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DOA: SEPT 2,2010 DOR: DOS: NOV25,2010

Submitted to: by:

Mr.Omkar Nath Khera Deptt. Of electronics RK6005A19


Mr. Amandeep Singh

Roll. No.

Reg.No. 11000597 Class K6005


It acknowledges all the contributors involved in the preparation of this project. Including me, there is a hand of my teachers, some books and internet. I express most gratitude to my subject teacher, who guided me in the right direction. The guidelines provided by her helped me a lot in completing the assignment.

The books and websites I consulted helped me to describe each and every point mentioned in this project. Help of original creativity and illustration had taken and I have explained each and every aspect of the project precisely.

At last it acknowledges all the members who are involved in the preparation of this project.





A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC or microchip). The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words. Other embedded uses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc., followed soon after. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first generalpurpose microcomputers from the mid-1970s on.

During the 1960s, computer processors were often constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing from tens to a few hundred transistors. The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip greatly reduced the cost of processing power. From these humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.

Since the early 1970s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has been a consequence of Moore's Law, which suggests that the number of transistors that can be fitted onto a chip doubles every two years. Although originally calculated as a doubling every year Moore later refined the period to two years. It is often incorrectly quoted as a doubling of transistors every 18 months.

In the late 1990s, and in the high-performance microprocessor segment, heat generation (TDP), due to switching losses, static current leakage, and other factors, emerged as a leading developmental constraint.


The 8086 was the first 16-bit Microprocessor to be introduced by IntelCorporation. It is designed to be upwardly compatible with the older 8080/8085 series of8-bit microprocessors. The upward compatibility allows programs written for the8080/8085 to be easily converted to run on the 8086.

The word 16-bit means that its arithmetic logical unit, internal registers, and mostof its instructions are designed to work with 16-bit binary words. The 8086 has a 16-bitdata bus, so it can read data form or write data to memory and ports either 16-bits or 8-bits at a time. The 8086 has a 20-bit address bus, so it can address any one of220 or1,048,576 memorylocations. Each of the 1,048,576 memory addresses of the 8086represents a byte-wide location. Words will be stored in two consecutive memorylocations. If the first byte of a word is at an even address, the 8086 can read the entireword in one operation. If the first byte of the word is at an odd address, the 8086 will readthe first byte of the word in one operation, and the second byte in another operation.


It is a 16-bit p. 8086 has a 20 bit address bus can access upto 220 memory locations (1 mb). It can support up to 64K I/O ports. It provides 14, 16 -bit registers. Word size is 16 bits and double word size is 4 byte. It has multiplexed address and data bus AD0 AD15 and A16-A19. It requires single phase clock with 33% duty cycle to provide internal timing.

8086 is designed to operate in two modes, Minimum and Maximum. It can prefetches upto 6 instrution bytes from memory and queues them in order to speed up instruction execution. It requires +5V power supply A 40 pin dual in line package.. Address ranges from00000H toFFFFFH Memory is byte addressable - Every byte has a separate address.