The Early Learning EFL Classroom

Tricia Spenc e

Acknowledgement This article could not have been written without the expert advice and knowledge passed on by Mandy Welburn and Fiona Wheeler, Early Learning practitioners. My gratitude to both.

In recent years and in many parts of the world, the foreign language teacher at school is increasingly being required to spec ialise in EFL for younger and younger learners. Very often, this means exploring “unknown territory”, where the FL teac her is finding their own way whilst at the same time leading and guiding their group of young pupils through their initial learning. This article is aimed at those EFL teachers who are just moving into the area of Early Learning (from 3 to 6 years old) as well as Early Learning practitioners who are starting out in EFL. For this purpose, we have combined the knowledge and experience of an EFL teac her specialising in Young Learners with that of an Early Learning practitioner and psyc hologist to gain a more global picture of EFL and the role of the EFL teacher in the Early-Learning setting. We hope that the information and advice offered here, although essentially basic and simplified, will help to make this “unknown territory” more familiar, easier to negotiate and less threatening.

The Early-Learning Teacher’s Tools If c hildren are to pick up English in a “natural way”, their early c lassroom experience should be essentially in English and language should ideally be “acquired” in a similar way to the bilingual child with the teac her taking a similar role to the bilingual parent. This means learning the foreign language through the c ommunicative way. At this stage, children are learning: to communicate to learn to live with others in harmony to interac t confidently to know about the world and life to respond to stimuli to c ontrol their responses to use their different forms of intelligenc e c reatively to love, to play and to work together in harmony All these conc epts and more are part of the c hild’s learning experienc e and should also be part of the bilingual c lassroom. The foreign language “class” is an extension of the general early-learning setting, whic h c an be achieved if the teacher has a reasonable command of a range of “linguistic tools”. For example: A repertoire of nursery songs, rhymes and stories Some knowledge of c hildren’s games and ac tivities Some knowledge of c hildren’s VIPs “Teac herese” (typical teacher-pupil language routines) Instruc tions for setting up ac tivities and games A repertoire of “running commentary” • This means the kind of language that can be used to lead the class in general and not specifically for ac tivities, i.e. for filling time when children are carrying out an activity that is not nec essarily oral or for “real-life” interaction. Exclamations, comments, expressions of approval or disapproval, question tag statements, talking about the weather, etc., are all kinds of running commentary. learning process itself in a

art materials. sec urity.Some knowledge of how children acquire language To the above can be added some general “early-learning” tools to help the FL teac her to enable children to learn their sec ond language through learning itself and through play. etc. pic tures. these can help the teacher to keep the c lass mainly in English. to use c orrec t pronunciation and intonation and to give the c hildren basic building bloc ks of language with whic h to c ommunicate.E. reading. Use “invisible” error correction answering for the child. other children. sport and exc ursions. including silence Avoid pressure. use intonation and stressing. pictures. your own. All are essential if the child’s experience of English is to be enjoyable. separate thought groups clearly. and a Young Learner Friendly Environment: both physical – classroom and equipment – and affective – a teac her who brings c onfidence. games. sensorial aids. etc – of how children acquire language and of the general c urriculum in all areas. music and general c onversation. routines. Finally. Your attitude and performance in the c lassroom c an make or break! Learning c an be aided by the following Young Learner Friendly skills: Enable children to feel c onfident. and play apparatus. social skills. body-language. P. listening/c reating.e. their surroundings offer the opportunity to look at. loved and safe Respect eac h c hild’s rate of learning. • • • • • . At the same time. your c olleagues’ and your pupils’. Provide “comprehensible” input with a suitable ratio of known or familiar words. in what we could call a Young Learner Friendly environment. in the same way as the mother/father/grandparent figures form the foc al point of the c hild’s out-of-sc hool environment. use plenty of repetition. activities which enc ourage "rec eptive" language ac quisition include listening/drawing. books. etc. affection. hurry and stress Make language easy speak slowly and c learly. to solve problems. labels and c lassroom areas for the exc lusive use of English). For example: The experienc e of infant teacher colleagues Acc ess to the early-learning classroom. interest and enjoyment to learning and who respects each child’s learning proc ess and rhythm. hear and learn about printed language (posters. The KEY to early FL learning is: Knowledge: of language and linguistic culture – songs. to play. writing. gestures. books. Use language for authentic and interesting purposes to communicate with a “foreign” teddy. etc. games. partic ipative and produc tive. Knowledge of the early-learning curric ulum in general and of assoc iated activities: • activities which link language with physic al movement include action songs. drama. teacher. i. and "total immersion". role play and prac tical experiences. rhymes and story-telling. to talk about their world. inferable words and new words. demonstration of what you mean. rephrasing. materials and equipment: • toys. Experience and Enthusiasm: of early-learning in general. etc. repeating. rhymes. posters. the teacher(s) plays a similar role at school and is thus in an ideal position to foster the learning proc ess. like c ookery.

language and literacy. bending the head to listen. "All learning arises from physical ac tion and the gathering of experience through the senses". Department for Education and Employment. What to expect and when - . their teacher. UK) "Learning to listen and speak emerges out of non-verbal communication which includes body language. 2000. eye c ontact.) and young c hildren enjoy the sound of language Intonation pronunciation Repetition young c hildren enjoy hearing the same language young c hildren enjoy c opying the same language young c hildren need to hear familiar language young c hildren enjoy playing with sound young c hildren need these for intonation young c hildren learn through using their senses young c hildren learn through movement-c onc ept assoc iation young c hildren practise life through play young c hildren use language to achieve a purpose young c hildren need affec tion and c onfidence very important people in their lives are family members. etc . Learning Feature Assimilation reception Language blocks and Implication young children understand muc h more than they say young children learn “chunks” of language not elements young c hildren go through silent periods young c hildren translations learn conc epts not word Silence Concepts Semantic fields young c hildren learn through topics (e.Early Learning Language Acquisition The following points are characteristic of how small children learn language. such as facial expression. the seaside. produced by QCA Qualific ations and Curriculum Authority. my house. hand gesture and taking turns". "Initially their [c hildren's] attempts to communicate will be non-verbal". Alliteration Song and rhyme Sensorial association Total Physical Response (TPR) Play Motivation VIP dependence Some reflections on language-learning (taken from Communication. spec ial toys like Teddy and you. the weather.g.

revisit or jump from one directly to another without passing through an intervening stage or features. Will listen to stories with attention and take part in desc ribing the main settings. Will often link speech to gestures. Stage 1 . c haracters and events. The table's red" etc. UK). that's right. Mary. The child: • Will use isolated. my doll. It's red. Will respond to simple instructions.e.g. that's right.g. he's driving a car" or Child: "Table red?" Teacher: "Yes. familiar words especially those c onnec ted with people or objects which are important to them. i. run as fast as you can. depending on the individual1). Will use ac tions/limited words related to "now" and will accept running commentary from the teac her and understand some words used. Will listen when in small groups or one to one. how are you today?. words learnt previously but not yet spoken aloud by the child. between 21/2-31/2. it is. However. Department for Educ ation and Employment. Will be able to draw. bees buzz. The man is in the c ar and he's driving" and questions in affirmative form with rising intonation e. Stage 3 . my pencil. paint and partic ipate in hand/eye c o-ordination activities. Dog. the man is in the c ar. 2000. my mum and/or gestures. eye contact and fac ial expression to communic ate. Will be able to identify different sounds and enjoy rhythmic activities.e.g.g. Mrs. (QCA Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. in small groups. language and literacy”.Around four years old (31/2-41/2) The child: • Will use simple statements e..Remember: Do not demand of the "second language" child a response that would not be expec ted from a "mother tongue" child of a similar age. Pablo's c ar.g. Will be able to listen to stories and join in with isolated words. hello.g. Will recognise rhyme. such as alliterative jingles e. the man is in the c ar. e. such as c utting with sc issors. two tiny teddies or animal and street sounds. e. Very good. e.. it is a useful guide of what to expect. Will use intonation. Will begin to use "possession" language. Someone's been eating my soup. c ome in. Hello. Will join in with repeated refrains. The following stages have been adapted and abridged from “Communication. pouring. sit down. etc. Child: "Man in car?" Teacher: "Yes. Run. etc . etc. alliteration and rhythm in the spoken word. etc. Pablo. These are developmental features that have been observed to be usual at any moment during each stage but are not necessarily either sequential or compulsory.Around three years old (i. five fat frogs. Children may miss out a stage or features. Will understand that words c an be represented in print and begin to shape and recognise letters.Around five years old (41/2-51/2) The child: • Will begin to have enough self-c onfidence to speak to others.g. Child: "Man in car" Teacher: "Yes. and "receptive" voc abulary. What's he doing? Is he driving? Yes. c ooking. rhythm and phrasing (word groups) to make meaning c lear. e. Stage 2 .. • • • • • • • • • • • • • .

some. songs. today and tomorrow.g. Will talk in English in a group. Will use language to gain attention but actions to demonstrate or explain. first. language is gradually used for more inter-communic ative purposes such as problem-solving. Will begin to use more c omplex c onstructions in statements and questions. Will read familiar words and simple sentences. Why and How. sorting and sequence. Will listen and note other children's answers and negotiate. e.g. She's Jasmine". thank you. etc. Will give explanations. etc. Stage 4 . Teacher: "Where's the duck?" Child: "in the pond".. most. Will name and sound the letters of the alphabet. e.g. Some struc tures are still used as bloc ks but language starts to be adapted for specific purposes. task solving. Know what specific topic you are going to do eac h day and prepare the language for it. c reative ac tivities and projec t work are now important parts of the FL learning process. I've got a dog. Will begin to relate the spoken word to the written word. very. At around seven years old. Will speak more c learly and audibly and use conventions such as hello. elementary project work. please. too. children begin to show systemic awareness. next. usually with where/what. last. but at the same time as other children rather than interac ting. before. Teac her: "Who's this?" Boy/girl: "He's Aladdin. c hildren are using language to acquire the language itself as well as c ross-curric ular knowledge. every. c hants. etc. e. rhymes.• • • • • • • Will use simple grammatic al structures. begin to break down bloc k language into separate c onstituents and begin to show a desire to understand exac t equivalents in their mother tongue. songs.. Will begin to ask simple questions. Will take turns.. Will negotiate and interact with the teac her and classmates. etc. Systemic awareness is strong and information gap. after. draw conc lusions and make predictions. jingles. Who. Will enjoy spoken and written language and will respond to stories. e. identify initial and final sounds in words and write simple words.g.g. What's your name? What c olour's this? Where’s my book?. The following are typical topic s for early learners: . It’s amazing how muc h time you can spend speaking in English if you try and that’s just what your c hildren need! Here are ten ideas to help you. etc . Will extend vocabulary for grouping. Answer questions of Where. bec ause. tasks. the table's red. Whilst Total Physical Response. each. all. By around 11 years old.g. Ten hints for keeping the class in English.Around six years old (51/2-61/2) The child: • • • • • • • • • • • Will begin to use more c omplex time c onc epts to talk about yesterday. stories and rhymes are still important. Can I? Will you? I think. 1. e. e. bye. etc. etc. Begin to give explanations. etc. Whose.

Where’s Ana today? etc . by teacher or Teddy. a/the. puppets and the c hildren themselves. you/I. That’s a nic e sweater. princess. songs. etc. 4. this/that.) 22) Personal identification (girl/boy. shops. holidays. rainbow. date. Easter. story or rhyme once only. etc. furniture. with your voice. Keep “routine times” using the same language every day. your/my. zoo. ground. 5. Doing the weather.1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) The weather Parts of the body Action and movement Clothes The family The environment (city and country. Dramatise the stories. Use Teddy or another mascot to enc ourage expression and to attrac t and keep attention. etc. Birthday. songs. etc) The house (building.g. The following are some ideas for routines.) Food and drink Adjectives (size. names.) The natural world (sun.) Special occasions (Christmas. Don’t use a song. etc) Colours Places to visit (farm.) Counting Animals and animal noises People and professions Magical characters (witch.) 2. Saying goodbye and leaving 3. etc. growing up. Goldilocks. times.) The passage of time and change (seasons. etc . rooms. Use stories. stars. Teddy?” Circle Time “Teddy asks the questions” Circ le Time “Let’s count” wall chart time “Let’s play a game” time “Let’s sing” time “Let’s paint a pic ture” time “Let’s make” time “Let’s look at the world” time “Let’s chant” time “Let’s listen to the c assette” time “Let’s do a puzzle” time “Let’s tell a story” time “Let’s guess” time Putting things away Putting on c oats “Time to go (home)”. introductions. flower. etc. season and cloc k chart Changing Teddy’s c lothes and/or a wall-c hart child’s clothes ac cording to the weather Watering the plants or looking after a pet Getting out equipment “How are you today. e. Coming in. days. 7. months. crockery and cutlery. there you are. tree. appearance) Music and instruments Games and toys Location (prepositions. you/me. etc. school. Oooh it is cold today. here/there. Learn a set of expressions and phrases that c an be used in every session. Turn it into a routine and use it many times . Is María here? Oh yes. fire station. shape. rhymes and associated games and ac tivities as a fundamental part of the session. 6. park. sky. moon. Learn language associated to various festivals. taking plac es and greeting Taking the register and individual comments. surroundings. ancestors. seaside. local area. etc.

stop speaking at parts that the c hildren know well and let them “fill in” those parts themselves. 10. e. concepts and elements of collective memory. gives children confidence. they help you to keep the class in English. which eventually form part of a language. picture books and posters as routines. 8. rhymes. Don’t use a song. it’s very (big). you will be able to make spontaneous use of these without having to depend on a CD or cassette! Being able to say something. if you build up your own personal repertoire of songs. which inspires us to learn in order to repeat. Music and rhythm produc e a feeling of pleasure. How big is it? Is it big or small? leaving a word open for c hildren to say whilst gesturing. and can be used in the c lassroom together with rhymes. isn’t it? using a song that the children know as a “tell-it-yourself” story. 1. soc ial attitudes and so on. However. “When Goldilocks goes to the (house) of the (bears). teddies. Learn a series of expressions and ways of building your own expressions for behavioural purposes. stories and games form an intrinsic part of linguistic c ulture and are important not only for the ac quisition of schematic knowledge (language and notions that all members of the mother tongue share) but also because: they provide a natural way of learning blocks of language. jingles. letting children speak through puppets. e. Any vocabulary or structures taught through a song will be remembered at a later stage and will help the older child to adapt and put into practice the knowledge acc umulated. linguistic culture also inc ludes essential c onc epts suc h as behavioural norms and their associated language. whic h are the equivalents in language of sound. Turn it into a routine and use it many times throughout the course. they can be used to acquire certain skills. stress and intonation. Why sing and chant in class? Firstly. bec ause everybody remembers songs and rhymes learnt at sc hool or learnt at any time during life. rhymes. A few basic hints on intonation These three very simple notions are easy to learn and apply and will make a huge differenc e to your intonation in the classroom. what do her (blue eyes) see? A (bear) that is (big) and a (bear that is small) and a (bear) that is (tiny) and (that is all) and she (counts) them (one. and will spontaneously take part in.g. To do this. etc. Learn ways of helping c hildren to “bring out” language. 9. young children have an intrinsic interest in. rhythm and music. story or rhyme once only. . rhythm and music. c hants and story refrains to help children acquire and use the English "music " or intonation. Finally. even just a song or rhyme. sound. c hildren's songs and nursery rhymes inc lude many expressions. Use wall-c harts.7. such as: giving options after a question. using linguistic routines Finally. Song is the music al representation of a language. three). Yes. Linguistic Culture Children’s songs. they are essential for intonation. telling stories with refrains.g. thereby practising pronunciation. Secondly. The voic e tends to go up when information is not finished and for YES/NO questions. stories and assoc iated activities. two. and perhaps the most important reason.

to participate. nouns. negative and final place auxiliaries and modals). to give a very simple example. In English songs. Pussy Cat. so the song itself c an help c hildren to reproduc e intonation. that “red” is the English word that c orresponds to “rojo”. as desc ribed in the general Early Learning goals below. Pussy Cat. Block language and structure assimilation through songs and rhymes Look at this children’s rhyme. adverbs. The voic e tends to go down when information is finished and for WH-questions and the second part of option questions. in the Early Learning environment. a cat is smaller than a child Past time Power relationships (c at v. They are also learning about their world in general and incorporating other c oncepts into their store of knowledge. the tune tends to show the same voic e movements as the words. doctor. etc .) Geographical notions and distanc e – other places exist outside the loc al environment Forms of address – double use of name for respect and for attracting attention (typic ally found in children’s stories and jokes – e. c hildren are learning to learn.e. espec ially children’s songs. to c ontrol different kinds of movement. such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • What a cat is What a mouse is The charac teristic behaviour of cat and mouse The concept of c hasing and fleeing for survival The spatial concept of under a chair Size – big and small Size in relation to spac e (i. mummy. they • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . mummy. if they play the game related to the rhyme. adjectives. queen. to take turns. At the same time. Pussy Cat. pussy cat. what did you do there? I chased a little mouse under a chair. fitting in/under) Comparative size – a cat is bigger than a mouse. doctor.g. Can you say what aspects of English a c hild can naturally assimilate with this rhyme? You will find some suggestions below.under Diminutive of cat However. etc . The voic e tends to sound louder longer and higher on stressed words (usually main verbs.2. pussy cat. Here are just a few suggestions: Downward voic e movement for WH-questions Stressing and linking acc ording to meaning and function Use of where and what Struc ture of questions Difference between been and gone Use of present perfect for completed ac tions without an established time Relationship between time and plac e Change of tense – present perfect to past simple – when plac e is determined Contraction of I’ve Adjective + noun Use of determiners a and the Function of to for movement and purpose Preposition of place . When older Young Learners (6+) learn. It is amazing how much a child c an learn from such a little rhyme! Learning across the curriculum – Black is Black! Perhaps the hardest part for an experienced teacher just moving into Early Learning is to get used to teac hing concepts rather than equivalents. mouse. c hildren not only assimilate linguistic aspects such as those suggested above. where have you been? I’ve been to London to see the Queen. 3. Pussy Cat.

tools and techniques. relating addition to c ombining two groups of objec ts. hear. knowing own body.e. skipping. finding out about and identifying features of living things. counting objec ts reliably up to 3. judging space. form and space in 2 or 3 dimensions. slithering. backwards.manipulating materials and objec ts. throwing. role play and stories. mathematic al development: rec ognising numerals. smell.g. hand-eye c oordination and onehanded ac tivities. jumping off an object and landing. etc. sliding and hopping. sleeping. retrieving. patting. c oordination. exploring and using sound. walking. sense of spac e – stopping and starting. c onstructing objec ts using appropriate resources. sideways and forwards. should ideally cover all areas and ultimate goals of the early learning stage. rolling. designing and making. health and body – understanding good health habits for eating. swinging. touc hing. e. responding in a variety of ways to what they see. So. Our resourc es. c ommunicating their ideas. therefore. arranging. but also the world. not something which eac h c hild is required to demonstrate! A lot will depend on personalities and it is important that c hildren are treated as individuals.finding out about past and present events in their own lives. catc hing. buttoning. using everyday words to describe position. using imagination in art and design. adjusting speed or c hanging direction to avoid obstacles. 5 and 10. i. . danc e. solving prac tical problems. imagination and safety in a range of ways. investigating objects and materials using all senses as appropriate. it makes sense to work hand in hand with the general c urriculum teac her and to be aware of general early learning goals. and in those of their families and other people they know observing and identifying features in their loc al environment and in the natural world. imaginative play. calc ulating.already have an understanding of the conc ept of “red” in their “knowledge of the world”. climbing equipment/steps and directions. confidence. exerc ising and hygiene. suitable tools. objec ts and events observed. e. posting. using number names in familiar contexts. knowledge and understanding of the world: showing an awareness of change. crawling. the name “red” and also what “red” is. thoughts and feelings by using a widening range of materials. sliding. shape. negotiating spac e succ essfully when playing games. relating subtraction to ‘taking away’.. running. picking up. size and weight. physical development: gross motor skills . kicking. pulling.moving with control. using apparatus – pushing. shuffling. comparing quantity. jumping. imaginative role play. fastening. movement. fine motor skills . and a variety of songs and music al instruments. However. music . talking about. music al instruments and movement. touc h and feel. describing the shape and size of solid and flat shapes. texture. respecting others’ personal spac e. We are teaching not only language. the early learner is learning that “red” is “red”. recognising and rec reating simple patterns. balancing. threading. releasing. whic h might be very simply summed up as follows: c reative development: exploring c olour.g. finding out about and identifying the uses of everyday tec hnology and using information and c ommunic ation technology and programmable toys to support their learning. whilst rec ognising that these are a guideline on c hildren’s development. rhythm. gaining a sense of time and plac e .

food. making a “train” behind the “head” until all the monkeys are eaten. Making hand and finger puppets. Position. The crocodile game is self-explanatory. working as part of a group or class. habitat. etc. Mr Crocodile. religions and beliefs. Catching. learning to show c uriosity and initiative. Making a crocodile train to c ross the room. . that monkey bec omes part of the crocodile. considering the consequences of words and actions. Learning to work together (to form the c rocodile and move together to catch the monkeys). (See below). Creative development Exploring sound and rhythm (fast and slow). self-confidenc e and self-esteem. but remember that when the c rocodile SNAPS with its arms and c atches a monkey. Acting out the song. Making masks. learning to respect other c ultures. (See below).[i] Crocodile Curriculum Here is a very simple but extremely enjoyable rhyme for young children. developing awareness of own needs. Using finger puppets to dramatise the rhyme. understanding what is right and wrong and why. c harac teristic . Making puppets. habitat. Physical development – gross motor skills Moving slowly and quietly. c harac teristic. taking turns and sharing fairly. Learning that eating makes you grow. understanding the need for agreed values and c odes of behaviour. addition + subtraction. social and emotional development: being aware of home. views and feelings and those of others. Cutting out. We have shown how the rhyme links across the curric ulum and included some other activities (see below) apart from the game itself. etc. Conc ept of monkey. although we are sure you can think of many more! 3+ Three/Five little monkeys (Three) Five little monkeys sit in a tree Along comes a c roc odile very quietly “Hey.personal. Physical development – fine motor skills Tracing a zigzag c roc odile shape (head and teeth). food. Considering the consequenc es of words and actions (taunting produces a reaction). you can’t catch me!” SNAP Knowledge and understanding of the world Conc ept of croc odile. Trac ing rounded monkey shapes. concentration and self-c ontrol. Exploring colour and shape. Learning a rhyme. Mathematical Development Number recognition. school and community and learning to bec ome independent. social and emotional development Learning to take turns (to be the crocodile or monkeys). Drama. Personal. Using yogurt pot crocodiles to c atch monkeys. Colouring.

d) Colour and cut out the monkeys and stic k the tail round to the body. a) Colour the crocodile’s head and the monkeys and cut out. Mr Croc odile snaps arms round a monkey and takes the monkey away. sn Title of respect – Mr Singular (crocodile comes) and plural (monkeys sit) Subject-verb inversion after adverb of direc tion Adverb of manner ending “ly” Number + adjec tive + noun group – three little monkeys Modal – c an’t Hey – attracting attention Bloc k language – you can’t catc h me Speech ac t . Draw a crocodile. cut out and stic k monkeys in the c ircles. Finger puppets. paint it green and stic k it on the bottom of the carton/cup. 1 c hild is Mr Croc odile.thr. ac cording to age. If 4 are in the tree. c ) Draw a number of monkeys in each crocodile’s tummy. Monkeys only sing the taunting line. are monkeys. d) Stick the monkeys on the poster using the Velc ro. 3. colour and cut out 5 monkeys (small enough to fit into the crocodile’s tummy) and stick a piece of Velc ro on the back of eac h monkey. b) Stick 5 pieces of Velcro in the c roc odile’s tummy and 5 on different branches of the tree. 1 is in the crocodile’s tummy. That monkey makes a train holding the first c hild by the shoulders or waist and Mr Crocodile is now a bit longer. 5. kw. c hildren throw a dice and c atc h the right number of monkeys. 4. etc. a) b) c) d) e) f) Use yoghurt cartons or plastic cups. The Crocodile’s Tummy Puzzle Sheet 2 .Language development Rec iting a rhyme Stress. The chant is repeated until all the monkeys have been “eaten” and Mr Croc odile is very big. Teac her c alls a number and children must c atch the right number of monkeys. The Crocodile’s Tummy Puzzle Sheet 1 a) Draw five crocodiles. b) Draw a tree with 5 branches and a large number (1-5) on eac h branch. c ) Stick a strip of card on the back of eac h jaw so that you c an open and close the mouth using a scissor movement of the forefinger and ring finger. c r. Mr Crocodile c omes along very quietly (lower voice to loud whisper level for this line) with arms stretched in a scissor movement. rhythm and linking Sound clusters . All children c hant and dramatise the rhyme. 6. d) Children join each crocodile to the correct number in the tree acc ording to the number of monkeys in its tummy.SNAP Mr Crocodile Activities 1. to make finger puppets. “Catching Monkeys” game. 5 or 10 c hildren. Alternatively. e) Open the crocodile’s mouth and “eat” the monkeys. Draw circles (3 or 5) on a sheet of A4 paper using the rim of the carton/cup. using sellotape. (See below) b) Use a paper fastener to join the bottom jaw to the top jaw. tr. 2. Draw. c ) Draw. The Crocodile’s Tummy Wall Chart a) Make a large poster of a crocodile and a tree with several branches. Mr Crocodile Game 3.

2. (1994) The Study of Sec ond Language The Macmillan website onestopenglish.indexnet. UK On-line Information CILT. and Myles. López Tellez. R. 4. Communication. www. 2000.a) Draw a series of five c roc odile-tree images. (1993) Beginning English with Young (Also has useful links to other related websites. Department for Educ ation and Employment. S.nnell.educastur. www. Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research. 4. Rodríguez Suárez.c om The Longman Pearson website longman. Dunn.) Nacell National Network for Early Language Learning. M. From Practice to Principle. Arnold. 2000. (1999) Ring a ring of roses: reflexiones y propuestas para trabajar la lengua inglesa en educ ac ión has many useful links to general and specific early learning websites Resources All the above mentioned websites offer a variety of resourc e books either for purchase or for free use. 3. F. (Eds. Department for Educ ation and Employment. CPR Oviedo. (1992) Teaching English in the Primary Classroom. 2000. c ilt. J. et al. UK Planning for learning in the foundation stage QCA Qualific ations and Curriculum Authority. R. and Tongue. Early Learning Curriculum The following documents can be downloaded from the QCA website (see below).qca. . www. O. Moon. All that remains to say is that early learning is about learning through play so have fun and enjoy it! BIBLIOGRAPHY Teac hers moving into the Early Learning EFL area might find the following areas helpful: 3. Rodríguez. UK www. Department for Educ ation and Employment. Universidad de Oviedo. Servic io de publicac iones.santillana. 2000. (2002) Teacher Training and the Teaching of Foreign Languages in the Early Stages.T. 5. Department for Education and Employment. Oxford University Press Mitchell. QCA Qualifications and Curric ulum Authority.) QCA Qualific ations and Curriculum Authority. T. c ) Children complete the images by drawing the number of monkeys left in the tree. First and Sec ond Language Acquisition Early Learning EFL Teac hing Early Learning Curriculum On-line Information Resources First and Second Language Acquisition The Santillana website www. 1. Collins..) (1991) Teaching English to Children. R. b) Draw a number of monkeys in the crocodile’s tummy for each image. UK Curriculum guidance in the foundation (Also has useful links to other related websites. (2004) Second Language Learning C.) European Early Language Learning Teac her Training Project. Early Learning EFL Teaching Brumfit. 5. (Also has useful links to other related websites. QCA Qualific ations and Curric ulum Authority. language and literacy. 2. MacMillan Halliwell.

UK . The teac her’s notes c orresponding to various course books are usually full of good advice and ideas. 2000. [i] Adapted from Curriculum guidance in the foundation use. Department for Education and Employment. QCA Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.

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