27 Oct | Manchester, UK | Wind, wave & tidal energy
Register
online:
events.renewable-uk.com (All RenewableUK conferences and exhibitions)
Coming next year:
RenewableUK
Global Offshore
Wind 2012
13–14 June 2012 | ExCel London, UK
www.GlobalOffshoreWind.com
Core
Sponsor
Core Sponsor
6 July 2011
London, UK
Keynote address from Dr Vince Cable, Secretary
of State for Business, Innovation and Skills
Three days of sessions, exhibition
and side events will examine industry
developments in onshore and offshore
wind energy, wave and tidal energy,
and micro- and small-wind systems.
New space
available
Untitled-19 11 22/6/11 15:56:13
53
PORTS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Future
development
Steve Welch talks to Harbour Master Captain
Ken Gray about the facilities on offer at
Cromarty Firth
A
s the deepest, most sheltered
port in the North of Scotland,
Cromarty Firth has a wealth
of facilities in both the oil & gas and
renewable markets. Chief Executive
and Harbour Master Captain Ken Gray
explains: “We are the primary port
facility in the UK for both the mainte-
nance and stacking of oil rigs and the
Cromarty Firth can provide a highly
skilled labour force with all the service
required in IRM and subsea engineer-
ings supported by modern deep water
port facilities. Recently we have diversi-
fied into the logistics support for the
onshore windfarms industry and in the
last four years the port has experi-
enced an increase in this market with
over 180 turbines ranging from 1MW-
2.2MW being handled. We have also
completed two experimental 5MW
units for offshore wind, which were
assembled in the Firth and shipped out
as a complete unit. Additionally, in the
Untitled-17 53 22/6/11 15:13:19
54
PORTS
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
last two years Cromarty Firth has been
involved in the manufacture and logis-
tics of four experimental wave and tidal
generators”.
As Cromarty Firth is the closest
deepwater port to both the Beatrice
and Moray Firth offshore windfarms,
this presents an ideal opportunity to be
able to service them. Gray stresses that
the port is keen to develop further into
this area.
“We are currently at the design
phase of extending the land holding
and berth facilities at the Invergordon
Service Base to support the offshore
wind industry with phase one being
completed in 2010,” Gray continues.
The port can handle large ships here
- up to 150,000 tonnes and some of
the largest cruise ships in the world.
Access is available at all states of the
tide and weather conditions, making
the port a very attractive destination.
The port has the advantage of having
experienced fabrication companies on
site with dedicated work shop facili-
ties, which in the future may benefit
from the new markets in offshore
renewable and build on their exper-
tise.
Gray sees the offshore wind sec-
tor as being at a crossroads because
the offshore wind work that has been
undertaken so far has been in shallow
water. “It hasn’t required the expertise
that we can provide here yet but once
you go into deeper water and start
bringing subsea engineering into the
equation then our experience in the oil
and gas industry will be of great benefit
to the windfarm developers. That’s
the experience and skills the Cromarty
Firth can bring and which we hope will
assist in de-risking these most challeng-
ing projects. We are keen to work with
the wind farm developers to provide
the Port facilities and knowledge they
require.”
The Cromarty Firth Port Authority
is a Trust Port managed by a small
specialist team with an elected Board
and all the money generated has to be
invested back into the port facilities.
In fact, for the past five years,
£1million has been invested into the
Invergordon Service Base. This supply
base is made up of 30 acres of devel-
oped land that is suitable for further
development. Projects to develop the
port even further are ongoing - the
team are looking to spend in excess of
£20million by early 2013. Part of this
includes a plan to reclaim seven acres
of land and to give the port a berth
that can take a ship up to 140m in
length.
For the Port Authority, the main
challenge at the moment appears to
be a lack of information on how the
construction phase will be undertaken.
“With Rounds 2 and 3 people are
concentrating on gaining consent so
the construction/development phase
is somewhat behind,” says Gray. “We
don’t know what size ships will be
required or what size lifts the ships
will have and it’s difficult to have berth
facilities to match specifications that we
don’t know.”
An additional consideration is that
the planned construction phase for
Rounds 2 and 3 is relatively short. “We
will need an awful lot of equipment,
labour and skills over a short period
of time. There will be stresses on the
supply chain,” states Gray. However,
he notes that the Scottish government
have been proactive in setting out an
infrastructure plan to try to bring eve-
rything together. Cost may also be an
issue but reductions may be achieved
through mass production or by using
proven technology, which will reduce
the risk of things going wrong.
“We already have the knowledge,
expertise and skills here because of
the amount of work we have done
both onshore and offshore to date,”
concludes Gray. “The supply chain
here has gained that knowledge early
on. It’s a very exciting time for all of us
at the port and we want to rise to the
challenge.”
www.cfpa.co.uk
Untitled-17 54 22/6/11 15:13:51
CROMARTY FIRTH PORT AUTHORITY
www.cfpa.co.uk
For All Your Renewable Energy Needs
The Cromarty Firth is the gateway to deep water wind generation, with a proven track record in
onshore and ofshore wind, wave and tidal energy fabrication and logistics.
Our experience in subsea engineering together with deep sheltered water, makes the Firth a fore-
runner in meeting the demands for manufacture, assembly, installation and maintenance of large
ofshore units.
This is the closest deep water port with 24 hour access to the Beatrice and Moray Round 2 & 3 wind
farm projects.
For all your renewable energy needs, think Cromarty Firth.
Untitled-19 12 22/6/11 15:57:31
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www.loc-group.com
Marine & Engineering Consultancy Services
for Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy Projects
Warranty Surveying
Navigational Risk Assessment
Project Management
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Approval of Installation Vessels
Preparation of Contingency Plans
Safety Auditing
Evaluation of Project Concepts
Cable Installation
Please visit us at Stand C195 - All-Energy 2011, Aberdeen
Locations
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EE35_HGFtw.indd 38 10/5/11 11:56:20
OW_SUM_ADS.indd 24 22/6/11 17:42:05
INSIDE
Page 58 - It’s power delivery that really counts. Page 60 - Building HVDC supergrids - chal-
lenges and possibilities. Page 61 - HVDC Light goes offshore. Page 62 - Distributed Energy
Storage Page 63 - Enhancing ABB’s UK centre of grid excellence.
www.abb.com/hvdc
ABB’s tried and proven technologies meet the grid connection
challenges of Europe’s drive for renewable energy
READY FOR
CONNECTION NOW
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 57 21/6/11 14:58:00
R
enewable energy - inher-
ently variable in its nature - is
playing an ever-increasing
role in meeting our energy
demands. The creation of ‘supergrids’
of interconnected networks offers an
attractive way of increasing reliability
and security of supply, and smooth-
ing out the peaks and troughs in both
power usage and generation. The
challenge is how to connect these
grids in a reliable, efficient way,
potentially over great distances, and
crossing seas. High Voltage Direct
Current (HVDC) transmission solutions
are set to play a vital role.
Sustainable energy sources cannot
be evaluated as ‘stand alone’ solu-
tions; they are only as effective as the
power grid to which they ultimately
connect. What really counts is the
efficiency of the total energy system.
There will need to be new ap-
proaches to living with variable
generation sources, with more active
demand response and smarter grid
technologies playing a very sig-
nificant part. In parallel, we will also
need to roll out new ways of manag-
ing and interconnecting electricity
grids nationally and internationally.
This is where supergrids will play a
key role.
Supergrids make sense strategi-
cally because they enable poten-
tially rich sources of energy - such as
offshore wind farms, hydroelectric,
geothermal and solar arrays - to be
permanently connected to centres of
demand, such as large cities, which
may be hundreds of kilometres away.
Europe’s proposed Offshore Super-
grid (www.friendsofthesupergrid.eu) is
a case in point. This ambitious project
aims to address the impending
energy crunch in Europe by intercon-
necting national electricity grids from
Spain to the Baltic Sea in a seamless
electricity transmission and trading
network. It would smooth out demand
and supply across a vast geographi-
cal area and population, and make
the most use of renewable energy
sources wherever and whenever they
are available.
The role of the supergrid is two-
fold. First, it will carry electricity gener-
ated by offshore wind farms, and
other renewable sources, to onshore
grid connections. Second, it will carry
electricity from all sources around
Europe, making the region’s electricity
markets more efficient both in terms
of meeting demand and in terms of
energy trading.
The idea of harnessing solar
power from North African deserts
to provide emission-free electricity to
Europe is the central proposition of
the Desertec Industrial Initiative, inau-
gurated in July 2009. The Desertec
vision (www.desertec.org) sees solar
power generated in the Sahara even-
tually meeting 15 percent of Europe’s
energy needs, and a significant pro-
portion of local demand in producer
countries by 2050.
With improvements in the ef-
It’s power delivery that really counts
58
ABB
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 58 21/6/11 15:30:05
ficiency of power transmission, and in
renewable energy technologies, most
of the previous technical challenges
involved have now been overcome.
Nonetheless, the construction
of very large offshore wind farms
presents some significant engineering
challenges in getting large quantities
of electrical power back to shore.
Subsea supergrid interconnections
demand a very robust electrical trans-
mission system, with high availability
and minimal maintenance require-
ments. They must not only meet strict
national grid codes, but also relieve
stresses from wind turbines and other
renewable sources by isolating electri-
cal transients from the mainland grid.
Another important requirement is to
design a system that can withstand
the harsh and sometimes very hostile
offshore environment.
HVDC (High Voltage Direct Cur-
rent) technology is used to transmit
electricity over long distances by
overhead transmission lines or sub-
marine cables. First made available
on a commercial basis by ABB, it is
a well-proven technology with over
50 years of operating experience.
HVDC offers higher capacity per line
but also lower transmission losses
than traditional AC systems. It can be
used to connect separate asynchro-
nous power systems (operating on a
different frequency or voltage) where
traditional AC connections are not
feasible. In addition, HVDC systems
also provide rapid and accurate con-
trol of power flow and are therefore
ideal for interconnecting power grids
to facilitate market trading.
Now HVDC has emerged as a
robust and economically feasible
alternative for the subsea interconnec-
tion of offshore wind farms, especially
with the significant improvements that
have been made in the performance
of wind-conversion systems, which
have enabled wind turbines to be
connected to the transmission grid
and be safeguarded against surges
in power generation.
An excellent example of this new
generation of HVDC is the HVDC
Light system pioneered by ABB over
the past 14 years. Based on VSC
(Voltage Source Converter) technol-
ogy it uses series-connected power
transistors rather than thyristor valves.
It is ideal for integrating dispersed, re-
newable generation, especially wind
power, into existing AC grids. It is
also used for smart transmission and
smart grids due to its great flexibility
and adaptability.
In offshore wind farm applications,
VSC-based HVDC solutions use ex-
truded polymer (XLPE) cables, which
are a strong, flexible and cost-effec-
tive alternative for severe conditions
and deep waters. This cable type
has a copper or aluminium conductor
surrounded by a polymeric insulating
material, which is very strong and
robust. The water sealing of the cable
has a seamless layer of extruded
lead and finally one or two layers of
steel wire armouring to provide the
mechanical properties.
Most grid codes today set require-
ments on ‘fault ride-through’ or ‘low-
voltage ride-through’. As the propor-
tion of renewable power generation
increases, grid codes requirements
are becoming stricter. For example,
wind turbines or farms must typically
be able to survive sudden voltage
dips down to typically 15 percent
of the nominal grid voltage for up to
140ms.
The wind farm network is much
smaller than a typical utility grid and,
as a consequence, weaker. Also, its
rated generation normally matches
the rated HVDC transmission capabil-
ity. A fast reduction in the input power
capability may therefore lead to a
significant increase in the wind farm
bus voltage - resulting in an over-volt-
age tripping of the VSC and/or the
wind turbines.
The solution used is very robust,
and leaves the wind farm unaffected
during main grid faults. The DC chop-
per is a high-energy resistor in the
DC circuit that evacuates the surplus
of energy during network faults when
power transmission is not possible.
This means there will be no abrupt
change in the output power from the
wind turbines and the disturbance
seen by the wind turbines will be
minimised.
It is surely significant that the long-
established US grid features just one
to two percent of HVDC transmission.
In China, which is currently building
a truly national grid, designed from
a blank sheet of paper, HVDC will
comprise some 10 to 20 percent of
the total transmission capacity. This
allows the development of remote
hydro resources, minimises the
number of lines, increases reliability
and also creates an infrastructure that
allows full utilisation of production
resources including additional remote
renewables.
Renewables will make a significant
contribution to Europe’s power needs,
but we must ensure that our grids are
sufficiently developed to collect and
deliver that power efficiently and reli-
ably. The good news is that ABB has
the technology to build these strong,
reliable grids commercially available
and ready to connect. ■
59
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 59 21/6/11 15:32:44
60
ABB
H
VDC links are used for
bringing offshore wind
power to shore. As the
number of these point-
to-point HVDC connections grows, it
would help to connect them directly,
rather than through the broader AC
grid. This is giving rise to plans for
HVDC supergrids.
Wider use of DC grids is likely
to involve challenges of a technical
nature. However, the main challenge
concerns adaption of international
Regulatory frameworks to manage
these new grids.
Plans to introduce wind power in
the North Sea, solar power in North
Africa (the Desertec initiative) etc,
have created interest in HVDC grids.
The value of these grids (offshore
or onshore) is in their role as a
facilitator for power exchange and
trade between regions and power
systems.
Moreover, an offshore grid will
allow the aggregation and dispatch
of power from offshore wind farms in
different regions, resulting in power
generation profiles of low variability.
The major motivation for an
offshore grid topology is constituted
by two policy drivers: the need for
connectivity between countries and
power market regions, and the
demand for economically efficient
connection of offshore wind farms.
A reference project for construct-
ing a regional grid with a limited
number of nodes is already in place.
The Québec-New England project
completed in the 1990s has clearly
demonstrated the feasibility of three-
terminal HVDC systems.
HVDC Light provides better capa-
bilities for operating regional multi-ter-
minal systems as it has the advantage
that the power direction is altered by
changing the direction of the current,
and not by changing the polarity of
the DC voltage. The terminals can
be connected to different points in
the same AC network or to different
AC networks. The resulting DC grids
can be radial, interconnected or a
combination of both.
An interregional DC grid is defined
as a system that needs several protec-
tion zones. The following technology
gaps need to be closed to create
such a grid:
• DC breakers
• Power flow control
• Automatic network restoration
• DC/DC converters for connect-
ing different regional systems
The basic technologies in these
fields are known although some
further development is needed to fully
meet all regulatory demands.
For HVDC supergrids to become
commercially viable they may well
need to be based on individual links
of some 2GW. Currently, the maxi-
mum rating for a single building block
of ABB’s HVDC Light technology at
+320 kV is 1150MW. However,
technology is advancing and ABB
is providing a monopolar 500kV,
700MW HVDC Light system for the
fourth HVDC link between Norway
and Denmark. So it is reasonable to
expect that 2GW HVDC Light links
will soon be achievable.
The subsea cables for such
supergrids will need to operate in the
region of 500kV. To date, no XLPE
cables capable of this are commer-
cially available. However, there have
been rapid developments in XLPE
cable technology for HVDC applica-
tions recently and the trend indicates
that the required voltage levels will be
achieved soon. Mass Impregnated
subsea cable at 500kV already exists
and several HVDC projects will be
based on this technology in the near
future.
Future transmission grids will be
more international and will be oper-
ated and regulated by a range of in-
ternational bodies as well as national
agencies and system operators.
Establishing the ENTSO-E (a Euro-
pean TSO cooperative association) in
2008 was a major step towards the
formation of rules and frameworks to
support future grids.
ABB anticipates that, based on
previous HVDC and cable technol-
ogy development rates, the residual
technology gaps will be closed to
make the European Supergrid a
reality. ■
Building HVDC supergrids
- challenges and possibilities
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 60 21/6/11 15:37:21
61
T
he demanding environment
and remote location makes
power transmission from
large offshore wind farms a
considerable challenge. Oil explora-
tion companies sucessfully met similar
challenges when they first began to
exploit offshore oil and gas reserves
in the North Sea. ABB has followed
their path by successfully delivering
the first offshore HVDC schemes.
A remote wind power farm could
be connected with either AC or
HVDC. Depending on the size of the
wind farm, along with grid condi-
tions, the use of HVDC is applicable
where the distance to the connecting
AC grid exceeds 40-70km.
With the constraints placed on
space and weight offshore, HVDC
Light offers some key advantages,
since it is compact and lightweight
compared with other HVDC solutions.
Other needs are as follows:
• safety is paramount
• salt and humidity place severe
requirements on the choice of materi-
als and surface treatment
• maintenance needs must be
minimised
• extensive monitoring is needed.
Apart from the main transformers,
all high-voltage equipment must be
installed inside compact modules on
the offshore platform. The ventilation
system in the modules must protect
the high-voltage equipment and the
electronics from salt-laden and humid
air. The main circuit equipment is
therefore exposed to lower environ-
mental requirements than a normal
outdoor installation that enables a
more compact design. The ventila-
tion must also take airborne losses
into consideration. An advantage of
being offshore in the North Sea, of
course, is that cold (5-11°C) water
for cooling is readily available.
VSC-based HVDC converter
stations can be fully automated or
remotely operated. The goal is to
maintain high performance of the
link throughout the whole operational
lifetime.
HVDC Light’s functionality in the
offshore environment is shown by
Statoil’s Troll A power from shore
project, set up in 2005. This 84
MW link was the world’s first offshore
HVDC transmission project. It enables
the Troll A gas production platform to
meet all its power requirements from
onshore generation, via four 70km
subsea cables.
The world’s first HVDC link to
connect an offshore wind farm with
an AC grid is the BorWin1 project.
Based on HVDC Light technology,
this 200 km link connects the Bard
Offshore 1 wind farm located off
Germany’s North Sea coast to the
HVAC grid on the German mainland.
When complete, BARD Offshore
1 will consist of 80 wind genera-
tors, each with a capacity of 5MW.
These will feed their power into a
36kV AC cable system. This voltage
will then be transformed to 155kV
AC before reaching the HVDC
Light converter station, located on a
dedicated platform. Here the AC is
converted to ±150kV DC and fed
into two 125km sea cables, which
then continue into two 75km land
cables, transmitting 400MW power
to the land-based converter station.
The German utility TenneT has
awarded a contract to ABB to supply
an 800MW transmission link to
connect offshore wind farms located
in the cluster DolWin1 (Borkum West
II wind farm, 400MW, plus future un-
named wind farms) in the North Sea
to the German grid.
The wind farms will be connected
with AC cables to the HVDC con-
verter station based on an offshore
platform situated in the North Sea
and further through 75km of DC sea
cable and 90km of land cable to
the HVDC onshore station at the grid
connection point at Dörpen/West.
The transmission system has a total
capacity of 800MW at ±320 kV.
ABB oversees system engineering
including design, supply and installa-
tion of the offshore converter, sea and
land cable systems and the onshore
converter station. The land cables will
be laid underground, thus minimising
environmental impact. ■
HVDC Light goes offshore
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 61 21/6/11 15:38:01
62
ABB
A
BB’s Distributed Energy
Storage (DES) systems
serve a variety of different
applications in transmis-
sion and distribution networks where
they can improve the quality of the
power at optimal cost.
In the past, networks only needed
to handle a simple, passive flow of
power from high-voltage genera-
tion and transmission to low-voltage
consumption. Energy storage can en-
able networks to make the transition
to handling complex, highly variable
and multi-directional power flows to
accommodate: increased levels of
distributed generation; the potential
transition of energy sources currently
on the heat grid on to the electrical
grid (for example, ground- and air-
source heat pumps); and the growing
demand for electric vehicles.
The main DES applications are:
-Load Shifting - Altering the pattern
of energy use so that on-peak energy
use is shifted to off-peak periods. To
reduce the end user’s electricity cost,
the DES charges up with low-priced
energy and is discharged
when the energy prices
are high.
-Peak
Shaving - Related to Load Shifting.
Both contribute to demand manage-
ment in which the ultimate goal is to
increase the load factor. Peak shaving
uses stored energy to eliminate the
short-term peaks in the energy con-
sumption pattern.
Benefits:
a) Commercial and industrial custom-
ers can reduce their energy charges
by improving their load factor
b) Utilities reduce the operational cost
of generating power at peak periods
(reducing the need for additional
generation equipment)
c) Investment in infrastructure is de-
ferred because the system has flatter
loads with smaller peaks.
Renewable Energy Capac-
ity Firming - Allows an intermittent
electric supply resource to be used as
a nearly constant power source.
Deferred infrastructure
upgrades - DES modules placed
electrically downstream from the
congested portion of the transmission
system can help to prevent overloads
and defer potential upgrades.
Power Quality - DES can
protect loads further downstream
against short-duration events that
affect the quality of power delivered
to the load.
Voltage Support - Energy
storage with reactive power capabil-
ity can provide voltage support and
respond quickly to voltage control
signals.
Frequency Regulation - DES
is an attractive alternative for this ap-
plication with its rapid response.
Outage management - DES
can provide power for short periods
of time to a network, reducing the
effect of a temporary fault.
ABB’s latest DES development is
the DynaPeaQ® system that enables
dynamic control of active as well as
reactive power in a power system,
independently of each other. By
controlling the reactive power, grid
voltage and stability are safeguarded
with high dynamic response. By
control of active power, new services
based on dynamic energy storage
are added.
The system is based on SVC
Light®, combined with Li-ion battery
storage. SVC Light is based on
Voltage Source Converters (VSC)
connected in shunt to the grid at
transmission as well as sub-transmis-
sion and distribution level. Insulated
Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are
used as switching devices. Dyna-
PeaQ is aimed at industrial, distribu-
tion and transmission level energy
storage applications. The focus is
on applications where the use of
continuous reactive power control
and short time active power support
is needed.
We need a smarter grid that can
receive power of all qualities from all
sources, both centralised and distrib-
uted, and deliver reliable supplies, on
demand, to consumers of all kinds.
Since the increased use of intermit-
tent generation requires dynamic
voltage control as well as balancing
power, DynaPeaQ is a great Smart
Grid enabler. ■
Distributed
Energy Storage
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 62 21/6/11 15:38:48
63
A
BB has established its UK
operations as a centre
of excellence for the
implementation of the very
latest grid technologies. They include
both HVDC and FACTS (Flexible AC
Transmission Systems) that covers a
number of technologies that enhance
the security, capacity and flexibility of
power transmission systems.
One of ABB’s most important cur-
rent projects in the UK is Eirgrid’s East-
West Interconnector that will provide
a 500MW link between the Irish
and UK power grids using HVDC
technology. The interconnector will
strengthen the reliability and security
of electricity supplies in each country,
and enable Ireland to expand its
wind power capacity.
The transmission link will run under-
water for 186km and underground
for 70km, with minimal environmental
impact. The only visible parts will be
the converter stations at each end that
switch AC (alternating current) to DC
(direct current) and back. The XLPE
cable will provide the strength and
flexibility needed to endure the severe
conditions of the Irish Sea.
Rated at 200kV, this will be the
highest voltage HVDC Light link using
this type of cable. The higher voltage
enables a transmission capacity of
500MW, the highest ever for an
HVDC Light underground cable. ABB
is responsible for system engineering,
including design, supply and installa-
tion of the sea and land cables, and
both converter stations. The system
is scheduled to be operational in
September 2012.
ABB is pioneering the development
of the UK’s multi-terminal offshore
supergrid by starting technical design
work on an HVDC Light project,
which will be the first link to incor-
porate a hub for the connection of
offshore wind farms.
There is a growing consensus that
VSC (voltage source converter) based
HVDC technology is the optimum
approach for creating the effective
power links to integrate offshore pow-
er into national grids. What is less
clear is its status as a proven com-
mercially available technology. The
simple facts are that ABB pioneered
VSC-based HVDC technology in its
HVDC Light system launched over
14 years ago. Indeed, ABB has 16
HVDC Light projects either delivered
or in delivery, with a total capacity
of nearly 5,000MW - HVDC Light
is a well-proven technology, ready to
implement now.
ABB works hand in hand with the
UK’s leading power utilities to help
them develop and maintain their vital
electrical infrastructure and its growth
has been outstanding - up by 30
percent in 2010. It has plans to grow
even further and needs more people
to help achieve its ambitious targets.
In 2011, ABB is carrying out a major
recruitment drive in the UK, with a
particular focus on further enhancing
its position as a centre of excellence
for grid systems technology. This
recruitment programme covers every
level, from senior staff to the new
technical apprenticeship scheme.
With its unique combination
of advanced technology, skilled
and experience staff and project
delivery know how, ABB looks
forward with confidence to helping
create the modern, reliable and ef-
ficient electricity grids vital to make
the best use of Europe’s precious
energy resources. ■
For information about careers with ABB
please visit www.abb.co.uk/careers
Enhancing ABB’s UK
centre of grid excellence
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 63 21/6/11 15:39:32
Connect renewable power to the grid?
ABB Limited
Tel. +44 ( 0)1785 825 050
Fax. +44 ( 0)1785 819 019
E-mail : info@gb.abb.com
Naturally.
ABB’s leading edge technologies and life cycle services ensure the effective
integration of renewable power into electrical grids, even in the most challenging
conditions and over long distances. Our focus on harnessing green energy is
making power networks smarter as well as more efficient and reliable, helping
to protect the environment and fight climate change. www.abb.com/hvdc
02794 ABB A4 renewables advert 2 - v1 AW.indd 1 20/04/2011 16:31
EE35_ABBHRHRTW.indd 64 21/6/11 15:40:08
65
WIND ANALYSIS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Site statistics
The Met Office have analysed the wind in a
number of regions - here are the results
T
he success of the global wind
energy industry is directly linked
to the performance and profit-
ability of individual wind projects, which
vary significantly from location to loca-
tion and through time.
Much can be learnt by analysing the
wind over a particular region and a spe-
cific site within the region. This article
provides an overview of wind across
regions and sites within Europe, with an
index of the windiest European regions
over the last season, and secondly an
analysis of the performance of five sites
within the UK, Spain, Italy, Germany and
France. With many wind farms today
not performing in line with original
plans, you can use this article to:
• Put the performance of your port-
folio into context based on recent wind
statistics
• Assess whether your farm’s under
or over performance is due to wind or
other factors.
Using data generated from our
weather model we have created a wind
index, ranking 15 regions across Europe
by comparing the average wind speed
for Spring 2011 against the Spring sea-
son long-term average. The league table
shows that, for Spring 2011, most of
Europe experienced winds above the
long-term average especially Iceland,
the British Isles, Scandinavia and much
of the Mediterranean. The main excep-
tions to this were France, the North
Untitled-11 65 22/6/11 14:34:01
66
WIND ANALYSIS
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
Sea, the Benelux countries and the
Baltic, where winds were nearer aver-
age.
High pressure was a dominant
feature of Spring around the Baltic,
Germany and North Sea areas, hence
the quieter winds, but low pressure
tended to affect most other areas,
especially the Mediterranean, where a
succession of active areas of low pres-
sure moved from west to east. Even
in France and the southern British Isles,
where pressure was high, the squeeze
between the low pressure in the north
and high pressure over Germany meant
that it was particularly windy at times.
We can see some of these trends
in the various graphs. Looking at
Cambridge and Andalucia, we see an
increase in wind strength through the
period, which is completely against the
long-term trend, indicating that it should
be becoming more settled. For Italy
and France, the graphs are very close
to what you would expect, but in the
graph for Lake Constance in Germany
we see the influence of the persistent
high pressure and the significant lack of
wind over the past five months.
The pattern for the past 12 months
shows all the locations experience less
wind in general than the long-term
average would suggest, although not by
a massive amount. The only exception
is Lake Constance in Germany, where
winds were noticeably lower.
The series of graphs shown on these
pages compare monthly average wind
speeds against the long-term aver-
age, over a one-year period for five
sites across the UK, Germany, France,
Italy and Spain. It has been generated
by Virtual Met Mast, the Met Office’s
site-specific wind analysis model-based
Untitled-11 66 22/6/11 14:34:34
67
WIND ANALYSIS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
tool. This helps select the best onshore
and offshore UK wind farm sites with
increased certainty. Using cutting-edge
science, Virtual Met Mast offers clear,
cost-effective and reliable site-specific
analyses to help you make informed
decisions for wind farm investments.
To help you deliver accurate wind
assessments in advance of a real met
mast installation, the Met Office has
invested in the research and develop-
ment of Virtual Met Mast which:
• Combines cutting-edge science
and super computer technology
• Uses the Met Office’s Numerical
Weather Prediction (NWP) model,
which incorporates observations from
satellites, ships, aircraft, ground stations
and radar as a foundation for generating
site-specific wind farm assessments
• Employs a wide range of continu-
ously monitored wind observations to
produce a core wind analysis record
(extending back over 20 years)
• Provides site-specific data at hub
height for both onshore and offshore
locations
• Allows outputs to be correlated
with real met mast data to derive the
ultimate value from your Virtual Met
Mast assessment
• Provides a variety of essential sta-
tistics, including confidence figures.
The Met Office will be pleased to
generate a wind index for your current
and planned sites and to assist you in
managing the performance of your
wind portfolio. With the Met Office
coverage, level and range of data across
Europe, you can be assured of receiving
first-class analysis and information.
For more information visit
www.metoffice.gov.uk
/energy/renewables/wind.
Untitled-11 67 22/6/11 14:35:03
Harnessing
the wind
Above or below
the surface,
we’re in our
comfort zone.
Offshore Oil & Gas
Offshore Marine Renewables
Diving & Subsea Construction
Cable Laying
Working at Height
Inspection, Repair & Maintenance
Marine Access Solutions
DP II Vessels, Jack-up Barges
Design & Fabrication
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Whether we’re working
on the seabed or above
the waterline, we have the
expertise, the experience
and the resources to
support major renewables
projects around the globe.
International marine and subsea contractors
Untitled-19 13 22/6/11 15:59:01
69
SUPPLY CHAIN
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Moving forward
Jonathan Reynolds updates us on
the latest from OrbisEnergy
O
rbisEnergy, a state-of-the-
art specialist innovation
and incubation centre
based in Lowestoft, Suffolk, recently
met with the Royal Academy of
Engineering to discuss the future
of the offshore wind industry. The
meeting, held in March was attended
by representatives of the offshore
wind industry, government and other
relevant stakeholders and concluded
that in order for the offshore wind
industry to move forward, it is
essential to establish a supply chain
bolstered by strong government
backing. The meeting’s report,
entitled Making Green Growth Real:
UK Offshore Wind Supply Chain,
argues that this will enable the UK to
gain the greatest possible value from
the opportunities available.
“The government supported the oil
and gas industry in its early days with
generous tax incentives, training pro-
grammes, strategic infrastructure and
supportive regulation,” says Academy
President Lord Browne of Madingley.
“The result today is a world leading
industry, creating jobs in manufacturing
and engineering across the UK. The
UK oil and gas supply chain generates
£16billion each year, including £5bil-
lion in exports, and employs more
than 300,000 people in the UK. That
is a valuable economic legacy, which
was accelerated by early govern-
ment support, and which can now be
repeated for offshore wind.”
However, in order to achieve
this, there are a number of actions
that the government need to take.
According to the industry repre-
sentatives, the government should be
considering: developing a UK wide
strategy focusing on a select number
of ports spread around the coast;
increasing the pool of skilled work-
ers available to the energy indus-
tries; ensuring that health and safety
specifications are rational, clear and
relevant; honouring the timetable for
electricity market reform; kick-start-
ing investment with targeted financial
support during the construction
phase; and indicating its intentions for
further development rounds.
Judy Terry, Suffolk County Council’s
Portfolio Holder for Greenest County,
Economy and Skills, comments: “This
report not only highlights the chal-
lenges in developing a UK supply
chain, but also proposes solutions that
can drive growth.”
OrbisEnergy has a particular focus
Untitled-13 69 22/6/11 14:37:28
70
SUPPLY CHAIN
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
in supply chain development, and
is at the heart of the rapidly grow-
ing offshore wind sector in the East
Anglia area. More and more compa-
nies with an interest in the offshore
sector are securing a base here,
including Greater Gabbard Offshore
Winds Ltd and East Anglian Offshore
Wind Ltd. The site surrounding
OrbisEnergy in Lowestoft is intended
to become an offshore wind technol-
ogy park that will eventually house
much of the supply chain for offshore
technologies and will help build
links among suppliers, engineers and
manufacturers.
During a visit to the region, Energy
Minister Charles Hendry commented:
“OrbisEnergy brings together people
with ideas and enthusiasm and helps
them get established. This is exactly
the sort of groundbreaking work
we need, bringing all the links in the
chain together.
“East Anglia is one of the most
exciting places in the country for
energy and is doing some of the
most important, inspiring work in
renewables.”
It is certainly true that as a region
East Anglia has much to offer for those
involved in offshore wind. The area’s
previous involvement with the oil and
gas sector brings several advantages.
It means that there is an experienced
workforce available, which has already
worked in offshore operations. The
region also has a solid infrastructure in
place and can offer competitive oper-
ating costs. Additionally, the area can
offer major port facilities such as Great
Yarmouth, Lowestoft and Harwich.
Supporting the report is Peter
Aldous, MP for Waveney who said
“We know that offshore wind is a key
growth sector for the economy and
we are committed to ensuring compa-
nies in the UK benefit from this huge
opportunity.
“Not only can offshore wind gener-
ate significant amounts of electricity,
it can support a new generation of
engineering skills creating long term
jobs which will be key to sustainable
growth.”
OrbisEnergy also makes up part
of the region’s “Corridor of Power”
with its sister facilities Beacon
Innovation Centre in Great Yarmouth
focusing on the offshore gas sectors
and the Leiston Enterprise Centre
focusing on the civil nuclear sectors,
itself close to the Sizewell nuclear
power stations.
www.orbisenergy.net
Untitled-13 70 22/6/11 14:38:07
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Untitled-2 23 18/4/11 12:22:58
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Untitled-19 14 22/6/11 16:00:36
73
MARINE
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Economic solutions
Dave March reports on the growth and change
surrounding a well-established diving company
A
s Managing Director of
Reach Engineering and
Diving Services Limited
(REDS), David Symons’ role includes
everything from setting the culture
of the company to managing its
financial and physical resources. In
such a vibrant and exciting company,
this is no small role. REDS is a well-
established business that has grown
organically over the past 12 years
and is now ready to build on its
brand and reputation.
“We now have the support of
a parent company: The Sturrock &
Robson Group,” says Symons. “They
bring with them financial stability and
a global support network that is cru-
cial in our plans for growth.”
Progress, he adds, will come in the
form of further diversification into the
renewable sector and lateral integra-
tion across the group’s existing busi-
ness streams to provide value added
benefits for the company’s current
and future clients. “Our ambition
is to ‘Create Our future’,” Symons
states.
However, as with all major chang-
es, there will be challenges along the
way. The industry itself faces its own
issues: creating a strong supply chain,
driving down the cost of energy,
finding new sources of financing and
bureaucratic red tape to name but a
few. Meanwhile, REDS will have to
Untitled-23 73 22/6/11 18:07:15
74
MARINE
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
tackle the fact that some windfarms
are trialling diverless solutions.
“The issue is that most installa-
tion companies are endeavouring to
reduce or eliminate diver intervention
as it is weather dependant. Our chal-
lenge is to prove that diving is still
an integral part of the process and
a major part of the risk mitigation
plan,” explains Symons. “Working
with our clients to determine more
economical and robust solutions will
be the test. We are happy to work
alongside the client in their endeav-
ours to reduce such interventions;
however we will also support them if
these plans do not come to fruition.”
The staff are amply qualified to
provide these solutions. As a com-
pany, REDS has experience across a
wide range of services including civil
engineering, access engineering, oil
& gas services, conventional power,
nuclear energy and renewable energy.
The group’s aim is to create long-term
sustainable partnerships with its existing
customers and major utilities and devel-
opers in the offshore wind sector. “We
will endeavour to do this by providing
safe, quality diving and access engineer-
ing, tailored to the specific needs of our
customers,” states Symons.
The group has been involved in
offshore windfarm works since 2007,
undertaking various operations such
as cable works, scour protection and
mattress placement, inspections and
cable burial and remediation. Its track
record includes work on windfarms
ranging from Thanet and Greater
Gabbard to Sheringham Shoal.
In terms of sector development,
Symons suggests that onshore wind-
farm technology has been basically
‘marine-ised’, modified and installed
offshore rather than the offshore
windfarms being developed as a
separate entity. In his view, that has
been a central issue behind some of
the problems and challenges inherent
in offshore wind today.
However, the ETI ( Engineering
Technologies Institute) has a series
of three programmes, NOVA, Helm
Wind and Deep Water, aimed to
increase deployment, decrease cost
(to that comparable with onshore)
and increase yield.
“These programmes are designed
to tackle the main issues we face
today,” Symons adds.
“In Europe we have a wealth
of experienced organisations with
substantial track records in marine
engineering, often operating in some
of the world’s harshest environ-
ments. It is these companies that will
bring innovation to offshore wind
farm installation. It may have to be
accepted that operational costs may
increase,at least at the outset.”
He also argues that oil and gas is
likely to show the way - particularly
in subsea engineering - and this will
become more apparent as the instal-
lations get into deeper water. North
Sea techniques and methodolo-
gies will be essential for installation,
operations and maintenance. “There
has already been a transfer into the
tidal energy sector during works at
EMEC (European Marine Energy
Centre, Orkney). In the future we
look forward to seeing the delivery of
a comprehensive grid infrastructure
and the advances in technology sur-
rounding deeper water installation,”
Symons states. “For this to happen,
we require continued support from
government on all issues from grid to
ROCs to financial support. However,
it needs to be more intensive and it
needs to be now.”
www.red-services.co.uk
Untitled-23 74 22/6/11 18:07:40
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OW_SUM_ADS.indd 15 22/6/11 17:53:46
77
FABRICATION
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Joseph Ho, Market
Sector Manager for
Metals at BOC,
explains how the
turbine assembly
process can be
speeded up
W
hile the UK has often
been called the windiest
country in Europe, the
challenge lies in harvesting the power
of that natural resource. Offshore
placement of turbines can allow higher
levels of wind capture as the towers
are much larger and the sea surface,
being relatively flat, does not disturb
wind flow. However, installing
towers more than 100m tall in
aggressive environments such as the
North Sea poses significant engineering
challenges.
Much of the fabrication of these
structures is, of course, carried out
ashore before the operational unit is
erected in its final offshore position.
Steel is a major component of these
assemblies as it offers strength and
rigidity in some very harsh conditions.
However, in such conditions, physical
integrity is essential and so the quality
of all aspects of manufacture, including
the welded joints, is critical.
In order to weld segments of wind
turbine towers and their foundations
- high strength steel plates which are
up to 6m wide and 30cm thick - it is
necessary to pre-heat then post-heat
the segments. This is to remove the
risk of hydrogen cracking, as stipulated
in BS EN 1011-2:2001.
Hydrogen cracking starts with lone
hydrogen atoms diffusing through
the metal. At high temperatures, the
Cutting out
the bottlenecks
Untitled-4 77 21/6/11 16:18:02
78
FABRICATION
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
elevated solubility of hydrogen allows
hydrogen to diffuse into the metal (or
the hydrogen can diffuse in at a low
temperature, assisted by a concentra-
tion gradient). When these hydrogen
atoms re-combine in minuscule voids
of the metal matrix to form hydrogen
molecules, they create pressure from
inside the cavity they are in. This pres-
sure can increase to levels where the
metal has reduced ductility and tensile
strength up to the point where it
cracks open.
Pre-heating helps to counter this
by modifying the cooling rates and
encouraging the diffusion of hydrogen
from the weld, particularly if the proc-
ess is maintained through post-heating
on completion of the welded joint.
Because of the amount of time
taken to pre- and post-heat sec-
tions, this procedure can result in
production bottlenecks. It needs to
be completed as quickly as possible.
BOC’s parent, The Linde Group, has
been working on this problem and
has developed a range of special burn-
ers. LINDOFLAMM® burners heat
up steel twice as fast as conventional
methods (oxy-propane burners or
induction heating). Burners are made
to suit each customer’s needs: some
are designed for so-called longitudinal
welds, and some for circular steel seg-
ments (circumferential welds) up to
7m in diameter. They can also be fully
automated.
The technology has recently been
installed by BOC at the premises of
Mabey Bridge, one of the UK’s leading
structural steel contractors. The compa-
ny has a production capacity of 65,000
tonnes and has been building bridges
and other steel structures since 1849.
As with many other steel fabricators,
the company found they were facing a
bottleneck in the pre-heating procedure
prior to welding large steel sections.
BOC proposed using
LINDOFLAMM® technology as a
way to speed up the process. It has a
number of advantages over convention-
al gas technologies which rely on natural
gas or propane. The BOC process:
-increases fuel gas temperature
-improves the rate of heat transfer
-provides precise heat distribution.
Over a number of months, the test
showed some very favourable results.
Mabey Bridge was able to reduce pre-
heat times by over 50 percent while
at the same time reducing process
cost by a similar amount. The lower
moisture content associated with this
process also significantly reduced any
residual hydrogen cracking. As a result,
the company has now adopted the
system in its new manufacturing facility
at Newhouse.
The technology is also being used
elsewhere in Europe. It is already
used as a critical part of the drive by
monopole foundation suppliers to
maximise process efficiencies and pro-
ductivity. In Germany, a trial was carried
out to determine the relative benefits
of LINDOFLAMM®, compared with
other systems using propane and natu-
ral gas for weld seams (both around
the circumference and along the sec-
tion) of wind turbine tower sections.
These measured between 1.6-7.0m
in diameter with a wall thickness of
between 40-100mm. Sections were
4.8m in length. The target was a maxi-
mum of 30 minutes pre-heat time with
a temperature between 100-150°C.
Over a series of tests, the results
- including labour costs - showed that
LINDOFLAMM® was by far the most
cost-effective. In fact, the overall costs
were less than half those of either of
the other two options.
The properties of this new process
allow fabricators to increase throughput
while maintaining (or even improving)
quality and at the same time reduc-
ing overall costs. For an industry that
is being asked to increase production
rapidly in order to help meet Europe’s
renewable energy needs, that sounds
like a very attractive option.
BOC provides a wide range of
applications for metals including
heat treatment and coatings,
welding, cutting and jointing
products, as well as safety supplies
and PPE. For more details, visit the
website at: www.BOConline.co.uk or
email: windenergy@boc.com
Untitled-4 78 21/6/11 16:20:22
BOC - your partner in wind turbine construction
> Your single solution provider for a
range of gas, welding equipment,
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> State of the art applications for
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Contact us today:
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OW_SUM_ADS.indd 23 22/6/11 17:14:07
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Untitled-19 16 22/6/11 16:03:34
81
MANUFACTURING
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
L
ike a number of companies with
a background in heavy engineer-
ing, Harland and Wolff (H&W) is
diversifying into the renewable energy
market and, in particular, work in the
offshore wind engineering. Even within
the context of this industry trend, the
uptake of renewables-based activity at
H&W has been extraordinary. In 2004
renewables accounted for none of the
Belfast company’s turnover; in 2011 the
proportion stands at nearly 80 percent.
H&W is a marine manufacturer
with over 150 years of experience.
Throughout the 20th century the core
of their business was in fabrications for
the oil and gas industry and shipbuild-
ing. Indeed, the ill-fated RMS Titanic
was constructed in this famous Belfast
shipyard and to this day the twin 900
tonne gantry cranes dubbed Samson
and Goliath are city landmarks.
Since 2004, H&W is enjoying some-
what of a resurgence in fortune based,
in no small part, on the burgeoning
offshore wind industry. The company is
involved in the design, manufacture and
delivery of substation platforms, jackets
and foundation systems for offshore
wind developments.
The firm currently hold an range of
contracts relating to a number of off-
shore wind projects. H&W assembled
and installed 3MW turbines for Vestas
at the Robin Rigg farm and in 2010
they won the contract from Siemens
to build two substations for the Gwynt
y Mor windfarm off the coast of North
Wales.
According to Head of Sales and
Marketing David McVeigh, the compa-
ny’s heritage in shipbuilding and the oil
and gas industry made them well-posi-
tioned to capitalise swiftly on opportu-
nities within the offshore wind market.
“What we found,” he comments,
“was that there was a correlation
between our core skills and what was
required by the offshore wind indus-
try in several different areas. We are
well positioned logistically for offshore
developments in the Irish Sea and have
established heavy cranes and quayside
facilities. Furthermore, our oil and gas
experience is transferable in to the
manufacture of jackets and foundations
for the turbines as well as substation
platforms.”
McVeigh believes that as the indus-
try matures a company’s ability to
offer the client efficiency of design and
efficiency of manufacture will be crucial
factors in guaranteeing success. H&W
has a strong supply chain from their
days in the oil and gas industry and a
strong core of experienced staff - solid
Renewables now account for over 75 percent
of Harland and Wolff’s turnover. Alistair Welch
speaks to David McVeigh about the company’s
work in the offshore wind industry and its
stake in the commercial future of the sector
Alternative
Ulster
Untitled-4 81 22/6/11 11:29:33
82
MANUFACTURING
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
credentials for adaptability to the off-
shore wind market.
One of the current problems with
relation to transformer platforms is that
certain questions relating to design are
being asked for the first time, so it takes
longer, than say an oil platform, to
move through the design cycles. Whilst
McVeigh explains that one of H&W’s
strengths is the company’s flexibility
in dealing with differing complexities
of platform, he hopes that a situation
will be arrived at whereby the industry
settles into a proven and established
solution.
H&W is taking an active role in
tackling the issue of cost-reduction
- an area that is of concern to the
entire sector, especially following the
Committee on Climate Change’s
report that criticised the high costs
associated with offshore wind.
“What we have to do as an indus-
try is find a way, across the board,
to reduce the costs associated with
offshore wind hardware and infra-
structure. It is in our own best inter-
est to do so to allow us to compete
with carbon-based technologies,” says
McVeigh.
“We need to look at it from a
supply chain perspective and a design
perspective. Harland and Wolff has
invested significantly in research and
development on the design of our
platforms, taking lessons from many
different stakeholders including opera-
tors, installers and those involved in
maintenance.
“On the manufacturing side, we
have invested heavily in our plant and
equipment to ensure we can reduce
our own costs. We can now offer
more competitive prices as we have
bespoke equipment.”
Untitled-4 82 22/6/11 11:30:17
83
MANUFACTURING
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
McVeigh goes on to explain that
the company is engaged in an ongo-
ing process of reinvestment. Money
from successful projects is put back
into the company to improve the
competitiveness of its offerings. Such
an approach, it is hoped, will enhance
the commercial viability of offshore
wind in the long term thus securing
the company’s future in manufacturing
for the sector.
When H&W first attempted to
enter the wind industry in 1997 the
company discovered that the market
was not mature enough to be sustain-
able. This is a situation it is understand-
ably keen to avoid this time.
The company aims to be proactive
in driving the offshore market forwards.
For example, H&W is currently sup-
porting the development of Universal
Foundation’s suction bucket monopile
design. “The suction bucket design is
quickly gaining market acceptance,” says
McVeigh. “It is self-installing so does not
require an expensive installation vessel,
and is self-levelling so does not require
a transition piece. This is great news for
developers focusing on driving down
cost plus the environmental benefit of
no piling and easy decommissioning
makes it an all-round winner. But it is
not just about building a better mouse-
trap - more importantly our customers
rely on us to deliver a budget that they
can trust”.
The message from David McVeigh
in conclusion was clear: “Give us
repetition and volume and costs will
come down. The ability to draw on
our proven projects will make future
tenders look all the more secure and
all the more attractive.”
www.harland-wolff.com
Untitled-4 83 22/6/11 11:31:21
Gain unrivalled insight into the offshore wind energy industry
The highest quality conferences, international, cross-sector exhibitions and outstanding
networking opportunities make EWEA OFFSHORE 2011 the one event where you can keep
ahead of the latest trends and create connections with infuential people around the world.
It is the world’s largest offshore wind energy event – a place where the industry’s brightest
minds meet to:
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210x297 (forge).indd 1 09/06/11 11:09
Untitled-19 17 22/6/11 16:07:46
85
INSTALLATION
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Making
decisions
Laura Hall, Marketing Manager at CTC Marine
Projects, advises on selecting the right burial
tool for your offshore windfarm project
A
s offshore wind farm construc-
tion moves to a new level,
challenges are being raised to
the current methods of windfarm array
and export cable installation. Factored
within this installation process is the
selection of the correct burial tool,
which can include mechanical trenchers,
ploughs and jet trenching ROVs.
Selecting the correct piece of equip-
ment holds a great responsibility in the
success of the project. The problems
faced with selecting the wrong burial
tool can include operation at a slower
rate than predicted, difficulty in achieving
the required burial depth and potential
damage to the cable. All of these issues
result in risk and associated costs to the
developer, cable installer and/ or cable
manufacturer.
CTC Marine Projects (CTC), head-
quartered in Darlington, is home to the
world’s largest fleet of high technology
marine trenching and burial equipment.
With this variety of equipment available
to customers, it ensures that there will
be a suitable asset available to meet the
criteria of each individual project.
Every project that CTC undertakes is
evaluated on an individual basis, but as a
general perspective each burial tool car-
ries its own pros and cons when consid-
ered in an offshore windfarm.
Jet trenching is suitable for fine to
loose sands and some clay conditions.
CTC currently has five jet trenching
ROVs available for offshore wind-
farm work (UT-1, PT-1, CMROV1,
CMROV3 and CMROV4).
Jet trenching ROVs provide an ideal
tool for use on offshore windfarms
because their manoeuvrability enables
them to follow any cable route and jet
up to 6m from the cable touchdown
point, reducing the need for alternative
cable protection.
However, jet trenching ROVs are
considered to disrupt the seabed more
than other burial tools and develop-
ers often restrict the use of such tools
at windfarm sites. CTC believes there
is a lack of understanding in how the
tools operate, which is often the reason
behind some of these decisions. CTC’s
jet trenching ROVs are precision tools
and are in fact environmentally friendly
and won’t leave a mass of disruption
after operation.
Ploughing is suitable for a large range
of seabed conditions and soil types
depending on the design and burial
depths. CTC currently has five cable
ploughs suitable for offshore windfarm
work (PCP-1, PCP-2, MD3, MPS and
ACP).
Ploughing is used in a variety of soil
types and particularly for burial depths of
greater than 1.5m. There are advantages
to ploughing, which include the greater
cable burial depth, simultaneous lay and
burial and the simplicity of the tooling.
However, the deeper the trench depth
required, the more power needed to
do this, resulting in the use of more
specialist vessels. The Burial Protection
Index provides a specific operational
risk assessment to assess how deep the
trench needs to be to avoid damage to
Untitled-18 85 22/6/11 15:18:36
86
INSTALLATION
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
the cable through shipping movements.
This in itself is the basis for an industry
discussion and shared learning from
other sectors.
Despite needing a high bollard pull
vessel to tow the equipment, ploughs
have the capability to trench at speed
in a straight line and are effective for
export cables. However, there is a
downside when ploughing inter-array
cables, with limited direction change on
the approach to the turbine foundations,
leaving exposed lengths of cables ends
requiring another protection solution.
When providing mechanical trench-
ing the tools can operate in jetting and
cutting modes and are capable of work-
ing in sands, clays and rock conditions.
CTC currently has three mechanical cut-
ting vehicles suitable for windfarm work
(SWT-1, T1 and T2) which can operate
from a barge as a cheaper alternative to
a DPII vessel.
Trenching is the ideal tool for the
more onerous soil condition windfarms
where a Burial Protection Index recom-
mends 0.5 to 1.5m burial. Mechanical
trenching vehicles can provide close
approach to the turbine structure but
required that the cable route is man-
aged to avoid sharp changes in direction.
The cable is safely managed away from
the cutting tools path and placed at the
bottom resulting trench slot. Mechanical
trenching is the slowest of the three
methods, both operationally and in the
speed of program, but this technique
has been successful in many projects
where other tools have failed to reach
the target depth.
Another point to consider is the
maintenance required when using the
cutting technique. Since mechanical
trenchers are used in harder soil condi-
tions, they undergo more wear and
tear than ROVs that are free-flying or
ploughs which are towed through the
seabed. This will require more mainte-
nance, possibly required at some time
throughout the duration of the project.
CTC can offer multiple installation
solutions based on 20 years of practi-
cal experience in cable installation. This
offshore experience is fundamental in
being able to understand what tools are
best suited to different seabed condi-
tions and other environmental consid-
erations.
It is important to engage with this
experience early on in a project devel-
opment to take into account correlation
between site soil conditions and the
capabilities of the tools that will be used.
Array cable planning and costing has
been underestimated in early projects
causing unnecessary problems for devel-
opers. As a project size increases, it is
imperative that offshore windfarms are
designed for installation, as well as the
operational and maintenance phase.
CTC owns all of its assets, has long
term charter arrangements for its vessels
and has a dedicated offshore mobilisa-
tion base with a heavy lift quay. This
ensures CTC is both flexible to change
Untitled-18 86 22/6/11 15:19:10
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Untitled-1 23 9/5/11 10:47:13
INSTALLATION
and delivers on time by controlling all
the key elements of the project.
Health and Safety is also a fundamen-
tal priority for the offshore renewables
sector. Having noted the reduced
health and safety regulations in com-
parison to the oil and gas industry,
it is imperative that this is addressed
for future installations. CTC ensures
the highest level of health and safety
performance is delivered in all sectors
in which it operates, but particular
attention is being paid to this rapidly
growing sector where it is enforcing its
higher standards.
Visit CTC at stand number 150
at Offshore Wind 2011.
www.ctc.tricomarine.com
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EE35_AllEnergytw.indd 88 9/5/11 16:42:17
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Untitled-18 88 22/6/11 15:25:38
Confdence
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90
WORK BOATS
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
C
Wind is a new name on
the offshore wind scene.
Established for just one
year, it is already doing well. Managing
Director Peter Jorgensen explains: “We
saw a gap in the market and we now
operate a boatshare scheme in which
the skipper has a stake in the boat. We
aim to offer windfarm operators the
best of both worlds; the can-do atti-
tude of the owner operator, combined
with the experienced management
and QHSE procedures of CWind. This
means the boat owner will always be
keen to treat the customer well and do
a good job offshore so that they return
for the services again.”
He explains that the idea represents
a way into the offshore wind market
for experienced boat operators who
are increasingly under threat by the big-
ger companies moving into the market.
The boatshare scheme may help
developers as it offers a new way of
working. “Every project has its own
problems - there are always issues
coming up where things get delayed.
We are aiming to help make the
construction time shorter as one
delay affects all the contractors in the
project,” Jorgensen states.
CWind covers the finances, insur-
ance and health and safety aspects and
obtains the contract from the devel-
oper. “We operate in the whole of the
UK and at the moment the workboats
are mainly used for the construction
stage,” continues Jorgensen. “Currently
they are sent out for a variety of tasks
including transport of technicians, fuel
and equipment. With 20 tonne pay-
load our vessels are amongst the most
capable on the market.”
There are now two boats working
in the boatshare scheme and the group
is just about to build the next one. At
this stage CWind works closely with
CTruk, which is a boat building com-
pany that has the same shareholders
but works as a separate entity.
“Our boats use water jets as
opposed to propellers,” explains
Jorgensen. “This is for health and safety
reasons - they don’t hurt a person if
you get caught. It’s also the only type of
boat where you only need one person
to rescue a man overboard.”
CWind’s key aims are to provide
highly skilled technicians and innova-
tive solutions, offering a more flexible
system to the current alternatives.
They run a training school and cur-
rently have 48 technicians working on
Filling the gap
Robert Gerald reports on a new boatshare scheme that offers flexibility
Untitled-7 90 21/6/11 17:22:36
91
WORK BOATS
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
contracts. The company is also looking
to the future. “With Round 3, work
might become similar to the oil and
gas industry in that you go and live
and work out there for two weeks
and then come back - boats may soon
need to be used as living quarters,”
says Jorgensen. “Another important
consideration is learning from experi-
ence. We are working on four different
windfarms with our company and have
noticed that people don’t seem to
learn from each other - the same mis-
takes are being made.”
As the industry develops, Jorgensen
knows that there will be key techni-
CTruk Boats
CTruk Boats, situated on the east
coast, builds mulit-purpose catama-
rans. It is currently introducing its
flexible pod system for windfarm
work boats.
The company has designed ves-
sels specifically to meet the needs
of windfarm work through a variety
of removable pods. The flexible
system has been trialled for a year
while on charter to DONG Energy
on the Walney Offshore Windfarm.
Manging Director Ben Simpson
explains: “Our design team knew
there was scope to improve the
types of work boats supporting the
growing windfarm industry while
keeping the safety aspect of offshore
work at the forefront of the design.
The pod system enables the boat’s
operators to change her layout
within a few hours to suit the work
being carried out. By moving the
wheelhouse from the front to the
back for example, operators can eas-
ily adapt the vessel to ferry personnel
or carry out fuel or generators.”
www.ctruk.com
cal innovations in O&M, particularly
in accessing the turbines when things
go wrong. For now, though, CWind is
focussing on developing a cost-effective
way of working and building its own
reputation with the energy companies.
“We need to get recognised by our
customers and develop from there. At
the moment we are doing well and
getting a good reputation,” concludes
Jorgensen.
www.cwind247.com
Untitled-7 91 21/6/11 17:28:06
In association with
Supporting associations:
Learn how you can be part of The
Infrastructure Show and call
020 7728 4659/4624
or email infrastructureshow@emap.com
quoting priority code EXOWE
www.infrastructure-show.com
Join leading exhibitors:
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1
The show’s Utilities Hub provides the latest updates on financing and building
renewable energy infrastructure and examines the viability of offshore wind and the
opportunities that exist for the supply chain.
Why exhibit?
� Engage with senior engineering
contractors and consultants
� Showcase your product innovation to key
industry clients
Why visit?
� Receive major project updates from
companies like Thames Water and The
Crown Estate
� Attend over 90 free seminars discussing
challenges, innovation and best practise
across different industry sectors
The Infrastructure Show provides a unique forum for civil engineers to
explore the latest innovations and discuss the challenges of delivering
major infrastructure projects including offshore wind.
Discover innovative solutions for delivering
offshore wind infrastructure projects
8181 TIS Ad Updates_Layout 1 22/06/2011 10:19 Page 1
Untitled-19 18 22/6/11 16:14:08
93
EMPLOYMENT
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011
Career
development
Theone Wilson
interviews Anna Botten
of Siemens to find out
what they are looking
for in their staff
A
position at Siemens could, it
seems, lead you anywhere.
The company can offer a
wide range of opportunities and, says
Recruiter Anna Botten, the group
places a great deal of importance
upon personal development. The
flexible approach to careers means
that staff are able to move between
different sectors of the business e.g.
from the industry or healthcare sec-
tors to the energy sector and vice
versa.
Botten herself has worked at the
company since 2010, moving to
Siemens after having held a similar
role with Babcock International
Group. She now oversees the
recruitment process from beginning
to end for Siemens Wind Power,
which is part of Siemens Energy sec-
tor in the UK. Her role embraces
agreeing sourcing strategies with
hiring managers, running advertising
campaigns, managing applications and
conducting interviews through to job
offers. Positions are usually advertised
in industry specific publications and
standard job boards, alongside direct
recruitment and sourcing, although
this may alter depending on the role
itself. However, recruiting for this
sector can be “quite a challenge”,
due to a significant skills shortage of
people coming from a renewables
background.
“We recruit for many different
roles and all levels, including project
managers, commercial project man-
agers, project controllers, sales and
business development managers, site
managers, offshore installation manag-
ers, specialist offshore lifting supervi-
sors, power electronics engineers,
health and safety managers, to name
LEFT: Inverclyde
waterfront
Untitled-5 93 21/6/11 16:37:36
94
EMPLOYMENT
SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
but a few,” says Botten. “The con-
struction department within the divi-
sion has seen a significant amount of
growth with a plan to recruit around
180 technicians in this financial year
alone. The department includes
installation technicians, commission-
ing technicians, and blade techni-
cians, who will work onsite installing
Siemens wind turbines, both offshore
and onshore.”
Siemens Wind Power is also invest-
ing heavily in research and develop-
ment. The group has R&D Centres
of Competence at Keele University
for power converters, and another
centre of competence at Sheffield
University for generators. The group’s
Transmission & Distribution business
has an R&D facility at Manchester for
grid connections. The specific engineer-
ing disciplines that Siemens recruits for
at its R&D centres are a real recruit-
ment challenge - according to Botten.
Siemens is currently recruiting for
development engineers for software,
modelling and power electronics as
well as generator structural design engi-
neers and bearings engineers.
Health and Safety is an absolute
priority for Siemens Wind Power, says
Botten, “delivered through our policy
of Zero Harm”. Not surprisingly, given
this focus, there is currently a big drive
to recruit HSE coordinators and HSE
officers. Some of these positions will be
office based and some will be working
on site, including offshore on installation
vessels. Those looking at the renewa-
bles sector could find themselves work-
ing on projects in the Siemens Wind
Power portfolio, such as Gwynt-y-Môr,
London Array and Walney Wind
Farms.
Siemens Wind Power is headquar-
tered in Brande, Denmark and the
majority of new starters will spend
a significant amount of time there,
developing their knowledge of the
Siemens product portfolio as well as
establishing relationships with Danish
colleagues. Siemens UK headquarters
are in Frimley, Surrey and the company
has onshore and offshore sites across
the UK.
Siemens as an organisation invests
heavily in its people through training
and development. Specific training
requirements are dependant on the
role - for example wind power service
technicians will spend a period of six
weeks at Siemens’ wind power train-
ing facility in Newcastle, where they
will undergo various training courses
including working at heights, HSE and
offshore survival. The group also has
designated onboarding coordinators,
who conduct inductions for all new
starters joining Siemens Wind Power.
The company also offers the chance
to gain professional qualifications such
as its project management qualifica-
tion, PM@Siemens, which is recognised
externally throughout the project man-
agement profession.
In terms of the application process,
all applications are initially submit-
ted through the online careers page
(www.siemens.co.uk/careers). The
recruiter then reviews applications,
shortlists and conducts both telephone
and face-to-face, competency based
interviews. Depending on the role,
some candidates will undergo online
tests, whilst others will be required to
attend assessment centres. If successful,
candidates will receive a verbal offer,
followed by a written offer of employ-
ment and contract.
“We look for CVs and applications
that are laid out clearly and concisely,
with the right qualifications and rel-
evant experience in relation to the
job specification. Ideally candidates will
have experience of working on large-
scale, multi disciplined engineering and
construction projects; however this
requirement may change dependant on
the vacancy,” says Botten.
There are also opportunities within
the graduate scheme at Siemens Wind
Power, which will be taking on around
12 graduates in this financial year. The
graduate programme is two years
in duration and the new starters are
exposed to different departments
within Siemens Wind Power, across
Projects, Sales and Commecial and
HSE. Overall, says Botten, Siemens
Wind Power is able to offer significant
career progression and development
opportunities for those wanting to
invest in a long-term career. “The
renewable energy sector is going to
experience such a rapid growth rate
over the coming years. Siemens Wind
Power is excellently positioned to
capitalise on this growth as the lead-
ing offshore wind power player in
the UK, with an equally large onshore
business. It is really a once-in-a-lifetime
opportunity,” Botten says. “It’s a great
organisation to join and there is a real
sense of excitement about the growth
we will see over the medium to long
term future.”
www.energy.siemens.com
Untitled-5 94 21/6/11 16:38:20
www.offshorewindexpo.org
U.S. Offshore Wind Now a Reality
The coastal waters and Great Lakes of North America hold tremendous potential for offshore wind development.
Offshore wind projects are well established in Europe, with nearly 20 years of industry experience, and stakeholders
are readying for the industry to make the jump across the Pond.
The U.S. Department of Energy’s 20% wind scenario estimates that 54 GW of offshore wind will be included in the
300 GW required to meet 20% of the U.S. electricity needs in 2030. That estimate includes the immense resources
found in the Great Lakes.
This event gathers the leaders in this cutting edge segment of the wind industry and features an exhibit hall full of
new technology, solutions, and products fueling offshore development opportunities. The education program shares
investment strategies, growth plans, and supply solutions to enable attendees to make informed decisions about
how best to get involved in offshore wind.
AWEA_Offshore'11_WPM.indd 1 6/17/11 3:34 PM
Untitled-19 19 22/6/11 16:15:34
Nuclear
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200 GLOBAL PROJECTS
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650 GLOBAL PROJECTS
WORTH 1600
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EIC Connect POWER EAEM Advert.indd 2 3/6/11 09:30:37
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OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING is produced as a special edition of ENERGY ENGINEERING
magazine four times a year.
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING provides the latest information on the technology,
techniques and supply chain resources for the Offshore Wind industry. These special
editions feature articles and interviews with key industry players, looking at progress
to-date and how to meet the challenges ahead. Each issue includes in-depth analysis
on projects and developments, innovations and expertise available in the sector,
together with case studies and technical files.
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SUMMER 2010 SPECIAL EDITION FROM MAGAZINE
INSTALLATION VESSELS
TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNIQUES
regional
development
THE PLACE TO BE
ROUND
THREE
WORKING TOGETHER
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Regular topics covered by
OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
include:-
■ project delivery
■ research & development
■ environmental issues
■ planning and consenting
■ wind resource and monitoring
■ grid, networks and infrastructure
■ regional development & skills base
■ supply chain
■ ports
■ finance and funding
■ turbines & blades
■ construction
■ vessels & installation
■ operation & maintenance
■ cables & connectors
■ manufacturing techniques
■ reliability
■ international perspectives
■ consultancy
■ production & manufacture
■ health & safety
■ design concepts
■ technology transfer & innovation
■ substructure design & manufacture
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98 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING
Access all areas
Voith Turbo Marine Engineering has
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a new ship concept for wind parks.
Its special feature, the MOTS-system
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allows safe transfers of people and
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vessel to offshore wind energy plant.
According to Voith, there is a
growing market for this concept. On
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have to be accessed two to three
times a year for maintenance work.
The time slots during which service
personnel can be safely transferred
to these plants from feeder ships
are often very short, due to the
weather conditions and high seas.
With MOTS and the Voith Offshore
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The technology, which uses a novel
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all types of offshore renewables
including wind, wave and tidal. The gel can be reused and is non hazardous
and environmentally responsible.
Aubin’s Managing Director Paddy Collins says: “We believe that GLS will
enable developers to take turbines out from shore when they are manufac-
tured without having to have several units complete before any installation can
take place. With each turbine costing up to £5million and space at fabrication
yards tight, it’s extremely beneficial to offer a system that means you can install
as you build. It is also quick to market, as installers do not have to commit the
investment to go out and buy a vessel or wait for one to become available.”
www.aubin.co.uk
Untitled-3 98 22/6/11 10:53:10
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CONTENTS

engineering
4 6 Viewpoint Enabling action The Crown Estate’s role in propelling the industry forward 9 Renewable UK 12 All change Ian D Bonnon looks at future growth in the offshore market 15 Well equipped Robert Gerald discusses the specialist skill set needed to work in the marine environment 21 High performance A glimpse of the Active Stator, a variable speed drive development 25 Bidding for success An update on offshore wind installation and service provider A2SEA 29 Broadening horizons Foreign investment in Denmark’s offshore wind industry 32 renewable energy Training ground Fife’s ambitions to become a hub for 65 the wind in key regions 57 53 49 45 42 Pivotal period Alistair Welch on the latest from 39 Raising standards Sally Caswell explains the specialist services that one company has to offer Balanced outlook Teeside’s answer to the challenges of the offshore wind supply chain Natural resources Johanna Lagan explains why Northern Ireland offers excellent offshore opportunities Top facilities How Inverclyde is attracting renewables businesses that are looking to expand Future development Steve Welch looks at the facilities on offer at Cromarty Firth Ready for connection now Meeting the grid connection challenges of Europe’s drive for renewable energy Site statistics The Met Office give their analysis of 98 93 90 85 81 77 36 Growing up fast An engineering consultancy makes a major renewables acquisition 73 69 Moving forward Jonathan Reynolds finds out about new developments at OrbisEnergy Economic solutions The growth and change surrounding one diving company Cutting out the bottlenecks Joseph Ho explains how the turbine assembly process can be speeded up Alternative Ulster Alistair Welch visits a company that’s diversifying into the offshore wind sector Making decisions Laura Hall advises on selecting the right burial tool for your offshore windfarm project Filling the gap Robert Gerald reports on a new boatshare scheme that offers flexibility Career development What Siemens are looking for when recruiting renewables staff Gigawatch

Consulting Editor Mike Farish Senior Sub Editor Theone Wilson Contributors Alistair Welch, Ian D Bonnon, Robert Gerald, Gayle Nicol, Sally Caswell, Johanna Lagan, Neil Lochiel, Jonathan Reynolds, Dave March, Joseph Ho, Laura Hall Art Editor Hannah Reid Business Development Manager Ann Goldthorp © 2011 Steve Welch Media

Published in association with ENERGY ENGINEERING magazine by Steve Welch Media, 6A New Street, Warwick, CV34 4RX United Kingdom +44 (0)1926 408244 Tel Fax: +44 (0)1926 408206 e: info@energyengineering.co.uk For subscription details for OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING please email steve@energyengineering.co.uk or call +44 (0)1926 408244

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OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING

SUMMER 2011

www.offshorewindengineering.co.uk
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Managing Editor Steve Welch

Viewpoint James Hunt. starting early to engender the correct mindset. but I hope to raise certain pertinent issues. as the relevant experts tend to come from different entities with different processes there is the possibility of disconnection in this formative stage . use the processes to manage the interfaces and evolve the risk management system organically. Finally. ultimately.co. This should include six key elements: technical. but often lacking is consideration of cable ‘installability’. Decisions made at this time will influence the risk profile later in the product lifecycle. such as cable routing. However. the actual figure could be closer to So. with the right technical expertise working in an integrated manner. it is worth developing the risk management system and risk register in draft format. this scenario plays out on a consistent basis as a consequence of tighter supply chains and a sector-wide lack of competence in cable installation. The benefits of this approach should be realised in the early identification and mitigation of risk. This results in a less than robust approach to risk management that leads. The remedy is to identify and mitigate contractual and 4 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . to insurance claims. environmental. When conducting all elements of work. procedures. Firstly. what steps can be taken to reduce cable risk on a project whilst maintaining effective cost management? This is not the place for definitive answers as these will always be project specific. you should recognise that there is no ‘discounted solution’ . what are the solutions? At Intertek Metoc we advise that consideration of risk management systems begins from day one of a project. geological and soil survey. resources and interfaces. managing it throughout and making it a central pillar of decision making.uk developments it appears that despite only accounting for 20 percent of the cost of a project. Unfortunately. Furthermore. cables are responsible for 80 percent of insurance claims . ost people will be familiar with the ‘80:20’ rule of business. By making risk management comprehensive. what can we do about it and when should we be making the decisions to act? Fundamentally. Holding regular risk workshops with key experts in the above areas which address the risk for each stage of project delivery is advisable. who are fully engaged with the risk management process and understand its pivotal role. At this point the interface between technical. In offshore wind installation risk as early as possible in building a firm base around which project risk can be managed. processes.the foundations of the project can be poorly cast. advises on the best approach to risk management M 10:90. So. increased robustness of contract negotiation and enhanced management of installation. Head of Offshore Development and Cables at Intertek Metoc. be wary of false economy.the most effective mitigation is the one that reduces risk most cost-effectively compared to the costs associated with failure. www. a comprehensive understanding of cost versus risk can be achieved and ultimately this leads to timely and cost-efficient offshore wind projects. commercial and environmental challenges is managed.metoc. technology optioneering and cable routing. The life cycle of offshore wind projects is well understood. a project needs a robust team. The early stages of any project will naturally involve consideration of environmental impact.and that is a conservative estimate.

Intertek METOC can offer comprehensive marine expertise that will ensure its success. > Marine Environmental Consultancy > Cable Routeing and Engineering > Site Investigation and Survey Management > Marine Planning Operations > Marine Construction Management Whatever your project requirements. Intertek METOC.griggs@intertek. Intertek METOC is a leading international consultancy providing specialist technical services in the marine. coastal and river environments.com .metoc. Where engineering meets the environment Find out how we can help you. call 01428 727800 or email natalie. visit www.co.uk or contact Natalie Griggs.Ensuring renewable energy for this generation. And the next. for generations to come.

development manager at The Crown Estate. Actions have already been taken in each one of them and outlays either made or committed so far have been considerable. Lloyd says that some £2.and take longer . Hence it can act to disseminate information throughout all the consortia whether that information originates in the specific experience of a single project or through broader scale initiatives that it carries out itself. ‘strategic’ issues that are common across the whole of Round 3. That is the amount of money being invested over the period 201016 by The Crown Estate into what it describes as a series of ‘enabling actions’ intended to facilitate and even accelerate the progress of the whole Round 3 programme towards actual implementation. that the organisation has individuals who are delegated to each of the development consortia involved in the programme. which as it stresses is neither a developer nor a utility nor a contractor of any sort.MONITOR Mike Farish discusses the way in which The Crown Estate is propelling Round 3 forward Enabling action Images courtesy of www. Lloyd says that The Crown Estate is ideally positioned within the industry to fulfil this role. It might cost more . Lloyd explains that while the developers for each individual project are focused on the specifics of those projects there still remains a range of more generic. Moreover the very newness of large scale. According to Lloyd. These are: • planning and consenting • supply chain and skills • health and safety • grid and technology • project economics and finance.chpv. The rationale for the investment is provided by Chris Lloyd. offshore windfarm development at the distances from the shore involved in Round 3 mean T he whole business of gaining consents for the Round 3 offshore wind programme is that there is not the pool of relevant commonplace knowledge and established practice that might exist in a more mature industry. five general areas have been identified as appropriate for enabling actions to be carried out. for instance.5million was spent last year with the same amount scheduled to be 6 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . who heads up the initiative.but for a relatively minor seeming investment of just £11million by another organisation that is closely involved.uk likely to cost the companies involved around £400million.co. He points out.

Quite simply the combination of the distances from the shore involved in many Round 3 installations and the closeness to the sea surface at which operations are carried out on such installations would have meant that existing devices would not work. a hundred aircraft flights carrying human observers. Lloyd anticipates that the emphasis of the enabling actions programme will shift from aspects concerned with the physical nature of the sites involved to the commercial viability of the installations that will be built on them. for instance. as Lloyd observes. Another £2million should go next year with a smaller amount in succeeding year as the industry transitions through the consenting process. Ultimately.co. procedures are already in place to deal with the possibility of archaeological finds being made as Round 3 progresses. It involved. the organisation also helped fund the development of some interesting new technology .uk OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 7 . Much of the work has now resulted in the publication of various sets of guidelines that are available from The Crown Estate’s website. he says. Meanwhile. Apart from Lloyd. Implicitly the need for such work underlines the extent to which Round 3 is in every sense advancing the concept of offshore wind power generation into completely new areas for which there is simply no existing knowledge base. One of them. on the health and safety front Lloyd says that work carried out under the initiative led to the identification of a previously unsuspected problem with the short wave radios used to support communication with the shore by workers actually on offshore turbines. means that at any one time the equivalent of around ten people within the organisation are working on relevant activities. each of those areas has one fulltime member of The Crown Estate’s staff attached to it. These include documents relating to aerial surveys and mammal monitoring. As such. ■ www. he adds.MONITOR spent this year. was a survey of birdlife and marine mammals in the waters involved in Round 3 that Lloyd believes to have possibly been the most comprehensive of its type carried out anywhere.in this case a gyroscopically stabilised high magnification camera that allowed for accurate photography of seabirds without the aircraft getting too close to them. he says. But Lloyd says a number of others have been carried out. the cost of energy is what will determine the success of the whole programme. In support of this work. For the future. Interestingly. To this end a consultation document has now been produced with details of two projects that are aimed at developing relevant business models dealing with total project costs. Of the initiatives that have taken place so far the series of supply chain familiarisation events held around the UK last year and this have probably been the most visible.thecrownestate. One will deal with ‘spatial dependencies’ and the other with ‘cost reduction pathways’. though. an understanding how this might vary according to location will be of fundamental importance. Further resourcing. though Lloyd admits that so far none have.

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has led to increased focus on the sector.” he continues. “With government cuts and the treasury reclassifying the ROC subsidy as public spending there has been an increased focus on cost.DEVELOPMENT Ahead of Offshore Wind 2011.chpv. capital costs have doubled over the last five years. Alistair Welch visited Renewable UK and discovered that when it comes to securing the future of the UK’s offshore wind market. Speaking to Reynolds and the newly appointed head of offshore renewables Kristina Gamst.uk T he year ahead could prove to be a pivotal 12 months in the future of the UK’s off- Pivotal period OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 9 .” Renewable UK is currently lobbying the government and working with industry players to ensure that offshore wind development continues to progress. it appears that cost is everything shore wind industry according to Paul Reynolds. If the government thinks we are too expensive then it potentially threatens the entire sector. which. Without government support. “We are an expensive technology. offshore wind development manager at Renewable UK. always looking at ways the industry can drive down costs. “We are constantly thinking about cost reduction. There is a certain nervousness in the sector following the Committee on Climate Change’s (CCC) recent report that cast doubt on offshore wind’s long-term commercial potential.” explains Reynolds. in turn.co. we’ve got a handle on that and they should go down from now on. However. the worst-case scenario is that manufacturers who have stated their intention to invest in the UK’s offshore wind market might renege on their Images courtesy of www. the message from Renewable UK ahead of the Liverpool Offshore Wind 2011 event was clear: cost reduction is key to ensuring commercial viability.

The report will include cost projections for offshore developments up to 2022 alongside outlining the general economic benefits of a mature offshore wind market. chaired by Duncan Clark. it is still incumbent on those working in the sector to address the issue of cost reduction in order to assuage government and public reticence. “The key point for us is that if the government supports the sector then.chpv. Her brief as Head of Offshore Renewables covers marine technologies (wave and tidal generation) in addition to offshore wind. I think we are in a good position. “We are number one in the world at the moment. the likelihood of such a gloomy possibility is remote. “A key goal in moving forward is the building of economies of scale.renewable-uk. Renewable UK is working on improving healthand-safety protocol for offshore projects and is compiling a supply chain charter that will provide bestpractice guidelines for companies working together. It is hoped that the report will go a long way to restoring confidence in the potential of offshore wind to form a key part of the UK’s renewables provision. Commercial Manager of The Crown Estate. ultimately costs will begin to fall. are coming up fast and if we don’t cement our lead and get investment nailed down then we could loose that lead. As Reynolds sees the situation.com Offshore Wind Energy Conference within the sector. offshore wind’s potential ought to become increasingly visible and increasingly credible. “I have only been at Renewable UK for two weeks. “I hope to be a strong presence in developing best-practice within the supply chain. She believes that increasing efficiency throughout the offshore supply chain and building economies of scale are key factors in tackling cost reduction www. in particular Germany.” concludes Reynolds. The next wave of turbine design should lead to substantial cost reduction. other European countries. but already I am working with the government on supporting the ongoing development of the offshore wind sector. What we really need now is a clear statement of commitment from the government.” she says. government policy and cost reduction mechanisms are inextricably linked. 10 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING .DEVELOPMENT Images courtesy of www. if they remove their support then we won’t see costs coming down substantially. The June event will also see Renewable UK release their Offshore Economics Report. If the offshore wind sector is to be sustainable then the costs associated with it must fall: ‘The Cost Challenge’ session.co. Nevertheless. With Round 2 projects beginning to reach maturity and progress being made all the time on the more ambitious Round 3 sites. However.” In addition to its involvement in cost-reduction strategy. Gamst has recently joined Renewable UK following work in civil engineering project management. However.” says Kristina Gamst. will question how those involved in offshore wind can contribute to driving down costs.” The conference at Offshore Wind 2011 will include a session addressing cost reduction.uk commitment. The whole process by which we install and maintain offshore windfarms is set to get better and better. “Up to this point the sector has borrowed from onshore turbines and the oil and gas industry. “We have new developments and new supply chain interest happening all the time.

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DEVELOPMENT

All change
Ian D Bonnon, Senior Vice President and Head of Offshore Wind at GL Garrad Hassan, looks at future growth in the offshore market

financial tariffs and incentives are more likely to lead the way in realising the projected growth, the jury is still out on what the best approach is. Technology-specific fixed or semifixed tariff models seem to the chosen financial support mechanism in Europe but the framework for finding and offering a suitable tariff price is still a matter of debate and getting it wrong can have catastrophic results. As markets mature then innovation in financing offers further opportunities for investors. This is likely to be the case with offshore wind in the longer term and already there are new approaches underway. Currently the re-financing of windfarms once they have reached operation is attracting investors; this approach removes the main construction risks for investors and, for developers, frees up cash to invest onto their next windfarms. Another major industry issue is the lack of qualified and experienced people. The current situation is that projects are stretched when it comes to finding people available with the right qualifications and solid experience and clearly this will become exaggerated as we go into the predicted period of unprecedented growth. Other feeder industries, such as offshore oil and gas, are already experiencing similar problems as a result of an ageing skills base in a volatile market. The investment in people and training must begin immediately as it is critical to realising the projected industry growth. Failure to do this is potentially a very serious issue. Consenting still remains a long and drawn out process, especially in the UK and the US. Consent for the recent

rent predictions are correct, this is set to continue through a phase of remarkable growth over the next decade, culminating with offshore wind becoming a major contributor to the electricity supply for several North European counties. In the UK, the industry is led by government strategy, with the majority of windfarm sites allocated by competitive tender within distinct rounds; there have been three plus one extension rounds in the UK and one in Scotland to date. The early allocated sites have seen projects developed close to shore and in shallow waters; however this is set to change with Round 3 in the UK. The German market is about to enter a phase of maturity. The first turbines of the milestone Bard Offshore 1 project in the North Sea have recently become operational and other significant projects are now in development and build, or well advanced through the various planning stages. There is also evidence that the many other countries throughout Europe are gearing up for offshore windfarm development, with the recent announcement by the

T

he offshore wind industry in Europe has recently started to expand rapidly and, if cur-

French government being a typical example. The figure opposite shows future offshore wind growth predictions for European countries. Offshore wind is also progressing further afield, with the US market looking to have its first projects in the water during 2013. China already has some shallow water sites generating power and around 1,000MW worth of further sites are in advanced stages of preparation. Korea has also published plans for offshore developments. So, the overall picture seems to be one of significant growth in the global industry over the next decade. While this is extremely positive, there are some significant challenges to be overcome if the projected growth rates are to be achieved. The most challenging aspect of all offshore wind development is financing, because investor confidence is intrinsically linked to government policy and incentives. Whilst available investment funds have improved for new developments since the credit crunch, there are doubts about whether there is enough finance available to support all of the proposed developments on a worldwide basis. In addition, while countries that have consistent policy,

12

SUMMER 2011

OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING

DEVELOPMENT

Humber Gateway project in the UK marked the end of a barren period of 24 months, during which not a single offshore windfarm in the UK received consent. Streamlining the process and reference to research and development projects on environmental issues will hopefully help in the future. Supply chain issues have long been a problem for the offshore wind industry. In the past, a shortage of installation vessels, offshore turbines, offshore substation transformers and high voltage subsea cables have all given concern as potential road blocks to smooth development plans. There is evidence that as the European industry starts to mature then some of these issues are being tackled. However, there is little doubt that careful advanced planning is essential to avoid any problems during the development phase of a project. In many cases this involves placing reser-

vation orders for key components and services up to two years in advance. A variety of contract models have been tried over the recent years: the early experience of turbine supplier led EPCs has given way to models where a number of contractors are appointed (typically five to seven major contracts) and the developer, with the assistance of a project management contractor in some cases, then takes responsibility for co-ordinating the supply and installation of the offshore windfarm. This second approach reduces contract costs; however a large part of this saving must be invested into the large management team needed to ensure construction progresses smoothly and successfully. Various announcements have been made regarding potential EPC offerings. Of current projects, only Greater Gabbard in the UK is being built under an EPC contract, though

excluding the turbine supply in this case. It would seem likely that a variety of contract forms will continue to be used, depending on project owner capability and appetite. Overall, the offshore windfarm industry is on the cusp of massive growth and development. The issues for those working within the industry are to manage the challenges of achieving this remarkable projected expansion whilst also providing a safe environment for all involved. The rewards will be to contribute to the birth of a major new energy industry which we will surely look back at with pride as the pioneers of a new age in energy production. The current revolution in offshore wind energy is comparable to any of the previous shifts in energy production seen over the last century. www.gl-garradhassan.com

OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING

SUMMER 2011

13

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This is because in the marine environment companies need to be able to expand to their client’s requirements but also to contract when there is less activity.000 on bespoke equipment.Robert Gerald finds out more outdoor space of the same size. That is the aim of the company . a one-stop service so the client is dealing with just one phone number. In part this is because the UK and other countries with more offshore interests have high safety standards that may not be replicated elsewhere. the group has been heavily involved in the offshore wind sector for the last six to seven years. The current team is made up of a mixture of full-time employees and contract workers. This has given Osiris the ability to do a lot of in-house preparation. When working in the renewables sector you have to up your game in terms of procedures and equipment because larger windfarms have more sustained requirements. with multiple teams working on projects. it is the most desirable type of work we do. In the offshore wind section of the business.stateof-the-art stainless steel winches. In terms of equipment.000ft2 and another rything from civil engineering works to installation services and their to-do list could include general construc- tion. and represents 50-60 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 15 .to provide this overview.” Osiris has a continuous process of reinvestment. the tasks undertaken are often cable support services and tower access. with 75-80 percent of the net profits going back into the equipment every year.COVER STORY Well equipped Working in the marine environment requires a specialist skill set . The sector has its own division within the company. underwater inspection or cutting out obsolete structures.” West states. The company has a new indoor unit of 16. including large launch and recovery systems to give a means of transferring a diver into the water and recovering him safely. The group has worked off the coast of Belgium and all round the UK . “We have personnel who are both divers and riggers who conduct cable pulls and look after activities on the surface of what’s going on while the diver can be in the water at the same time.” adds West.” says West. Established 16 years ago. We can take a contract or a tender and look at it and know which elements we can immediately do in-house. Managing Director of Osiris. “We have three of these systems now .” says Aiden West. “Our new equipment makes a whole range of operations possible. The past year has seen Osiris invest hugely in its resources and equipment. the group has spent £380. “We can now fabricate a lot of what we need. At the moment there are about 40 sub-contractors and a dozen permanent staff. though. they are equipped to work anywhere but mainly focus on the UK offshore wind market. welding. “As a company.essentially. The company carries out eve- percent of the group’s turnover. This has allowed steady growth for the past decade and means that there is enough equipment to provide back- O siris Marine Services is a varied organisation.

While ROVs are used for inspection purposes. they can’t touch something or look at it as closely. With health and safety being a pressing concern. though. says West. is to have divers doing other things but to have them present. However. Interestingly. In fact. The best solution. To this extent. For example. West notes that unlike a diver. companies can lose money very quickly in this way. get them inducted and get them in the water. West is confident that his team will always operate according to strict health and safety procedures. It could hold up the windfarm if operators then discover . “We have so many procedures and a team of very experienced.as is likely . operating without a diving team is likely to lose developers money in the long term. some developers are moving away from diving. “Diving is viewed as risky but working on the surface is also a huge risk .” He also emphasises that developers have to separate out what they want economically and balance this with safety requirements. a 16 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . Osiris has worked on nine different windfarms and at least six of these had a stated ambition of no divers. Osiris is now providing cross-trained personnel who started out as divers but are now qualified riggers or can drive smaller inspection ROVs. In this scenario other vessels will have to wait while developers create a budget. if Osiris needs more men to improve safety they will request this -their requirements may include extra supervisors or people on standby. because safety does not come cheaply.that in fact they do need divers. the company has three times the equipment that it needs to ensure that there will be no delays due to equipment failure. highly qualified divers who will not entertain anything that is unsafe. Whereas an ROV can give a quick overview. In West’s experience. find the divers.COVER STORY up on the job.” he argues.more people are being hurt above the water line than below.

COVER STORY OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 17 .

West has found that there is no set way of working that meets every client’s needs. “If the tide is hitting the monopile then it can affect you once you leave the protection afforded by the structure.it depends very much on the client.” says West.once he’s in. some don’t want to do transfers at sea . Across the board.” www. However. “We are never going to change this concept although there will be alterations in size and foundations.” explains West. there may be a lot of consolidation as the work will go to the best providers. Smaller companies will need to be cost-effective and to maintain good relationships with developers . ROVs have sonar on board but you need very large ROVs to exceed the conditions in which a diver can work. West concludes. For the other companies involved. is going to be “a wake-up call” with exceptionally high costs for developers. We can work in a tide speed of up to 0. but we will have to get him out safely. This may be different in different sections of the windfarm.” he says. “For offshore wind. “We have a maximum working wave height of 1. particularly with the larger sites now being built.5m when not using a cage. “It’s all tied up with the diver launch and recovery . diving is affected by weather conditions.com 18 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . Additionally. seven days a week. We are currently involved in three offshore wind projects working to three different sets of criteria. “We work 24 hours. it is not so much winter and summer that create downtime but rather wave height and tidal speed. Round 3.COVER STORY diver can have a conversation with you. With the larger windfarms there might be flat water in one location but not elsewhere. “Some clients only want you to work in daylight.a wind turbine on top of a tower. which may vary regardless of the season. he won’t be affected if it’s deep. meaning Osiris has to be flexible. the basic formula is in place .” West confirms.” It’s important that the company closely monitors the speed and direction of the tide.both areas in which Osiris is certain it can provide the best solutions for its clients.osirismarineservices.8knots.” Like all work in the offshore sector. energy is not going to be cheap anymore and there will be big changes in the way this works. an ROV can be affected by the current just as much as a diver and costs a lot of money. However.

Complemented by our MPI Workboats we truly are experts in offshore wind turbine installation. The MPI Resolution.Powering the Future Continuing on our pioneering course.com . Pushing the boundaries is in our DNA. the world’s first purpose-built vessel for installing offshore wind turbines is soon to be joined by our newly commissioned sister ships: MPI Adventure and MPI Discovery. For more information about what we do contact us on +44 (0) 1642 742200 or visit www.mpi-offshore.

professional advice and a competitive no-obligation quote. professional relationships with our clients we have built a reputation for reliability.Surveying Solutions for the Renewable Energy Sector Oceans Of Ingenuity. marine environmental & topographic survey services.. with expertise in combining all disciplines into single projects. Continuous investment in state-of-the-art equipment and software ensures that we remain at the forefront of our profession. experienced and dedicated staff we can undertake projects of any size or nature.. geophysical.. We have an excellent proven track record of providing surveying solutions to the Renewable Energy sector. . By developing long term. as are often required for renewable energy devices. With a team of highly professional. numerous projects have been completed for offshore wind.      Multibeam Bathymetric Surveys  Side-Scan Sonar Mosaics  Geophysical Survey & Interpretation  Magnetometer Surveys  Cable Route & Pipeline Inspection  Seabed Geomorphology  Grab Sampling & Laboratory Analysis  Marine Archaeology  Precise Positioning Services  ROV & Drop-Down Video Surveys  Mobile Laser Scanning Please contact us to discuss your project requirements and we will provide you with informed. integrity and excellence. Projects have been undertaken in some of the remotest parts of the UK within the most demanding and challenging environments.  Aspect Land & Hydrographic Surveys is an ISO 9001: 2008 accredited company offering a full range of hydrographic. To date. oceanographic. wave and tidal energy schemes as well as onshore wind farms and hydro-electric power plants.

Active Stator is a variable speed drive (power electronic converter plus rotating machine) development aimed at delivering improved power density. Active Stator employs trapezoidal current waveforms and air gap flux. unlike conventional machines. robust. To maximise power density the machine is liquid dielectric cooled. on a DC grid. marine propulsion. maximising the exploitation of the machines active material. Power density is improved by integrating the rotating machine and the associated power electronic converter. In this case emphasising power density as a key requirement. and being minimised so as to reduce the size. a machine that is up to three times more power dense than previous generations of marine propulsion motor but without sacrificing other aspects of performance. the performance of the current generation of drives. Converteam has demonstrated its ability to follow this market led approach in the past. but permits forced commutation when beneficial. the latter being a function of machine topology. or preferably exceeding. Unlike a voltage source pulse width High performance modulated drive. and at Converteam’s Electric Ship Technology Demonstrator. This low power demonstrator has been installed and tested at both University of Nottingham. Efficiency and reliability are improved by employing simple. on an AC grid. and near unity power factor. A significant interim deliverable was the 150kW Active Stator demonstrator. compression mounted power semiconductor devices with a low forward voltage drop. The low power of the demonstrator made it relatively easy to connect a load machine to the Active Stator drive under test. BELOW Figure 1: Liquid Cooled Wound Rotor for APM OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 21 . complexity and power losses of switching components. Power density and efficiency are improved by employing a power electronic converter topology that permits natural commutation whenever possible. aimed at several of Converteam’s core markets such as renewable power generation as well as one of its more traditional sectors. The wound rotor is illustrated in figure one. the converter operation switching frequency is equal to stator fundamental frequency. efficiency and reliability whilst remaining cost competitive and meeting. both of which operate at low speed and have a quadratic steady state torque versus speed characteristic. and successfully demonstrate steady state and transient behaviour with a view to Active Stator’s two target markets of marine propulsion and the potentially much larger market of direct drive wind turbine generators. Also. thereby minimising duplication of functions and simplifying interfaces. Early development of the Active Stator concept was part funded by the Technology Strategy Board and carried out by Converteam in collaboration with Dynex Semiconductor Ltd and the University of Nottingham.INNOVATION The experts at Converteam give a brief introduction to the Active Stator T he ability of a commercial engineering company to remain competitive in difficult financial markets is heavily depend- ent on the quality of its technical expertise and management support in pursuing innovative solutions that deliver improved performance to the end customer. and the Active Stator development is one of its latest examples. Converteam has designed and is building the Advanced Propulsion Motor (APM). whole wafer. The first commercial Active Stator machine was ordered by the UK Ministry of Defence.

and therefore reduced through life costs. but it also removes it from the influences of the external environment (temperature 22 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . As Europe engages itself not only in a very ambitious expansion of renewable power generation (offshore and onshore wind. particulate contaminants. the Active Stator gate card has a reduced component count relative to the gate card of an equivalent (current generation) voltage source drive. the integrated power electronic converter is immersed in liquid dielectric for cooling. relative to the machine. ■ www. but that increase in power density could be traded for increased efficiency. the direct drive PMGs will be 20 percent smaller than equivalent three phase machines. This has the advantage of significantly increasing the power density of the electronic commutator.INNOVATION The second (and third) commercial Active Stator machine(s) are being designed and built on a UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) supported contract. and reduced OPEX and therefore increased revenue. and offers the greater opportunity for improving overall drive reliability.converteam. and there are fewer of them. Electronic commutator reliability is also improved by the “keep it simple” strategy. Moving the conversion from AC to DC closer to the generator can increase the benefit. etc. In all variable speed drives. As mentioned previously. (see figure three). the 150 kW demonstrator has already been tested on an AC and DC grid. wave and tidal) but also in grid configuration (super grid). Active Stator is also compatible with DC grids. For connection to AC grids Active Stator is available with a network bridge employing a PWM strategy that controls the current harmonics injected by the drive into the grid and meets the UK (G5/4) guidelines. Active Stator facilitates a fully DC Architecture. Active Stator PMG is an ideal candidate for future large offshore and onshore wind turbines.) This allows the electronic commutator to be integrated with the machine. In Active Stator. the power electronic converter is. Published studies have shown four times improvement in reliability for Active Stator drives relative to equivalent voltage source drives. the more complex component. RIGHT Figure 3: Active Stator Electronic Commutator Stack (suitable for liquid dielectric immersion) Emphasising increased power density. The contract will deliver two 3MW direct drive Active Stator Permanent BELOW Figure 2: DECC 3 MW Active Stator PMGs in B2B Configuration and humidity changes. Moving to a fully DC Architecture can provide significant advantages: reduced CAPEX. and helps improve electronic commutator reliability.com Magnet Generators (PMGs) that will be connected and tested in a Backto-Back (B2B) configuration. and is a key component of Converteam’s Fully DC Architecture. regardless of the environment the machine is installed in. As part of the work to improve overall drive reliability.

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Having the right people and knowhow is what makes it a success.Anyone can hire a vessel.A2SEA. www.com .

A2SEA is also involved at the Sheringham Shoal project. managing the 3rd party vessel GMS Endeavour. which are not self-propelled but can jack fully out of the water. It’s a far cry from the early days of offshore wind. by the end of this year the company’s shares will be split 51/49 percent between Dong Energy Group and Siemens Wind Power.INSTALLATION Theone Wilson speaks to a company that’s developing a presence in offshore wind Bidding for success O ffshore wind installation and service provider A2SEA has recently seen more its main jobs are foundation work on the London Array windfarm and installing the 5MW REpower turbines at Ormonde. an area that is becoming more and and more interest in its work from UK Round 3 developers. The others are jack-up barges. The group has also placed an order for a new second-generation installation vessel.” says Nielsen. which is being built at the moment and will be delivered in the third quarter of 2012. In the last five years. Two of these are self-propelled vessels. The group’s swift success is perhaps highlighted by the fact that in the summer of 2009 Dong Energy Group bought 100 percent of its shares. Currently offering transport. This proves A2SEA’s capabilities in managing the installation and the full marine spread. Denmark. “It started out with initial meetings with the different offshore zones three years ago and then more meetings after the zone winners were announced. At the moment OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 25 . A2Sea’s fleet is comprised of four units. both the number of projects and the number of competitors has steadily increased. Business Development Manager at A2SEA. and we will increase the scope when it comes to managing projects. but the company now has a presence in Germany and the UK. “We will be a key player in the market by developing the right skills and investing in the right vessels. and A2SEA is now working on a range of different windfarms. which can stabilise on the seabed but cannot jack out of the water. when there were only one or two projects to bid for each year and only one major competitor for A2SEA. Operations and maintenance. the group has grown rapidly. Established in the year 2000 as a one-man entrepreneurial company. Its head office and main support functions are in Fredericia. In order to secure further investments this move was followed by Siemens Wind Power taking a 49 percent stake in the company. installation and servicing of offshore windfarms.” says Ole Jacob Nielsen. where the group will carry out turbine installation. We’re start- ing to pick up this year with more solid discussions which hopefully will lead to further commitments during next year or 2013.

can be brought down by getting more megawatts out of one turbine.” says Nielsen. We have a 24-12-24-12 aim: to load a full vessel in 24 hours.which owns and operates the equipment and has the necessary experience. but a lot of mistakes can be avoided with earlier involvement of the supply chain. “The weather is the main challenge to this .INSTALLATION more important to the market as more turbines are installed. “We still haven’t really seen this happen.” Companies in the supply chain may also have to alter their working methods to gain maximum benefit from the work on offer. installation.a ‘taskforce approach’. He adds that the key players in the industry need to consider this side of things more carefully. “Looking back there have been very short-term commitments and that has meant having to modify existing equipment. take 24 hours maximum time from mechanical installation until the turbine is ready to produce power and install all components in minimum 12m/s wind. in many cases developers are realising that they will need access both to vessels and to personnel with the relevant expertise to operate the vessels. in particular. Nielsen confirms. Government subsidies are likely to decrease and this means that cost reduction is high on the agenda.how fast will these projects be constructed? For example. Round 3 will raise a number of other pressing issues. bring down costs and move towards making offshore wind competitive with lower subsidy. foundations and turbines in one package. We need to increase our wind and wave criteria . “As a company we are considering how we can increase the criteria to which we work to become more effective throughout the year. In Nielsen’s opinion. the technology used in the offshore wind sector is not yet fully developed.” Nielsen clarifies.” As a young industry. larger components in deeper water at the same cost as today. increased size and efficiency will mean a more streamlined industry. but he expects progress soon to be made as sites move further offshore and more turbines get in the water. install a turbine in 12 hours (including jack up. he suggests there has to be a platform whereby the utility companies or the windfarm owners can give a long-term commitment to the supply chain.” says Nielsen.” With work on the Round 3 zones taking place simultaneously. is that the cost of offshore wind needs to be brought down so that the industry becomes commercially competitive. the orders placed see a sufficient balance between supply and demand for vessels. Turbine costs. We won’t be offering design or steelworks but will offer an installation package from one company . there are only a limited number of these available. This interface management will mean that everyone is working towards a common goal. This means simply integrating part of the supply chain process. “We’ve had a number of service jobs during the years and can only expect that service operations and maintenance will become an increasingly important part of the business. jack down and repositioning). The most important matter. It’s definitely possible. this means installing heavier. plan the project and plan the resources needed.” he states. However. A2SEA has an idea for this . is of particular interest. the company will be able to move equipment and resources around and use them in the best possible manner. “It gives time to choose the right equipment. “Hopefully Round 3 will not be split into too many small projects otherwise the potential for this will be lost. a complete management of the marine spread so that you get installation of cables. future business will be affected by the speed at which Round 3 moves .as we move deeper offshore we can only expect worse weather conditions. Nielsen hopes 26 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . Involving the supply chain as early as possible will also be key to efficiency in Round 3.” Nielsen explains. In practical terms.us . In order to have the right equipment. Currently.then we would get more days out of the year. though. “We would like to be able to offer. operators need to ensure that there will be enough capacity to carry out all the work. together with partners.

the Mediterranean and Scandinavia. the competitive landscape is changing dramatically. “The right foundations for the future have not yet been found. The company’s main markets are still in Northern Europe.but it looks like A2Sea is also moving with the times. with six to eight major competitors in the marketplace now. France. Both Nielsen and A2SEA know that the industry and the market on which the business depends are changing fast . However. the know-how and the people to help bring down the cost of energy and keep projects on track . “Jackets are going to be a major part of foundations. “require something different. the Netherlands. Essentially. While lessons can be learnt from the oil and gas industry. At the end of 2010 A2SEA enjoyed a market share of around 50 percent.” ■ www. the oil and gas industry can show the way.a2sea. the Asian and the US markets are also rapidly pulling forward. but the specific conditions and requirements of the offshore wind sector must be held in mind. We will also need new equipment to install them. with the UK leading the way followed by Germany. Nielsen emphasises that this is not the same sector. though. there could be hotel vessels deployed or the windfarm itself might have accommodation set up. there is not the same amount of money available. adaptability and experience. Another solution would be to create a floating port out at sea for the smaller vessels.we are a very good choice if you value safety. the offshore wind industry and its supply chain still have a long way to go before they are fully mature. Nielsen says. The main point is that in contrast to oil and gas.” A2SEA is also looking at how the installation and O&M vessels of the future will be designed. Nielsen concludes: “We have the experience.” Future jack-ups may have flexible accommodation modules on board.com OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 27 . such as health and safety.INSTALLATION to see some new foundation designs emerging over the next few years. In some areas.” he states. At this stage only time will tell which is the best idea. Smaller vessels to transfer personnel will be required but overall transportation will.

Renewables
Fife is at the heart of Scotland’s low carbon future
Fife is set to lead the way in a number of renewable and low carbon technologies including offshore wind, carbon capture & storage and hydrogen fuel cells. World class R&D facilities at St Andrews University, a highly skilled workforce and exciting new developments like the Hydrogen Office make Fife an integral part of Scotland’s renewable energy offer. The combination of an excellent engineering supply chain and world class facilities including the Energy Park, home to BiFab, make Fife the natural choice for companies aiming to supply the massive offshore wind market in the North Sea.

To find out more about location or supply chain opportunities visit our website www.investinfiferenewables.co.uk or contact Barbara Whiting on 08451 555555 ext 492184 or email barbara.whiting@fife.gov.uk

INVESTMENT

O

ffshore Centre Danmark (OCD) is to join forces with Invest in Denmark

in an attempt to market the Scandinavian country’s offshore wind energy sector to foreign companies. Invest in Denmark, an offshoot of the Danish Ministry of Foreign affairs, exists to attract foreign investment in knowledge-intensive areas of the Danish economy. The organisation plans to use OCD’s November event “Offshore Wind International Business2Business” (OWIB) as a plat-

form to market the country’s growing offshore wind market to international companies. “OWIB is one of the largest events in the offshore wind sector and is the obvious venue for Invest in Denmark to enter into a dialogue with foreign companies. The idea of gathering operators, producers, suppliers, energy companies and advisors for a kind of speed dating is unique, and we see the event as an obvious opportunity to market Denmark internationally,” explains Invest in Denmark Project Manager Kim Schultz. He continues: “Denmark enjoys a high status among other countries in the offshore wind sector and it is clear that we should seize this opportunity to market our country to companies abroad with a view to having them establish themselves in Denmark. Our aim is to create Danish jobs in this rapidly growing sector.” OWIB is an international forum where companies can conduct informal meetings with new suppliers market themselves to potential cus-

Broadening horizons
Invest in Denmark and the Offshore Centre Danmark are working together to attract foreign investment in the country’s offshore wind industry
SUMMER 2011 29

OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING

INVESTMENT

tomers. Participants at the OWIB are provided with a list of all those who have signed up. They can then ask to have meetings with representatives from specific businesses, energy companies or industry organisations. Leading turbine manufacturers Vesats and Siemens Wind Power, both of whom attended last year’s event, will again be present alongside energy companies DONG and Vattenfall plus a number of international sub-suppliers. “We are very pleased that Invest in Denmark is involved in this year’s OWIB because it underlines the international appeal of the event. Last year, 2,200 contacts and appointments about further meetings were made in the course of one single day. There is no doubt that Invest in Denmark will obtain many rel-

evant contacts, and we consider this to be a seal of approval for our event,” comments OCD Renewables Manager Morten Holmager. Offshore Centre Danmark is a national knowledge and innovation centre for the Danish offshore sector. Since the centre was founded in 2003, it has organised conferences and networking events and initiated development projects with a view to strengthening development and employment in the offshore sector. Participation in international collaborations such as POWER cluster and South Baltic OFFER ensures that the spotlight is turned on to opportunities for international collaboration in the wind turbine sector. OWIB 2011 will take place on 9 November in Esbjerg, Denmark. The emphasis of the event is on network-

ing between companies working within the offshore sector. The event is visited by business form all levels of the supply chain including: developers; manufacturers; installers and construction, engineering and service companies. www.investindk.com www.owib.dk

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SUMMER 2011

OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING

com www.– Irish Sea offshore wind farm logistics – Design and build of turnkey substation platforms and foundations – Next generation turbine foundations – Design and build of metmast platforms and foundations – Prototype and mass production – Irish Seamarine renewables logistics of other offshore wind farm – Design and build of turnkey substation platforms and foundations – Next generation turbine foundations CONTACT – +44(0)2890 534389 metmast platforms T: Design and build of and foundations E: sales@harland-wolff.com production – Prototype and mass of other marine renewables .harland-wolff.

colleges. industry and the council are working together as Fife aims to become a hub for the renewable energy economy.REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Along the Firth of Forth. Alistair Welch visited the region to learn more about the schemes in place to promote relevant skills and knowledge Training ground 32 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING .

” he said. However. if we didn’t invest in apprentices those skills would erode. Bifab operations director Martin Adam explained: “We are heavily involved in the training programmes. although the skills base to take fabrications from oil and gas exists. warehouses and factories associated with the area’s heavy engineering heritage. in particular offshore wind. there is still great demand for established skills and trades. The goal of the centre is to gear up the workforce to meet future opportunities in the energy sector. which built its reputation on fabrication for the offshore oil and gas industry. “Mechanical and electrical skills will become increasingly important as the offshore wind sector continues to grow. The council (Invest in Fife Renewables). down the waterfront sits the Hydrogen Office . Education and training are at the forefront of efforts to develop the region of Fife into a Scottish and UKwide hub for excellence in renewable energy. Nevertheless. In order to meet the demands of this new sector the company needs to ensure it continues to attract and employ people with the right skills. as well as provide an educational resource for local schools. we need people with excellent traditional engineering skills. as a key growth area into which they can diversify their core experience. The fabrications company has 70 apprentices developing their skills across a number of relevant trades. However. the skills we are looking for really stay the same. Babcock. Fife’s two main colleges. However. “Our traditional business of doing refits on warships is disappearing. an international company with a wide portfolio of activities including defence and energy. mechanics and electronics. Furthermore.” Babcock’s Director of Commercial Business Joe McShane added that the 168 apprentices currently engaged at Babcock were typically working in established fields such as welding. Burntisland Fabrications (better known as BiFab) has one of its manufacturing facilities here. in particular offshore wind. the Energy Centre. The company. which focuses on sustainable engineering and renewable energy. is just yards away from the large facility of engineering support services company Babcock. Carnegie and Adam Smith. have devised a range of apprenticeships and technical training programmes to equip the workforce with key skills for local industry. the centre’s chief Jim Brown explained that the college’s apprenticeship courses had been developed in dialogue with industry to ensure they were tailored to their particular requirements. We don’t necessarily need people to be “up-skilled” specifically for the renewables market. Babcock currently employs 168 apprentices drawn from Carnegie and nearby Adam Smith College. As OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 33 . M ethil waterfront in Fife is typical of the industrial landscape along the Firth of Speaking to journalists at Carnegie’s recently opened Whitlock Energy Collaboration Centre. Within a relatively new sector. “ Situated on Carnegie’s Rosyth campus. such as offshore wind. Likewise. is now a key player in the offshore wind sector with a number of significant contracts to produce turbine jackets. hydrogen fuel cell and energy storage technologies in Scotland. Both Carnegie and Adam Smith Colleges are offering a mixture of renewables specific training and courses in the more traditional mechanical and engineering skills. This balance reflects what local employers are looking for.REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Forth: the quays. “Collaboration is the key word: our courses respond to what employers need.a project designed to support the development of renewable. Bifab is another key supporter of the training scheme. the dock is also representative of a willingness within the region to harness the potential of renewables. higher education colleges and industry are working together to develop a skills-base to meet the requirements of an evolving energy market. such skills will have significant transferable potential. he explained that as Babcock moves into new markets. Both Babcock and Bifab see the renewables market. is heavily involved with Fife’s apprenticeship programmes. All our apprentices come through Carnegie and we are comfortable with what they can offer. pipe-fitting.

geothermal heating system provides 80 percent of the buildings heating requirements. there’s going to be a lot of growth in the sector. Repower and Weir Power. The electricity generated by the turbine directly provides for the needs of the Office and surplus electricity is used to generate hydrogen which is subsequently used to generate electricity through a hydrogen fuel cell system. there’s obviously a lot of potential in their areas too. 10kW hydrogen fuel cell and a geothermal heat pump. after 18 months at Carnegie. which is supported by leading wind turbine manufacturers Siemens. the North East. The building. had secured an apprenticeship at Rolls Royce but decided to join the wind turbine course at Carnegie because he could see the potential in the renewable energy sector. The college has been instrumental in developing and delivering the UK’s first wind turbine maintenance apprenticeship.” he told me. originally from Washington near Newcastle.” Rick. the two big growth markets in the UK are nuclear and renewables.000 kWh of electricity per day. “I saw more prospects for the future working on wind turbines. which was opened in 2009. is essentially a demonstration project illustrating the potential of both renewable energy resources alongside hydrogen storage and fuel cell technology. Carnegie is leading the way in offering training tailored specifically to renewable energy industries. In the workshop at the Whitlock Energy Collaboration Centre I met Rick Watson. as it stands. on average. placing the emphasis on established skills.” Whilst companies like Babcock and Bifab are. is designed to meet the demand for the highly skilled individuals required by the sector. Sponsored by Repower. 34 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . splits his time between the workshop and classroom learning the skills that employers in the sector require. In my area. “I could see more of a career in this particular sector. For my Scottish mates on the course. 30kW electrolyser. The Hydrogen Office’s energy system includes a 750kW wind turbine. Invest in Fife’s promotion of renewable energy is not limited to the apprenticeship schemes at higher education colleges. Fife has been quite visionary in targeting renewables. The turbine generates. The 20 year old.REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT we see it. Across the water from Bifab’s Methil facility stands the Hydrogen Office. halfway through the first year of his apprenticeship. Furthermore. in excess of 4. Rick will then enter a threeyear placement with the company working on turbine installation and maintenance in his native North East. The qualification. one of the college’s wind turbine apprentices.

investinfife.VERSATILITY Students from primary and secondary schools regularly visit the centre to learn more about the science behind wind turbines. geothermal energy and hydrogen fuel cell technology. www. The Hydrogen Office is a key symbol of Invest in Fife’s commitment to raising awareness of renewable resources and providing state-of-theart research provision to maximize the sector’s benefit to the regional and national economy.co. Although not yet fully operational.centapower.co. the site will also host a test centre for businesses and academics to carry out testing on fuel cell technologies. above and below the waves www.co. It is also hoped that the Hydrogen Office will become a significant research facility.uk Complex applications made easy by experts Centa technology helps you harness the power of nature • Quality bespoke design capability • Integrated products for any drive situation • Robust systems.uk T: +44 (0) 1274 531034 E: post@centa-uk.uk .

He comments: “We have built a great reputation in the renewable sector both in front-end structural and subsea engineering and through our environmental division. CEO of Xodus Group.” Successful contracts Ingram has won include framework agreements with both the UK Dept of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and UK energy regulator (OFGEM). Colin Manson. Holland and Belgium in addition to numerous wave and tidal technology developments.CONSULTANCY Gayle Nicol reports on how the Xodus Group continues its expansion with a major renewables acquisition Growing up fast acquiring an industry leading specialist consultancy. wave and tidal experience with clients including BP Alternative Energy. He has also been involved in the offshore engineering on more than 10 wind projects in the UK. finance providers and government.” James Ingram & Associates had built up 10 years’ offshore wind. Dexia Bank and a Round 3 offshore wind developer. Keppel Group. but this acquisition takes us to a whole new level. Scottish Power. Xodus launched in 2005 and has swiftly grown into a multi-disciplined. It extends some 36 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . rough waters. The Hywind turbine is based on the Hywind Demo prototype. He participated in two major offshore wind R&D projects with the UK Energy Technologies Institute. An area off the north-east coast of Scotland will be assessed as a potential candidate for a possible first pilot park of up to five units. James has worked on some of the most high profile renewable projects so we are delighted to be bringing those world-class capabilities in-house. holding a wind-turbine on top. gas and renewables. working across the sector with project developers. so the time was right to join forces and pool our capabilities. the consultancy is currently delivering a variety of high profile renewable projects. The deal with Anglesey based James Ingram & Associates has brought a powerhouse of offshore wind. France. Following its busiest outing at the All Energy conference in May. wave and tidal experience into the fold. The floating Hywind structure consists of a slender steel cylinder filled with a ballast of water and rocks. Statoil has appointed Xodus to carry out the environmental impact assessment (EIA) for a potential pilot park for the world’s first full-scale floating wind turbine. says the move strengthens Xodus’ growing reputation in renewable engineering. generating renewable electricity offshore. which has been successfully tested by Statoil in Norway for over a year. James Ingram has joined Xodus as Head of Low Carbon and his team has also transferred into the Group. integrated consultancy with expertise in oil. E ngineering consultancy Xodus Group has bolstered its impressive renewables credentials by Ingram says: “We had built a solid reputation in the renewable sector and there were strong synergies with Xodus and its brand values. Xodus offers worldclass offshore technical expertise and is committed to low carbon through its new business stream. Hywind has been designed for deep. technology suppliers. We are delivering a truly integrated and international low carbon service. which recognises the different drivers and models to traditional oil and gas projects. Germany. Based on technologies from the oil and gas industry. The full service offering includes technical and commercial project engineering and due diligence and strategic management. marine contractors.

commenting: “I’m very pleased that Statoil is considering an area off the north-east Scottish coast as the location for a potential pilot park to deploy their pioneering Hywind technology and I congratulate Xodus Group on being appointed to conduct the EIA.CONSULTANCY 80m beneath the sea’s surface and is attached to the seabed by a threepoint mooring spread.com ABOVE: Hywind tow from Åmøyfjorden to Karmøy . which was reinforced recently when it was one of the first organisations in the country to be awarded the Institute of Environmental Management and Assesment’s new EIA quality mark. Scotland’s waters are attracting a range of clean energy technology developments. 1MW turbines generating enough energy to power 400. Chief Operating Officer at Xodus Group adds: “We strive for extremely high standards in our EIAs and this has been underlined by being one of the very first to achieve the new quality mark.” Xodus is also carrying out an EIA for MeyGen in the Pentland Firth.The project will consist of up to 400. Stephen Swindell. and I hope to see further exciting renewable energy projects such as Statoil’s Hywind deployed here in the coming years. First Minister Alex Salmond welcomed the project.floating windmill at sea in deep water Photography by Øyvind Hagen/Statoi OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 37 . Xodus has developed a reputation as an industry leader in EIAs.” www. Founded on our strong industrial heritage in offshore engineer- ing and innovation. Our nation has been blessed with an abundance of natural energy.xodusgroup.000 homes. They will be located in roughly 3. with an estimated quarter of Europe’s offshore wind and tidal energy resource.5km2 of the Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth off the north coast of Scotland between Caithness on the Scottish mainland and the Island of Stroma. We are experiencing a growing demand for our low carbon services with a number of exciting new project wins.

It is located in the North East of England.Renewable energy consultants Leading the way in supporting renewables TAG Energy Solutions has created the UK’s first offshore wind turbine tubular foundation production plant.gl-garradhassan. £20 million facility has been developed with support from DECC.com QUALIFIED BY EXPERIENCE www.com . One North East and investors Platina Partners and Environmental Technologies Fund. This exciting.com Technical by nature www. The new plant is now fully operational. TAG Energy Solutions and its partners are helping the region lead the way in supporting renewables. T: 01642 565500 E: enquiries@tagenergysolutions.tagenergysolutions.

and was proving to be a great success even at this early stage. plus 60 sub-contract divers. joining forces. being equipped with powerful propulsion systems. with anchor trials and diving surveys in preparation for export cable installation. She can also support diving operations in 10m+ water depth and. It is expected to operate next in the southern North Sea undertaking IRM ed7Marine’s (R7M) newlyacquired offshore support vessel DP Reel went straight Skegness. The £5million investment means the highly versatile vessel is available to support work for clients in the renewable energy and oil & gas sectors. “In the past we have operated other companies’ DPII class vessels to support our work but we always and ROV intervention work. is ideal for handling aggressive and unpredictable tidal flows Raising standards Sally Caswell of Red7Marine explains the specialist services that the company has to offer R to work after sailing into Great Yarmouth port to mark a milestone moment for the rapidly growing company. One of her first jobs was for Centrica on the Lincs windfarm off OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 39 . and can operate in water depth as shallow as 6m. Great Yarmouth. diving. at the company’s diving and subsea division base in Lefevre Way. She has been fitted with a comprehensive offshore diving system and survey suite. ideal for supporting cable laying.” he added. cable laying. “Her acquisition means we have achieved our primary objective to own and operate a fully-mobilised UKbased DPII offshore support vessel. The vessel arrives less than three years after R7M was created by Norfolk-based Anglian Marine Services and Haven Ports (Marine and Constructions Management). Jones said the DP Reel had already undertaken a number of operations both within the renewable and oil & gas sectors. of Manningtree.” said R7M Director Mike Jones.MARINE recognised the importance of securing our own vessel so we can control costs better and provide a more precise and efficient service to clients. The DP Reel will help significantly in that objective. And it’s the latest feather in the cap of a company which saw turnover leap from £6million to £24million in the three years with its workforce growing from 45 to 125 strong. ROV and deep water drilling support. to meet International Marine Contractors Association standards. “Our intention is to continue raising standards in an industry where we are providing our own specialist services in offshore construction.

and recently achieved membership of the International Marine Contractor Association (IMCA) within the Diving Division. joint partners with Airtricity in the project. As a demonstration of the company’s commitment to safety. off Norfolk. The contract has been extended to the end of September .co.” he added. and from Volantis installing monopile seabed bell mouths and PE pipes and assisting in the installation of j-tube extensions.red7marine. This year it is offering apprenticeships to school leavers. R7M can also announce successfully achieving IS0 9001:2008 accreditation with Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance (LRQA). working for Fluor. owning and operating our own equipment and using a highly skilled. R7M continues to be heavily involved in a major contract at one of the world’s largest offshore windfarms. often with more than 20 operations under way at any one time worldwide. with diving and dredging operations to survey for export cable joints. “There are very few companies like ours which can undertake such a range of activities. Diving constitutes 50 percent of R7M turnover with the company also specialising in a full range of surface construction work and ‘at height’ projects such as the access for turbine transition pieces. Its aspirations are underlined by the fact that it is currently awaiting a consultancy report on windpower opportunities being developed off Maine. The company also worked for three weeks for Vattenfall at the Thanet windfarm. in May where it worked from the Ocean Dragon on the cable-landing site. off Suffolk. installing pull-in towers and hydraulic containers on the substation upper decks. The 91m x 18m vessel arrived in Great Yarmouth from a previous base in Italy. R7M will continue chasing global business in the offshore renewables and oil and gas fields and in power and telecoms cable installation. and from the jack- up JB104. fully-employed workforce. R7M successfully completed its contract at the Sheringham Shoal windfarm. Greater Gabbard. Manningtree.for R7M to carry out some additional cabling work. off Kent. R7M has access teams working with transition pieces on the turbines themselves. USA.250 dives. And it is being achieved with an impeccable safety record. Meanwhile. For the future. health and quality. with particular expertise working outside the 12 mile limit to IMCA standards and offshore diving ACoP. The Great Yarmouth diving and subsea base was opened two years ago and staffing there has increased from 15 to 35 plus and is still growing. And it is a global player. to date clocking up more than 2. Jones stressed the company’s versatility and attention to quality and safety standards.and possibly beyond . It’s been a real test of skills and endurance with near non-stop 24/7 operations over two years.uk 40 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING .MARINE around the UK territorial waters. Northfleet and Exeter. Headquartered at Wrabness. R7M also has bases at Ipswich. Not far away. As well as working from vessels. www.

and environmental consultancy services from Xodus Group actively support the development of renewable energy projects. www.xodusgroup.Harnessing natural energy Engineering. technical safety and risk.com .

and the company set about building a new production facility that will manufacture offshore wind turbine foundations. The wide array of machines.” To this extent. It’s home ground for us. already has extensive experi- nearing completion.” The challenge is not producing them but rather converting the manufacturing and installation into a slick process. TAG has submitted tenders for several upcoming projects. “It’s about moving an individual project towards a production process. he explains that foundations are produced through “simple technology. Though carefully designed. he foresees long-term prospects for the market. are all on site too and are being lifted into position. “When the oil and gas industry was first taking off. but it has lasted 30 years.” Dawson says. Alex Dawson. based in Billingham. although the offshore wind industry differs in part. Additionally. it was seen as a short-term solution.SUPPLY CHAIN Balanced outlook Theone Wilson discovers Teesside’s answer to the challenges of the offshore wind supply chain tor. TAG has now received all the funding for the site and the building is T AG Energy Solutions. in particular Dawson hopes to become involved with EDF’s ence of offshore operations. TAG’s Chief Executive. The company wants to establish itself as a key player for foundations and topsides both in the UK and Europe. in terms of foundations the requirements are very similar. such as the welding equipment that will be crucial to the operation. located on the Teesside waterfront. Dawson indicates that. The key to this is the group’s 30 years’ experience working offshore in the oil and gas sec- 42 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . The construction of this facility. Last year the decision was made to utilise this experience within the offshore wind industry. has sped forward in leaps and bounds. “The offshore wind sector looks set to follow the same route.” he explains. is expecting the site to be ready for action around the middle of June.

seven days a week. the future looks bright for anyone with the skills and expertise to make an impact in the sector . Dawson believes that the UK does have the capacity to become a leading exporter in the market as a whole. The German port of Bremerhaven. www. in Dawson’s mind it is essential to maintain this balanced outlook on energy. He senses that much of the industry is waiting for work to come to them rather than going out and searching for it. Certainly. however.” Dawson explains. While offshore wind is probably some years away from becoming commercially viable.tagenergysolutions.” he adds.” he says. examining how to manufacture 100 jackets per annum. This means that international cooperation in the field is developing. “People don’t know that you’re there unless you tell them. responsibility also lies with individual companies to take the opportunities that are available. which is seeing a lot of movement . offshore wind. there is insufficient capacity in the UK to produce these and TAG is getting quotes from Germany for the items. nuclear and renewables. there is room for development in the UK market at the moment. In fact. Despite this.com OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 43 .let people know that they are ready and waiting for work. As the business develops. but we are very much at the beginning of this process. Meanwhile. TAG has undertaken a study for The Carbon Trust. the German sector is a lot more advanced. The UK. “We are currently having conversations with companies across the world. key to finding these opportunities is networking. TAG has been very active in the German market. In comparison. The sector needs serious collaboration. there is a real opportunity for a “renaissance” in the UK market. He is confident that there will be more than enough demand to make this worthwhile.SUPPLY CHAIN Teesside windfarm. He indicates that in the UK there has been a lack of stimulation from the government to encourage the greater supply chain but the situation is now improving. TAG may also look at expanding and moving into new areas such as operations and maintenance. and this needs to change. has a lot to offer but is currently “slightly behind the curve”. for which the company would be ideally placed. has recently seen a lot of investment into its facilities. “We have the skills but just need to apply them. One example Dawson cites is that of cast nodes.and that includes TAG. fits into the UK’s energy plans as part of a balanced energy approach. At the moment. for example. The work has brought home the point that offshore wind is potentially a huge market. once the site at Billingham is in operation Dawson anticipates running it 24 hours a day. “Companies need to stand up and be proactive . To further raise awareness. Dawson states. Overall. This includes oil and gas. Nonetheless. Dawson himself has spent the past year raising TAG’s profile so that the industry knows they are now available to take on work.the group currently has nine tenders submitted for German prospects.” explains Dawson. Dawson concludes.

To find out more about doing business in Northern Ireland. and we have a wealth of engineering graduates with unbeatable technical know-how. Northern Ireland is the smart choice. wave and tidal resources in Europe. But what really sets us apart is our people. super-port with 24-7 access and unstoppable can-do attitude. At our R&D centres of excellence. we design and build the technology that captures the forces of nature.com/invest smart at work . Naturally. contact Invest Northern Ireland London Team t: 0207 222 0599 e: london@investni.o re win d powe r a n d t id a l Be f e r co m e s b ra in powe r po w Northern Ireland has world-class engineering capabilities and some of the best wind.com www.investni. Add to that our first-rate business infrastructure.

The region is in the enviable position of having a number of excellent ports with superb associated facilities. having large areas of designated development land that is suitable for the production of concrete gravity bases and other products. The Crown Estate will also be issuing both offshore wind and marine licenses for Northern Ireland. and a prototype marine device to be placed off the west coast of Scotland. Northern Ireland’s ports offer opportunities as either construction or operation and maintenance (O&M) ports in offshore energy . The Port of Belfast is the busiest port in Ireland and is unique in having an airport on its land. Already Harland and Wolff. wave and tidal. They are close to the existing Round 1. not only is the region in the right geographic location to exploit its own enormous natural resources of wind and tidal. which are crucially important to the offshore energy supply chain. has been the construction base port for the Robin Rigg (180MW) and Barrow (90MW) offshore windfarms in the Irish Sea. Wavebob in Galway Bay. Many of these ports have land available for development including the largest ones . Boasting a total of ten ports ranging from large to small. Belfast Harbour also hosts the Northern Ireland Advanced Composites & Engineering Centre (NIACE). and as the assembly facility for the 400MW sub-station for the Bard Offshore 1 windfarm in the German Bight development area. a new £6million research centre launched at the beginning of 2011 and supported OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 45 . explains why this region offers excellent offshore opportunities Natural resources offshore energy market. but it also boasts close proximity to the windfarms in the Irish Sea and marine sites off the coast of Scotland.Belfast and Londonderry. located within the Port of Belfast. Renewables Executive of International Sales and Marketing at Invest Northern Ireland. 2 and 3 licenses in the Irish Sea as well to the Irish wind licenses and marine licenses around the coast of Scotland. Between them the ports of Belfast. all of which can service a range of the renewable energy industry’s needs. good port facilities and outstandSource: GL Garrad Hassan N orthern Ireland’s location and facilities are proving to be ideally placed to service the ing development potential. There are numerous engineering and construction companies. The company has also worked on numerous marine devices including Seagen in Strangford Lough.wind. Europe and beyond. and cement production facilities co-located with deep-water ports. to run in parallel from 2012. Northern Ireland’s ports offer excellent facilities including first-rate seaward access.PORTS Johanna Lagan. Larne and Warrenpoint provide some 150 fast ferry and freight sailings per week to Great Britain. Indeed. The major ports in the region are well-connected to all areas of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland by a good road and rail network. Londonderry.

with five intermediate gate positions • Two Goliath gantry cranes.000m2 storage area • Marine design service.000 people are employed in the construction industry with proportionately more workers in specialist building operations in Northern Ireland than in the rest of the UK. skilled workforce. Vattenfall. fork truck and cherry pickers • Four quayside/wharfs complete with shore power.400 graduates per annum from the same courses. with logistical and assembly an integral part of the forward looking strategy. 556m long x 93m. Nothing is more important to the installation process than a safe and efficient load-out and delivery which can result in massive cost savings.typically around 10-30 percent below the UK national average. Historically strong in engineering. The skills pipeline has been enhanced further by the creation of new wind turbine qualifications recently launched through the further education colleges in Northern Ireland. Add to this workforce flexibility and skills and Northern Ireland ranks among the most competitive locations in Europe. Nearly 34. Labour costs in Northern Ireland are the lowest in the UK . paint shops.PORTS by industry. And having on-site ship repair and manufacturing capability provides a level of redundancy that could prove invaluable should emergency repair work to deployment vessels and other bespoke engineering fabrication services be required. manufacturing. 46 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . Operating costs are highly competitive and significantly lower than the rest of the UK and Western Europe. There are over 5. vocational and apprenticeship schemes. Companies working in and through Northern Irish ports have access to a young well-educated population. Manufacturing will continue to be at the heart of Harland and Wolff’s commitment into the renewable sector. Northern Ireland has much to offer the sustainable energy sector in terms of its skills base. two 60t and one 9t tower cranes. The region produces highly educated people. Northern Ireland maintains an experienced. on Ormonde offshore windfarm. supporting projects not only in the Irish Sea but also in other UK and European OWF designated zones. potable water and amenities • Over 100. consistently outperforming other UK regions in school-leaver qualifications.400 students enrolled in construction and engineering courses with over 1. Transferring the knowledge base from ship building through oil and gas into manufacturing renewable energy support structures (such as jackets and topsides) has resulted in Siemens awarding Harland and Wolff a design and build contract for two offshore substation platforms for the Gwynt y Môr offshore windfarm. shipbuilding and structural steelwork. The company has a huge standing area and superb lifting capacity that makes the prestigious ship builder an obvious choice for a logistic supply base. slops and ship repair facilities. Plus a range of up to 260t transporters. The main benefits of the Harland and Wolff logistical base are: • ISPS certified port facility having 24/7 CCTV site security • Easy deep water access and exit to open water • Largest dry dock in Europe. The first outside the USA to offer training for wind turbine Big lifts and manufacturing muscle Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries Ltd is approximately halfway through a logistic supply project for Sweden’s biggest energy supplier. Having massive heavy handling and ‘just-in-time’ logistical support capability has become a significant part of the overall package. government and the two universities in Northern Ireland. Multiple courses in universities and further education colleges ensure skills availability for the engineering and construction sectors and include academic qualifications. each with 840t lifting capacity.

investni.com/invest OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 47 . In the report. to develop a new £40m logistics hub at Belfast Harbour as a base for its Irish Sea construction operations. the report draws attention to the region’s outstanding port facilities.000 acres. Belfast and Warrenpoint are highlighted as offering superb facilities for construction and for operations and maintenance for both offshore wind and the marine energy sector. and CITB-ConstructionSkills Northern Ireland are working with universities. Working closely with Northern Ireland’s regional economic development agency. the large ports at Londonderry. it is the recent announcement made with DONG Energy that provides even greater proof of Belfast Harbour’s ambitious plans to make Belfast one of the UK’s leading renewable energy hubs. Belfast Harbour provides a compelling business proposition to new and established businesses seeking to participate in this exciting. Add in its great location. and the extensive world-class facilities operated by Harland &Wolff. Invest NI. Belfast Harbour. colleges and industry to ensure a qualified. The scheme represents one of the harbour’s largest ever capital investment projects and has the potential to kick-start Belfast and Northern Ireland’s aspirations to become a leading player in the new green economy. engineers. However. The proposed development will see Belfast Harbour fund and build a new 480m long deep water quay supported by a 50 acre logistics space. Commissioned by the Carbon Trust. these specialised courses have produced more than 200 graduates to date. at over 1km long. all of which will be proximate to the world class harbour facilities required to take product to market. an employer-led body providing apprenticeship opportunities. Other bodies including the Engineering Training Council. Portavogie. professional workforce for the construction sector. In February 2011. handling over 16. major manufacturing operations. and UK ports in general. With a further 100 acres of land nearby also available for development. a deep water port with no tidal restrictions offering 24/7/365 access and a long track record of project delivery. A report by GL Garrad Hassan entitled ‘Opportunities for Northern Ireland Ports in the Renewable Energy Sector’ was released last year. backed with substantial quayside storage areas. Belfast Harbour is one of Ireland’s principal maritime gateways. the proposed Park will provide an excellent hub at which to co-locate further R&D facilities. Carbon Zero is a sector initiative led by colleges to develop a skilled workforce in renewable energy and is targeted at experienced engineers wanting to grow or diversify their skills within the renewables sector.500 turbines within 150 miles of Belfast Harbour. and potentially lucrative market. Belfast Harbour announced plans with the Danish firm. it is the fast growing offshore wind industry which represents the largest business opportunity for Belfast Harbour. For more information about what Northern Ireland has to offer visit: www.5million tonnes of cargo and over one million ferry passengers in 2010. with its permanent heavy lift capability. and one of the most modern ports in Europe. But with one eye on the future. Stormont Wharf. Belfast Harbour’s existing facilities include Ireland’s longest deepwater quay. over the next 15 years. The offshore wind industry plans to install over 2. integrating effectively with local companies in the supply chain. However.PORTS Belfast Harbour Covering an area of almost 2. it is not just about being in the right place . educated and skilled workforce. thus making it well positioned geographically to facilitate the establishment of a reliable supply chain upon which to deliver this offshore wind capacity. Northern Ireland’s ports form one part of a compelling proposition for investors in offshore energy who want to make the most of the opportunities in the Irish Sea and surrounding areas. Kilkeel and Larne also offer good prospects for O&M. Strangford. Belfast Harbour is pursuing plans to develop a Marine Energy Park to build on its recent success with DONG Energy. gives offshore energy investors the ability to build the robust supply chain solutions they need. Smaller ports such as Coleraine. schools.ports must have the right facilities and a proven track record in executing development projects to attract investors. With an already burgeoning R&D sector in offshore energy in Belfast (particularly in tidal energy). competitive costs and surrounding supply chain and you have the right mix for success.

000 m2 existing port site • Extended potential to 400.2 metres • Bespoke office accommodation • Land platformed and ready for development • Excellent road. Implementation Manager Riverside Inverclyde Suite G1. Clyde View. For further details. motorway. Gourock and Port Glasgow. Greenock PA15 2UZ Telephone number : 01475 746475 Mobile : 07590 710782 www. please contact: Neil Lochiel. rail and air connectivity � West Coast location • Wave & Tidal • Offshore Wind � Government backing and support � Testing and R&D opportunity � Skilled workforce Inverclyde is one of Scotland’s 32 unitary authorities and includes the towns of Greenock.riversideinverclyde. with the infrastructure available for Offshore Wind/Wave and Tidal Operations & Maintenance.�������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������ Inverclyde is emerging as a strategic location for the offshore renewable energy industry. We offer: � Ports. Manufacturing and Applied R&D and Testing.com . Fabrication. Pottery Street. Sub-Assembly.000 m2 • Minimum water depths of 8. Infrastructure & Connectivity • 200.

is Territorial Waters marine energy locations via well-connected ports and nearby airports. Inverclyde boasts excellent port.000ft2.000m2. a 100m x 80m reinforced module mat and a 305m x 47m dry dock. Inverclyde’s renewable energy locations are all contained within the arterial A8 dual carriageway. Inverclyde is ideally placed to support this by offering top-notch facilities. integrated regeneration programme for Inverclyde.000m2. yard and dry dock facility.000m2. minimum water depth of 8. and close proximity to Glasgow International Airport. Clyde View has variable suite sizes that can be adapted for all needs OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 49 . a 95m x 60m hard standing area.922m2 Grade A office space of Clyde View. A joint initiative between the Scottish Government. on banks of the the River Clyde and including the towns of Greenock and Port Glasgow. Construction work will begin at Kelburn in November this year in a Phase 1 speculative build of four separate sub-dividable units suitable for manufacturing or assembly. Inchgreen’s current features include a 420m quayside. ri aims to dramatically reshape the environmen- Inchgreen port. easy access to the west coast Scottish I nverclyde. Inverclyde Council. including Clydeport. Scottish Enterprise and the private sector. less than a mile away from Ferguson’s Shipbuilding and Fabrication Yard. with cranage. Recent announcements of key offshore wind renewables companies setting up R&D facilities in Glasgow are providing a direct focus on associated opportunities in the west of Scotland. Already companies such as 2020 Renewables and Jenda Energy have headquartered there. adjacent to the M8 motorway is the 30. who have already delivered a large carousel barge for deepwater cable laying to the sector. Currently standing at 200.2m. At the east entrance to Port Glasgow. Riverside Inverclyde (ri) is an Urban Regeneration Company driving the delivery of a focused. Implementation Manager at Riverside Inverclyde. highly competitive rates and flexible deals. superb infrastructure. with a gross internal ground floor area of 41. Less than a quarter of a mile away is Riverside Business Park’s new 1.PORTS tal and economic future of Inverclyde’s waterfront. an adaptable workforce with the technical. there is potential to double the size of this facility up to 400. platformed land development of Kelburn Top facilities Neil Lochiel. on or immediately opposite the waterfront. professional and artisan skills of the shipbuilding and IT industries that made Inverclyde the export capital of Scotland. on the Clyde Estuary 25 miles west of Glasgow. argues that the region is ideal for renewables businesses looking to expand intended for light industrial usage. land and office facilities. Two miles further west is Clydeport’s LEFT: Inverclyde waterfront well-suited to encourage the location of offshore renewable energy companies to create a key west of Scotland hub. home to 2020 Renewables and Jenda Energy.

000m2 Cartsdyke/Cartsburn site. the most ambitious physical regeneration project is the comprehensive £180million. Scotland’s R&D capital for marine energy. or Applied R&D and testing capabilities for marine renewables. Inverclyde Council. All locations are on a dual carriageway and within a five minute walk of a railway station with frequent services to Glasgow. providing a more cost-effective alternative to a city centre location. While Clyde View’s two-storey building is the keystone attraction of Riverside Business Park. Jenda Energy. Scottish Power Iberdrola and Mainstream Renewable Power are located in Glasgow and the synergies between there. Turbo Renewables and JLES.200 people. The building also has a gallery and exhibition space which is used to spotlight the work of local and national talent. James Watt College. Westway and Inverclyde are providing a strong West of Scotland focal point for marine energy. Sitting next to Clyde View is the Ladyburn Business Centre. some 145. all working with Riverside Inverclyde in developing and positioning Inverclyde as an advantageous West of Scotland location for offshore renewables. is one of the largest-ever individual regeneration projects seen in Scotland. being carried out in a partnership with Peel Holdings. a new nurserybuild completed in February this year is already fully operational. Land adjacent is under development to provide a second office building of comparative size. marina and leisure facilities set alongside modern residential and retail space. alongside 45. 50 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . This is ideal for a bespoke regional office development. a carefully restored former school building offering a combination of offices geared towards community based enterprise and studios suitable for use by artists. When complete.com or contact Neil Lochiel on 01475 755080. Between Clyde View and Greenock Ocean Terminal is the 14. and major jobs announcements from both Doosan Babcock and Steel Engineering at Westway. ■ Riverside Inverclyde’s Renewables brochure can be downloaded at www. This is particularly evident with key 2011 announcements that include the new International Technology and Renewable Energy Zone in Glasgow. with work underway across seven key sites. Riverside Inverclyde’s URC status brings flexibility and potential cost advantages to mobile investors. A £10million arts theatre is also under construction at the East India Harbour and will be operational by mid 2012. Clydeport.PORTS ABOVE: Work is underway at Kelburn BELOW: Map of the waterfront and is designed for multi occupancy. designed to positively change the image of these centres and attract footloose economic and residential investment. wave and tidal manufacturing or subassembly. Inverclyde can meet investors’ needs. including at Kelburn and Cartsdyke. regional office.600ft2 of commercial space will have been created. Inverclyde is a Regional Selective Assistance Grant designated area.000ft2 of retail space and homes for 3. The redevelopment of the 107 acre dock. However. Companies investing in Inverclyde will be coming to an area that is transforming itself and is looking positively to the future as Riverside Inverclyde advances its ambitious plans for the regeneration of the waterfront. Greenock and Port Glasgow a series of environmental improvements and public realm works funded by the Scottish Government from its Town Centre Regeneration Fund have been undertaken. Whether in manufacturing operations/maintenance for offshore wind. Meanwhile in the town centres of Gourock. Mainstream Renewable Power. consultancy. halfway between Inverclyde and Glasgow city centre. 2020 Renewables. There is a thriving Inverclyde Renewables Alliance Group. Ferguson’s Shipbuilders. Major companies such as SSE Renewables. with a breadth and depth of experience including Scottish Enterprise. Glasgow and the Clyde Estuary’s support and drive for exploiting Scotland’s offshore renewables potential is firmly established. platformed and readied for office build. riversideinverclyde. 12 year redevelopment of historic James Watt Dock which will see the creation of outstanding commercial.

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000 delegates – Networking & side events New space available Coming next year: RenewableUK 6 July 2011 London.com (All RenewableUK conferences and exhibitions) . Secretary of State for Business.The UK’s leading renewable energy trade association is proud to present: RenewableUK 2011 Annual Conference & Exhibition Three days of sessions. UK Global Offshore Wind 2012 Core Sponsor 13–14 June 2012 | ExCel London. exhibition and side events will examine industry developments in onshore and offshore wind energy. UK | Wind. Core Sponsor 25–27 Oct | Manchester. UK www.com Keynote address from Dr Vince Cable.renewable-uk. and micro. wave & tidal energy – Over 300 exhibitors – Over 4. wave and tidal energy. Innovation and Skills Register online: events.and small-wind systems.GlobalOffshoreWind.

2MW being handled. in the of facilities in both the oil & gas and renewable markets. We have also completed two experimental 5MW units for offshore wind. Chief Executive and Harbour Master Captain Ken Gray explains: “We are the primary port facility in the UK for both the mainte- OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 53 . most sheltered port in the North of Scotland. which were assembled in the Firth and shipped out as a complete unit.PORTS Future development Steve Welch talks to Harbour Master Captain Ken Gray about the facilities on offer at Cromarty Firth A s the deepest. Cromarty Firth has a wealth nance and stacking of oil rigs and the Cromarty Firth can provide a highly skilled labour force with all the service required in IRM and subsea engineerings supported by modern deep water port facilities. Additionally. Recently we have diversified into the logistics support for the onshore windfarms industry and in the last four years the port has experienced an increase in this market with over 180 turbines ranging from 1MW2.

We are keen to work with the wind farm developers to provide the Port facilities and knowledge they require. However. for the past five years. which in the future may benefit from the new markets in offshore renewable and build on their expertise. Cost may also be an issue but reductions may be achieved through mass production or by using proven technology.” An additional consideration is that the planned construction phase for Rounds 2 and 3 is relatively short. Projects to develop the port even further are ongoing .” The Cromarty Firth Port Authority is a Trust Port managed by a small specialist team with an elected Board and all the money generated has to be invested back into the port facilities.” states Gray. labour and skills over a short period of time. It’s a very exciting time for all of us at the port and we want to rise to the challenge. That’s the experience and skills the Cromarty Firth can bring and which we hope will assist in de-risking these most challenging projects.cfpa. “We don’t know what size ships will be www. Access is available at all states of the tide and weather conditions. Part of this includes a plan to reclaim seven acres of land and to give the port a berth that can take a ship up to 140m in length.” says Gray. There will be stresses on the supply chain.” concludes Gray. The port has the advantage of having experienced fabrication companies on site with dedicated work shop facilities. “We will need an awful lot of equipment. For the Port Authority. This supply base is made up of 30 acres of developed land that is suitable for further development.PORTS last two years Cromarty Firth has been involved in the manufacture and logistics of four experimental wave and tidal generators”.up to 150. this presents an ideal opportunity to be able to service them. “We are currently at the design phase of extending the land holding and berth facilities at the Invergordon Service Base to support the offshore wind industry with phase one being completed in 2010. “We already have the knowledge.uk required or what size lifts the ships will have and it’s difficult to have berth facilities to match specifications that we don’t know. Gray stresses that the port is keen to develop further into this area. “The supply chain here has gained that knowledge early on. The port can handle large ships here . the main challenge at the moment appears to be a lack of information on how the construction phase will be undertaken. £1million has been invested into the Invergordon Service Base.” Gray continues. Gray sees the offshore wind sector as being at a crossroads because the offshore wind work that has been undertaken so far has been in shallow water. In fact. which will reduce the risk of things going wrong.co.000 tonnes and some of the largest cruise ships in the world.the team are looking to spend in excess of £20million by early 2013. “It hasn’t required the expertise that we can provide here yet but once you go into deeper water and start bringing subsea engineering into the equation then our experience in the oil and gas industry will be of great benefit to the windfarm developers. he notes that the Scottish government have been proactive in setting out an infrastructure plan to try to bring everything together. expertise and skills here because of the amount of work we have done both onshore and offshore to date. As Cromarty Firth is the closest deepwater port to both the Beatrice and Moray Firth offshore windfarms.” 54 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . “With Rounds 2 and 3 people are concentrating on gaining consent so the construction/development phase is somewhat behind. making the port a very attractive destination.

For all your renewable energy needs. with a proven track record in onshore and offshore wind. makes the Firth a forerunner in meeting the demands for manufacture. Our experience in subsea engineering together with deep sheltered water. This is the closest deep water port with 24 hour access to the Beatrice and Moray Round 2 & 3 wind farm projects. www. think Cromarty Firth.CROMARTY FIRTH PORT AUTHORITY For All Your Renewable Energy Needs The Cromarty Firth is the gateway to deep water wind generation. assembly.cfpa.uk . wave and tidal energy fabrication and logistics.co. installation and maintenance of large offshore units.

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com/hvdc . Page 61 .Enhancing ABB’s UK centre of grid excellence.Building HVDC supergrids .It’s power delivery that really counts. Page 60 .challenges and possibilities.abb. www.ABB’s tried and proven technologies meet the grid connection challenges of Europe’s drive for renewable energy READY FOR CONNECTION NOW INSIDE Page 58 . Page 62 .HVDC Light goes offshore.Distributed Energy Storage Page 63 .

efficient way. With improvements in the ef- demands.to be permanently connected to centres of demand. to onshore grid connections.eu) is a case in point. hydroelectric. Europe’s proposed Offshore Supergrid (www.ABB It’s power delivery that really counts 58 R enewable energy .friendsofthesupergrid. The role of the supergrid is twofold. Supergrids make sense strategically because they enable potentially rich sources of energy . which may be hundreds of kilometres away. and a significant proportion of local demand in producer countries by 2050. What really counts is the efficiency of the total energy system. It would smooth out demand and supply across a vast geographical area and population. Second. There will need to be new approaches to living with variable generation sources. such as large cities. The creation of ‘supergrids’ of interconnected networks offers an attractive way of increasing reliability and security of supply. and other renewable sources.inherently variable in its nature . The idea of harnessing solar power from North African deserts to provide emission-free electricity to Europe is the central proposition of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. making the region’s electricity markets more efficient both in terms of meeting demand and in terms of energy trading. and crossing seas. they are only as effective as the power grid to which they ultimately connect. potentially over great distances. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission solutions are set to play a vital role.is playing an ever-increasing role in meeting our energy technologies playing a very significant part. it will carry electricity from all sources around Europe.org) sees solar power generated in the Sahara eventually meeting 15 percent of Europe’s energy needs.desertec. and smooth- ing out the peaks and troughs in both power usage and generation. The Desertec vision (www. with more active demand response and smarter grid . This is where supergrids will play a key role. it will carry electricity generated by offshore wind farms. Sustainable energy sources cannot be evaluated as ‘stand alone’ solutions. The challenge is how to connect these grids in a reliable. and make the most use of renewable energy sources wherever and whenever they are available. geothermal and solar arrays . In parallel. This ambitious project aims to address the impending energy crunch in Europe by interconnecting national electricity grids from Spain to the Baltic Sea in a seamless electricity transmission and trading network.such as offshore wind farms. we will also need to roll out new ways of managing and interconnecting electricity grids nationally and internationally. First. inaugurated in July 2009.

VSC-based HVDC solutions use extruded polymer (XLPE) cables. HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) technology is used to transmit electricity over long distances by overhead transmission lines or submarine cables. its rated generation normally matches the rated HVDC transmission capability. and leaves the wind farm unaffected during main grid faults. wind turbines or farms must typically be able to survive sudden voltage dips down to typically 15 percent of the nominal grid voltage for up to 140ms. In addition. as a consequence. The good news is that ABB has the technology to build these strong. A fast reduction in the input power capability may therefore lead to a significant increase in the wind farm bus voltage . HVDC systems also provide rapid and accurate control of power flow and are therefore ideal for interconnecting power grids to facilitate market trading. renewable generation. minimises the number of lines. Subsea supergrid interconnections demand a very robust electrical transmission system. but we must ensure that our grids are sufficiently developed to collect and deliver that power efficiently and reliably. The water sealing of the cable has a seamless layer of extruded lead and finally one or two layers of steel wire armouring to provide the mechanical properties. This means there will be no abrupt change in the output power from the wind turbines and the disturbance seen by the wind turbines will be minimised. ■ 59 . First made available on a commercial basis by ABB. but also relieve stresses from wind turbines and other renewable sources by isolating electrical transients from the mainland grid. it is a well-proven technology with over 50 years of operating experience. Based on VSC (Voltage Source Converter) technology it uses series-connected power transistors rather than thyristor valves. In offshore wind farm applications. with high availability and minimal maintenance requirements. An excellent example of this new generation of HVDC is the HVDC Light system pioneered by ABB over the past 14 years. It is ideal for integrating dispersed. reliable grids commercially available and ready to connect. which are a strong. increases reliability and also creates an infrastructure that allows full utilisation of production resources including additional remote renewables. Another important requirement is to design a system that can withstand the harsh and sometimes very hostile offshore environment.ficiency of power transmission. grid codes requirements are becoming stricter. For example. This allows the development of remote hydro resources. It is surely significant that the longestablished US grid features just one to two percent of HVDC transmission. and in renewable energy technologies. Nonetheless. The wind farm network is much smaller than a typical utility grid and. especially wind power. HVDC will comprise some 10 to 20 percent of the total transmission capacity. Also. In China. As the proportion of renewable power generation increases. weaker. especially with the significant improvements that have been made in the performance of wind-conversion systems. which is currently building a truly national grid. which is very strong and robust. Renewables will make a significant contribution to Europe’s power needs.resulting in an over-voltage tripping of the VSC and/or the wind turbines. The solution used is very robust. Now HVDC has emerged as a robust and economically feasible alternative for the subsea interconnection of offshore wind farms. It can be used to connect separate asynchronous power systems (operating on a different frequency or voltage) where traditional AC connections are not feasible. the construction of very large offshore wind farms presents some significant engineering challenges in getting large quantities of electrical power back to shore. They must not only meet strict national grid codes. designed from a blank sheet of paper. It is also used for smart transmission and smart grids due to its great flexibility and adaptability. Most grid codes today set requirements on ‘fault ride-through’ or ‘lowvoltage ride-through’. The DC chopper is a high-energy resistor in the DC circuit that evacuates the surplus of energy during network faults when power transmission is not possible. which have enabled wind turbines to be connected to the transmission grid and be safeguarded against surges in power generation. HVDC offers higher capacity per line but also lower transmission losses than traditional AC systems. into existing AC grids. flexible and cost-effective alternative for severe conditions and deep waters. most of the previous technical challenges involved have now been overcome. This cable type has a copper or aluminium conductor surrounded by a polymeric insulating material.

ABB anticipates that. An interregional DC grid is defined as a system that needs several protection zones. there have been rapid developments in XLPE cable technology for HVDC applications recently and the trend indicates that the required voltage levels will be achieved soon. the residual technology gaps will be closed to make the European Supergrid a reality. technology is advancing and ABB is providing a monopolar 500kV. Currently. it would help to connect them directly. The subsea cables for such supergrids will need to operate in the region of 500kV. The major motivation for an offshore grid topology is constituted by two policy drivers: the need for connectivity between countries and . HVDC Light provides better capabilities for operating regional multi-terminal systems as it has the advantage that the power direction is altered by changing the direction of the current. Wider use of DC grids is likely to involve challenges of a technical nature. Moreover. no XLPE cables capable of this are commercially available. As the number of these pointpower market regions. A reference project for constructing a regional grid with a limited number of nodes is already in place. interconnected or a combination of both. The Québec-New England project completed in the 1990s has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of threeterminal HVDC systems. and the demand for economically efficient connection of offshore wind farms. Establishing the ENTSO-E (a European TSO cooperative association) in 2008 was a major step towards the formation of rules and frameworks to support future grids. rather than through the broader AC grid. The following technology gaps need to be closed to create such a grid: • DC breakers • Power flow control • Automatic network restoration • DC/DC converters for connecting different regional systems The basic technologies in these fields are known although some further development is needed to fully meet all regulatory demands.ABB to-point HVDC connections grows. Plans to introduce wind power in the North Sea. This is giving rise to plans for HVDC supergrids. resulting in power generation profiles of low variability. The resulting DC grids can be radial. the main challenge concerns adaption of international Regulatory frameworks to manage these new grids. and not by changing the polarity of the DC voltage. Mass Impregnated subsea cable at 500kV already exists and several HVDC projects will be based on this technology in the near future. 700MW HVDC Light system for the fourth HVDC link between Norway and Denmark. However. However. Future transmission grids will be more international and will be operated and regulated by a range of international bodies as well as national agencies and system operators.challenges and possibilities VDC links are used for bringing offshore wind power to shore. The terminals can be connected to different points in the same AC network or to different AC networks. ■ The value of these grids (offshore or onshore) is in their role as a facilitator for power exchange and trade between regions and power systems. an offshore grid will allow the aggregation and dispatch of power from offshore wind farms in different regions. 60 H Building HVDC supergrids . To date. However. For HVDC supergrids to become commercially viable they may well need to be based on individual links of some 2GW. have created interest in HVDC grids. solar power in North Africa (the Desertec initiative) etc. So it is reasonable to expect that 2GW HVDC Light links will soon be achievable. based on previous HVDC and cable technology development rates. the maximum rating for a single building block of ABB’s HVDC Light technology at +320 kV is 1150MW.

along with grid conditions. thus minimising environmental impact. is that cold (5-11°C) water for cooling is readily available. An advantage of being offshore in the North Sea. ■ 61 . BARD Offshore 1 will consist of 80 wind generators. This voltage will then be transformed to 155kV AC before reaching the HVDC Light converter station. via four 70km subsea cables. The ventilation must also take airborne losses into consideration. The German utility TenneT has awarded a contract to ABB to supply an 800MW transmission link to connect offshore wind farms located in the cluster DolWin1 (Borkum West II wind farm. This 84 MW link was the world’s first offshore HVDC transmission project. all high-voltage equipment must be installed inside compact modules on the offshore platform. each with a capacity of 5MW. Depending on the size of the wind farm. Apart from the main transformers. ABB has followed their path by successfully delivering the first offshore HVDC schemes. 400MW. this 200 km link connects the Bard Offshore 1 wind farm located off Germany’s North Sea coast to the HVAC grid on the German mainland. When complete. Based on HVDC Light technology. The transmission system has a total capacity of 800MW at ±320 kV. supply and installation of the offshore converter. HVDC Light offers some key advantages. ABB oversees system engineering including design.considerable challenge. VSC-based HVDC converter stations can be fully automated or remotely operated. which then continue into two 75km land cables. sea and land cable systems and the onshore converter station. plus future unnamed wind farms) in the North Sea to the German grid. It enables the Troll A gas production platform to meet all its power requirements from onshore generation. HVDC Light’s functionality in the offshore environment is shown by Statoil’s Troll A power from shore project. set up in 2005. since it is compact and lightweight compared with other HVDC solutions. The land cables will be laid underground. of course. The ventilation system in the modules must protect the high-voltage equipment and the T HVDC Light goes offshore he demanding environment and remote location makes power transmission from large offshore wind farms a electronics from salt-laden and humid air. Oil exploration companies sucessfully met similar challenges when they first began to exploit offshore oil and gas reserves in the North Sea. Other needs are as follows: • safety is paramount • salt and humidity place severe requirements on the choice of materials and surface treatment • maintenance needs must be minimised • extensive monitoring is needed. located on a dedicated platform. The main circuit equipment is therefore exposed to lower environmental requirements than a normal outdoor installation that enables a more compact design. These will feed their power into a 36kV AC cable system. the use of HVDC is applicable where the distance to the connecting AC grid exceeds 40-70km. transmitting 400MW power to the land-based converter station. A remote wind power farm could be connected with either AC or HVDC. The wind farms will be connected with AC cables to the HVDC converter station based on an offshore platform situated in the North Sea and further through 75km of DC sea cable and 90km of land cable to the HVDC onshore station at the grid connection point at Dörpen/West. With the constraints placed on space and weight offshore. The world’s first HVDC link to connect an offshore wind farm with an AC grid is the BorWin1 project. Here the AC is converted to ±150kV DC and fed into two 125km sea cables. The goal is to maintain high performance of the link throughout the whole operational lifetime.

highly variable and multi-directional power flows to accommodate: increased levels of distributed generation. on demand. In the past. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are used as switching devices.DES is an attractive alternative for this application with its rapid response. By controlling the reactive power. Power Quality .Altering the pattern of energy use so that on-peak energy use is shifted to off-peak periods. Energy storage can enable networks to make the transition 62 A BB’s Distributed Energy Storage (DES) systems serve a variety of different applications in transmis- Shaving . the potential transition of energy sources currently on the heat grid on to the electrical grid (for example. Voltage Support .DES modules placed electrically downstream from the congested portion of the transmission system can help to prevent overloads and defer potential upgrades. Outage management .DES can provide power for short periods of time to a network. Renewable Energy Capacity Firming .and airsource heat pumps). The focus is on applications where the use of continuous reactive power control and short time active power support is needed. distribution and transmission level energy storage applications. Both contribute to demand management in which the ultimate goal is to increase the load factor.DES can protect loads further downstream against short-duration events that affect the quality of power delivered to the load. Deferred infrastructure upgrades . to consumers of all kinds. To reduce the end user’s electricity cost. ■ to handling complex. We need a smarter grid that can receive power of all qualities from all sources. the DES charges up with low-priced energy and is discharged when the energy prices are high.Related to Load Shifting. and deliver reliable supplies. grid voltage and stability are safeguarded with high dynamic response. ground. and the growing demand for electric vehicles. passive flow of power from high-voltage generation and transmission to low-voltage consumption. ABB’s latest DES development is the DynaPeaQ® system that enables dynamic control of active as well as reactive power in a power system.ABB Distributed Energy Storage sion and distribution networks where they can improve the quality of the power at optimal cost. Benefits: a) Commercial and industrial customers can reduce their energy charges by improving their load factor b) Utilities reduce the operational cost of generating power at peak periods (reducing the need for additional generation equipment) c) Investment in infrastructure is deferred because the system has flatter loads with smaller peaks. both centralised and distributed. Peak shaving uses stored energy to eliminate the short-term peaks in the energy consumption pattern.Allows an intermittent electric supply resource to be used as a nearly constant power source. The system is based on SVC Light®.Energy storage with reactive power capability can provide voltage support and respond quickly to voltage control signals. networks only needed to handle a simple. The main DES applications are: -Load Shifting . independently of each other. reducing the effect of a temporary fault. Frequency Regulation . SVC Light is based on Voltage Source Converters (VSC) connected in shunt to the grid at transmission as well as sub-transmission and distribution level. DynaPeaQ is aimed at industrial. combined with Li-ion battery storage. new services based on dynamic energy storage are added. -Peak . Since the increased use of intermittent generation requires dynamic voltage control as well as balancing power. DynaPeaQ is a great Smart Grid enabler. By control of active power.

which will be the first link to incorporate a hub for the connection of latest grid technologies. capacity and flexibility of power transmission systems. The transmission link will run underwater for 186km and underground for 70km. ABB is responsible for system engineering. including design. and enable Ireland to expand its wind power capacity. It has plans to grow even further and needs more people to help achieve its ambitious targets. The XLPE cable will provide the strength and flexibility needed to endure the severe conditions of the Irish Sea.HVDC Light Enhancing ABB’s UK centre of grid excellence is a well-proven technology. skilled and experience staff and project delivery know how.up by 30 percent in 2010. from senior staff to the new technical apprenticeship scheme. What is less clear is its status as a proven commercially available technology. The higher voltage enables a transmission capacity of 500MW. In 2011. with minimal environmental impact. with a total capacity of nearly 5. Indeed. and both converter stations. reliable and efficient electricity grids vital to make the best use of Europe’s precious energy resources. ABB looks forward with confidence to helping create the modern. This recruitment programme covers every level.offshore wind farms. The system is scheduled to be operational in September 2012. ■ For information about careers with ABB please visit www. ready to implement now. this will be the highest voltage HVDC Light link using this type of cable. With its unique combination of advanced technology.co. ABB has 16 HVDC Light projects either delivered or in delivery.uk/careers 63 A BB has established its UK operations as a centre of excellence for the implementation of the very the converter stations at each end that switch AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current) and back. the highest ever for an HVDC Light underground cable. ABB works hand in hand with the UK’s leading power utilities to help them develop and maintain their vital electrical infrastructure and its growth has been outstanding . There is a growing consensus that VSC (voltage source converter) based HVDC technology is the optimum approach for creating the effective power links to integrate offshore power into national grids. with a particular focus on further enhancing its position as a centre of excellence for grid systems technology. The interconnector will strengthen the reliability and security of electricity supplies in each country. The only visible parts will be . They include both HVDC and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) that covers a number of technologies that enhance the security.000MW . ABB is carrying out a major recruitment drive in the UK. The simple facts are that ABB pioneered VSC-based HVDC technology in its HVDC Light system launched over 14 years ago.abb. One of ABB’s most important cur- rent projects in the UK is Eirgrid’s EastWest Interconnector that will provide a 500MW link between the Irish and UK power grids using HVDC technology. supply and installation of the sea and land cables. ABB is pioneering the development of the UK’s multi-terminal offshore supergrid by starting technical design work on an HVDC Light project. Rated at 200kV.

abb. www. +44 (0)1785 825 050 Fax. ABB’s leading edge technologies and life cycle services ensure the effective integration of renewable power into electrical grids.com/hvdc ABB Limited Tel. helping to protect the environment and fight climate change.com . Our focus on harnessing green energy is making power networks smarter as well as more efficient and reliable.abb. +44 (0)1785 819 019 E-mail: info@gb. even in the most challenging conditions and over long distances.Connect renewable power to the grid? Naturally.

Using data generated from our weather model we have created a wind index. you can use this article to: • Put the performance of your portfolio into context based on recent wind statistics • Assess whether your farm’s under or over performance is due to wind or other factors. Much can be learnt by analysing the wind over a particular region and a specific site within the region. The league table shows that. which vary significantly from location to location and through time. The main exceptions to this were France. most of Europe experienced winds above the long-term average especially Iceland. Scandinavia and much of the Mediterranean. the British Isles. for Spring 2011. Italy. Germany and France. the North ability of individual wind projects. and secondly an analysis of the performance of five sites within the UK. ranking 15 regions across Europe by comparing the average wind speed for Spring 2011 against the Spring season long-term average. With many wind farms today not performing in line with original plans. with an index of the windiest European regions OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 65 . This article provides an overview of wind across regions and sites within Europe.WIND ANALYSIS Site statistics The Met Office have analysed the wind in a number of regions . Spain.here are the results T he success of the global wind energy industry is directly linked to the performance and profit- over the last season.

hence the quieter winds. where a succession of active areas of low pressure moved from west to east. It has been generated by Virtual Met Mast. the Benelux countries and the Baltic. but in the graph for Lake Constance in Germany we see the influence of the persistent high pressure and the significant lack of wind over the past five months. where winds were noticeably lower. the Met Office’s site-specific wind analysis model-based 66 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . Looking at Cambridge and Andalucia. The series of graphs shown on these pages compare monthly average wind speeds against the long-term average. where pressure was high. High pressure was a dominant feature of Spring around the Baltic. France. we see an increase in wind strength through the period. the squeeze between the low pressure in the north and high pressure over Germany meant that it was particularly windy at times. which is completely against the long-term trend. although not by a massive amount. Germany. but low pressure tended to affect most other areas. indicating that it should be becoming more settled. Germany and North Sea areas. over a one-year period for five sites across the UK. The pattern for the past 12 months shows all the locations experience less wind in general than the long-term average would suggest. The only exception is Lake Constance in Germany. Italy and Spain. Even in France and the southern British Isles.WIND ANALYSIS Sea. For Italy and France. the graphs are very close to what you would expect. We can see some of these trends in the various graphs. where winds were nearer average. especially the Mediterranean.

which incorporates observations from satellites.WIND ANALYSIS tool. To help you deliver accurate wind assessments in advance of a real met mast installation. Using cutting-edge science. including confidence figures. This helps select the best onshore and offshore UK wind farm sites with increased certainty.metoffice. The Met Office will be pleased to generate a wind index for your current and planned sites and to assist you in managing the performance of your wind portfolio. For more information visit www. level and range of data across Europe.uk /energy/renewables/wind. you can be assured of receiving first-class analysis and information. aircraft. the Met Office has invested in the research and development of Virtual Met Mast which: • Combines cutting-edge science and super computer technology • Uses the Met Office’s Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. Virtual Met Mast offers clear. ground stations and radar as a foundation for generating site-specific wind farm assessments • Employs a wide range of continuously monitored wind observations to produce a core wind analysis record (extending back over 20 years) • Provides site-specific data at hub height for both onshore and offshore locations • Allows outputs to be correlated with real met mast data to derive the ultimate value from your Virtual Met Mast assessment • Provides a variety of essential statistics. OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 67 .gov. ships. With the Met Office coverage. cost-effective and reliable site-specific analyses to help you make informed decisions for wind farm investments.

Whether we’re working on the seabed or above the waterline. Offshore Oil & Gas Offshore Marine Renewables Diving & Subsea Construction Cable Laying Working at Height Inspection.co. we’re in our comfort zone. Great Yarmouth.red7marine. Repair & Maintenance Marine Access Solutions DP II Vessels.uk Fax +44 (0)1493 718089 Lefevre Way. Jack-up Barges Design & Fabrication International marine and subsea contractors www. the experience and the resources to support major renewables projects around the globe. Gapton Hall Industrial Estate.Harnessing the wind Above or below the surface. we have the expertise. Norfolk Tel +44 (0)1493 441454 .

held in March was attended by representatives of the offshore wind industry. and which can now be repeated for offshore wind. comments: “This report not only highlights the challenges in developing a UK supply chain. including £5billion in exports. recently met with the Royal Academy of Engineering to discuss the future of the offshore wind industry. Judy Terry.SUPPLY CHAIN Moving forward Jonathan Reynolds updates us on the latest from OrbisEnergy that the government need to take. That is a valuable economic legacy. the government should be considering: developing a UK wide rbisEnergy. in order to achieve this. The meeting’s report.000 people in the UK. training programmes. strategic infrastructure and supportive regulation.” says Academy President Lord Browne of Madingley. Economy and Skills. but also proposes solutions that can drive growth.” OrbisEnergy has a particular focus O based in Lowestoft. “The result today is a world leading industry. Suffolk. and indicating its intentions for further development rounds. honouring the timetable for electricity market reform. According to the industry representatives. which was accelerated by early government support. Suffolk County Council’s Portfolio Holder for Greenest County.” However. entitled Making Green Growth Real: UK Offshore Wind Supply Chain. The meeting. there are a number of actions strategy focusing on a select number of ports spread around the coast. The UK oil and gas supply chain generates £16billion each year. and employs more than 300. increasing the pool of skilled workers available to the energy industries. argues that this will enable the UK to gain the greatest possible value from OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 69 . clear and relevant. a state-of-theart specialist innovation and incubation centre the opportunities available. kick-starting investment with targeted financial support during the construction phase. ensuring that health and safety specifications are rational. creating jobs in manufacturing and engineering across the UK. government and other relevant stakeholders and concluded that in order for the offshore wind industry to move forward. it is essential to establish a supply chain bolstered by strong government backing. “The government supported the oil and gas industry in its early days with generous tax incentives.

and is at the heart of the rapidly growing offshore wind sector in the East Anglia area. The region also has a solid infrastructure in place and can offer competitive operating costs. MP for Waveney who said “We know that offshore wind is a key growth sector for the economy and we are committed to ensuring companies in the UK benefit from this huge opportunity. it can support a new generation of engineering skills creating long term jobs which will be key to sustainable growth. This is exactly the sort of groundbreaking work we need. which has already worked in offshore operations. “East Anglia is one of the most exciting places in the country for energy and is doing some of the most important. Additionally. bringing all the links in the chain together. During a visit to the region.” OrbisEnergy also makes up part of the region’s “Corridor of Power” with its sister facilities Beacon Innovation Centre in Great Yarmouth focusing on the offshore gas sectors and the Leiston Enterprise Centre focusing on the civil nuclear sectors. engineers and manufacturers.orbisenergy. inspiring work in renewables.” It is certainly true that as a region East Anglia has much to offer for those involved in offshore wind. More and more companies with an interest in the offshore sector are securing a base here. the area can offer major port facilities such as Great Yarmouth. including Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds Ltd and East Anglian Offshore Wind Ltd. itself close to the Sizewell nuclear power stations. www.net 70 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING .SUPPLY CHAIN in supply chain development. “Not only can offshore wind generate significant amounts of electricity. Lowestoft and Harwich. Energy Minister Charles Hendry commented: “OrbisEnergy brings together people with ideas and enthusiasm and helps them get established. The site surrounding OrbisEnergy in Lowestoft is intended to become an offshore wind technology park that will eventually house much of the supply chain for offshore technologies and will help build links among suppliers. Supporting the report is Peter Aldous. The area’s previous involvement with the oil and gas sector brings several advantages. It means that there is an experienced workforce available.

The Hub for Offshore Renewables in the East of England ����� ��������������������������������������������������� � offshore renewable business ����� ����������������� � ������������������������� � ������������������������������������ ����� ����������������������������������������������� � ����������� ����� ����������������������������������������������� � new entrants to grow ����� ������������������������������������������� � ����������������������������������������������� ������������������������ ����� ������������������������������������ � ���������������������������������������������� and regional businesses ����� �������������������������������������������� � ��������������� 01502 563368 ����������������������������������� ������������������������������� Project Part-Financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund .

com/owad Kai Schlegelmilch. Wind and Water Maritime Consultants Bente Østerbye Vice President MT Hojgaard a/s Ton Geul. Sgurr Energy and Renewable Energy Consultant as he takes us through his seasoned view of the offshore wind farm industry.Offshore Wind Farms: Construction & Installation 2011 Embark on your offshore wind project with thoughtfully planned marine coordination & cable installation that delivers clean MW London | Pre-conference Masterclasses: 13th September | Main Conference: 14th & 15th September Tackle the biggest Gain exclusive insights from industry renowned experts challenges in offshore wind plus the biggest projects in UK and Europe: construction project delivery: � Improve your vessel & crew co-ordination .OffshoreWindConstruction. www.” www. articles and more! Acess Interview Here: Building offshore wind farms: The key concerns Hear from Peter Clive.OffshoreWindConstruction. Business Development Manager Visser & Smit Marine Contracting Quote OWAD and book by 29th July for 15% discount E. Project Director. ON DONG Energy Vattenfall BELUGA HOCHTIEF Ballast Nedam Offshore Statoil MT Højgaard Download event programme: London Array BVG Associates “This conference plays a major role to inform about how to achieve our ambitious overall renewable electricity target share of at least 30% renewables by 2020.keep costs under control and deliver on time � Discover the future of foundations � Understand the contractual risks in submarine power cable installation � Optimise project procurement process Jan K Rønberg. Marine and Geotechnical Engineering Department. COWI Mortem Milthers. from growing demand to future innovation. Technical Development Officer. The German Federal Ministry for Environment Start your learning experience before the event: Access our Online Resource Centre for exclusive video and podcast interviews.com/owad Find out more at . Wind Energy and Grid Integration of Renewable Energies. Deputy Head of Division on Hydropower. Senior Consultant & Co – Owner.

as with all major changes. this is no small role. there will be challenges along the way. REDS will have to (REDS). However. “We now have the support of a parent company: The Sturrock & Robson Group. he adds. David Symons’ role includes everything from setting the culture of the company to managing its financial and physical resources. “Our ambition is to ‘Create Our future’. In such a vibrant and exciting company. The industry itself faces its own issues: creating a strong supply chain.” says Symons.” Progress. REDS is a wellestablished business that has grown organically over the past 12 years and is now ready to build on its OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 73 .MARINE Dave March reports on the growth and change surrounding a well-established diving company Economic solutions A s Managing Director of Reach Engineering and Diving Services Limited brand and reputation. will come in the form of further diversification into the renewable sector and lateral integration across the group’s existing business streams to provide value added benefits for the company’s current and future clients. finding new sources of financing and bureaucratic red tape to name but a few.” Symons states. driving down the cost of energy. “They bring with them financial stability and a global support network that is crucial in our plans for growth. Meanwhile.

Our challenge is to prove that diving is still an integral part of the process and a major part of the risk mitigation plan.uk ments. “Working with our clients to determine more economical and robust solutions will be the test. “These programmes are designed to tackle the main issues we face today. Symons suggests that onshore windfarm technology has been basically ‘marine-ised’. we require continued support from government on all issues from grid to ROCs to financial support. NOVA.at least at the outset. the ETI ( Engineering Technologies Institute) has a series of three programmes. however we will also support them if these plans do not come to fruition. Its track record includes work on windfarms ranging from Thanet and Greater Gabbard to Sheringham Shoal. “For this to happen. As a company. However. In terms of sector development. operations and maintenance. The group has been involved in offshore windfarm works since 2007. “The issue is that most installation companies are endeavouring to reduce or eliminate diver intervention as it is weather dependant. it needs to be more intensive and it needs to be now. “There has already been a transfer into the tidal energy sector during works at EMEC (European Marine Energy Centre.” states Symons.” explains Symons. that has been a central issue behind some of the problems and challenges inherent in offshore wind today. undertaking various operations such as cable works.” He also argues that oil and gas is likely to show the way . oil & gas services. It is these companies that will bring innovation to offshore wind farm installation. However.and this will become more apparent as the installations get into deeper water.” 74 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . inspections and cable burial and remediation. “We will endeavour to do this by providing safe. REDS has experience across a wide range of services including civil engineering. quality diving and access engineering. In the future we look forward to seeing the delivery of a comprehensive grid infrastructure and the advances in technology surrounding deeper water installation. conventional power. nuclear energy and renewable energy. modified and installed offshore rather than the offshore windfarms being developed as a separate entity.particularly in subsea engineering . access engineering.” Symons adds. The group’s aim is to create long-term sustainable partnerships with its existing customers and major utilities and developers in the offshore wind sector. We are happy to work alongside the client in their endeavours to reduce such interventions. often operating in some of the world’s harshest environwww.co.MARINE tackle the fact that some windfarms are trialling diverless solutions. Helm Wind and Deep Water. scour protection and mattress placement.” Symons states. North Sea techniques and methodologies will be essential for installation.” The staff are amply qualified to provide these solutions. In his view. aimed to increase deployment. It may have to be accepted that operational costs may increase. Orkney). tailored to the specific needs of our customers.red-services. “In Europe we have a wealth of experienced organisations with substantial track records in marine engineering. decrease cost (to that comparable with onshore) and increase yield.

G. O’Brien and Teledyne ODI www.teledynemarine. O’BRIEN • ODI • ODOM • RD INSTRUMENTS .com BENTHOS • D.G. WINDWAVETIDAL MEASURE SURVEY inland and coastal currents and offshore waves with Teledyne RD Instruments the seabed for hazards to construction eledyne and sensitive habitats with Teledyne Odom and Teledyne Benthos COMMUNICATE E wirelessly with your remote subsea sensors with Teledyne Benthos CONNECT power and network your subsea and surface instruments with Teledyne D.Power Up! TECHNOLOGIES FOR A GREENER TOMORROW Teledyne Marine provides the technology and experience you need for every phase of your marine energy application.

uk Serving the shipping industry since 1897 Swedish Consulate – Finnish Consulate Registered member of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers ������������������the most dependable and accurate cable measurement system.co. ��� ���������������������������� � �������������� ��������������������������� ������������������������������ ��� ������������������������������� � ��� ������������������������������ � ����������������� � ��� ������������������������������������ ������������������������������ Carlbom Shipping Ltd Specialist Agents to the Humber Tel: (01469) 571387 Fax: (01469) 571023 E-mail: agency@carlbom.hs-engineering.Save time and money! A new.co...co..uk Web Site: www..carlbom.uk Registered Trading Member of The British International Freight Association .co. reliable and EFFICIENT way to measure cable. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������ Designed and developed by H&S Engineering ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ����������������������������������������������������������� Email: enquiries@hs-engineering.uk www.

This is to remove the risk of hydrogen cracking. However.high strength steel plates which are up to 6m wide and 30cm thick . Much of the fabrication of these structures is. explains how the turbine assembly process can be speeded up Cutting out the bottlenecks OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 77 . in such conditions. as stipulated in BS EN 1011-2:2001. the Steel is a major component of these assemblies as it offers strength and rigidity in some very harsh conditions. Offshore placement of turbines can allow higher levels of wind capture as the towers are much larger and the sea surface. installing towers more than 100m tall in aggressive environments such as the North Sea poses significant engineering challenges. being relatively flat. However. Market Sector Manager for Metals at BOC. W hile the UK has often been called the windiest country in Europe. of course.FABRICATION challenge lies in harvesting the power of that natural resource. the Joseph Ho. is critical. does not disturb wind flow. Hydrogen cracking starts with lone hydrogen atoms diffusing through the metal. including the welded joints. physical integrity is essential and so the quality of all aspects of manufacture.it is necessary to pre-heat then post-heat the segments. At high temperatures. carried out ashore before the operational unit is erected in its final offshore position. In order to weld segments of wind turbine towers and their foundations .

The company has a production capacity of 65. they create pressure from inside the cavity they are in. one of the UK’s leading structural steel contractors.6-7. particularly if the process is maintained through post-heating on completion of the welded joint.com 78 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING .including labour costs .000 tonnes and has been building bridges and other steel structures since 1849. the company has now adopted the system in its new manufacturing facility at Newhouse. a trial was carried out to determine the relative benefits of LINDOFLAMM®. the overall costs were less than half those of either of the other two options. has been working on this problem and has developed a range of special burners. When these hydrogen atoms re-combine in minuscule voids of the metal matrix to form hydrogen molecules. The BOC process: -increases fuel gas temperature -improves the rate of heat transfer -provides precise heat distribution. assisted by a concentration gradient). For more details.BOConline. visit the website at: www.showed that LINDOFLAMM® was by far the most cost-effective. The technology has recently been installed by BOC at the premises of Mabey Bridge. the company found they were facing a bottleneck in the pre-heating procedure prior to welding large steel sections.0m in diameter with a wall thickness of between 40-100mm.co. the test showed some very favourable results. BOC proposed using LINDOFLAMM® technology as a way to speed up the process. It is already used as a critical part of the drive by monopole foundation suppliers to maximise process efficiencies and pro- ductivity. As with many other steel fabricators. Burners are made to suit each customer’s needs: some are designed for so-called longitudinal welds. Sections were 4. In Germany. the results .and post-heat sections. BOC’s parent. Mabey Bridge was able to reduce preheat times by over 50 percent while at the same time reducing process cost by a similar amount. this procedure can result in production bottlenecks. Pre-heating helps to counter this by modifying the cooling rates and encouraging the diffusion of hydrogen from the weld. compared with other systems using propane and natural gas for weld seams (both around the circumference and along the section) of wind turbine tower sections. As a result. as well as safety supplies and PPE.FABRICATION elevated solubility of hydrogen allows hydrogen to diffuse into the metal (or the hydrogen can diffuse in at a low temperature. LINDOFLAMM® burners heat up steel twice as fast as conventional methods (oxy-propane burners or induction heating). BOC provides a wide range of applications for metals including heat treatment and coatings. Because of the amount of time taken to pre. The technology is also being used elsewhere in Europe.8m in length. The lower moisture content associated with this process also significantly reduced any residual hydrogen cracking. that sounds like a very attractive option. They can also be fully automated. cutting and jointing products. and some for circular steel segments (circumferential welds) up to 7m in diameter. Over a series of tests. In fact. It has a number of advantages over conventional gas technologies which rely on natural gas or propane. This pressure can increase to levels where the metal has reduced ductility and tensile strength up to the point where it cracks open. welding. The Linde Group.uk or email: windenergy@boc. The properties of this new process allow fabricators to increase throughput while maintaining (or even improving) quality and at the same time reducing overall costs. These measured between 1. Over a number of months. The target was a maximum of 30 minutes pre-heat time with a temperature between 100-150°C. It needs to be completed as quickly as possible. For an industry that is being asked to increase production rapidly in order to help meet Europe’s renewable energy needs.

uk .BOConline. welding consumables and safety equipment > State of the art applications for increasing productivity.co. reducing cost and improving fabrication quality > Dedicated team of manufacturing industry specialists with over 200 years of engineering experience Contact us today: 0800 111 333 windenergy@boc.your partner in wind turbine construction > Your single solution provider for a range of gas.Building the future together BOC . welding equipment.com www.

ctcmarine. With an owned vessel fleet and the world's largest suite of high technology marine trenching vehicles.There’s a new force making waves in the offshore renewable industry.com . CTC Marine Projects brings 20 years of expertise in submarine power cable installation to the Offshore Renewable sector. it has the versatility to deliver innovative 'right first time' solutions for subsea cable installation and burial.com www. +44 (0) 1325 390 500 commercial@ctcmarine.

MANUFACTURING Alternative Ulster Renewables now account for over 75 percent of Harland and Wolff’s turnover. The firm currently hold an range of contracts relating to a number of offshore wind projects. H&W has a strong supply chain from their days in the oil and gas industry and a strong core of experienced staff . In 2004 renewables accounted for none of the Belfast company’s turnover. Harland and Wolff (H&W) is diversifying into the renewable energy market and. the ill-fated RMS Titanic was constructed in this famous Belfast shipyard and to this day the twin 900 tonne gantry cranes dubbed Samson and Goliath are city landmarks. Throughout the 20th century the core of their business was in fabrications for the oil and gas industry and shipbuilding. “What we found. jackets and foundation systems for offshore wind developments. in no small part. According to Head of Sales and Marketing David McVeigh. H&W assembled and installed 3MW turbines for Vestas at the Robin Rigg farm and in 2010 they won the contract from Siemens to build two substations for the Gwynt y Mor windfarm off the coast of North Wales. Even within the context of this industry trend. The company is involved in the design. Alistair Welch speaks to David McVeigh about the company’s work in the offshore wind industry and its stake in the commercial future of the sector Since 2004.” McVeigh believes that as the industry matures a company’s ability to offer the client efficiency of design and efficiency of manufacture will be crucial factors in guaranteeing success. manufacture of jackets and foundations for the turbines as well as substation platforms. Furthermore. Indeed. manufacture and delivery of substation platforms.solid ike a number of companies with a background in heavy engineering.” he comments. in 2011 the OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 81 . work in the offshore wind engineering. “was that there was a correlation between our core skills and what was required by the offshore wind industry in several different areas. our oil and gas L experience is transferable in to the proportion stands at nearly 80 percent. H&W is enjoying somewhat of a resurgence in fortune based. in particular. We are well positioned logistically for offshore developments in the Irish Sea and have established heavy cranes and quayside facilities. the uptake of renewables-based activity at H&W has been extraordinary. H&W is a marine manufacturer with over 150 years of experience. on the burgeoning offshore wind industry. the company’s heritage in shipbuilding and the oil and gas industry made them well-positioned to capitalise swiftly on opportunities within the offshore wind market.

so it takes longer. “On the manufacturing side. he hopes that a situation will be arrived at whereby the industry settles into a proven and established solution. to reduce the costs associated with offshore wind hardware and infrastructure. We can now offer more competitive prices as we have bespoke equipment. Whilst McVeigh explains that one of H&W’s strengths is the company’s flexibility in dealing with differing complexities of platform.an area that is of concern to the entire sector.” says McVeigh. taking lessons from many different stakeholders including operators. Harland and Wolff has invested significantly in research and development on the design of our platforms. One of the current problems with relation to transformer platforms is that certain questions relating to design are being asked for the first time. installers and those involved in maintenance. It is in our own best interest to do so to allow us to compete with carbon-based technologies.” 82 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . “What we have to do as an industry is find a way. “We need to look at it from a supply chain perspective and a design perspective. we have invested heavily in our plant and equipment to ensure we can reduce our own costs. to move through the design cycles. across the board.MANUFACTURING credentials for adaptability to the offshore wind market. than say an oil platform. especially following the Committee on Climate Change’s report that criticised the high costs associated with offshore wind. H&W is taking an active role in tackling the issue of cost-reduction .

Money from successful projects is put back into the company to improve the competitiveness of its offerings. The company aims to be proactive in driving the offshore market forwards. H&W is currently supporting the development of Universal Foundation’s suction bucket monopile design. This is great news for developers focusing on driving down cost plus the environmental benefit of no piling and easy decommissioning makes it an all-round winner. For example. will enhance the commercial viability of offshore wind in the long term thus securing the company’s future in manufacturing for the sector.” www. This is a situation it is understandably keen to avoid this time.MANUFACTURING McVeigh goes on to explain that the company is engaged in an ongoing process of reinvestment. it is hoped.harland-wolff.more importantly our customers rely on us to deliver a budget that they can trust”. The message from David McVeigh in conclusion was clear: “Give us repetition and volume and costs will come down. When H&W first attempted to enter the wind industry in 1997 the company discovered that the market was not mature enough to be sustain- able.” says McVeigh. The ability to draw on our proven projects will make future tenders look all the more secure and all the more attractive. and is self-levelling so does not require a transition piece. Such an approach. “It is self-installing so does not require an expensive installation vessel. “The suction bucket design is quickly gaining market acceptance. But it is not just about building a better mousetrap .com OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 83 .

Moving ahead of the energy curve The world’s largest offshore wind energy conference and exhibition 29 November . The Netherlands Register now to benefit from early bird rates Gain unrivalled insight into the offshore wind energy industry The highest quality conferences. cross-sector exhibitions and outstanding networking opportunities make EWEA OFFSHORE 2011 the one event where you can keep ahead of the latest trends and create connections with influential people around the world.org/offshore2011 ������������� .ewea. It is the world’s largest offshore wind energy event – a place where the industry’s brightest minds meet to: � ���������������������������������������������������� � ������������������������������������ � ������������������������ Be part of it and join 7. ������������� www.000 international professionals in shaping the offshore landscape of tomorrow’s energy market. international.1 December 2011 Amsterdam.

Jet trenching ROVs provide an ideal tool for use on offshore windfarms because their manoeuvrability enables them to follow any cable route and jet up to 6m from the cable touchdown point. resulting in the use of more specialist vessels. PT-1. Factored within this installation process is the selection of the correct burial tool. headquartered in Darlington. CMROV3 and CMROV4). MPS and ACP). CMROV1. difficulty in achieving the required burial depth and potential damage to the cable. cable installer and/ or cable manufacturer. However. jet trenching ROVs are considered to disrupt the seabed more than other burial tools and developers often restrict the use of such tools at windfarm sites. CTC currently has five jet trenching ROVs available for offshore windfarm work (UT-1. Ploughing is used in a variety of soil types and particularly for burial depths of greater than 1. Jet trenching is suitable for fine to depths. MD3. With this variety of equipment available to customers. Ploughing is suitable for a large range of seabed conditions and soil types A depending on the design and burial result in risk and associated costs to the developer. which include the greater cable burial depth. PCP-2. ploughs and jet trenching ROVs. The problems faced with selecting the wrong burial tool can include operation at a slower rate than predicted. advises on selecting the right burial tool for your offshore windfarm project Making decisions loose sands and some clay conditions.5m. CTC’s jet trenching ROVs are precision tools and are in fact environmentally friendly and won’t leave a mass of disruption after operation. CTC believes there is a lack of understanding in how the tools operate. but as a general perspective each burial tool carries its own pros and cons when considered in an offshore windfarm. it ensures that there will be a suitable asset available to meet the criteria of each individual project. All of these issues OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 85 . Marketing Manager at CTC Marine Projects. the deeper the trench depth required. which can include mechanical trenchers. the more power needed to do this. challenges are being raised to the current methods of windfarm array and export cable installation. Every project that CTC undertakes is evaluated on an individual basis. There are advantages to ploughing. Selecting the correct piece of equip- ment holds a great responsibility in the success of the project. is home to the world’s largest fleet of high technology marine trenching and burial equipment. which is often the reason behind some of these decisions.INSTALLATION Laura Hall. reducing the need for alternative cable protection. CTC Marine Projects (CTC). However. simultaneous lay and burial and the simplicity of the tooling. The Burial Protection Index provides a specific operational risk assessment to assess how deep the trench needs to be to avoid damage to s offshore wind farm construction moves to a new level. CTC currently has five cable ploughs suitable for offshore windfarm work (PCP-1.

they undergo more wear and tear than ROVs that are free-flying or ploughs which are towed through the seabed. This in itself is the basis for an industry discussion and shared learning from other sectors. CTC currently has three mechanical cutting vehicles suitable for windfarm work (SWT-1. CTC owns all of its assets.5m burial. leaving exposed lengths of cables ends requiring another protection solution. Trenching is the ideal tool for the more onerous soil condition windfarms where a Burial Protection Index recommends 0. When providing mechanical trenching the tools can operate in jetting and cutting modes and are capable of working in sands. Array cable planning and costing has been underestimated in early projects causing unnecessary problems for developers. Despite needing a high bollard pull vessel to tow the equipment. As a project size increases. CTC can offer multiple installation solutions based on 20 years of practical experience in cable installation. Another point to consider is the maintenance required when using the cutting technique. Mechanical trenching vehicles can provide close approach to the turbine structure but required that the cable route is managed to avoid sharp changes in direction. ploughs have the capability to trench at speed in a straight line and are effective for export cables. but this technique has been successful in many projects where other tools have failed to reach the target depth. T1 and T2) which can operate from a barge as a cheaper alternative to a DPII vessel. both operationally and in the speed of program. it is imperative that offshore windfarms are designed for installation.INSTALLATION the cable through shipping movements. possibly required at some time throughout the duration of the project. This ensures CTC is both flexible to change 86 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . However. This offshore experience is fundamental in being able to understand what tools are best suited to different seabed conditions and other environmental considerations. Mechanical trenching is the slowest of the three methods. with limited direction change on the approach to the turbine foundations. there is a downside when ploughing inter-array cables. This will require more maintenance. The cable is safely managed away from the cutting tools path and placed at the bottom resulting trench slot. It is important to engage with this experience early on in a project development to take into account correlation between site soil conditions and the capabilities of the tools that will be used. Since mechanical trenchers are used in harder soil conditions. as well as the operational and maintenance phase.5 to 1. has long term charter arrangements for its vessels and has a dedicated offshore mobilisation base with a heavy lift quay. clays and rock conditions.

com . For nearly 30 years.aspx www. Teledyne RD Instruments broadband Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) have been the proven choice for precision environmental data for offshore oil and gas applications—and are now embraced for renewable programs as well.rdinstruments. visit: www.com/renewables. This data ensures optimal performance. Gaining a clear understanding of the ocean’s current and wave activity is critical to marine energy site selection and site monitoring. For full details on how our ADCPs are being put to work in your industry.Be In The Know ADCPs for precision current profiling. as well as safety and environmental compliance. turbulence. and waves measurements for renewable applications.rdinstruments.

but particular attention is being paid to this rapidly �������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������ ���������������������������������� ������������������������������������� �������������������������������� growing sector where it is enforcing its higher standards. CTC ensures ���������������������������� �������������������� ���������������������������������� ������������������������������������� ����������������������������������� ������������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ���������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ����������������������������������� ���������������������������������� ��������������������������������� ��������������������������������� �������������������������������� ��������������������������������� ���������������������������������� ���������������������������������� ��������������������������������� ������������������������������� �������������������������������������� ����������������������������������� ����������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ����������������������������������� ��������� ������������������������������� �������������������������������� ������������������������������� �������������������������������������� ������������������������������������� �������������������������������������� ��������■ �������������������� ������������������������������������������ ��������������������������������������������� ������������������������ ������������������������������� the highest level of health and safety ���������������������������������� performance is delivered in all sectors in which it operates. ������������������������������� it is imperative that this is addressed �������������������������������� for future installations.com ���������������������������������� ��������������������������������� ��      ������ ��� ��� ������������ ������������� ������������� ���� ���� ����� � � ������������������������������������������������������������������������� � ������� ���� �������������� ��� ������������ ���� ���� ��������� ���������� ������� ���� ���� ���� ���� ������������ ���� �������� ������ ���������� � �������� ������������� ������� ���� ������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������ � ����������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ������������������������������������ �����������������������         ������������������������������������ � ��������������� � ��������������� ���������������� . Health and Safety is also a fundamental priority for the offshore renewables ���������������������������������� sector. ����������������������������������� Visit CTC at stand number 150 ����������������������������������� at Offshore Wind 2011.tricomarine. Having noted the reduced ���������������������������������������� health and safety regulations in com�������������������������������� ������������������������������� parison to the oil and gas industry.INSTALLATION ������ and delivers on time by controlling all the key elements of the project. ������������������������������������ www.ctc.

metoffice. call 0870 900 0100 or email marine@metoffice.gov. EX1 3PB United Kingdom Tel: 0870 900 0100 Fax: 0870 900 5050 Email: marine@metoffice. Met Office FitzRoy Road.uk/marine Produced by the Met Office. © Crown copyright 2011 11/0160 Met Office and the Met Office logo are registered trademarks .Confidence • Reduce exposure to risk with accurate and reliable weather information • Optimise resource planning and decrease costs • Protect people and assets by minimising health and safety risks • Improve operations and maintenance planning • Make the best use of available weather windows To find out how our marine forecasts can help your business.uk. Exeter Devon. quoting reference HM2011.uk www. For international enquiries. please call +44 1224 407575.gov.gov.

” continues Jorgensen. combined with the experienced management and QHSE procedures of CWind.WORK BOATS Filling the gap Robert Gerald reports on a new boatshare scheme that offers flexibility C Wind is a new name on the offshore wind scene. it is already doing well. This means the boat owner will always be keen to treat the customer well and do a good job offshore so that they return for the services again. insurance and health and safety aspects and obtains the contract from the developer. “Our boats use water jets as opposed to propellers. CWind covers the finances.” CWind’s key aims are to provide highly skilled technicians and innovative solutions. We are aiming to help make the construction time shorter as one delay affects all the contractors in the project. “We operate in the whole of the UK and at the moment the workboats are mainly used for the construction stage. The boatshare scheme may help developers as it offers a new way of working. They run a training school and currently have 48 technicians working on year. offering a more flexible system to the current alternatives.” There are now two boats working in the boatshare scheme and the group is just about to build the next one. fuel and equipment.” He explains that the idea represents a way into the offshore wind market for experienced boat operators who are increasingly under threat by the big- 90 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . “This is for health and safety reasons . At this stage CWind works closely with CTruk. It’s also the only type of boat where you only need one person to rescue a man overboard.they don’t hurt a person if you get caught. With 20 tonne payload our vessels are amongst the most capable on the market.” explains Jorgensen. the can-do attitude of the owner operator.there are always issues coming up where things get delayed. which is a boat building company that has the same shareholders but works as a separate entity.” Jorgensen states. “Every project has its own problems . Established for just one ger companies moving into the market. Managing Director Peter Jorgensen explains: “We saw a gap in the market and we now operate a boatshare scheme in which the skipper has a stake in the boat. We aim to offer windfarm operators the best of both worlds. “Currently they are sent out for a variety of tasks including transport of technicians.

work might become similar to the oil and gas industry in that you go and live and work out there for two weeks and then come back .the same mistakes are being made.com OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 91 . For now.WORK BOATS contracts. though. “Another important consideration is learning from experience. “We need to get recognised by our customers and develop from there.boats may soon need to be used as living quarters. The company is also looking to the future. particularly in accessing the turbines when things go wrong.com CTruk Boats CTruk Boats. The company has designed vessels specifically to meet the needs of windfarm work through a variety of removable pods.” www. “With Round 3. Jorgensen knows that there will be key techni- cal innovations in O&M. The pod system enables the boat’s operators to change her layout within a few hours to suit the work being carried out.” concludes Jorgensen. We are working on four different windfarms with our company and have noticed that people don’t seem to learn from each other . operators can easily adapt the vessel to ferry personnel or carry out fuel or generators. It is currently introducing its flexible pod system for windfarm work boats. At the moment we are doing well and getting a good reputation.cwind247.” says Jorgensen. By moving the wheelhouse from the front to the back for example.” As the industry develops. builds mulit-purpose catamarans.ctruk. www. The flexible system has been trialled for a year while on charter to DONG Energy on the Walney Offshore Windfarm. situated on the east coast. CWind is focussing on developing a cost-effective way of working and building its own reputation with the energy companies. Manging Director Ben Simpson explains: “Our design team knew there was scope to improve the types of work boats supporting the growing windfarm industry while keeping the safety aspect of offshore work at the forefront of the design.

fo R to r f eg da re ist EO y! Qe en er W uot try E e In association with 1 Supporting associations: Discover innovative solutions for delivering offshore wind infrastructure projects The Infrastructure Show provides a unique forum for civil engineers to explore the latest innovations and discuss the challenges of delivering major infrastructure projects including offshore wind. The show’s Utilities Hub provides the latest updates on financing and building renewable energy infrastructure and examines the viability of offshore wind and the opportunities that exist for the supply chain.com companies like Thames Water and The Crown Estate � Attend over 90 free seminars discussing challenges.com quoting priority code EXOWE www. innovation and best practise across different industry sectors Join leading exhibitors: . Why exhibit? � Engage with senior engineering contractors and consultants � Showcase your product innovation to key industry clients Why visit? � Receive major project updates from Learn how you can be part of The Infrastructure Show and call 020 7728 4659/4624 or email infrastructureshow@emap.infrastructure-show.

says Recruiter Anna Botten. including project managers. Her role embraces agreeing sourcing strategies with hiring managers. site managers. Positions are usually advertised in industry specific publications and standard job boards. She now oversees the recruitment process from beginning to end for Siemens Wind Power. sales and business development managers. the group places a great deal of importance upon personal development. running advertising campaigns. power electronics engineers. lead you anywhere. “We recruit for many different roles and all levels. position at Siemens could. recruiting for this sector can be “quite a challenge”.EMPLOYMENT Career development Theone Wilson interviews Anna Botten of Siemens to find out what they are looking for in their staff this may alter depending on the role itself. health and safety managers. The flexible approach to careers means that staff are able to move between different sectors of the business e. commercial project managers. The company can offer a Siemens after having held a similar role with Babcock International Group. to name LEFT: Inverclyde waterfront A versa. specialist offshore lifting supervisors. although wide range of opportunities and. due to a significant skills shortage of people coming from a renewables background. moving to OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUMMER 2011 93 . alongside direct recruitment and sourcing. managing applications and conducting interviews through to job offers. project controllers. However.g. offshore installation managers. it seems. which is part of Siemens Energy sector in the UK. from the industry or healthcare sec- tors to the energy sector and vice Botten herself has worked at the company since 2010.

“delivered through our policy of Zero Harm”. across Projects.co. Siemens UK headquarters are in Frimley. Siemens Wind Power is able to offer significant career progression and development opportunities for those wanting to invest in a long-term career. Depending on the role. competency based interviews. Overall. Not surprisingly. including offshore on installation vessels. Those looking at the renewables sector could find themselves working on projects in the Siemens Wind Power portfolio. shortlists and conducts both telephone and face-to-face. If successful. however this requirement may change dependant on the vacancy. Siemens Wind Power is excellently positioned to capitalise on this growth as the leading offshore wind power player in the UK. says Botten. Some of these positions will be office based and some will be working on site. There are also opportunities within the graduate scheme at Siemens Wind Power. who conduct inductions for all new starters joining Siemens Wind Power. and blade technicians. PM@Siemens. which is recognised externally throughout the project management profession. “We look for CVs and applications that are laid out clearly and concisely. both offshore and onshore. with an equally large onshore business. In terms of the application process. “It’s a great organisation to join and there is a real sense of excitement about the growth we will see over the medium to long term future. given this focus.com 94 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING .” Botten says.uk/careers). Siemens Wind Power is headquar- tered in Brande.” says Botten. Sales and Commecial and HSE. The department includes installation technicians. developing their knowledge of the Siemens product portfolio as well as establishing relationships with Danish colleagues. candidates will receive a verbal offer.” Siemens Wind Power is also investing heavily in research and development. says Botten. some candidates will undergo online tests. multi disciplined engineering and construction projects. Siemens is currently recruiting for development engineers for software. Ideally candidates will have experience of working on largescale.” says Botten. The recruiter then reviews applications. commissioning technicians. “The renewable energy sector is going to experience such a rapid growth rate over the coming years.energy. London Array and Walney Wind Farms. The graduate programme is two years in duration and the new starters are exposed to different departments within Siemens Wind Power. Denmark and the majority of new starters will spend a significant amount of time there. followed by a written offer of employment and contract.siemens. where they will undergo various training courses including working at heights. and another centre of competence at Sheffield University for generators. there is currently a big drive to recruit HSE coordinators and HSE officers.siemens. with the right qualifications and relevant experience in relation to the job specification. It is really a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Health and Safety is an absolute priority for Siemens Wind Power. such as Gwynt-y-Môr. modelling and power electronics as well as generator structural design engineers and bearings engineers.according to Botten. Surrey and the company has onshore and offshore sites across the UK.EMPLOYMENT but a few. The specific engineering disciplines that Siemens recruits for at its R&D centres are a real recruitment challenge . HSE and offshore survival. all applications are initially submitted through the online careers page (www. The company also offers the chance to gain professional qualifications such as its project management qualification. who will work onsite installing Siemens wind turbines. “The construction department within the division has seen a significant amount of growth with a plan to recruit around 180 technicians in this financial year alone.for example wind power service technicians will spend a period of six weeks at Siemens’ wind power training facility in Newcastle. The group has R&D Centres of Competence at Keele University for power converters.” www. whilst others will be required to attend assessment centres. The group’s Transmission & Distribution business has an R&D facility at Manchester for grid connections. The group also has designated onboarding coordinators. which will be taking on around 12 graduates in this financial year. Specific training requirements are dependant on the role . Siemens as an organisation invests heavily in its people through training and development.

electricity needs in 2030. Department of Energy’s 20% wind scenario estimates that 54 GW of offshore wind will be included in the 300 GW required to meet 20% of the U.S. growth plans.offshorewindexpo. and stakeholders are readying for the industry to make the jump across the Pond. with nearly 20 years of industry experience. This event gathers the leaders in this cutting edge segment of the wind industry and features an exhibit hall full of new technology. Offshore Wind Now a Reality The coastal waters and Great Lakes of North America hold tremendous potential for offshore wind development. That estimate includes the immense resources found in the Great Lakes. Offshore wind projects are well established in Europe. and products fueling offshore development opportunities. solutions.S.S. The U. The education program shares investment strategies. OFFSHORE OFFSHORE WINDPOWER www. and supply solutions to enable attendees to make informed decisions about how best to get involved in offshore wind.org REWOPDNIW OHSFFO REWOPDNIW EROHSFFO REWOPDNIW EROHSFFO WOPDNIW OHSFFO SFFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO FFO .U.

Nuclear Energy 200 GLOBAL PROJECTS WORTH 1000 BILLION USD Conventional/ Thermal Energy 1800 GLOBAL PROJECTS WORTH 1700 BILLION USD Renewable Energy 650 GLOBAL PROJECTS WORTH 1600 BILLION USD .

Warwick. together with case studies and technical files.uk engineering .indd 1 is produced as a special edition of ENERGY ENGINEERING magazine four times a year. To subscribe. just fill out the form below and return it via post. An annual subscription to OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING PLUS all the benefits outlined above costs just £165.indd 1 Subscribe to OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING and you will also receive: ■ monthly e-newsletters featuring the latest news updates. We will then send you an invoice with your first issue. fax or email. looking at progress to-date and how to meet the challenges ahead. Each issue includes in-depth analysis on projects and developments.i n g UK en ineer EMAIL confirmation can be made to steve@energyengineering.uk SUBSCR I TODAYBE ! ✔YES! I would like an annual subscription to OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING at the rate of £165 Name Company Address Job title Postcode Tel Signed Email PLEASE FAX BACK ON +44 (0)1926 408206 OR MAIL TO ENERGY ENGINEERING 6A New Street. ■ An annual subscription (six issues) to ENERGY ENGINEERING magazine. ����������������� ����������������������� �������������������� ������������� ■� �������������������� ������������ ■� ����������� ������ � 18/2/10 13:35:22 EE27_FrontCoverHR. These special editions feature articles and interviews with key industry players. techniques and supply chain resources for the Offshore Wind industry. reports and market intelligence ■ The 2011 offshore wind directory.co. CV34g4RX. TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNIQUES Regular topics covered by OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING 24/6/10 11:28:27 include:■ project delivery ■ research & development ■ environmental issues ■ planning and consenting ■ wind resource and monitoring ■ grid. innovations and expertise available in the sector. networks and infrastructure ■ regional development & skills base ■ supply chain ■ ports ■ finance and funding ■ turbines & blades ■ construction ■ vessels & installation ■ operation & maintenance ■ cables & connectors ■ manufacturing techniques ■ reliability ■ international perspectives ■ consultancy ■ production & manufacture ■ health & safety ■ design concepts ■ technology transfer & innovation ■ substructure design & manufacture OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING provides the latest information on the technology.SPECIAL EDITION FROM MAGAZINE SUMMER 2010 engineering regional development THE PLACE TO BE ROUND THREE WORKING TOGETHER OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING SUBSCRIPTION OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING INSTALLATION VESSELS OW_Cover_TEMPb. Steve Welch Managing Editor steve@energyengineering.co. announcements.

the MOTS-system (Momac Offshore Transport System) is installed at the bow. The new system consists of a swivel arm robot.” www.uk Access all areas Voith Turbo Marine Engineering has developed the Voith Offshore Shuttle. due to the weather conditions and high seas. a supplier of specialist chemicals to the energy industry. The gel can be reused and is non hazardous and environmentally responsible. there is a growing market for this concept. Apart from the six-man crew. can be used to install all types of offshore renewables including wind.com 98 SUMMER 2011 OFFSHORE WIND ENGINEERING . According to Voith. www. With MOTS and the Voith Offshore Shuttle. wave and tidal. The time slots during which service personnel can be safely transferred to these plants from feeder ships are often very short.Gigawatch Money saver Aubin. which uses a novel low-density gel. it’s extremely beneficial to offer a system that means you can install as you build. Aubin’s Managing Director Paddy Collins says: “We believe that GLS will enable developers to take turbines out from shore when they are manufactured without having to have several units complete before any installation can take place. The technology. offshore wind energy plants have to be accessed two to three times a year for maintenance work. the time slot can be extended by up to 35 percent. which allows safe transfers of people and goods from vessel to vessel or from vessel to offshore wind energy plant. the ship can hold up to 12 service technicians and is capable of operating in the offshore wind park for up to 14 days.voithturbo. a new ship concept for wind parks. as installers do not have to commit the investment to go out and buy a vessel or wait for one to become available.aubin. On average.co. has launched a Gel Lift System (GLS) that could cut costs when installing offshore renewables infrastructure. With each turbine costing up to £5million and space at fabrication yards tight. Its special feature. It is also quick to market.

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