EUR 25 April 2003


The Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats - EUR25 is a scientific reference document. It is based on the version for EUR15, which was adopted by the Habitats Committee on 4. October 1999 and consolidated with the new and amended habitat types for the 10 accession countries as adopted by the Habitats Committee on 14 March 2002.


Interpretation Manual - EUR25

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Technical Handbook. CORINE Biotopes manual.e. 73-109. Corine/Biotopes/89-2. resulting in considerable ambiguities in the interpretation of Annex I on the basis of the CORINE classification. 1991. The Task Force/European Environment Agency thus produced a paper establishing the correspondence between the habitat codes of Annex I and those of the 1991 version of the CORINE classification 4. Interpretation Manual . Animal and plant species names are clearly presented in the Directive and. Habitats of the European Community. culminating in the version of Annex I published in the Official Journal in May 1992.Draft. Consequently. O. In December 1991.2. partially updated 14 February 1989. Definitions had been prepared for the various categories. p. while the Directive was being adopted. 22. EUR 12587/3. a thorough revision of the CORINE classification was published 3. November 1992. CEC-DG XI.EUR25 Page 3 . called Natura 2000. Noirfalise and submitted to the national experts preparing the Directive as a working document in August 1989. in particular involving the division of the latter into sub-types. volume 1. Annex I lists today 218 European natural habitat types. Task Force Agency (EEA-TF). no major additional work needs to be done to allow a correct interpretation of Annex II. Version 1 . to "maintain and restore. the Annex I codes no longer corresponded fully to the codes and descriptive content of the various categories of CORINE. Numerous discussions with the national experts then took place between 1989 and 1991.07. at favourable conservation status. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. natural habitats and species of wild fauna and flora of Community interest". 19 May 1988. 1 2 3 4 Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.WHY THIS MANUAL? Historical review The "Habitats" Directive1 is a Community legislative instrument in the field of nature conservation that establishes a common framework for the conservation of wild animal and plant species and natural habitats of Community importance. A draft list of habitat types for Annex I was therefore drawn up on the basis of this classification by Professor A. Relation between the Directive 92/43/EEC Annex I habitats and the CORINE habitat list 1991 (EUR 12587/3). including 71 priority (i.92 CORINE Biotopes . habitat types in danger of disappearance and whose natural range mainly falls within the territory of the European Union). This revision introduced numerous changes within codes and habitat types.J. L206. This paper also included the description proposed in the 1991 CORINE version for the various habitat types of Annex I. the development of a common agreed definition appeared to be essential for the different habitat types of Annex I. Annex I is based on the hierarchical classification of European habitats developed by the CORINE Biotopes project 2 since that was the only existing classification at European level. it provides for the creation of a network of special areas of conservation. In contrast. despite minor misspellings or use of synonyms.

These new Member States have asked for the introduction in Annex I of several priority habitat types that are restricted or only apply to them. HABITATS 94/3 FINAL). Étude relative au projet de manuel technique d'interprétation de l'Annexe I de la Directive habitats 92/43/CEE . Université Libre de Bruxelles (contrat n° B4-3040/94/000212/MAR/B2). using pragmatic descriptive elements (e. this document was approved by the Habitats Committee in February 1994 (Doc. In September 1993 the Université Libre de Bruxelles finalised the study relating to the interpretation of Annex I priority habitat types. Each sheet gathers the information on national and regional particularities. the Commission agreed the two following points with the national experts: (1) The interpretation work on Annex I should primarily focus on the priority habitat types. On April 1995 the Habitats Committee approved the EUR12 version of the ‘Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats’7. Also available in French under the title 'Manuel d'interpretation des habitat de l'Union européenne' From Doc. the Commission has decided to publish 5 6 7 8 Étude relative au projet de manuel technique d'interprétation de l'Annexe I de la Directive habitats 92/43/CEE. (2) The CORINE classification (1991 version) provides a basis for a description of the Annex I habitat types. the contributions of the national experts. based on the study of the Université Libre de Bruxelles. An interpretation document was drafted by the Université Libre de Bruxelles. where the experts feel that it is not suitable.Types d'habitats non prioritaires. thus allowing a certain flexibility in the interpretation of these Annex I habitat types. the descriptive sheets of 36 non priority habitats similar to those used for priority habitats. these definitions should be considered 'a minimal interpretation'. and taking into consideration regional variation. which incorporated: i) the descriptive sheets for priority habitats8. Janvier 1995. as well as types of associated habitats. operational scientific definitions of habitat types. In order not to delay the distribution of the manual. ii) iii) The contents of the manual did not take into account the accession of Austria. Finland and Sweden. Following a call for proposals the Commission charged Professor Thanghe from the Université Libre de Bruxelles to prepare a draft manual 5. discussed in a meeting of the Scientific Working Group (December 1994) and revised accordingly 6. Rapport final. an operational scientific description should be produced from the contributions of the national experts. Rapport final. Université Libre de Bruxelles (contrat n° 4-3040(92)15504).The manual Having in mind all these difficulties of classification. expressed in May 1992 the need to prepare a manual for the interpretation of Annex I. The manual for the interpretation of Annex I priority habitat types of the Council Directive 92/43/EEC was compiled by the Commission (DG XI). regional varieties and/or do not cover all the geographical range of an habitat type . some CORINE definitions do not take account of sub-types. the CORINE Biotopes definitions³ for the remaining non priority habitats. the Scientific Working Group. September 1993. HABITATS 94/3 FINAL Interpretation Manual . which has resulted in the inclusion of a new biogeographical region (the Boreal region) in the Directive.EUR25 Page 4 .this fact should be recognised. characteristic plants). This study focused on the drafting of an eight field descriptive sheet drawn up on the basis of written and oral scientific contributions from the national experts. the experts identified a set of 36 non priority habitat types also causing interpretation problems.g. and the CORINE classification (1991 version). Following several meetings of the Scientific Working Group. not exclusive. Following the adoption of the priority habitats manual. set up by the Habitats Committee (established by Directive 92/43/EEC). which establish clear.

In the frame of the Accession Treaty 2003. L305. or adds.11.1997. namely with the inclusion of the Nordic vegetation classification. THE EUR15 VERSION The prime objective of the EUR15 version was to update the old EUR12 version. on the basis of the information contained in the PHYSIS database. phytosociological units and references. new consolidated annexes were prepared including the 20 new habitat types.. Alpine. A classification of Palaearctic habitats. p.1. This work was adopted by the Habitats Committee on 13.135) Devillers. (1993). The EUR15 version updated the definitions of those habitat types for which the CORINE 1991 has been used. J. In a second step. these often isolated occurrences have a major scientific and conservation 9 Accession Act of Austria. etc. Medio-European.that first version (EUR12) and envisaged the preparation of a second version (EUR15) in order to incorporate new information (mainly on distribution and regional sub-types). it is intended that the definitions of this manual should take precedence. 8.9. P. the CORINE codes are also replaced by the 'Palaearctic codes'. signed in April 2003 in Athens. The 2nd edition adopted on the 4th October 1999 included amendments for the Boreal biogeographical region to the Annex I12 and the removal of the reference to the geographical distribution of habitats (which is included in the reference lists of the habitats types by biogeographic region). In fact. meaning that they have their main occurrence in a given biogeographical region. O. comments from both Accession Countries and Member States were taken into account. & Devillers-Terschuren. THE EUR25 VERSION The EUR25 version of the Interpretation Manual includes descriptions of new habitats and amendments to some existing habitats resulting from the expected addition of 10 new Member states in May 2004.EUR25 Page 5 . The lists of plants in particular are usually a composite of both sources.J. a computer database tool (PHYSIS11) was developed to support this work. Accordingly. Finland and Sweden (OJ L1. it further incorporates comments for other Annex I habitats occurring in those Member States.1995. Additionally several of the habitat types proposed have been agreed to be variations of existing habitats and therefore some amendments to existing habitats were necessary in order to reflect the habitats as found in the EU25 area.1996. which led to the new definitions enclosed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe 11 Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 12 Council Directive 97/62/EC of 27 October 1997 adapting to technical and scientific progress Directive 92/43/EC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Finland and Sweden joined the Union9. and respective descriptions of these new types were adopted by the Habitats Committee on 14 March 2002. newly acquired information. 20 new habitat types were accepted to be added to Annex I. The fact that many of the habitat types of Annex I are qualified by biogeographical terms such as Mediterranean. This description was then compared with the information given in the proposal from accession countries and if judged necessary amended. does not exclude the possibility of finding the same habitat types in other biogeographical regions. In situations where ambiguities exist between the definitions contained in this manual and those of the Palaearctic habitats classification or PHYSIS data base. and corrects.1. this classification was supplemented in 1995 with text descriptions. Descriptive sheets were added for the 11 priority types attached to Annex I when Austria. The 1991 classification (Habitats of the European Community) was extended in 1993 to the whole Palaearctic region10. Accession Countries and the European Commission. After extensive discussions among Member States. 10 Interpretation Manual . The descriptions of new habitats have been prepared by the European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity using the PHYSIS database as the main source.

German classification : "100401 Krähenbeer-Heide der Küsten".22. In: van der Maarel. M. Ericion tetralicis p. nigrum sub-community". 16. regional varieties. Amsterdam.Manus. Empetrum nigrum.In Germany highly endangered coastal Empetrum nigrum heathland on the Geest are included. 5) Mc. 3) Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H11b Calluna vulgaris-Carex arenaria heath community. Olsson. #=nonpriority from Annex II/IV. The users of the manual will need to employ a certain flexibility of interpretation. Dundrum. grey dunes (16. Thesis. 4) Humid dune slacks (16. correspondence with other classification systems. Northern Ireland.general description of the vegetation. Co.value.EUR25 Page 6 . pp. University of Ulster.: 16. Name of the habitat type. Dry coastal ecosystems. The term "fixed" should be taken to mean the opposite of "shifting"..Phil. this is the four digit code given in the Natura 2000 standard data-entry form (Appendix B) 2140 * Decalcified fixed dunes with Empetrum nigrum PAL. 2) Plants: Carex arenaria. Down. Pyrola rotundifolia. Plant community dynamics on sand dunes at Murlough National Nature Reserve. Elsevier. +=Annex IV only) 1) Decalcified dunes colonised by Empetrum nigrum heaths of the coasts. D.) Ecosystems of the world 2A. The psychrophilic coastal association Carici trinervis-Callunetum vulgaris de Foucault & Gehu 78 may be included here. Calluno Genistion pilosae p. zonations or mosaics) Bibliographical references. 131143. others than those mentioned in the "PHYSIS" database Interpretation Manual . Dry coastal ecosystems of southern Sweden. E. H. (1988).22). (1993). origin Characteristic animal and plant species.25). Empetrum nigrum ssp. including details of their occurrence in Annex II and IV (*=priority. polar regions and Europe. Genista tinctoria. an asterisk (*) indicates a priority habitat Natura 2000 code. sub-types.CLASS. (ed. abiotic features. syntaxa. particularly in those areas where the habitat types are very fragmentary and influenced by human activities.23 Code(s) based on "A classification of Palaearctic habitats" 1995 version Definition . wooded dunes (16.3). Explanatory Notes The habitat types are grouped and sorted according to Annex I of the Directive. typical sites Habitat types generally associated in the field (phytodynamic successions. Corresponding categories. Nordic classification: "4143 Calluna vulgaris-Empetrum nigrum-Carex arenaria-typ". Syntaxa associated to this habitat type: Empetrion nigri.

Invertebrate communities of sandy sublittoral (e. H. free living species of the Corallinaceae family. Sea-shore vegetation around the Gulf of Bothnia. Pattern and dynamics of macrobenthos in a sandy bottom Zostera marina community in Tvärminne. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1120 PAL.34 * Posidonia beds (Posidonion oceanicae) Beds of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile characteristic of the infralittoral zone of the Mediterranean (depth: ranging from a few dozen centimetres to 30 . Hällfors..125. in particular Melanitta nigra but also Gavia stellata and Gavia arctica. G.EUR25 Page 7 . polychaetes). Around Tenerife. Hippocampus ramulosus. Nordic classification : "4411 Zostera marina-typ". Wahlenbergia 5:1-142. "4412 Ruppia maritima-typ".COASTAL AND HALOPHYTIC HABITATS Open sea and tidal areas 1110 PAL.CLASS. but are sensitive to desalination. "030202a Sandbank der Nordsee (ständing wasserbedeckt)". (1979). FishEpinephelus guaza. (1977).: 11. Plants: Posidonia oceanica.22. Echinoderms.40 metres). They can withstand relatively large variations in temperature and water movement.-G. IV.g. these beds constitute one of the main climax communities.#Pinna nobilis. Animals: Molluscs.Asterina pancerii. generally requiring a salinity of between 36 and 39‰. Littoral benthos of the northern Baltic Sea. Plants: Zostera marina. Halophila decipiens communities Animals: Important wintering habitat for many bird species. These sandbanks can be found in association with mudflats and sandflats (1140). Lappalainen.: 11. Water depth is seldom more than 20 m below Chart Datum. Corresponding categories : German classification : "040202a Sandbank der Ostsee (ständing wasserbedeckt)". A. permanently submerged. P. Ruppia cirrhosa and Tolypella nidifica. & Wallentinus. & Kangas. July-August 1977. In the Baltic Sea also Potamogeton pectinatus.31 Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time Sublittoral sandbanks. Ericson. 11. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . Paracentrotus lividus. On hard or soft substrate. Resting places for seals. 11. Non-vegetated sandbanks or sandbanks with vegetation belonging to the Zosteretum marinae and Cymodoceion nodosae. L. Guide for the International Society for Vegetation Science.CLASS.

F. brackish water vegetation of permanent pools by use of those of 11. most sediments deposit to form a delta at the mouth of the estuary. eelgrass communities that may be exposed for a few hours in the course of every tide have been listed under 11. Animals: Invertebrate benthic communities. Plants: Benthic algal communities. An estuary forms an ecological unit with the surrounding terrestrial coastal habitat types.. Les mots de la géographie-dictionnaire critique. usually coated by blue algae and diatoms. rostellata (Ruppietea)). The diverse intertidal communities of invertebrates and algae that occupy them can be used to define subdivisions of 11.und Standortsuntersuchungen in den Strandwiesen der schwedischen Westküste. their connected seas and associated lagoons. Acta Phytogeogr. devoid of vascular plants.EUR25 . Ed./od. Scirpus spp.: 13. Gillner. subject to the tide and extending from the limit of brackish waters. 43:1-198. et al (1987). Sarcocornia perennis (Arthrocnemetea).27. de Beaufort.4. Tidenhub eingeschlossen werden". considered as an estuary subtype.CLASS. T. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle .CLASS.: 14 Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide Sands and muds of the coasts of the oceans. 1130 PAL. "050106 Süßwasserwatt im Tideeinfluß des Nordsee". Livre rouge des espèces menacées de France . R. Vegetations. with large wetland vegetation (helophytic) and luxurious aquatic vegetation in shallow water areas. They are of particular importance as feeding grounds for wildfowl and waders. Potamogeton spp. Phragmites australis. these different habitat types should not be separated.. Where the tidal currents are faster than flood tides. Corresponding categories German classification : "D2a Ästuare (Fließgewässermündungen mit Brackwassereinfluß u. Baltic river mouths. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1140 PAL. In terms of nature conservation.tome 2. unlike 'large shallow inlets and bays' there is generally a substantial freshwater influence.. 11. Brunet. Zostera noltii (Zosteretea) or vegetation of brackish water: Ruppia maritima (= R. Reclus.2. Spartina maritima (Spartinetea). Suec. often forming extensive intertidal sand and mud flats. have brackish water and no tide. Ed.g. River estuaries are coastal inlets where. "050105 Brackwasserwatt des Ästuare an der Nordsee". (1960).5) Belsher. Myriophyllum spp. Page 8 1) Interpretation Manual . important feeding areas for many birds. Both species of fresh water and brackish water can be found in Baltic river mouths (Carex spp. espèces marines et littorales menacées. et al. and this reality must be taken into account during the selection of sites.Paris.3. The mixing of freshwater and sea water and the reduced current flows in the shelter of the estuary lead to deposition of fine sediments. W.2 Estuaries Downstream part of a river valley.). Zostera beds e. not covered by sea water at low tide.

65-94. Acta Bot. connivens. wholly or partially separated from the sea by sand banks or shingle. providing they had their origin on a transformed natural old lagoon or on a saltmarsh.Victorella pavida. Palmer.Edwardsia ivelli. Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems. Typha spp. The aquatic macrophyte vegetation of flads and gloes.(Chara tomentosa).: 21 * Coastal lagoons Lagoons are expanses of shallow coastal salt water. Ranunculus baudotii. S. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. by rocks. S coast of Finland. Bryozoa. With or without vegetation from Ruppietea maritimae. Murex sp. 309 . Najas marina. Amphibians. Phragmites australis. more or less delimited water bodies still connected to the sea or have been cut off from the sea very recently by land upheaval. Saltmarshes form part of this complex. (1992).Brachionus sp..Salt basins and salt ponds may also be considered as lagoons. Fish. nidifica.A. 26..L.K. Fennica (in print). Crustaceans. I. Munsterhjelm. less frequently. Bell. Characterised by well-developed reedbeds and luxuriant submerged vegetation and having several morphological and botanical development stages in the process whereby sea becomes land. evaporation and through the addition of fresh seawater from storms. Plants: Callitriche spp. Salinity may vary from brackish water to hypersalinity depending on rainfall. Corresponding categories German classification : "0906 Strandsee". R.Artema sp. (1988).. Zosteretea or Charetea (CORINE 91: 23.Flads and gloes. (1992). Rotifera .Cyprinus sp.. On the ecology of brackish lagoons in Great Britain.21 or 23.3) are included in this habitat type.Testudo sp. Stratiotes aloides. Polychaeta. "240601 Brackwassersee im Ostseeküstenbereich". usually shallow. In flads and gloes also Chara ssp. Mullus barbatus. Barnes. M. C. Potamogeton pectinatus.22). (1995). or. considered a Baltic variety of lagoons. . and are characterised by a minor impact from exploitation. Reptiles. Molluscs. Potametea..Armandia cirrhosa. 1150 PAL. Eleocharis parvula.. temporary flooding of the sea in winter or tidal exchange.CLASS.. Tolypella n. Butterfield. R. Lamprothamnion papulosum.. 2.. A botanical classification of standing waters: Applications for conservation and monitoring.EUR25 Page 9 . Chara canescens. . 125-143. 2.S. Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems.18.Note: Eelgrass communities (11.. Lemna trisulca. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Bamber et al. C. Ruppia maritima. are small. baltica.Hyla sp. The faunas of landlocked lagoons: chance differences and problems of dispersal. of varying salinity and water volume. Animals: Cnidaria. Potamogeton ssp.Abra sp.

Animals: Benthic invertebrate communities. Seegraswiesen)". P. Plants: Brown algae (species of the Fucus. in contrast to estuaries.24. . Potamogeton spp. pectinatus. A red algae zone occurs below the Fucus zone at depths of about 5 to 10 m.: 11. green algae.5-6 m in the sublittoral zone. ABF 50. geringe Belastung". Ceramiceae and Rhodomelaceae families). Laurencia obtusa. Verbreitung und Ökologie der höheren Wasserpflanzen im Brackwasser der Ekenäs-Gegend in Süd-Finnland. Interpretation Manual . Bryozoa and cirripedian Crustacea for example). Other plant species: Dictyota dichotoma. incl. I. II Spezieller Teill. Animals: Mussel beds (on rocky substrates).g. P. The limit of shallow water is sometimes defined by the distribution of the Zosteretea and Potametea associations.25 Reefs Submarine.In northern Baltic areas. species of the Corallinaceae. (e. These communities have generally a high biodiversity. These shallow 13 indentations are generally sheltered from wave action and contain a great diversity of sediments and substrates with a well developed zonation of benthic communities. Ruppia maritima. which arise from the sea floor in the sublittoral zone but may extend into the littoral zone where there is an uninterrupted zonation of plant and animal communities.CLASS. rocky substrates and biogenic concretions. Plants: Zostera spp. encrustations and corallogenic concretions. 1370. 1) 2) 3) 5) 1170 PAL. the upper shallow water filamentous algal-zone with great annual succession is normally well developed on gently sloping shores. invertebrate specialists of hard marine substrates (sponges. since the term 'shallow' may have different ecological interpretations according to the physiographic type considered and geographical location. Dasycladus claveformis. 11. Luther. rias and voes. or exposed at low tide.CLASS. benthic algae. "B32 Boddengewässerkomplex. Laminaria and Cystoseira genus. Several physiographic types may be included under this category providing the water is shallow over a major part of the area: embayments. praelongus). 1) 2) 13 National experts consider inappropriate to fix a maximum water depth. the influence of freshwater is generally limited. -buchten. fjards. ABF 49.EUR25 Page 10 .: 12 Large shallow inlets and bays Large indentations of the coast where. Padina pavonica. 1-232.. Acetabularia mediterranea. These reefs generally support a zonation of benthic communities of algae and animals species including concretions. red algae (e. Halopteris scoparia.g. "A2a Flachwasserzonen der Nordsee (Meeresarme u. Corresponding categories German classification : "B31 naturnaher Boddengewässerkomplex". Pilayella littoralis). Hypnea musciformis. Fucus vesiculosus is submerged at depth of 0. (1951).1160 PAL. Allgemeiner Teil.

The formations are interspersed with gas vents that intermittently release gas. Contrib. M. Ravanko. 1) 2) 5) Sea cliffs and shingle or stony beaches 1210 PAL. Plants: Cakile maritima. Ser. Where an uninterrupted zonation of sublittoral and littoral communities exist.). Stockholm 3:1-29. Matthiola sinuata. Polychaeta. mainly methane. P. Mertensia maritima. Potentilla anserina. Salsola kali.: 17. These formations shelter a highly diversified ecosystem with brightly coloured species. vol. occupying accumulations of drift material and gravel rich in nitrogenous organic matter (Cakiletea maritimae p. Sabellaria)". tricuspidata. ohne Muschelbänke u. and. Mar. glabriuscula). "030209 Sabellaria-Riff des Sublitorals der Nordsee".Cingula striata.3) Corresponding categories German classification : 010204a Riffe der Nordsee (Benthal mit Hartsybstrat. "030207 Miesmuschelbank des Sublitorals der Nordsee".CLASS. The methane most likely originated from the microbial decomposition of fossil plant materials. Alvania punctura. Quantitative investigations of the red algae belt in the Askö area. Askö Lab.EUR25 Page 11 . Ecol. Fennica 79:1-50. "020204a Riffe der Ostsee (Benthal mit Hartsybstrat)".. Univ. Polygonum spp. Northern Baltic proper. Euphorbia 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . brown and red algae in the south-western archipelago of Finland.. Acta Bot. Macroscopic green. consisting of rocks. (particularly A."Bubbling reef" in the Kattegat: submarine landscapes of carbonate-cemented rocks support a diverse ecosystem at methane seeps. O. Dodocaceria concharum. Glaucium flavum. Anthozoa . (1968).Pomatoceros triqueter. "030208 Austernbank des Sublitorals der Nordsee". Animals: Porifera. Euphorbia peplis.CLASS. (1992) . Decapoda. (1974). Elymus repens. 83:103-112. particularly in Mediterranean formations. Echinodermata. Gastropoda. et al. parva. the integrity of ecological unit should be respected in the selection of sites.: 11.Ophiotrix fragilis. R.Cliona celata. Cancer pagurus. N. pavements and pillars up to 4 m high. Rissoa albella. Jensen. Tealia felina. These formations are due to the aggregation of sandstone by a carbonate cement resulting from microbial oxidation of gas emmissions.Metridium senile.24 Submarine structures made by leaking gases Spectacular submarine complex structures. Atriplex spp. Kautsky.Porcellana longicornis. Alcyonium digitatum. 4) 5) 1180 PAL. Prog.2 Annual vegetation of drift lines Formations of annuals or representatives of annuals and perennials.

the corresponding association is Caliketum edentulae Conrad. Peterborough. geology and geomorphology. 95-107. Sneddon. On more mature. "4214 Atriplex spp. Eryngium maritimum. Dry coastal ecosystems. 5) 1220 PAL.Channel sea kale communities: Lathyro-Crambetum 17. Honkenya peploides. (1974). shingle coastal forms of grassland.21 Vegetated sea cliffs of the Atlantic and Baltic coasts Vegetated cliffs exhibit a complex pattern of variation reflecting the degree of maritime exposure.33 . W. A wide range of vegetation types may be found on large shingle structures inland of the upper beach. H. Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Cramer. Lathyrus japonicus (17. R. Crithmum maritimum (17.CLASS. In: van der Maarel.-Polygonum aviculare-typ" and "4215 Cakile maritima-typ". on the most exposed cliffs there is a zonation from crevice and ledge communities of the 1) Interpretation Manual .Baltic sea kale communities: Elymo-Crambetum 17. Amsterdam. Elsevier.32 -" SD1 Rumex crispus-Glaucium flavum shingle beach community". 1) 2) 3) 5) 1230 PAL. (1993). E.31). Typically. (1993).EUR25 Page 12 .) Ecosystems of the world 2A.31 . & Randall.32).E. 3) Corresponding categories United Kingdom Classification: "SD2 Honkenya peploides-Cakile maritima strandline community" and "SD3 Matricaria maritima-Galium aparine shingle beach community". "4113 Achillea millefolium-Angelica archangelica-typ". United Kingdom classification: 17. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : 17. heath and scrub vegetation may develop. biogeographical provenance and pattern of human management. pp. Studies on South Swedish sand vegetation. (ed. stable."4112 Crambe maritima-Elytrigia repens-typ". Sub-types 17. In Azores .Atlantic sea kale communities: Crithmo-Crambetum Plants: Crambe maritima.: 17.31 .3 Perennial vegetation of stony banks Perennial vegetation of the upper beaches of great shingle banks. Nordic classification : "4213 Elytrigia repens-typ". Coastal vegetated shingle structures of Great Britain: main report. Olsson. Some areas of unusual vegetation dominated by lichens and bryophytes are found on more mature shingle.: 18. 60.paralias. polar regions and Europe. Leymus arenarius (17. Dry coastal ecosystems of the northern Baltic sea. suec.33).CLASS.32 . In Cyprus this habitat includes endemics such as Taraxacum aphrogenes & Taraxacum hellenicum. Honkenya peploides and other perennial species. Acta phytogeogr. P. formed by Crambe maritima.

Malloch 1973). 2) Plants: Crithmum maritimum. "M11 Festuca rubraDaucus carota ssp. Sedum litoreum. Further inland and on more sheltered cliffs. "H8 Calluna vulgaris-Ulex gallii heath". "MC8 Festuca rubra-Armeria maritima maritime grassland". complex assemblages of maritime and non-maritime vegetation occur. calcareous grassland. Vegetated cliffs and rocky shores of the Mediterranean. "H7 Calluna vulgarisScilla verna heath". Die Pflanzenverteilung auf den Meeresufern von Gotland. "MC9 Festuca rubra-Holcus lanatus maritime grassland". Daucus spp.steepest slopes beside the sea (Crithmo-Armerietalia. Festuca rubra ssp. Cochlearia officinalis.: 18.: 18.. Crithmo-Limonietalia Plants: Crithmum maritimum.. Lavatera arborea. Armeria maritima. Many Limonium species. tall herb. Silene maritima. Limonium spp.23 and 18. Fenn. 1) Interpretation Manual . (1942). 1) 2) 1250 PAL. "MC10 Festuca rubra-Plantago spp. each enriched by floristic elements characteristic of coastal habitats. in particular. are endemics of extremely local occurrence. Corresponding categories United Kingdom Classification: " MC1 Crithmum maritimum-Spergularia rupicola maritime rock crevice". Asplenium marinum.. Sedum anglicum. Brassica oleracea. Euphorbia spp. "MC4 Brassica oleracea maritime cliff ledge"..EUR25 Page 13 . B. Géhu 1964) through to closed maritime grasslands on upper cliff slopes. Limonium spp.CLASS. "M12 Festuca rubra-Hyacinthoides nonscripta maritime grassland". scrub and wind-pruned woodland vegetation. Nordic classification : "4111 Matricaria maritima-Silene uniflora-typ". maritima seabird cliff community". "MC2 Armeria maritima-Ligusticum scoticum maritime rock crevice community". 3) 5) 1240 PAL. Acta Bot. gummifer maritime grassland".24 Vegetated sea cliffs with endemic flora of the Macaronesian coasts Aerohaline communities of the sea-cliffs of the Canaries and Madeira (Frankenio-Astidamietalia latifoliae). Armeria spp. "MC7 Stellaria media-Rumex acetosa seabird cliff community". "H6 Erica vagans-Ulex europaeus heath". Silene sedoides. Plantago maritima. cliff tops and cliff ledges where there is deeper accumulation of soils (Silenion maritimae. Spergularia rupicola. Rhodiola rosea. Plantago subulata. of the Mediterraneo-temperate eastern Atlantic (south-western Iberia) and of the Black Sea. "MC6 Atriplex hastata-Beta vulgaris ssp. Matricaria maritima.22 Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterraneancoasts with endemic Limonium spp. communities of the sea-cliffs of the Azores (Festucion petraeae) dominated by the endemic Festuca petraea. On soft coasts with much active movement. "MC5 Armeria maritima-Cerastium diffusum maritime therophyte community". therophyte. 32:1-282. pruinosa.CLASS. Asteriscus maritimus. these grade into a complex assemblage of maritime and paramaritime types of heath. acid grassland. Scilla verna. maritime grassland".. Englund. Inula crithmoides. "MC3 Rhodiola rosea-Armeria maritima maritime cliff ledge community".. Daucus spp.

Azorina vidalii.Bot. Salsola soda.13 . (1979).Crithmum maritimum. Hordeum marinum. Cochlearia danica. nodosa.-G.24 . in particular Chenopodiaceae of the genus Salicornia or grasses. 18. Plants: 15. Sanda V. Saginetea maritimae.: 15. They are usually limited to small areas and best developed in the zone of contact between dune and saltmarsh. Parapholis incurva. Sea-shore vegetation around the Gulf of Bothnia. Frankenia spp. 1) 2) 3) 5) Interpretation Manual . "4253 Spergularia salina-typ". 15. Ericson. Nordic classification: 15. Asplenium marinum. & Wallentinus. 15. 15.23 . Bupleurum tenuissimum . Lepidium latifolium. Limonium pectinatum.Frankenia pulverulenta.EUR25 Page 14 . Polypogon maritimus. 15. Frankenietea pulverulentae. Spergularia media. 15. azorica.11 . susceptible to temporary inundation and extreme drying. Rev. L.. Spergularia marina. Campylanthus salsoloides. S. Guide for the International Society for Vegetation Science.A) of Eurasia. Suaeda maritima. Chenopodium spp. Salicornia spp. Lotus spp. 15.13 . Sphenopus divaricatus) colonising salt muds of the Mediterranean region. Salsola soda. on the coasts. Hordeum marinum... or sometimes salwort (Salsola spp. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "SM7 Arthrocnemum perenne stands".Atlantic sea-pearlwort communities (Saginion maritimae): formations of annual pioneers occupying sands subject to variable salinity and humidity. Parapholis incurva. Andryala glutinosa.) formations colonising periodically inundated muds of coastal saltmarshes and inland salt-basins.Crypsis spp. P. Cressa cretica.11 .12 . Daucus carota ssp.Sagina maritima.CLASS. strigosa. Tolpis fruticosa. Wahlenbergia 5:1-142.Salicornia spp. seablite (Suaeda maritima). "SM8 Annual Salicornia saltmarsh".1 Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand Formations composed mostly or predominantly of annuals.Festuca petraea. Astydamia latifolia. July-August 1977. Lotus subbiflorus. Euphorbia azorica. Gentiana littorale. Aizoon canariense. 39) de Roumanie. Atlantic and continental salt marshes and salt meadows 1310 PAL."4233 Salicornia strictissima-typ". Cressa cretica. Reichardia ligulata. La cénotaxonomie des phytocénoses halophyles (PuccinellioSalicornietrea Topa.12 . Schizogyna sericea.14 Central Eurasian crypsoid communities : Sparse solonchak formations of annual grasses of genus Crypsis (Heleochloa) colonizing drying muds of humid depressions of the salt steppes and saltmarshes (15. Cyperus pannonicus. P. Plantago coronopus.2) Plants: 18. Sub-types 15. colonising periodically inundated muds and sands of marine or interior salt marshes. Frankenia ericifolia. "4252 Salicornia europaea-typ". strigosa. "SM9 Suaeda maritima saltmarsh" and "SM27 Ephemeral saltmarsh vegetation with Sagina maritima". Sphenopus divaricatus. H.. Plantago coronopus..Roum de Biol. Atriplex spp.Mediterranean halo-nitrophilous pioneer communities (Frankenion pulverulentae): formations of halo-nitrophilous annuals (Frankenia pulverulenta. Suaeda splendens. Suaeda splendens. Microcnemum coralloides). Argyranthemum frutescens. from Pannonia to the Far East. (II)...Glasswort swards (Thero-Salicornietalia): annual glasswort (Salicornia spp. Asplenium marinum. Microcnemum coralloides.11 . (1991). in dune systems and saltmarshes.14 . Thero-Salicornietea. & Popescu A. Sér.

22 . 15.Spartina densiflora. Stockholm. North Sea.2 Spartina swards (Spartinion maritimae) Perennial pioneer grasslands of coastal salt muds. 15.32 . retroflexa.Rush-leaved cordgrass swards: perennial pioneer grasslands of southern Iberian coastal salt muds.Elymus pycnanthus (= Agropyron pungens) or E. alterniflora.Halimione portulacoides. The saltmarsh survey of Great Britain.Atriplex littoralis. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "SM10 Transitional low-marsh vegetation".31 . Plantago maritima. LTs förslag. N.21 . Nordic classification : 15. 96 pp.Puccinellia maritima. S. Halimione portulacoides.: 15. "SM19 Blysmus rufus saltmarsh community" and "SM20 Eleocharis uniglumis community". anglica.1320 PAL.21 .32 . "SM16 Festuca rubra saltmarsh community". (1989). Frankenia laevis. English Channel and Atlantic shores. "SM13 Puccinellia maritima-Triglochin maritima saltmarsh".33 . no. preference should be given to those areas supporting rare or local Spartina. S."422 Övre landstrandens vegetation". Nature Conservancy Council. A.Spergularia marina. When selecting sites. Festuca rubra. Eleocharis spp. Aster tripolium.Spartina maritima. Agrostis stolonifera. Aster tripolium can be present or abundant in most subdivisions. U. Potentilla anserina. Plants: 15.. 1) 2) 3) 5) Interpretation Manual . Matricaria maritima. Blysmus rufus.: 15. 15. "SM18 Juncus maritimus community". 1) 2) 3) 1330 PAL. dominated by flat-leaved Spartina maritima. "SM14 Halimione portulacoides saltmarsh".35 . maritima.. Ekstam. & Forshed. "SM11 Aster tripolium var. S. (1986). 15. 15. repens. D.22 . Sub-types 15.CLASS. 15."4231 Puccinellia maritima-typ". 15. Peterborough.36 . dominated by the junciform-leaved Spartina densiflora. formed by Spartina or similar grasses. F. Juncus gerardii. Artemisia maritima.33 . 17. hastata. Glaux maritima. "SM17 Artemisia maritima community". S. Carex extensa.EUR25 Page 15 . "SM15 Juncus maritimus-Triglochim maritima saltmarsh". Triglochin maritima. Burd. Halimione pedunculata.Armeria maritima.CLASS.Flat-leaved cordgrass swards: perennial pioneer grasslands of coastal salt muds. P. P. Havstrandängar.34 . Plants: 15. Beta maritima. Puccinellia distans. alterniflora. "SM12 Rayed Aster tripolium saltmarsh". fasciculata. discoides saltmarsh".3 Atlantic salt meadows (Glauco-Puccinellietalia maritimae) Salt meadows of Baltic. Research and survey in nature conservation. 15. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "SM4 Spartina maritima saltmarsh" and "SM5 Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh". Johansson. P. townsendii.

Halophytic vegetation periodically inundated by saline or bracking water Plants : Juncus maritimus. *Linum maritimum (15. 1) 2) 3) 4) Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic saltmarshes and salt meadows 1410 PAL.53 . H. German classification : "350301 naturnahe Salzrasen des Binnenlandes". maritimum Trifolium squamosum.5 Mediterranean salt meadows (Juncetalia maritimi) Various Mediterranean communities of the Juncetalia maritimi.: 15. Juncus gerardii.CLASS.short rush. Artificial or partly artificial sites should only be considered here in specific cases where they harbour a species listed in Annex II of the Directive. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "SM23 Spergularia marina-Puccinellietalia distans community". Scorzonera parviflora (15. Salicornia spp. Alopecurus bulbosus. Hordeum nodosum. pungens.EUR25 .4 * Inland salt meadows Non-coastal natural salt basins made up of different habitat types consisting of zones of seepage of saline water. Spergularia salina. J. Page 16 Interpretation Manual .: 15.oder Solquelle". running or stagnant saline water..CLASS. Plants: Aster tripolium. Carex extensa. 1) 2) 14 A revised version of the Palaeartic classification which will include a better coverage of Cyprus is expected to be available in December 2001. Ranunculus ophioglossifolius. sedge and clover saltmarshes (Juncion maritimi) and humid meadows behind the littoral. small salt water courses. E. acutus 15. pycnanthus). Cyprus subtypes14 . Sub-types : 15. rich in annual plant species and in Fabacea (Trifolion squamosi) 15. Plantago cornuti. with typical halophilous vegetation and of reed beds at the edge of brackish waters. michelianum. The different associations are described under point 2) with their characteristic plant species.52 . Elymus atherica (= E. "230602 salzhaltiges stehendes Gewässer (Binnenlandsalzstellen)". Triglochin maritima. Aster tripolium. Atriplex hastata. Salicornia swards and. "230405 Salzbach". T.57 .Iberian salt meadows (Puccinellion fasciculatae) 15.51). Halimione pedunculata.tall rush saltmarshes dominated by Juncus maritimus and/or J. this section may then need amending. salt springs.52). Suaeda maritima.55 . or where there are no remaining natural (primary) examples of the habitat at regional or national level.humid halophilous moors with the shrubby stratum dominated by Artemisia coerulescens (Agropyro-Artemision coerulescentis).51 .mediterranean halo-psammophile meadows (Plantaginion crassifoliae) 15. Puccinellia distans.1340 PAL. less frequently. Plantago maritima. Brackish-water reed beds. Carex divisa.54 .halophilous marshes along the coast and the coastal lagoons (Puccinellion festuciformis) 15. acutus. "2206 Salz.

Halocnemum strobilaceum. Crypsis factorofskyi. Schoenoplectus litoralis. Crypsis schoenoides. alpini. Aeluropus littoralis. Camphorosma monspeliaca. Haloxylum articulatum. Suaeda vera and shrubby Sarcocornia. Spergularia marina (= S. fruticosa. salina). Suaeda pruinosa. Vegetation of lower topographic level (Sarcocornetea): Sarcocornia perennis. Suaeda vera (Cyprus) 1420 PAL. Arthrocnemum macrostachym (= A. Artemisia herba-alba. Aeluropus litoralis. Puccinellia fasciculata. "SM25 Sueda vera saltmarsh community" and "SM7 Arthrocnemum perenne stands". Puccinellia gigantea. essentially with a Mediterranean-Atlantic distribution (Salicornia. diffusum. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual .Plantago crassifolia. sometimes including taller. Centaurium spicatum. Artemisia gallica.EUR25 Page 17 . L. denser bushes.54).55). Limonium vulgare. Capparis ovata. densissimum.CLASS. Limonium echioides. Arthrocnemum macrostachyum.: 15. Atriplex halimus. S.72 Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (Pegano-Salsoletea) Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (matorrals) belonging to the Pegano-Salsoletea class. bellidifolium. L. Eleocharis palustris. L. Lycium intricatum. genistoides. Plants: Peganum harmala. Glinus lotoides. Suaeda and Atriplex communities) and belonging to the Sarcocornetea fruticosi class. oppositifolia. Cressa cretica. Artemisia coerulescens (15. L. L. S. Aeluropus littoralis. Puccinellia festuciformis (15. Inula critmoides. A. typical of dry soils under arid climates.CLASS. Centaurium tenuiflorum.53).6 Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic halophilous scrubs (Sarcocornetea fruticosi) Perennial vegetation of marine saline muds (schorre) mainly composed of scrub. gmelinii. Vegetation of higher topographic level (Limonietalia confusi): Limonium virgatum. glaucum). L. 1) 2) 3) 1430 PAL. ferulaceum. Salsola vermiculata. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "SM 21 Suaeda vera-Limonium binervosum saltmarsh community".57). girardianum. Juncus gerardii (15. fragans (15. S. Aster tripolum. Orchis coriophora ssp. Parapholis marginata. Limoniastrum monopetalum. glauca. Blackstonia imperfoliata. Plants: Halimione portulacoides. S.: 15. Sphenopus divaricatus.

struthium. Salicornia patula.Salt and gypsum inland steppes 1510 PAL. 1) 2) 5) 1520 PAL.9 * Iberian gypsum steppes (Gypsophiletalia) Garrigues occupying gypsum-rich soils of the Iberian peninsula.: 15. Lepidium subulatum. The enrichment of salt in the soil is due to high evaporation of ground water during summer.. Ononis tridentata. Jurinea. soils temporarily permeated (though not inundated) by saline water and subject to extreme summer drying. Lygeo-Lepidion cardamines (Castilla-La-Mancha). Gypsophilion hispanicae and Thymo-Teucrion verticillati. The halophytic vegetation consists of plant communities on dry saltpans and steppes. Plants: Halopeplis amplexicaulis. Microcnemion coralloides. germanders (Teucrium). Ecol. Saginetalia maritimae: Frankenion pulverulentae. Page 18 1) Interpretation Manual .8 * Mediterranean salt steppes (Limonietalia) Associations rich in perennial. Arthrocnemetalia: Suaedion braunblanquetii (continental Iberian peninsula). *Limonium spp.A2 * Pannonic salt steppes and salt marshes Salt steppes. Arthrocnemetalia. Characteristic syntaxa are Lepidion subulati. Hymenolobus procumbens.CLASS. Limonietalia: Limonion catalaunico-viciosoi (Aragon). Lygeum spartum. Teucrium libanitis. Gypsophila hispanica. Plants: Centaurea hyssopifolia. along Mediterranean coasts and on the fringes of Iberian salt basins.: 15. Sphenopus divaricatus. 1) 2) 1530 PAL.A1.) or esparto grass (Lygeum spartum). Thero-Salicornietalia: Microcnemion coralloidis (continental Iberian peninsula). Helianthemum squamatum.: 15. Lygeo-Limonion furfuracei (SE Iberian peninsula). Characteristic syntaxa are Limonietalia. rockroses (Helianthemum) and composites (Centaurea. which are highly influenced by a pannonic climate with extreme temperatures and aridity in summer. Rivas-Martínez. Frankenia). humid salt meadows and annual plant communities of periodically flooded salt lakes with typical zonation.The following syntaxa correspond to regional varieties of this habitat type. with formation of salt efflorescence. Arthrocnemion glauci. (Marseille) 16: 359 . Thero-Suaedion. They are often rich in thymes (Thymus). Thero-Salicornietalia and Saginetalia maritimae. . G. These habitat types are partly of natural origin and partly under a distinct influence of cattle grazing. (1991). Sintaxonomia de la classe Thero-Salicornietea en Europa occidental.364. Salicornion patulae. Senecio auricula. salt pans.EUR25 . Herniaria fruticosa.Medit. Santolina. salt marshes and shallow salt lakes.CLASS. usually very open and floristically characterised by the presence of numerous gypsophilous species. Reseda stricta. 15.CLASS. occupying. S. rosette-forming (Limonium spp.

Calluna vulgaris. Grabherr.CLASS. Perennial vegetation of stony banks (1220). Pilayella littoralis Animals: Insects. (1957). Acad. Algae: Ceramium tenuicorne. Hung. S. 11. 51: 1-49.28. Soo. Potamogeton pectinatus. Pinus sylvestris. The vegetation of esker islands is influenced by the brackish water environment and often by the ongoing land upheaval. Annual vegetation of drift lines (1210). Camphorosma annua. These esker islands can be found in association with the following habitat types: Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). Puccinellia peisonis. Potamogeton filiformis. Cakile maritima. Plants: Artemisia campestris. Aythya nyroca.21. K. which causes a succession of different vegetation types. Wien. Platalea leucorodia. Wendelberger. Pholiurus pannonicus. (1954). Eklund. 16. Lathyrus japonicus subsp.Vegetationen på Vidskär och Jurmo (Ab Korpo). Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. May also have scattered stones and boulders.27. Juncus gerardii. Leymus arenarius.. Ixobrychus minutus.+Microtus oeconomus mehelyi.Cerastoderma glaucum.23. Budapest. Vegetated sea cliffs of the Atlantic and Baltic coasts (1230) and Boreal Baltic sandy beaches with perennial vegetation (1640). Panurus biarmicus.. Birds. Mammals. Teil 1.: 11. Systematische Übersicht pannonischer Pflanzengesellschaften.*Helicopsis striata austriaca. PAL. rocky and shingle beach vegetation and sublittoral vegetation Glaciofluvial islands consisting mainly of relatively well sorted sand. Molluscs. Salicornia prostata.13. 42C51 (1997 version) 1) 2) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Ardea purpurea. maritimus. 16. Honkenya peploides. 16. 47:178-215. coastal and landupheaval areas 1610 Baltic esker islands with sandy. Simyra albovenosa. Suaeda corniculata.22. Syrjänen. Aster tripolium. (1993). Sci.EUR25 Page 19 . Angew. Lepidium crassifolium. Empetrum nigrum. Ellmauer. Pflanzensoziol.. 17. Chorda filum. (1995).31. Myriophyllum sibiricum. Plantago maritima. (1921). R. G. 5) Boreal Baltic archipelago.122. Actebia praecox.Botaurus stellatus. 16. Potamogeton perfoliatus. Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja.T. Salsola kali. Festschrift Aichinger: 573-634. #Lycaena dispar. Mya arenaria.132.*Callimorpha quadripunctaria. Steppen. 11.Meriotakilokki Korppoon Jurmossa. Acta Bot. Animals: Molluscs. 17. Porzana parva. G. 11. Mucina. Trockenrasen und Wälder des pannonischen Raumes.Athetis lepigone. Juniperus communis. sands and gravel shores) and threatened species occur.. O. Insects. Acrocephalus melanopogon.29.133. Several rare vegetation types (heaths. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. 3:317-373. Fucus vesiculosus. #Spermophilus citellus. Sarja A. Cladophora glomerata. pannonica. Chara aspera. Festuca pseudovina. 11.2) Plants: Artemisia santonicum. Cyperus pannonicus. gravel or less commonly of till. L. Plantago tenuiflora.. 19.

G. Cladophora glomerata. PAL. Birds. Oul. Uria aalge. 11.EUR25 . Vartiainen.: 15. Mammals. O. Furcellaria lumbricalis. E. Boreal Baltic islets and small islands are important nesting sites for birds and resting sites for seals. Molluscs.Rocky-shore algae in the Öregrund archipelago. Larus fuscus.Alca torda. Acta Univ. Idothea sp. pulchellum. Temporary or permanent rockpools are common and these are inhabited by a variety of aquatic plant and animal species. Most of the areas were traditionally used for mowing or grazing. thus enlarging the areas and keeping the vegetation low.2124. Sterna caspia. Sedum telephium. Bare bedrock is common. Luther. -Über Ursachen der Regionalen Verteilung der Schärenflora Südwest-Finnlands. (1952).33. 42: 87-95. Chorda filum.CLASS. Acta Botanica Fennica.The plant cover of some littoral biotopes at Krunnit (NE Bothnian Bay). Allium schoenoprasum. parvula. Carex nigra. Fucus vesiculosus. Hällfors. Land-upheaval causes a succession of different vegetation types. Cladophora rupestris. Bolboschoenus maritimus. rich in vascular plants and suitable for nesting waders. Arenaria interpres. Composed of Precambrian. Plants: Agrostis stolonifera.34 (1997 version) 2) Interpretation Manual . H. litoralis. 15. Many of the plants are xerophytic and lichens are common. salt and many hours of sunlight. The vegetation of boreal Baltic islets and small islands is influenced by the brackish water environment.Veränderungen in der Gefässpflanzenflora der Meeresfelsen von Tvärminne. metamorphic bedrock.29. C. 115: 1-105. T. with saline vegetation closest to the sea. Eleocharis uniglumis. Blysmus rufus. Animals:.. Acta Botanica Fennica 8: 5-133. Angelica archangelica spp. Stercorarius parasiticus. dry weather.Mytilus edulis Often associated with the habitat type: Reefs (1170) and Perennial vegetation of stony banks (1220). 62: 1-100.23. Centaurium littorale. Pilayella littoralis. 18. the ongoing land upheaval (in areas with intense land upheaval) and the climatic conditions. borealis.Suecica 30: 1298. M. The vegetation types are influenced by wind. Cochlearia danica.1620 1) Boreal baltic islets and small islands Groups of skerries.. till or sediment. Sedum acre. (1980).Halichoerus grypus. Cepphus grylle. Characteristically the vegetation occurs in distinct zones.Succession of island vegetation in the land uplift area of the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia. Calamagrostis stricta. sometimes interspersed with salt patches. mainly in the outer archipelago or offshore areas. CrustaceansBalanus improvisus. Juniperus communis. (1931). (1976). Waern. salinity is low (brackish water). Viola tricolor. 11. On some islands the species diversity is increased by nitrogenous excrement from birds. The vegetation is usually very sparse and consists often of mosaic-like pioneer vegetation communities. Puccinellia distans ssp. islets or single small islands. (1961). The surrounding sublittoral vegetation is also included in the type 1620. Acta Phytogeogr. mostly with low growing plant communities in the geolittoral zone. Lemna minor. 18. Acta Botanica Fennica. Festuca Page 20 PAL. Silene viscosa. Plants: Agrostis stolonifera. Eklund.28. Algae: Ceramium tenuicorne. tide hardly exists but there can be influence from land upheaval. A lot of small islands have no trees. paleacea. A. Phoca hispida.14. Finland. 19 (1997 version) 2) 4) 5) 1630 1) * Boreal baltic coastal meadows Coastal meadows.: 11.CLASS. C..

9. 4241 Eleocharis uniglumis-Agrostis stolonifera -type. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : 4131 Ammophila arenaria-Leymus arenarius -type. 16. Aquilo Ser. Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). 4215 Cakile maritima – type Associated with the following habitat types: Annual vegetation of drift lines (1210). but less influenced by tides than on the Atlantic coast. Calidris temminckii (in Sweden only in the northern part). giving a higher representation of perennial plant species. Bot. 1640 1) Boreal Baltic sandy beaches with perennial vegetation Sheltered to exposed.g. in some cases also Baltic esker islands with sandy.133. 16. Sand-binding plants are common. Pterophorus tridactylus. 20. Atriplex littoralis. Salicornia europaea. Honkenya peploides.: 16. R. Aquilo Ser. vegetations och dess nedslitning. Animals: Insects.rubra. maritimus.2133 (1997 version) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . J. fennica. Drift belts of organic matter are often present Plants: Ammophila arenaria. Leymus arenarius. Primula nutans. Occasional stones or boulders may be scattered along the beach. Arctophila fulva. (1970). Juncus gerardii.och dynsträndernas Nordenskiöldsamfundets tidskrift 38: 37-49. PAL.Calidris alpina subsp. 4224 Blysmus rufus-Carex viridula-Centaurium spp. Sphingonotus coerulans. rocky and shingle beach vegetation and sublittoral vegetation (1610). Bot. Crambe maritima. Hippuris tetraphylla. Euphrasia bottnica. Corresponding categories Nordic classification: 4221 Juncus gerardii-Festuca rubra -type.Sand. Tringa totanus. Puccinellia phryganoides. Odontites litoralis. Carex glareosa.132. The vegetation is often sparse and large areas of bare sand are common especially in the part closest to the shore. Siira. The insect fauna on sand beaches is conspicuous. 4226 Carex aquatilis-Calamagrostis stricta -type. 16. 4322 Eleocharis acicularis -type 5) Siira. Puccinellia distans subsp. Photedes elymi. mackenziei.EUR25 Page 21 . 4321 Eleocharis parvula -type. Psylloides marcida. Catoptria fulgidella. Apamea ophiogramma.CLASS. gently sloping sand beaches influenced by wave action. Specially on the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia some phytogeographically interesting arctic relict species occur e. schinzii. borealis. C. Sand beaches along the Finnish and Swedish Baltic coast are relatively uncommon and usually small. Primula sibirica and some endemic taxa (races).Chomoderus affinis. Actebia praecox.Studies in the ecology of the sea-shore meadows at the Bothnian Bay with special reference to the Liminka area.Spingonotus coerulans. Salsola kali.. (1984). Ophioglossum vulgatum.The vegetation and ecology of the primary saline soils of the Bothnian Bay. Euxoa cursoria. paleacea. C. Deschampsia bottnica. (1978). Cakile maritima. Animals: Birds. halophila. Boreal species: Alisma wahlenbergii. Skytén. Plantago maritima. Triglochin maritima.Charadrius hiaticula..1222. 4251 Agrostis stolonifera-Triglochin palustre -type. boreoatlantica. Odontites litoralis subsp. Elytrigia juncea ssp. C. Birds. -type. Lathyrus japonicus ssp. j. 4253 Spergularia salina -type. Spergularia salina.

which are partly separated from the open sea by a submerged sill.. Pancratium maritimum. The salinity varies depending on the freshwater contribution or the salinity value of the Baltic Sea. 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . III.CLASS. Polychaeta. Vosmeria spp. constituted by ripples or raised sand surfaces of the upper beach or by a seaward fringe at the foot of the tall dunes. Plants: 16.Floristic aspects of one coastal inlet inre Verkviken. Crustaceans.Macoma baltica. L. Insects. Acta Bot. Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani Algae:Cladophora aegagropila. Niemi.. Fennici.Sporobolus pungens. Birds. Schoenoplectus lacustris... Myriophyllum spicatum. Circus aeruginosus. Medicago marina. Potamogeton perfoliatus. (1978). Phakellia spp. 49:1-232.EUR25 Page 22 . Mollucs.Chironomus plumosus coll. Cygnus olor. I.Maldane sarsi Sponges: Axinella rugosa. Plants: Ceratophyllum demersum. Thyasira flexuosa. Acta Phytogeogr. 1) 2) 4) 5) COASTAL SAND DUNES AND INLAND DUNES Sea dunes of the Atlantic. resulting in a density stratification of the water column. (1992).Monoporeia affinis. 16. H. Mycale lingua.2112 . tomentosa. SW coast of Finland. 78: 101-110.Från havsvik till insjö. (1951). Leymus arenarius. Å.211 Embryonic shifting dunes Formations of the coast representing the first stages of dune construction.. H.Elymus farctus (Agropyron junceum). Nordic classification: 16. 106:1-28. Sagittaria sagittifolia. & Mathiessen. Euphorbia peplis.51 (1997 version) Boreal Baltic narrow inlets Long and narrow bays in the Boreal Baltic sea area. Environmental conditions and primary production in Pojoviken in the 1970s."4121 Elytrigia juncea-typ". Podiceps cristatus.2111 .Verbreitung und ökologie der höheren Wasserpflanzen im Brackwasser der Ekenäs-Gegend in Süd-Finnland. A. Fennici. Nitellopsis obtusa Animals:. Mathiessen. Corresponding categories: United Kingdom classification: "SD4 Elymus farctus ssp. Hippuris vulgaris.CLASS. Åbo.. Allgemeiner Teil. The low tidal range and low salinity of the Baltic Sea creates an ecology that is different from that of the North Atlantic coasts. Eryngium maritimum. Lindholm. (1991). T.Anas crecca. Anthemis maritima. Miljöförlaget.: 12.Ecology of phytoplankton in the Tvärminne area. northern Åland. Nucula tenuis.1650 PAL. Fennici. Honkenya peploides.. 50:1-370. Otanthus maritimus. These inlets consist usually of soft mud. 160 pp. Polymastica spp. Syndosmya nitida. North Sea and Baltic coasts 2110 PAL. Narrow inlets unaffected or almost unaffected by man are very rare. boreali-atlanticus foredune community". Acta Bot.: 16. & II.. A river discharge to the innermost end of the bay is common. Anas platyrhynchos. Acta Bot. Phragmites australis. Suecic. Luther. Specieller Teil.2111 .

Willers. 50:105-110. Echinophora spinosa.: 16. Ononis natrix. it is logical to include Euphorbio Helichrysion (code 16.221 to 16.: 16.2121. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: " SD6 Ammophila arenaria mobile dune community".2122 and 16. Ammophilion arenariae.223 . In the case of the thermo-Atlantic coast. from the Atlantic coasts (and the English Channel) between the Straits of Gibraltar and Cap Blanc Nez.CLASS. Suec. Corynephorion canescentis p. 16. Calystegia soldanella.Ammophila arenaria. Cutandia maritima.2123). Plants: 16.2121. Norden 6:41-88.thermo Atlantic as far as Brittany) and Crucianellion maritimae (code 16. Polycarpaea nivea. Die Vegetation der finnischen Küstendünen.223 . 16. Acta Phytogeogr. Euphorbia paralias. Sileno conicae-Cerastion semidecandri. 1) Interpretation Manual .. Maritime sands. dunal grasslands composed of species characteristic of dry calcareous grasslands (34.5) Pettersson.32).CLASS. poor in nitrogen.212 Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes) Mobile dunes forming the seaward cordon or cordons of dune systems of the coasts (16. Artemisia campestris and Ephedra distachya. Medicago marina. (1988). B. T. 16.222 . 1) 2) 3 5) 2130 PAL. 16. Anthemis maritima. 16. Euphorbia paralias.222 .2123 .Northern grey dunes with grass communities and vegetation from Galio-Koelerion albescentis (Koelerion albescentis).EUR25 Page 23 .2121 . Eryngium maritimum. with Helichrysum stoechas.Zygophyllum fontanesii. Polygonum maritimum. Nordic classification : 16.Biscay grey dunes (Euphorbio-Helichrysion stoechadis): dunes on stabilised humus soil infiltrated by dwarf bushes. (1965).Atlantic dune (Mesobromion) grasslands: various sandy coastal sites characterised by herbaceous vegetation in the form of calcicole mesoxerocline grasslands.221 ."4131 Ammophila arenaria-Leymus arenarius-typ". 16.2122 .Ammophila arenaria. Cyperus capitatus. *Androcymbium psammophilum.Thermo-Atlantic grey dunes (Crucianellion maritimae): suffrutescent communities on more or less stabilised soils low in humus of the thermo-Atlantic coasts with Crucianella maritima and Pancratium maritimum. Zygophyllion fontanesii.227 *Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes) Fixed dunes. corresponding to the communities of Mesobromion found by the sea (penetration of aero haline species). Leymus arenarius. Otanthus maritimus. Eryngium maritimum. 2120 PAL. *Convolvulus caput-medusae. Euphorbia paralias.225 .Strait of Gibraltar as far as the southern Atlantic near Cape Prior in Galicia). and the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic. Sub-types 16. stabilised and colonised by more or less closed perennial grasslands and abundant carpets of lichens and mosses.

126. (1991). Dune scrubs (16. S. Rivas-Martínez. frequently in mosaic with communities of Salix repens and particularly developed on the west face of the dunes.. T. otites. 16.. certain sub-communities of the type "SD7 Ammophila arenaria-Festuca rubra semi-fixed dune community" and "SD11 Carex arenaria-Cornicularia aculeata dune community". Koeleria spp. In: A Guide to the Sand Dunes of Ireland (M. Viola curtisii.226 . Not. Itinera Geobot. cruciata. J. sparse annual grassland on sand or dominated by mosses and lichen.227 . J.16. Sand dune vegetation survey of Great Britain. "SD8 Festuca rubra-Galium verum fixed dune grassland". Phleum arenarium.25) and humid dune slacks (16. rupestris var. Quigley. 2) Plants: Aira spp. "SD7 Ammophila arenaria-Festuca rubra semi-fixed dune community" and "SD11 Carex arenaria-Cornicularia aculeata dune community". (1950). 5 . (1993).a survey.Tuberarion guttatae p. Vegetation (Thero-Airion)". European Union for Dune Conservation and Coastal Management.227 . Dargie. M. Geranium sanguineum formations (34. Galium verum. "1003a Dünenpionierrasen mit einjähr. Nardo-Galion saxatile p. or on xerocline to xerophile rocks) (Thero-Airion p.D. Silene conica. Lousã. F.EUR25 Page 24 . Andersson.226 .) The vegetation may be a closed cover of grassland.Atlantic dune thermophile fringes: Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei: Galio maritimi-Geranion sanguinei. Bromus hordeaceus. Sand Dune Inventory of Europe. Myosotis ramosissima. There is a transition towards communities of Mesobromion (34. V. Carex arenaria. arenaria. Bot. & Costa. Gentiana campestris. 35. Lichens.). Part II Scotland. Ed. grasslands with Himantoglossum hircinum of the dunes in the De Haan area. Díaz. Doody.2.3) of fine grasses rich in spring-blooming therophytes characteristic of oligotrophic soils (nitrogen poor sand or very superficial soils. D. Ononis repens. E. Alentejo y Algarve).. JNCC.4) on neutro basic soils rich in calcium and poor in nitrogen.34) in the following cases: old mesophile grasslands of dune slacks and inner dunes (Anthyllido Thesietum). überwieg. German classification: "1003 Dünenrasen (Graudüne)". La vegetación del sur de Portugal (Sado.E. lebelii. ausdauernden Arten (Graudüne)".3) with distinct vegetation form closely knit complexes with grey dunes devoid of ligneous vegetation. JNCC. Trifolium scabrum. S. Fernández-González. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: 16.C. Tuberaria guttata. 3.221 -"SD12 Carex arenaria-Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris grassland". "1003b Dünenrasen mit geschlossener Narbe u. 42-46.G. 16.. dunensis. the content of limestone (Ca2+) may vary greatly and is generally diminishing with age and succession towards brown dune systems (dune heathland). (1990). T. Cerastium spp. 16. Peterborough and EUCC. T.Cladonia spp. Anacamptis pyramidalis. Milium scabrum.Tortula ruraliformis.. Polygala vulgaris var."SD9b Ammophila arenaria-Arrhenatherum elatius dune grassland Geranium sanguineum sub-community".31 .B.. The flora and vegetation of sand dunes in Ireland. Mosses. 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . 1950:145-172. Corynephorus canescens.most likely.Dune fine-grass annual communities: sparse pioneer formations (35. Peterborough..F.P. Nordic classification: "4141 Corynephorus canescens-typ" and "4142 Festuca rubra-Hieracium umbellatum-typ". (1991). Erodium glutinosum. The Scanian sand vegetation .C. Curtis. G..

Plant community dynamics on sand dunes at Murlough National Nature Reserve. In: van der Maarel. Mc.24 * Atlantic decalcified fixed dunes (Calluno-Ulicetea) Decalcified dunes of France.) Ecosystems of the world 2A. Pyrola rotundifolia. Ulex australis. nigrum sub-community". Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H11a Calluna vulgaris-Carex arenaria heath-Erica cinerea sub-community" and "H11c Calluna vulgaris-Carex arenaria species poor sub-community" and "H1d Calluna vulgaris-Festuca ovina heath Carex arenaria sub-community".22). 16. Calluno Genistion pilosae p. German classification : "100401 Krähenbeer-Heide der Küsten".2).25). (1993). scoparia. Plants: Carex arenaria. wooded dunes (16. 131-143.Phil. Co. Ericion tetralicis p.. (ed.CLASS. 1) 2) 3) 4) Interpretation Manual .The term "fixed" should be taken to mean the opposite of "shifting". (1988). colonised by heaths of the alliance Ericion umbellatae. Syntaxa associated to this habitat type: Empetrion nigri. trinervis. Empetrum nigrum.In Germany highly endangered coastal Empetrum nigrum heathland on the Geest are included. polar regions and Europe. C.3). Humid dune slacks (16.: 16. Genista tinctoria. pp.22. and of Iberia. cinerea. E. . E.CLASS.Manus. University of Ulster. D. colonised by heaths of the alliances Calluno-Genistion or Ulicion minoris. Elsevier. Carex arenaria. Dry coastal ecosystems. Thesis. M. The psychrophilic coastal association Carici trinervis-Callunetum vulgaris de Foucault & Gehu 78 may be included here. Dry coastal ecosystems of southern Sweden. Empetrum nigrum ssp. Dundrum. H. Plants: Calluna vulgaris. Festuca vasconcensis. Belgium and Britain. E. (64. grey dunes (16. Erica ciliaris.1 x 35. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H11b Calluna vulgaris-Carex arenaria heath community. Pioneer phase of this habitat: decalcified fixed dunes colonised by Corynephorus canescens and Cladonia spp. Down. Nordic classification: "4143 Calluna vulgaris-Empetrum nigrum-Carex arenaria-typ".23 * Decalcified fixed dunes with Empetrum nigrum Decalcified dunes colonised by Empetrum nigrum heaths of the coasts.2140 PAL. Northern Ireland. Olsson. Amsterdam. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 2150 PAL. Pseudoarrhenatherum longifolium (Arrhenatherum thorei).: 16.EUR25 Page 25 .

argentea (Salicion arenariea) Salix repens communities (Salicion arenariae). Plant species: Salix repens ssp. In: van der Maarel. Amsterdam. mixed forests with Fraxinus excelsior. This habitat forms mosaics with other dune slack vegetation containing Salix arenaria but which is rich in bryophytes and referable to the Caricion davallianae (16. and Crataegus monogyna. (1993). 44-46. 1) 2) 2170 PAL. Monotropa hypopitys) or.EUR25 . J. (1977).: 16. An Foras Forbartha/Forest and Wildlife Service. Dry coastal ecosystems of southern Sweden.e. Following the lowering of the ground water table or accumulation of drift sand.2160 PAL. Olsson. This habitat is often invaded by Hippophae rhamnoides and Ligustrum vulgare. these communities may develop into mesophilous communities as the Pyrolo-Salicetum (with Pyrola rotundifolia.CLASS. (1974). Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "SD16 Salix repens-Holcus lanatus dune slack". Cotton. Dublin. E.CLASS. Pioneer stages are open forests with Betula spp. argentea (i. 18.29 Interpretation Manual . Quercus robur.: 16.26 Dunes with Salix repens ssp. Dry coastal ecosystems. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 2180 1) Wooded dunes of the Atlantic. pp.CLASS.251 Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides Sea-buckthorn formations of forest colonisation in both dry and humid dune depressions. German classification : "1006b Kriechweiden-Teppiche der Dünen". A study of the Raven. as well as forests of the Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae order. Wexford (H12).) Ecosystems of the world 2A. Continental and Boreal region Natural or semi-natural forests (long established) of the Atlantic. It corresponds to oak groves and beech-oak groves with birch (Quercion robori-petraeae) on acid soils. Elsevier. Continental and Boreal region coastal dunes with a well developed woodland structure and an assemblage of characteristic woodland species. Anon. Wexford. Viola canina. as well as mosaics with dune grasslands and with thickets with Rosa pimpinellifolia. Plants: Hippophae rhamnooides. J. Nat. Co. (ed. H. polar regions and Europe. colonising wet dune slacks. Thalictrum minus) or into Salix repens communities with Mesobromion elements. into xerophilous Salix communities (with Carlina vulgaris. 131-143. Ulmus Page 26 PAL. Pyrola rotundifolia L. in Co.: 16. Ir. Salix arenaria).33).

or Pinus sylvestris. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "SD13 Salix repens-Bryum pseudotriquetrum dune slack community". F02)". Elsevier. F02)".-Soz. S. tall-sedge communities and canebeds (cf. 53.Dune-slack grasslands: humid grasslands and rushbeds (see 37. "SD15 Salix repens-Calliergon cuspidatum dune slack community". gischtbeeinflußt. Amsterdam.49). 11/12:127-141. This habitat type include semi-natural forests with a typical undergrowth. 131-143. In: van der Maarel. "SD16 Salix repens-Holcus lanatus dune slack community" and "SD17 Potentilla anserina-Carex nigra dune slack community".34 .N. These forests are generally associated with dune scrubs (preforest stages-16. On southern atlantic coasts. Humid dune-slacks are extremely rich and specialised habitats very threatened by the lowering of water tables. gischtbeeinflußt. pioneer forests with Salix alba which develop into humid mixed forests or marsh forests.minor and Acer pseudoplatanus or. Potametum pectinati): fresh-water aquatic communities (cf.CLASS. (1993).21. Hydrocotylo-Baldellion): pioneer formations of humid sands and dune pool fringes. 16. Page 27 1) 3) 5) Interpretation Manual . "440202 trockener Sandkiefernwald (küstennah. "43080501 Eichen-Trockenwald lalkarmer Standorte (küstennah.2. 54. Kielland-Lund.32 .: 16.31. 53. forests of Quercus suber and Quercus robur or forest stage with Quercus robur or Quercus pubescens. arenaria).EUR25 . also often with creeping willows (Salix rosmarinifolia. Olsson. polar regions and Europe. 54.2H. 16. 16. 37. Flor. Dry coastal ecosystems. in wet dune slacks. Hippuridetum vulgaris. Hottonietum palustris. often invaded by creeping willow.3) of dune-slacks. 53. Sub-types : 16. acidic fen formations (cf. 54. Arbeitsgem. "SD14 Salix repens-Campylium stellatum dune slack community". F02)".33 . it mainly corresponds to mixed Pinus pinaster-Quercus ilex forests.25).4) of dune-slacks. pp.3 = 16. On Baltic coasts also pioneer forests of Alnus spp. Mitt.1. 22. Dry coastal ecosystems of southern Sweden. spontaneously developed from old plantations. dune moors.Dune-slack pools (Charetum tomentosae.F.31 .3). on soils with low salinity. (ed.) Ecosystems of the world 2A.22) and wet dune slacks (16.Dune-slack pioneer swards (Juncenion bufonii p.: Gentiano-Erythraeetum littoralis.4.Dune-slack reedbeds. in particular 54. 16. gischtbeeinflußt. occasionally. (1967). 4) 5) 2190 PAL. occupying the wettest parts of dune-slacks. Zur Systematik der Kiefernwälder Fennoscandiensis. H.Dune-slack fens: calcareous and. 2) 3) Plant species are highly varied and depend on local site conditions Corresponding categories German classification: "430804 Buchenbuschwald (auf Ostseedünen)". Elodeetum canadense.2.35 .31 to 16.35 Humid dune slacks Humid depressions of dunal systems. 54. sedgebeds and canebeds: reedbeds.4) of permanent dune-slack water bodies. grey dunes (16. E. "430801 TraubeneichenHainbuchenwald (küstennah. J.

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.G. 85B: 1 . Plants: Crucianella maritima. Ed. Silene nicaeensis. 1) 2) 4) 5) Sea dunes of the Mediterranean coast 2210 PAL. Festuca rubra. of the Ionian Sea and North Africa with Crucianella maritima. subconica. Poa pratensis. among others.). Curtis. hebridensis.20. Ritchie.F. The flora and vegetation of sand dunes in Ireland. moist climate. with.: 16. Plantago lanceolata. in an oceanic location with a cool.CLASS. The nature and occurrence of sand-dune machair in Ireland. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . Trifolium repens. 431-440.EUR25 Page 28 . forming a lime rich soil with pH values normally greater than 7. Lakes (ponds and small lakes in Scotland) of widely varying salinity. S.G. The meaning and definition of machair. Silene nicaeensis.: 16. twelve different types of vegetation under the National Vegetation Classification can be identified. with a low frequency of sand binding species. W.F. of the Adriatic.CLASS. Pancratium maritimum. European Union for Dune Conservation and Coastal Management. transitions to saltmarsh and blanket bog are associated habitats. Vegetation is herbaceous. In: A Guide to the Sand Dunes of Ireland (M. 42. A. Pancratium maritimum. Ephedra distachya. (1985). T. 1) 2) 2220 PAL. Ephedra distachya and Silene subconica.B. Plants: Cochlearia scotica. Plants: Euphorbia terracina.21A0 PAL. & Curtis. Galium verum.224 Dunes with Euphorbia terracina Coastal dune grassland communities. (1975). Quigley. T. (1991). In the United Kingdom. Euphrasia marshallii. 42-46. pH and chemical composition. Euphorbia terracina. Bassett.CLASS.223 Crucianellion maritimae fixed beach dunes Fixed dunes of the western and central Mediterranean. The wind blown sand has a significant percentage of shell derived material. Dactylorhiza fuchsii ssp. Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh.: 1A Machairs ( * in Ireland) Complex habitat comprised of a sandy coastal plain resulting partially from grazing and/or rotational cultivation. Lotus corniculatus.

27 and 64. lycia. J.CLASS. phoenicea ssp. short-grass perennial grasslands rich in therophytes. J.E. S. of deep sands in dry interdunal depressions of the coasts. Itinera Geobot. Rivas-Martínez.. 3. Anthyllis hamosa.. navicularis (=J. J. navicularis.: 16. Plants: Malcolmia lacera. lusitanica. oxycedrus ssp. In the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula this habitat type is associated with dune scrubs of Corema album (Rubio-Coremion albi) and substitution matorral of the Halimium halimifolium dune scrubs (Stauracantha-Halimietalia) Franco. E. lusitanica. Linaria pedunculata.EUR25 .Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea: Meso. turbinata. & Pérez de Paz.2230 PAL. & Costa. Linaria pedunculata. P. E. This habitat type includes the communities of J. communis from the calcareous dunes of Jutland and the communities of J.CLASS. ramosissima. transtagana). In: Flora Iberica 1: 181 . T.512. lycia in Rièges woods in the Camargue.28 to precise the habitat. W. J. Díaz. lycia).: 16. turbinata (=J. (1993). (Cupressaceae). M. Also Page 29 1) Interpretation Manual . macrocarpa. Itinera Geobot. macrocarpa. communis. La vegetación del sur de Portugal (Sado. J. therophyte communities of oligotrophic soils on base-rich. phoenicea ssp. Juniperus communis formations of calcareous dunes.28 Cisto-Lavenduletalia dune sclerophyllous scrubs Sclerophyllous or lauriphyllus scrubs established on dunes of the Mediterranean and WarmTemperate Humid regions.and thermo-Mediterranean xerophile. Evax astericiflora. M. 1) 2) 2250 PAL.: 16. F.229 Brachypodietalia dune grasslands with annuals Dunal formations of 6220 . 1) 2) 2240 PAL. Datos sobre Juniperus phoenicea aggr. (1986). transtagana. A.613 * Coastal dunes with Juniperus spp.126..L. Plants: Juniperus turbinata ssp. S..228 Malcolmietalia dune grasslands Associations with many small annuals and often abundant ephemeral spring bloom. Lousã. Fernández-González. Juniper formations [Juniperus turbinata ssp. 5 .4. Wildpret. mostly open. J. 1) 2) 4) 5) 2260 PAL. Anthyllis hamosa. M. Madrid Rivas-Martínez. often calcareous substrates. ramosissima. communis] of Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic coastal dune slacks and slopes (Juniperion lyciae). oxycedrus. Evax astericiflora. (1990).J. Juniperus L. They are dunal representatives of 35.188. Alentejo y Algarve). Plants: Brachypodium spp. J.: 16. Codes of 32 may be used in addition to 16.CLASS. J.CLASS. with Malcolmia lacera. J. J.C. 7: 509 .

Vegetation is dominated by heaths with Calluna and Genista.28 of the Pistacio-Rhamnetalia and CistoMicromeritia. particularly the large ones.similar sclerophyllous dune vegetation included in 16. corresponding to the substitution facies or in some stations climax formations of evergreen oak of artificial origin (Quercetalia ilicis or Ceratonio-Rhamnetalia).: 64. Acta Phytogeogr. They have considerably regressed and the remaining examples are fragile and often threatened. P. formed of quartzic sands originating in redeposited and reworked glacial drift and outwash. P. 2270 PAL. 50:123-130. progressively slightly less oligotrophic and with a more continental species assemblage in north-eastern Germany. halepensis.-Calluna vulgaris-typ".1 x 31.CLASS. northern Belgium and north-western Germany. are included in this habitat type 1) 2) 4 Inland dunes.8 * Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster Coastal dunes colonised by Mediterranean and Atlantic thermophilous pines. They are highly siliceous in the Netherlands.223 Dry sand heaths with Calluna and Genista Dunes of the North Sea and Baltic plains. J. 1) 2) 3) 5) 2320 PAL. Corresponding categories Nordic classification: "5114 Genista spp. formed on quartzic sands originating in redeposited and reworked glacial drift and outwash.: 64. The south-western dwarf shrub heaths. harbour a unique ensemble of interacting communities and harbour many specialised and localised organisms. within their natural area of occurrence. The dune systems. (1965). Juniperus macrocarpa.: 16. Plants: Calluna vulgaris.EUR25 Page 30 . "5115 Calluna vulgaris-typ". G. Malmer. Genista anglica. Plants: Pinus pinea.1 x 31. Plants: Calluna vulgaris. old and decalcified 2310 PAL. Long-established plantations of these pines.CLASS.29 x 42. Poland and the eastern Baltic plain. pinaster.. pilosa. and with an undergrowth basically similar to that of paraclimacic formations. N. Empetrum nigrum. turbinata ssp.227 Dry sand heaths with Calluna and Empetrum nigrum Coastal non-dunal Calluna vulgaris and Empetrum nigrum heaths. turbinata. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual .CLASS. Suec.

A1). N. Cynodon dactylon. Spergula morisonii. Cerastium semidecandrum.Corynephorus canescens.EUR25 . gmelinii.p. (1974). The south-western dwarf shrub heaths. Plants: 64. Carex arenaria. Malmer.Stuttgart." and "SD12 Carex arenaria-Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris grassland p..12) x 35. 1) 2) 3) 5) 2340 PAL. It includes formations of unstable Germano-Baltic fluvio-glacial inland sands with Corynephorus canescens. sub-Atlantic and Mediterraneo-montane distribution. Olsson. (1993). G. 2330 PAL.. T. New York.CLASS. Bassia laniflora. pp 578. tricolor.71 * Pannonic inland dunes Inland dunes of the Pannonic plain and of neighbouring basins. 50:123-130.11) and other grasslands of more stabilised Germano-Baltic fluvioglacial inland dune systems with Agrostis spp. Studies on South Swedish sand vegetation. Nordic classification : "4141 Corynephorus canescens-typ". Suec. Teil 1. see habitat 6260 (34.p. often species-poor and with a strong representation of annuals. Gustav Fischer. Good examples exist in mosaics of different habitats with open sand. Teesdalia nudicaulis.: 64. 64. and Corynephorus canescens or other acidophilous grasses (64. H. Cetraria. Acta Phytogeogr.Agrostis spp. For steppes and meadow-steppes on stabilised sand or sandy soils. Page 31 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Cladonia. Corresponding categories Austrian syntaxa: Thymo angustifolii-Corynephoretum canescentis (fragmentary in disturbed sites).".: (64. Alyssum montanum ssp. Cetraria) (64. furcata. Teesdalia nudicaulis and carpets of fruticose lichens (Cladonia. In former days widely distributed as a result of hay harvesting and grazing.CLASS.3) 5) Corresponding categories Nordic classification : "4143 Calluna vulgaris-Empetrum nigrum-Carex arenaria-typ".11 or 64. Suec. (1965). Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "SD11 Carex arenaria-Cornicularia aculeata dune community p. of Atlantic. not associated with dune complexes.12 . Anthropogene Vegetation. Grabherr.12). L. Viola tricolor ssp. Plants: Cladonia convoluta. Corynephorus canescens.11 . Jena. Habitat complexes with a variety of particular plant communities and microsites. Corynephorus canescens. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. dune lichen communities. Spergula morisonii.2 Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands Open formations found on inland dunes with dry siliceous soils. Ellmauer. 60:1-170.. open and closed swards. Acta Phytogeogr. Only these habitat complexes should be considered under this title. Spergularia morisonii. Carex arenaria. Thymus serpyllum. pioneer swards with many therophytes. C. Mucina.

in particular. Warnstorfia spp. helophytic vegetation and carpets of submerged bryophytes. Lobelia dortmanna. Suecica.. A.CLASS. where the water table occurs at the surface Mäkirinta. and Fontinalis spp. (1931). In France and Ireland this habitat occurs. Ouluensis Ser. Thunmark. and belonging to the IsoetoNano-Juncetea.FRESHWATER HABITATS Standing water 3110 PAL. sparse reedbeds. with an aquatic to amphibious low perennial vegetation belonging to the Littorelletalia uniflorae order. Acta Phytogeogr. Drepanocladus spp.5.und Hügellands". sich selbst überlassenes Abbaugewässer". Dwarf amphibious vegetation of oligotrophic waters with few minerals.11 x 22. echinospora. Short grasslands of temporary ponds (the Annex I priority habitat type 3170) is a particular subtype (temporary and very shallow waters).: 22.EUR25 . Potamogeton polygonifolius. U. "6414 Littorella uniflora-Lobelia dortmanna-typ".typ". in the Boreal region also Myriophyllum alterniflorum. Littorella uniflora. oligotropher See des Tief. Page 32 PAL. Subularia aquatica. I. Lobelia dortmana or Isoetes.31 Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains (Littorelletalia uniflorae) Shallow oligotrophic waters with few minerals and base poor. #Luronium natans. In the Boreal region this habitat is particularly found on glacio fluvial soil and with usually dense isoetid vegetation. "24020301 kalkarmes.CLASS. Nordic classification: "6413 Lobelia dortmanna-Isoetes spp. Juncus bulbosus.11 x 22. Pilularia globulifera. although not all zones may not be found at a given site. Der See Fiolen und seine Vegetation. 75. S. mostly on sandy soils of the Mediterranean region and some irradiations in the thermo-Atlantic sector. Die Pflanzensoziologische Gliederung der Wasservegetation im See Kukkia. This habitat is found in association with heath (31. Deschampsia setacea. Scientiae Rerum Naturalium Nr.: 22.1) and Nanocyperion (22. dominated by Littorella. oligotrophes.34 1) Interpretation Manual . (1978). Corresponding categories German classification : "24020201 kalkarmer. Plants: Isoetes lacustris. on oligotrophic soils of lake and pond banks (sometimes on peaty soils). biologica Nr. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 3120 Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals generally on sandy soils of the West Mediterranean with Isoetes spp.32) communities. in heathland of sandy plains on podzols. Südfinnland. This vegetation consists of one or more zones. II:1-198. Acta Univ.

Eleocharis ovata. Cyperus fuscus.32 in 2190. Pilularia minuta. periodically lacking vegetation due to trampling.aquatic to amphibious short perennial vegetation.31: Littorella uniflora. of lake. (Serapion). I. durieui.32) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual ..amphibious short annual vegetation.bis eutrophes. P143)". Vegetatio 39:129-146. Schoenoplectus supinus. Elatine spp. setacea. "6412 Ranunculus reptans-Subularia aquatica-typ". should not be included. Juncus bulbosus ssp. oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Isoetes azorica 3) 3130 Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or IsoetoNanojuncetea 22. Plants: 22. These two units can grow together in close association or separately. sich selbst überlassenes Abbaugewässer (mit Zwergbinsenfluren -wechselnass-.: 22. Characteristic plant species are generally small ephemerophytes. PAL. Nordic classification : "6411 Eleocharis acicularis-typ". Peplis portula. Potamogeton polygonifolius.2) Plant species: high level . In the Atlantic region. Areas with a variable hydrological system. Correspondances: In the Azores the corresponding association is Anthemido-Menthetum pulegii Lüp. Sparganium minimum. Cicendia filiformis. "240306 meso. such lakes can shelter glacial relict species. I.31 and 22. Juncus bulbosos.CLASS. This habitat type could also develop in wet dune slacks (see 16. #Luronium natans.12 x 22. pools and ponds with nutrient poor soils. Juncus tenageia. Centaurium pulchellum. Corresponding categories German classification : "240301 mesotropher See (Bleisee) (mit Zwergbinsenfluren -wechselnass-. low level Isoetes histrix.12 x (22. (1979).g.. Scirpus setaceus.12 x 22. C. 22. Pilularia globulifera. Eleocharis acicularis.12 x 22.Isoetes velata.EUR25 Page 33 . included in Annex I). fish such as Selvelinus alpinus. pioneer of land interface zones of lakes. Hypericum humifusum. Mentha pulegium. #Marsilea strigosa. Scirpus setacea. bulbosus. or which grows during periodic drying of these standing waters: IsoetoNanojuncetea class. C.31 . e.32 : #Lindernia procumbens. 22.flavescens. Serapias spp. Juncus bufonius. Jenssen. P143)".12 X 22. Classification of lakes in southern Sweden on the basis of their macrophyte composition by means of multivariate methods.michelianus. S. pond and pool banks and water-land interfaces belonging to the Littorelletalia uniflorae order. with Anthemis nobilis. in the Azores the corresponding association is Isoetetum azorica Lüp.32 . Limosella aquatica. Centunculus minimus.

In the Boreal region this habitat type includes small calcareous-rich oligo-mesotrophic gyttja pools with dense Chara (dominating species is C. Ricciocarpus spp. Ann. Å. T. pH is often low. Not. Chara and Nitella..15) x 22. in deep.3140 Hard oligo-mesotrophic waters with benthic vegetation of Chara spp.: 22. E. with free-floating surface communities of the Hydrocharition or. A. often surrounded by various eutrophic fens and pine bogs. Plant communities belong to the order Utricularietalia. Distribution of macrophytes and some algal groups. Nitella spp. Botanical lake types in Finnish Lappland. Rintanen.Lemna spp. P. waters poor (to moderate) in nutrients. 3-12. PAL. Plants: Hydrocharition . Dahl. Bot. 1) Interpretation Manual . Lakes and pools with waters fairly rich in dissolved bases (pH often 6-7) (21. Plants: Chara spp. "6421 Littorella uniflora-Chara spp. -typ" Lundh. III. Wolffia spp. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : "632 Potamogeton spp. open waters. perfoliatus. Suppl.. P. Ferns (Azolla). Liverworts (Riccia spp.: 22. waters. "6511 Lemna minor-Spirodela polyrrhizatyp".. 3(1):1-138. algal carpets. Nordisk vegetationsklassificering för kartläggning. & Persson. base-rich (pH often >7.15). In: IBP i Norden 7.CLASS. with associations of large pondweeds (Magnopotamion). pp. Stratiotes aloides. (1951). very clear. Bot. particularly rich in dissolved bases (pH usually > 7).CLASS. strigosa) carpets. PAL.type vegetation Lakes and ponds with mostly dirty grey to blue-green. zizii. Marker. U. vulgaris. Magnopotamion .421) 1) 2) 3) 5) 3160 PAL. The bottom of these unpolluted water bodies are covered with charophyte. (1982)..13 x (22. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : "633 Långskottsvegetation med kransalger". Spirodela spp. Universitetsforlaget.12) or with mostly blue to greenish.41 or 22. Utricularia australis. #Aldrovanda vesiculosa. 3 to 6.-huvudtyp".5) (21.EUR25 Page 34 . Studies on the vegetation and hydrochemistry of Scanian lakes. (1971). Fennici 19:247-274..44 1) 2) 3) 5) 3150 Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition . P. generally on peaty soils in bogs or in heaths with natural evolution toward bogs. Oslo. E.12 or 22. praelongus... Kalliola. R.14 Natural dystrophic lakes and ponds Natural lakes and ponds with brown tinted water due to peat and humic acids. Hydrocharis morsus-ranae.).: (22. more or less turbid.CLASS.Potamogeton lucens.

J.: 22. S. including limestone bedrock. Mentha pulegium. Chaetopogon fasciculatus. rostrata. Isoetes azorica. may be affected by the tide in summer. Centaurium spicatum. C. procera. Elatine macropoda. C. Preslion cervinae. Agrostion salmanticae. Cyperus flavescens. Ranunculus dichotomiflorus. Kolk. 1) 2) 15 The animals listed should not be regarded as characteristic in any strict sense. both fauna and flora of turloughs are characteristic of intermittently flooded zones. michelianus. I. histrix. malinverniana. Plants: Agrostis pourretii. marls. Eryngium corniculatum. distrophes Gewässer (z. tribracteatum. Cicendia filiformis. Nordic classification : "6211 Nuphar-typ". #Marsilea batardae. pumila. L. Drepanocladus spp. heldreichii.EUR25 Page 35 . E. neglecta. 1947.CLASS. strigosa. with a flora mainly composed of Mediterranean therophytic and geophytic species belonging to the alliances Isoetion. livens. pygmaeus. I. fusca. velata. Exaculum pusillum. Fontinalis antipyretica (Bryophyta). alopecuroides. flexuosum. Peplis portula. Nymphaea candida. I.CLASS. In the Boreal region also Nuphar lutea. tenageia.: 22. Sphagnum species. while aquatic conditions range from ultra oligotrophic to eutrophic. J. with Anthemis nobilis. Crypsis aculeata. Scirpus setacea. Carex lasiocarpa.2) Plants: Utricularia spp. I. B. capitatus. delilei. Badister meridionalis. #I.34 * Mediterranean temporary ponds Very shallow temporary ponds (a few centimetres deep) which exist only in winter or late spring. Warnstorfia trichophylla. clay and humus. Sparganium minimum. J. others. Serapias lingua. galioides. peat. However. Heleochloion and Lythrion tribracteati. Illecebrum verticillatum. Moorauge. Gnaphalium uliginosum.5 * Turloughs Temporary lakes principally filled by subterranean waters and particular to karstic limestone areas. vomeracea. The vegetation mainly belongs to the alliance Lolio-Potentillion anserinae Tx. Corresponding categories In the Azores the corresponding association is Anthemido-Menthetum pulegii Lüp. #M. Juncus bulbosos. Juncus buffonius. A. Plants: Cinclidotus fontinaloides. Animals: Tanymastix stagnalis (wet phase) and the beetles Agonum lugens. Damasonium alisma. These lakes fill and empty at particular places. R. schoenoides. R. Nanocyperion flavescentis. 1) 2) 3) 3180 PAL. 3) 3170 PAL. but also to the Caricion davallianae Klika 1934. duriei. C. Mentha cervina. "652 Vattenmossvegetation". close to the sea. *L. C. S. Interpretation Manual .. #Isoetes boryana. fuscus. Fimbristylis bisumbellata. Lythrum castellanum.. Glinus lotoides. N. some may flood at any time of the year after heavy rainfall and dry out again in a few days. I. Blethisa multipunctata and Pelophila borealis (dry phase) 15. The soils are quite variable. Hypericum humifusum. W. Most flood in the autumn and then dry up between April and July. Rhynchospora alba. C. Randlagg). Animals: Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Corresponding categories German classification: "240101 natürliches. lateriflorus.

Acta Botanica Neerlandica. Sykora. B.D.23. but the stratification is well-expressed. R. Thesis.CLASS. (1992). R. Schoenoplectus lacustris. Macgowran. de la Baile 1 Mai . Dublin.5) Coxon. Communities of Charetea. Ceratophyllum demersum. Interpretation Manual .12p Lakes of gypsum karst Small permanent lakes that have developed in springs or spring complexes of active gypsum karst areas.Nat.E.E. Ph. Potamogeton pectinatus. Thesis. A report for the National Parks and Wildlife Service of the Office of Public Works (unpublished). 41B: 37 . Maximum depth of the pools does not exceed 7 m. Biologia si ecologia plantei Nymphaea lotus L. The flora of turloughs: a preliminary note. Sparganium erectum These lakes are similar in some respects to 3180 Turloughs but that habitat is found in limestone not gypsum areas and does not support mats of green and purple bacteria 1) 2) 4) 31A0 PAL.: 22.g. Lemnetea and Potamogetonion are the dominant elements of the water vegetation. C. C. Warnstorfia exannulata. A study of the hydrology and geomorphology of turloughs. Irish Geography. 20: 11 . Coxon.5 m) which is related with the level of the underlying water table and amount of precipitation. K.Oradea. Plants: Lemna trisulca.thermalis (DC. (1986). (1985). Intensive gypsum solution leads to high saturation of Ca2+ and SO42. Lolio-Potentillion Communities in Ireland. Praeger.45. Trinity College.L. (1959).V. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin. (1932). The spatial distribution of turloughs. Chara contraria. var. Goodwillie. (1987).ions in water. Budapest) are introductions. Phytosociological and ecological studies on turloughs in the west of Ireland.EUR25 Page 36 . 3190 PAL. Turloughs over 10 ha: vegetation survey and evaluation. Potamogeton lucens.43113 *Transylvanian hot-spring lotus beds 1) 2) 5) Formations of Nymphaea lotus of geo-thermal waters (unit 66.199. 4 6) Hungarian examples (e. Ocr.94) of Petea Lake. C.D.CLASS. 31(3): 185 . (1982). These water bodies are characterised by large fluctuations of water level (up to 2. National University of Ireland.)Tusz. Ph. Plants: Nymphaea lotus Olteanu-Cozma. western Romania. The unusual conditions allow unique colonies and mats of green and purple sulphurous bacteria to develop in the lakes.: 22.. Chara globularis.

Ibid. summer-high. Nilsson. poecilobus. (1979). S. In: Älvboken . .# Salmo salar. trutta lacustris.).221 and 24.. sometimes with abyssal stations at lower altitudes (Epilobion fleischeri p.222 . In higher levels the rivers are characterized by great. The water-dynamics can vary and contain waterfalls. Ibid. and small lakes adjacent to the river. hills and sometimes lowlands. In addition the water surface in placid river sections is frozen to ice every winter..Plecoptera spp.Running water Sections of water courses with natural or semi-natural dynamics (minor. colonising.inst. where sedimentation starts.EUR25 Page 37 .: - Fennoscandian natural rivers Boreal and hemiboreal natural and near-natural river systems or parts of such systems containing nutrient-poor water.Vegetationens överlevnadsekologi på Gardikens regleringsstränder . lat. H.Open or closed assemblages of herbaceous or suffrutescent pioneering plants.Uppsala. The water level shows great amplitude. Taraxacum crocodes. 73: 257. calm water. Baetis spp. flow regime. Ch. Carex aquatilis. Matteuccia struthiopteris. gravel beds of streams with an alpine. as well as in the alpine and subalpine zones of higher. Salix daphnoides. very cold water flows. (1978).CLASS. . deep snowbeds and large snowcovered areas in mire. the water level is high. S.Open assemblages of herbaceous or suffrutescent pioneering plants.# Petromyzon marinus. 1) Interpretation Manual . Sjörs. 24. Leuciscus leuciscus.Vegetationförhållanden i kraftverksälvar. coming from glaciers. rich in alpine species. Nilsson. The water erosion causes a higher amount of nutrients towards the river-mouth. 73: 266. 1) 2) 5) 3220 PAL. summer-high.# Margaritifera margaritifera. .Floraförändringar vid kraftverksutbyggnad. Tidskr. (1985). flow regime. These circumstances create ecosystems unique to this part of Europe. mountains of more southern regions. within the montane or sub-montane levels. Myricaria germanica. nemorum.: 24. Ch. colonising gravel beds of streams with an alpine. born in high mountains (Epilobion fleischeri p. Ch.CLASS. formed in northern boreal and lower Arctic mountains....Älvens miljöer. Plants. glaciated. Fältbiologerna. rapid streams. sebago. Phoxinus aphya Ericsson. Sparganium glomeratum.. # Cottus gobio s. 72: 227. up to 6 m during the year. # Lampetra fluviatilis. Fish.222 Alpine rivers and the herbaceous vegetation along their banks 24.and woodlands. C. Svensk Bot. Especially during the spring. # S. Calamagrostion pseudophragmitis). (1973).221 . Växtbiol. average and major beds) where the water quality shows no significant deterioration 3210 PAL. Hygrohypnum ochraceum Animals : Molluscs. Centroptilum spp. (1979). Stellaria nemorum ssp. trutta trutta. Insects. salar m. Thymallus thymallus. Nilsson. Rapport till SNV för Utredningen rörande vattenkraftsutbyggnader i södra Norrland och norra Svealand...Om botaniska skyddsvärden vid älvarna.en problemorientering. S. Sagittaria natans x sagittifolia. Cinna latifolia.

Salix nigricans and Hippophae rhamnoides of higher gravel shoals in Alpine and peri-Alpine valleys. Agrostis gigantea. Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. "7214 Racomitrium canescens-Oxyria digyna -typ". Leontodon berinii.: 24. Calamagrostis pseudophragmites. Campanula cochleariifolia. S.: 24. are characteristic (Salici-Myricarietum).2) Plants: 24.223 x 44.CLASS. Erigeron acris. "7222 Eriophorum scheuchzeri -typ".CLASS. gracilis. Myricaria germanica. 1) 2) 3) 3240 PAL. Calamagrostis pseudophragmites. Hippophae rhamnoides. among others. Fumana procumbens. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : "7212 Myricaria germanica-typ".. of mountain and northern boreal streams with an alpine..112 Alpine rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Salix elaeagnos Thickets or woods of. Salix daphnoides and Myricaria germanica. Euphorbia cyparissias. Aethionema saxatile. flow regime. Dryas octopetala. summer-high.221 and 24.222 on gravel deposits rich in fine silt. Saxifraga aizoides. Erucastrum nasturtiifolium. Epilobium fleischeri. Alnus spp. Salix daphnoides. Formations of Salix elaeagnos. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . flow regime. gracilis. Salix purpurea ssp. summer-high. Rhacomitrium canescens. Salix purpurea ssp.221 .Astragalus sempervirens. Salix elaeagnos. Salix daphnoides. Plants: Salix elaeagnos.111 Alpine rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Myricaria germanica Communities of low shrubby pioneers invading the herbaceous formations of 24. gracilis. Plants:. 24. S. Betula spp. Salix nigricans and Hippophae rhamnoides.224 x 44. "7223 Calamagrostis stricta -typ" and "7224 Carex aquatilis-Equisetum fluviatile -typ". alpestris. Salix purpurea ssp. Rumex cutatus.EUR25 Page 38 . Gypsophila repens. and seedlings of Salix elaeagnos. Trifolium palescens.. 3) 3230 PAL. bryoides. on stream gravels of mountain and northern boreal streams with an alpine. Myricaria germanica and Salix spp. Gypsophila repens. Salix purpurea. Dryas octopetala. Hieracium piloselloides. caerulea.222 . Pritzelago alpina. Epilobium dodonaei.Chondrilla chondrilloides. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : "7211 Calamagrostis stricta-Lotus corniculatus-Oxyria digyna-typ". Conyza canadensis. Salix nigricans. Buphthalmum salicifolium. Salix daphnoides. Salix spp.

p. Nordic classification : "6621 Myriophyllum alterniflorum-Potamogeton alpinus-Fontinalis antipyretica-typ". penicillatus ssp. kalkarmes Hyporhithral".. Nordisk växtgeografi. R. pseudofluitantis. 240 pp. Erucastrum nasturtiifolium. and Bidention p. (1967). 1) 2) 3260 Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation Water courses of plain to montane levels. Myriophyllum spp.p. Zannichellia palustris. Corresponding categories German classification : "23010101 naturnahes. aquatilis. "23010201 naturnahes.4 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 3270 PAL.. During the spring and at the beginning of the summer. with submerged or floating vegetation of the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion (low water level during summer) or aquatic mosses. P138). kalkreiches Epi-/Metarhithral". "23010301 naturnahes Hypopotamal" (mit flutenden Macrophyten. kalkreiches Hyporhithral". fluitans. Glaucium flavum. "23020101 naturnahes Epipotamal".CLASS. R. Svenska Bokförlaget Bonniers. 2 uppl.p. with formations of the Glaucion flavi.52 Rivers with muddy banks with Chenopodion rubri p. vegetation Muddy river banks of plain to submontane levels. Plants: Ranunculus saniculifolius. Page 39 1) Interpretation Manual . R. R.: 24. "23010301 naturnahes. Sium erectum. summer-low.EUR25 . Stockholm. Callitriche spp. R. penicillatus ssp. Fontinalis antipyretica. trichophyllus. Plants: Myricaria germanica. and the Bidention p. If the conditions are not favourable.. H. sites look like muddy banks without any vegetation (developes later in the year). penicillatus. Sjörs. with annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation of the Chenopodion rubri p.CLASS.p.: 24.CLASS. Potamogeton spp. alliances. peltatus. Oenothera biennis. this vegetation has a weak development or could be completely absent.3250 PAL.225 Constantly flowing Mediterranean rivers with Glaucium flavum Communities colonising gravel deposits of rivers with a Mediterranean.: 24. R. flow regime. "23010401 naturnahes. PAL. kalkarmes Epi-/Metarhithral". This habitat is sometimes associated with Butomus umbellatus bank communities. It is important to take this point into account in the process of site selection. "23010201 naturnahes Metapotamal".

Corresponding categories German classification : "230605 zeitweilig trockenfallende Schlammfläche an fließenden Gewässern (krautreich. but with the particularity of an interrupted flow and a dry bed during a part of the year. 4) 3280 Constantly flowing Mediterranean rivers with PaspaloAgrostidion species and hanging curtains of Salix and Populus alba Nitrophilous annual and perennial grass and sedge formations of the alluvial banks of large Mediterranean rivers.2) 3) Plants: Chenopodium rubrum. Polypogon viridis (= Agrostis semiverticillata). This habitat is found in close association with dense populations of the genus Bidens or of neophitic species. and hanging curtains of Salix spp and Populus alba. nodosus. P026)". Ranunculus fluitans. The bed of the river can be completely dry or left with some pools. Polygonum lapathifolium. Salix spp.EUR25 Page 40 .. P. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . They correspond to the river type 24. Cyperus fuscus. Potamogeton natans. P026)". Bidens frondosa. vaginatum.: 24. Cyperus fuscus. vaginatum. Plants: Paspalum paspaloides. "230605 zeitweilig trockenfallende Schlammfläche an fließenden Gewässern (krautreich. with Paspalum paspaloides.53 1) 2) 3290 PAL. it is important to take into account bank widths of 50 to 100 m and even parts without vegetation (24. Plants: Polygonum amphibium.53.: 24. PAL.53 Intermittently flowing Mediterranean rivers of the Paspalo-Agrostidion Intermittently flowing Mediterranean rivers with Paspalo-Agrostidion communities. Xanthium sp. with a late or irregular annual development. In order to support the conservation of these communities. Polypogon viridis (= Agrostis semiverticillata). P. pectinatus. P.51). P.16 and 24.CLASS. Populus alba..CLASS.

peaty or semi-peaty heaths. Cirsio filipenduli-Ericetum ciliaris. Central and Northern Europe. Erica ciliaris.l.CLASS. Sub-types: 31. E. with surface minerals in the case of peaty soils (hydromor).: 31. "H4 Ulex galli-Agrostis heath" and "M16 Erica tetralix-Sphagnum compactum" where these contain Erica ciliaris. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "M14 Schoenus nigricans-Narthecium ossifragum heath p. Plants: Erica tetralix. with vegetation of the alliances Genistion micrantho-anglicae and Ulicion minoris: Ulici minoris-Ericetum ciliaris.: 31. on semi-peaty or dried-out soils. Calluno-Genistion pilosae p.TEMPERATE HEATH AND SCRUB 4010 PAL. "M15 Scirpus cespitosus-Narthecium ossifragum mire".a. Genista anglica.(Vaccinion vitisidaeae p.EUR25 Page 41 . Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H3 Ulex minor-Agrostis heath". Nordic classification: "5121 Erica tetralix-typ".12 * Temperate Atlantic wet heaths with Erica ciliaris and Erica tetralix Hygrophilous heaths of areas with a temperate oceanic climate.: 31. carpetana. of the Atlantic and sub-Atlantic domains. other than blanket bogs. G.):Vaccinio myrtilli-Callunetum s. Ulici gallii-Ericetum mackaianae. "M16 Erica tetralix-Sphagnum compactum wet heath" and "H5 Erica vagans-Schoenus nigricans heath".Sub-montane Vaccinium-Calluna heaths. tetralix.CLASS.". Sphagnum spp. 1) 2) 3) 4020 PAL. Euphorbia polygaliphylla.CLASS. 1) Interpretation Manual .11 Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix Humid. Ulici minoris-Ericetum tetralicis (Schwickerath 33 Tuxen 37).p.. lusitanicus. Ulex minor var. micrantha. mackaiana. G. E. podsolic soils in moist Atlantic and sub-Atlantic climates of plains and low mountains of Western. 1) 2) 3) 4030 PAL.21 .2 European dry heaths Mesophile or xerophile heaths on siliceous. Plants: Centaurea uliginosa. i.

Heaths rich in Vaccinium spp., usually with Calluna vulgaris, of the northern and western British Isles, the Hercynian ranges and the lower levels of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees and the Cordillera Cantabrica. 31.22 - Sub-Atlantic Calluna-Genista heaths. Calluno-Genistion pilosae p. Low Calluna heaths often rich in Genista, mostly of the Germano-Baltic lowlands. Similar formations occurring in British upland areas, montane zones of high mountains of the western Mediterranean basin and high rainfall Adriatic influenced areas are most conveniently listed here. 31.23 - Atlantic Erica-Ulex heaths. Ulicenion minoris; Daboecenion cantabricae p.; Ulicion maritimae p. Heaths rich in gorse (Ulex) of the Atlantic margins. 31.24 - Ibero-Atlantic Erica-Ulex-Cistus heaths. Daboecenion cantabricae p.; Ericenion umbellatae p., Ericenion aragonensis; Ulicion maritimae p.; Genistion micrantho-anglicae p. Aquitanian heaths with rock-roses. Iberian heaths with numerous species of heathers (notably Erica umbellata, E. aragonensis) and brooms, rock-roses and often Daboecia. When the rockroses and other Mediterranean shrubs become dominant they should be classified under sclerophyllous scrubs (32). 31.25 - Boreo-Atlantic Erica cinerea heaths. 2) Plants: 31.21 - Vaccinium spp., Calluna vulgaris; 31.22 - Calluna vulgaris, Genista anglica, G. germanica, G. pilosa, accompanied by Empetrum nigrum or Vaccinium spp.; 31.23 - Ulex maritimus, U. gallii, Erica cinerea, E. mackaiana, E. vagans; 31.24 - Erica umbellata, E. aragonensis, E. cinerea, E. andevalensis, Cistus salvifolius, Calluna vulgaris; 31.25 - Erica cinerea. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H1 Calluna vulgaris-Festuca ovina heath", "H2 Calluna vulgarisUlex minor heath", "H3 Ulex minor-Agrostis curtisii heath", "H4 Ulex gallii-Agrostis curtisii heath", "H7 Calluna vulgaris-Scilla verna heath", "H8 Calluna vulgaris-Ulex gallii heath", "H9 Calluna vulgaris-Deschampsia flexuosa heath", "H10 Calluna vulgaris-Erica cinerea heath", "H12 Calluna vulgaris-Vaccinium myrtillus heaths", "H16 Calluna vulgarisArctostaphylos uva-ursi heath", " H18 Vaccinium myrtillus- Deschampsia flexuosa heath" and "H21 Calluna vulgaris- Vaccinium myrtillus-Sphagnum capillifolium heath". Nordic classification : "5111 Rhacomitrium lanuginosum-Empetrum hermaphroditum-typ", "5113 Calluna vulgaris-Empetrum nigrum-Vaccinium vitis-idea-typ", "5115 Calluna vulgaris-typ", "5116 Vaccinium myrtillus- Calluna vulgaris-typ", "5117 Calluna vulgaris-Hieracium pilosella-typ", "5131 Deschampsia flexuosa-Galium saxatile-typ", "5132 Agrostis capillaris-Galium saxatile-typ".


PAL.CLASS.: 31.234

* Dry Atlantic coastal heaths with Erica vagans
Coastal heaths of temperate areas with Erica vagans and Ulex europaeus on well-drained soil, other than prostrate maritime formations. Plants: Erica vagans, Ulex europaeus. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H6 Erica vagans-Ulex europaeus heath". The presence of Ulex europaeus is not obligatory.

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PAL.CLASS.: 31.3

* Endemic macaronesian heaths
Ericaceous formations (low and medium-tall stages). Andryalo-Ericetalia: Fayo-Ericion arboreae, Telino-Adenocarpion foliolosae (Canaries); Calluno-Ulicetalia: Daboecion azoricae, Ericetum azoricae, Daphno-Ericetum azoricae (Azores). Plants: Adenocarpus foliolosus, Calluna vulgaris, Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. proliferus, #Cistus chinamadensis, Cletura arborea, Daboecia azorica, Erica arborea, E. maderensis, E. platycodon, #E. scoparia ssp. azorica, Ilex canariensis, Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica, Luzula purpureosplendens, Lysimachia azorica, Myrica faya, Pteridium aquilinum, Teline canarienis, T. splendens, T. stenopetala, Thymus caespititius, Vaccinium cilindraceum. Macaronesian Laurel forests (45.6) and Canarian heath forests (49.9) are tall forest-like formations associated with this habitat type. Rivas-Martínez, S., Wildpret, W., Arco, M., Rodríguez, O., Pérez de Paz, P.L., García Gallo, A., Acebes, J.R., Díaz, T.E. & Fernández-González, F. (1993). Las comunidades vegetales de la isla de Tenerife (Islas Canarias). Itinera Geobot. 7: 169 - 374.



4) 5)

PAL.CLASS.: 31.4

Alpine and Boreal heaths
Small, dwarf or prostrate shrub formations of the alpine and sub-alpine zones of the mountains of Eurasia dominated by ericaceous species, Dryas octopetala, dwarf junipers, brooms or greenweeds; Dryas heaths of the British Isles and Scandinavia. Sub-types : 31.41 - Alpide dwarf ericoid wind heaths. Loiseleurio-Vaccinion. Very low, single-stratum, carpets of trailing azalea, Loiseleuria procumbens, prostate Vaccinium spp. or other prostate ericoid shrublets, accompanied by lichen, of high windswept, mostly snowfree, localities in the alpine belt of the high mountains of the Alpine system. 31.42 - Acidocline alpenrose heaths. Rhododendro-Vaccinion. Rhododendron spp.-dominated heaths of acid podsols in the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Dinarids, the Carpathians, the Balkan Range, the Pontic Range, the Caucasus and the Himalayan system, often with Vaccinium spp., sometimes with dwarf pines. 31.43 - Mountain dwarf juniper scrub. Juniperion nanae, Pino-Juniperion sabinae p., PinoCytision purgantis p. Usually dense formations of prostrate junipers of the higher levels of southern Palaearctic mountains. 31.44 - High mountain Empetrum-Vaccinium heaths. Empetro-Vaccinietum uliginosi. Dwarf heaths dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium uliginosum, with Arctostaphylos alpina, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and lycopodes (Huperzia selago, Diphasiastrum alpinum), mosses (Barbilophozia lycopodioides, Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Rhythidiadelphus triquetrus) and lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cladonia arbuscula, Cladonia rangiferina, Cladonia stellaris, Cladonia gracilis, Peltigera aphthosa) of the sub-alpine belt of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the Central Massif, the Jura, the Northern Apennines, characteristic of relatively windswept, snow-free stations, in frost-exposure situations that are, however, less extreme than those prevailing where communities of 31.41 dominate. Unlike the formations of 31.41, those of 31.44 are clearly two-layered. 31.45 - Boreo-alpine heaths
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Alpine heaths of the highlands and islands of Scotland, alpine and lowland boreal heaths of Iceland, alpine heaths of boreal mountains, in particular of the mountains of Scandinavia, of the Urals, of the mountains of Siberia, alpine heaths of Far Eastern mountains at, or just south of, the limits of the boreal zone, with Juniperus nana, Loiseleuria procumbens, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctostaphylos alpina and elements of Alpine flora. 31.46 - Bruckenthalia heaths: only outside the European Union. 31.47 - Alpide bearberry heaths. Mugo-Rhodoretum hirsuti p., Juniperion nanae p., i.a. Mats of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi or Arctostaphylos alpina of the alpine, sub-alpine and locally, montane, belts of the Alps, the Pyrenees, the northern and central Apennines, the Dinarids, the Carpathians, the Balkan Range, the Rhodopides (south to the Slavianka-Orvilos, the Menikion, the Pangeon, the Falakron and the Rhodopi), the Moeso-Macedonian mountains (including Athos), the Pelagonides (south to the Greek Macedonian border ranges Tzena, Pinovon and Kajmakchalan) and Olympus, in the Thessalian mountains, mostly on calcareous substrates. 31.48 - Hairy alpenrose-erica heaths. Mugo-Rhodoretum hirsuti p. Forest substitution heaths, treeline fringe formations and alpine heaths or mats of calcareous soils in the Alps and the Dinarides, with Rhododendron hirsutum, Rhododendron intermedium, Rhodothamnus chamaecistus and Erica herbacea, often accompanied by Clematis alpina, Daphne striata, Daphne mezereum, Globularia cordifolia, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Rhododendron hirsutum and, mostly in the Austrian Alps, Erica herbacea are the most frequent dominants; other shrubs can locally play that role. Arctostaphylos spp.-dominated facies have, however, been included in 31.47. 31.49 - Mountain avens mats Dwarf heaths formed by mats of the woody Dryas octopetala in high Palaearctic mountains, in boreal regions and in isolated Atlantic coastal outposts. 31.4A - High mountain dwarf bilberry heaths Vaccinium-dominated dwarf heaths of the sub-alpine belt of southern mountains, in particular, of the northern and central Apennines, the Balkan Range, the Helenides, the Pontic Range and the Caucasus, with Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum s.l., Vaccinium vitis-idaea and, locally, Empetrum nigrum. They are richer in grassland species than the communities of 31.44 and often take the appearance of alpine grassland with dwarf shrubs. Vaccinium myrtillus also plays a much more dominant role, in lieu of Vaccinium uliginosum and Empetrum hermaphroditum. 31.4B - High mountain greenweed heaths Low Genista spp. or Chamaecytisus spp. heaths of the sub-alpine, low alpine or montane belts of high southern nemoral mountains, in particular of the southern Alps, the Apennines, the Dinarides, the southern Carpathians, the Balkan Range, the Moeso-Macedonian mountains, the Pelagonides, the northern Pindus, the Rhodopides, the Thessalian mountains. 2) Plants: 31.41 - Loiseleuria procumbens, Vaccinium spp.; 31.42 - Rhododendron ferrugineum; 31.44 Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium uliginosum; 31.45 - Juniperus nana, Loiseleuria procumbens, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctostaphylos alpina; in Fennoscandia also Betula nana, Cassiope tetragona, Cornus suecica, Juniperus communis, Phyllodoce caerulea, Vaccinium myrtillus and Cladonia alpestris; 31.47 - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctostaphylos alpina; 31.48 - Rhododendron hirsutum, Rhododendron intermedium, Rhodothamnus chamaecistus and Erica herbacea; 31.49 - Dryas octopetala; 31.4A - Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum s.l., Vaccinium vitis-idaea; 31.4B - Genista radiata, G. holopetala, G. hassertiana, Chamaecytisus eriocarpus, C. absinthioides. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "H13 Calluna vulgaris-Cladonia arbuscula heath", "H14 Calluna vulgaris-Racomitrium lanuginosum heath", "H15 Calluna vulgaris-Juniperus communis ssp. nana heath", "H17 Calluna vulgaris Arctostaphylos alpinus heath", "H19 Vaccinium myrtillus-Cladonia arbuscula heath", "H20 Vaccinium myrtillus-Racomitrium lanuginosum heath" and "H22 Vaccinium myrtillus-Rubus chamaemorus heath".


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S.Nordic classification: "11 Snöfria vindhedar". 1) 2) 3) 4080 1) Sub-Arctic Salix spp. 31. L.6214 . the Pirin. the eastern greater Hercynian ranges. Topographic.622 . 31. & Virtanen. Cantabrian Mountains. altitudinal and regional patterns in continental and suboceanic heath vegetation of northern Fennoscandia. the southwestern Alps and the Swiss Jura. Piceo-Salicetum silesiacae [i.5-2 metre tall) Salix species. the Carpathians. S. Carpathians.]. ferrugineum. the Jura and the western great Hercynian ranges. 31. Salici silesiacae-Betuletum carpaticae [p.6211. S.CLASS. alpine and occasionally montane brushes and low scrubs of the Alps. "121 Hedvegetation på fattigt underlag". "1321 Salix polaris typ". Subtypes : 31. (1995).622 2) 3) Interpretation Manual .Pyreneo-Cantabric willow brush Subalpine. Fennica 135:1-219. lanata. "1311 Cassiope hypnoides-Salix herbacea typ". dominated by small shrubby (generally 0. of the mountains of Iceland and of the boreal mountains of Scandinavia. 4070 PAL. alpine and occasionally montane Salix dominated brushes and low scrubs of the Carpathians and the eastern Hercynian ranges of the Sudeten (Salicetum lapponum. arbuscula. and associated massifs. Fennica 153:1-80. Plants: Salix lapponum. S. (1988). helvetica. 31. bicolor. Corresponding categories Page 45 PAL.6214.6215 . the Rila and the Balkan Range. R. S. the mountains of Iceland and the mountains of Scandinavia (often along streams) and similar communities in the Alps. the Apennines.CLASS. "6904 Latschengebüsch". R.Alpigenous small willow brush Subalpine.a. the northern and southeastern outer Alps. M. Acta Bot. Plants: Pinus mugo.: 31. 5) Haapasaari.Boreo-Alpine willow brush Subarctic willow formations of the Highlands of Scotland. Rhododendron hirsutum.]). alpine and occasionally montane Salix dominated brushes and low scrubs of the Pyrenees and the Cordillera Cantabrica. Pyrenees. the Apennines. 31.: 31.6211 . myrsinites. scrub Subarctic and boreo-alpine willow formations of the Scottish Highlands. The oligotrophic heath vegetation of northern Fennoscandia and its zonation. Rhodothamnus chamaecistus Corresponding categories German classification: "6905 Alpenrosengebüsch". "122 Hedvegetation på rikt/kalkrikt underlag". Acta Bot. the Dinarides and the neighbouring Pelagonides. S. glauca.6215.EUR25 .Hercynio-Carpathian willow brush Subalpine. Oksanen. 31.5 * Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum (Mugo-Rhododendretum hirsuti) Pinus mugo formations usually with Rhododendron spp of the dry eastern inner Alps.

Hellenic oro-Mediterranean hedgehog-heaths. 31. 31.79 . Genisto hystricis-Echinospartetum lusitanici Formations of the Cordillera Central and adjacent areas dominated by diverse forms of Echinospartum. Cytiso oromediterranei-Echinospartetum barnadesii. Vella spinosa. Sub-types : 31.Pyrenean hedgehog-heaths. Berberis aetnensis. similar. spiny cushions are Juniperus hemisphaerica.Helleno-Balkanic sylvatic Astragalus hedgehog-heaths Hedgehog-heaths occupying situations peripheral to the main range of the alti. 31. 31.76 . Buxus sempervirens. corsica.79 and 31. Echinospartum.7 Endemic oro-Mediterranean heaths with gorse Primary cushion heaths of the high. often spiny shrubs. Berberis aetnensis. Highly developed hedgehog formations of the Sierra Nevada with Erinacea anthyllis.71 .Cyrno-Sardian hedgehog-heaths. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ssp. 31. Echinospartum horridum formations of dry slopes of the supra-Mediterranean zone of the southern Pyrenees. G. accompanying the dense.: 31. such as Acantholimon.United Kingdom classification: "W20 Salix lapponum-Luzula sylvatica scrub".7A). Adenocarpus bivonae.CLASS. Junipero-Genistetum horridae. of the mountains of the southern Italian peninsula and Sicily. dry mountains of the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions. secondary. characteristic. Vella. Cerastium boissieri.Cordilleran hedgehog-heaths. hedgehog-heath facies of associated grasslands. in particular. Anthyllis hermanniae. either downslope extensions of the highaltitude formations. Associated dwarf suffrutescent formations of high slopes and crests. Teucrii salviastri-Echinospartetum pulviniformis. zoogenic cushion heaths of the same regions. Ptilotrichum.73 . granatensis (A. Carici-Genistetalia (Carlinetalia macrocephalae) Expanses of small. crassifolia and Pinus sylvestris. or Genista spp. Viola aethnensis. Nordic classification: "127 Videvegetation". Ononis fruticosa. boissieri). cushion-forming. Genista baetica. Erinacetalia p. compact bushes with Astragalus sirinicus ssp. Genista salzmannii. or specifically montane or steppic. nevadensis. Lavandulo-Genistion boissieri p.and oroMediterranean hedgehog-heath communities of high Hellenic mountains (31. Ptilotrichum spinosum.78 . 31. often Genista-dominated in the Mediterranean region.EUR25 Page 46 . and dominated by the same species. Erinacea.72 . Rosa seraphini. genargenteus. Anthyllis and various composites and labiates. Thymus herba-barona. Bupleurum.74 . A. granatensis ssp.Nevadan hedgehog-heaths. 31. of Sardinian and Corsican mountains. of zoogenous clearings within the forest belt of southern Greek mountains and of regions of irradiation of Mediterranean communities within the hills and mountains of the Moesian zone. Bupleurum spinosum. 4090 PAL. in the 1700-2200 m altitudinal range of high Greek mountains. siculus.. Astragalus.Franco-Iberian hedgehog-heaths Oro-Mediterranean and montane hedgehog-heaths of other Iberian ranges and of southern France. Juniperus hemisphaerica. with low. impoverished formations descending into the forest belts of the same 1) Interpretation Manual . Hedgehog-heaths developed on relatively humus-rich rendziniform soils at or above treeline. Prunus prostrata and Daphne oleoides. Excluded are cushion-heaths of thermoMediterranean lowlands (33) and of deserts and semideserts (7). Astragalus sempervirens ssp. 31.75 . Genista.Mount Etna hedgehog-heaths. mostly dominated by Astragalus angustifolius.Madonie and Apennine hedgehog-heaths Hedgehog-heaths formed by Astragalus spp.77 . Genista aetnensis. Echinosparto pulviniformis-Cytisetum oromediterranei. except Etna. Daphno-Festucetea: Eryngio-Bromion p. Astragaletum siculi Lava-colonising formations with cushions of Astragalus granatensis ssp..

p. Thymus hirsutus. Vella spinosa. Astragalus lacteus. Chamaecytisus creticus.Southern Hellenic Genista acanthoclada hedgehog-heaths Formations dominated by hemispherical shrubs of Genista acanthoclada of the middle levels (about 800 .Genista acanthoclada. Genista salzmannii. Adenocarpus bivonae. Pterocephalus spathulatus. A.7A . Viola aethnensis. 31. Aster alpinus. with Astragalus creticus ssp. pulviniformis. angustifolius. 2) Plants: 31. 31. A. barnadesii. listed under 31. ssp.7E . Daphno-Festucetea: Astragalo-Seslerion Shrubby formations of the high mountains of the Peloponnese. Minuartia stellata. A. creticus.Spartocytisus supranubius. dalmatica.EUR25 Page 47 . granatensis (A. chius. A. 31. Thymus teucrioides. A. Rosa seraphini. Interpretation Manual .Astragalus creticus ssp. in the 1500-2500 m altitudinal range. Vella spinosa.72 . Convolvulus boissieri.7F . Asperula idaea. Berberis cretica. corsica. creticus.mountains. nevadensis. Spartocytision nubigeni Open formations dominated by broom-like plants of the montane zone (above 1900 m) of the Canary Islands. Euphorbia acanthothamnos. Atraphaxis billardieri. sirinicus. the eastern Pyrenees. Andryala agardhii.71 . Bupleurum spinosum. Sideritis scardica. G. Acantholimon androsaceum. rumelicus. Achillea ageratifolia. Chamaecytisus creticus. 31. E. parnassi. Acinos alpinus. 31. Acantholimon androsaceum. Anthyllis aurea. trojanus var. cephalonicus.Cretan hedgehog-heaths. angustifolius. Linum flavum.76 . A. Astragalus sempervirens ssp. Erysimum pusillum. A. Verbascum spinosum. 31. muticus.Astragalus angustifolius.77 Astragalus granatensis ssp. var. A. Thymus granatensis. 31. Astragalus angustifolius. 31. ssp.7E . with many endemic species. A. 31.Astragalus creticus ssp. Berberis aetnensis. A. 31. samius.Erinacea anthyllis. sirinicus ssp. where they are replaced by distinctive formations. muticus. colonising the altitudinal range immediately above that occupied by the communities of 31. Prunus prostrata. granatensis ssp. ssp.Astragalus sempervirens ssp. pilodes. endemic-rich. cephalonicus formations of the southern Alps. angustifolius. 31.7D . sylvestris ssp.Echinospartum lusitanicum ssp. Anthyllis hermanniae.7B .Astragalus angustifolius. Rindera graeca.Erinacea anthyllis.78. 31. Paronychia kapela.74 . Genista aetnensis. ibericum ssp. s. sempervirens. eriocarpa. 31. Juniperus hemisphaerica.7A .79 . Hippocrepis squamata ssp. ssp. spartioides. loose screes and humus-deficient soils within the main 1700-2200 m range of these communities. Daphne oleoides. mostly summital hedgehog-heaths of calcareous mountains of Aegean islands and Mount Athos.73 . Thymus boissieri.7C . cushiony formations of dwarf suffrutescents and bushdominated facies of stripped grasslands. Genista baetica. Iberia. A. calabrus. 31. samothracius.75 . the Apennines and Greece. Alyssum kionae.7C Astragalus creticus var. with the exception of those of the Peloponnese. 31. Sesleria caerulans are characteristic. Cerastium boissieri. Satureja spinosa.Aegean summital hedgehog-heaths Isolated.78 .Canarian cushion-heaths. boissieri).79. parnassi ssp. s. sempervirens.7F . as well as stony slopes with shallow soil. Globularia stygia.1200 m) of mountains and plateaux of the Peloponnese.Hellenic alti-Mediterranean hedgehog-heaths. Rhamnus prunifolius.7. Thymus herba-barona. parnassi. Berberis aetnensis. Convolvulus cochlearis. 31. 31.Astragalus sempervirens hedgehog-heaths Astragalus sempervirens ssp. Minuartia stellata. Ptilotrichum spinosum. Genista cupanii. G.Astragalus granatensis ssp. A.Echinospartum horridum. of the southern mainland Greek mountains and of the Thessalian Olympus system. 31. 31. A.7B . genargenteus. siculus. nebrodensis. Pimpinella tragium. monachorum. Saturejetea spinosae Hedgehog-heaths of high mountains of Crete.4 and the true Mediterranean hedgehog-heaths of 31.7D . Prunus prostrata. Included are true spiny hedgehog-heaths. Adenocarpus viscosus var. A. Sideritis syriaca. 31. transitional between the alpine and sub-alpine heaths of 31. Daphne oleoides.Astragalus sirinicus ssp.

Nepeta pannonica. mahaleb. Peucedanum cervaria. Cerasetum mahaleb Oberdorfer and Th. tomentosus. with irradiations to the lower Danubian plain.: Crataego-Prunetum fruticosae de Sóo 1951) Prunetum tenellae Soó 1947 (syn.) (1999). A. pimpinellifolia. Agropyron pectinatum. Asparagus officinalis. Spiraea media. Cerasus fruticosa.EUR25 Page 48 . Syringa vulgaris Corresponding categories Hungarian classification: continental deciduous steppe thickets (identification code: M6). Allium sphaerocephalon. Vörös Könyv Magyarország növénytársulásairól. B. Ungarn. the southern periphery of the Pannonic basin.40A0 PAL. Rosa spinosissima. Verbascum austriacum. (Red Book of Hungarian Plant Communities. C. Geranium sanguineum. Aster linosyris.) (1967). Inula ensifolia. Jurinea mollis. Melica picta. Buglossoides purpurcaerulea.CLASS. Amelanchier ovalis.: Amygdaletum nanae Soó 1951). Guide der Exkursionen des Internationalen Geobotanischen Symposium. Aconitum anthora. (eds. Phlomis tuberosa. Budapest. Eger-Vácrátót.Vols.: 31. matrensis. Teucrium chamaedrys. niger. R. Salvia austriaca. 1-2. Müller 1979) Waldsteino-Spiraetum mediae Zólyomi 1936 Helleboro odori-Spiraetum mediae Borhidi et Morschhauser 1999 Syringo-Carpinion orientalis Jakucs 1959 1) 2) Plants: Amygdalus nana (syn Prunus tenella). 95p. Crataegus monogyna. (ed. Cotoneaster integerrimus. Stipa dasyphylla. to the Moravian plateau. Includes the following syntaxa: Prunetum fruticosae Dziubaltovski 1926 (syn. Occurs on both calcareous and siliceous substrates forming mosaic-like vegetation with steppe grassland (6210) and forest-steppe elements or plants of the rupicolous Pannonic grasslands (6190) often along the fringes of woodlands. 3) 5) Interpretation Manual . gallica. to the Dobrogea and to the hills and valleys of the northern Balkan peninsula.8B12p * Subcontinental peri-Pannonic scrub Low deciduous scrub with continental and sub mediterranean affinities of the Pannonic basin and neighbouring regions including the eastern Alpine periphery. white-oak shrub woodlands (identification code: M1) Borhidi. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. Cornus mas. the Transylvanian plateau and the adjacent foothills and valleys of the Eastern and Southern Carpathians and the Apuseni mountains. C. Coronillo-Prunetum mahaleb Gallandat 1972 (syn. Inula hirta. C. R. pp. Waldsteinia geoides. C. Chrysanthemum corymbosum. & Sánta. 768 (in Hungarian) Zólyomi. continental deciduous rock thickets (identification code: M7). Anemone sylvestris. A. Peucedaunum carvifolia. Vinca herbacea. Acer tataricum. the southern periphery of the Northwestern Carpathians. 1-2). TermészetBÚVÁR Kiadó.

Viburnum lantana. in Greece).7). and physiognomically reminiscent of the latter. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual .p. Crataegus spp.CLASS. Berberis vulgaris. on superficial soils.: 31. These communities are associated with calcareous grasslands. Geranium sanguineum. Felsenbirnen-.. P036b). They also constitute the natural woodland edge of calcareous dry forests rich with Buxus. beech groves rich in orchid species or with Pinus nigra and Pinus leucodermis (e. of hill and montane levels. Dictamnus albus. Cornus mas. the more open formations are rich in submediterranean plant species. These formations correspond to xerothermophilous Buxus thickets with their fringe associations of the Geranion sanguinei alliance on calcareous or siliceous substratum. Prunus mahaleb. Syntaxa: Berberidion p. but on very superficial soils where natural succession towards forest can not take place). Genistion polygaliphyllae p. Ligustrum vulgare. mixed oak or Quercus pubescens groves. Felsenmispel-.EUR25 Page 49 . often associated with dwarf juniper scrubs (31. Amelanchiero-Buxion Plants: Buxus sempervirens.43) or hedgehog-heaths (31. In the euro-siberian region.CLASS. Pino-Cytision purgantis p.842 Mountain Cytisus purgans formations Cytisus purgans-dominated formations of higher levels (upper montane.SCLEROPHYLLOUS SCRUB (MATORRAL) Sub-Mediterranean and temperate scrub 5110 PAL.. Sanddorngebüsch etc) (mit Buxus sempervirens. for example with Quercus pubescens or continental pine forests with Pinus sylvestris (the word "stable" concerns those formations which are practically at climax stage. subalpine. Prunus spinosa.) Stable xerothermophilous and calcicolous scrubs dominated by Buxus sempervirens. Amelanchier ovalis.p. Plants: Cytisus (Genista) purgans.g. Succession phase of calcareous grasslands toward mixed deciduous forests..82 Stable xerothermophilous formations with Buxus sempervirens on rock slopes (Berberidion p. oroMediterranean) of south-western European mountains. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5120 PAL.: 31. Corresponding categories German classification : "410103 Gebüsch trocken-warmer Standorte (Berberitzen-.

: 31. P036a)". For b) Calluna vulgaris. Erica tetralix. Sideritis arborescens ssp.Crataegus monogyna-Hedera helix scrub". Plants: #Biscutela vicentina. P036a)". grazed or let lie fallow. Ulex erinaceus.CLASS. 1) 2) 5) Interpretation Manual . 1) 2) 3) 5) 5140 PAL. sands and terra-rosas. algarbiensis.E. E. triacanthus. Rejmanek. heathlands of the Calluno vulgaris-Ulicetea minoris (31. T. Empetrum nigrum.CLASS. The effects of colonizing shrubs (Juniperus communis and Potentilla fruticosa) on species richness in the grasslands of Stora Alvaret.. Plants: Juniperus communis.Juniperus communis ssp. Vaccinium myrtillus. Deschampsia flexuosa. Genista hirsuta ssp. rich in endemics (Ulicetum erinacei. Serratula monardii var.. lusitanica.. "4003 Heiden auf sandigen Böden (Calluna-Heiden) (mit Wacholdergebüschen. (1990). P036a)". G. Suec. "340203 subkontinentale Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden (mit Wacholdergebüschen. Öland (Sweden). mesophilous or xerophilous calcareous and nutrient poor grasslands. F. La vegetación del sur de Portugal (Sado. S.2B * Cistus palhinhae formations on maritime wet heaths Low scrub and garrigue formations of the dolomitic tableland. Teucrium vincentinum. Díaz.5130 PAL. Lousã. 3: 5 . Prunus spinosa. Genisto triacanthi-Cistetum palhinhae). of the Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Sesleretea.2). Nordic classification: "5115e Juniperus communis-Calluna vulagaris variant".126.: 32. communis-Oxalis acetosella woodland" and juniper rich facies of "W21 . Rosa spp.C. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "W19 . algarbiensis. Crataegus spp. & Rosen. (1988). They mainly correspond to phytodynamic succession of the following types of vegetation: a) generally. J. Itinera Geobot.. Fernandéz-González. Acta Phytogeogr. 76:67-72. karsts. Rivas-Martínez. Alentejo y Algarve). M. b) more rarely. M.EUR25 Page 50 . For a) typical species of the Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Sesleretea. Nardus stricta. Juniperus turbinata. & Costa. German classification: "340201 submediterrane Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden (mit Wacholdergebüschen. #Cistus palhinhae..88 Juniperus communis formations on heaths or calcareous grasslands Formations with Juniperus communis of plain to montane levels.

Itinera Geobot. Part of the formation takes the appearance of an arborescent matorral.l. S.Juniperus communis arborescent matorral Mediterranean formations dominated by Juniperus communis. 42.Syrian juniper woods : Juniperus drupacea woods of the northern slopes of Mount Parnon and of the Karlik mountain in Thrace. J.CLASS. A.: 32. Greece. Anatolia and the Near East. angustifolia..E.A5 . J.136 Arborescent matorral with Juniperus spp. Mixed dominance can be indicated by combination of codes. P. J. Periploca laevigata ssp. Withania frutescens with tall Zyziphus lotus. thurifera. J. Plants: Juniperus oxycedrus. europaeus. Rivas-Martínez.134 . F.Juniperus phoenicea arborescent matorral Arborescent matorral dominated by Juniperus phoenicea s. Maytenus senegalensis ssp. drupacea.l. 1) 2) 5) 16 17 42.CLASS. southern France and Corsica and North Africa. 32. confined to the arid Iberian South-west under a xerophytic thermo-Mediterranean bio-climate. Datos sobre la vegetación del sureste de España: provincia biogeográfica Murciano-Almeriense. foetidissima. Lycium intricatum.132 . 2: 1 . communis. Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous scrub organized around arborescent junipers. geographical divisions can nevertheless be retained by appending the suffixes of 42. excelsa. albus. Interpretation Manual .Juniperus drupacea arborescent matorral Formations derived from 42. and listed under 32. 32. 32.131 to 32.136. J.135.: 32. 32.Spanish juniper woods (Juniperion thuriferae) : Forest formations dominated by Juniperus thuriferae of Spain.A2 . Calicotome intermedia. corresponds to the mature phase or climax of climatophile and edapho-xero-psammophile vegetation series (Periplocion angustifoliae: Ziziphetum loti. foetidissima. T. (1989).136 . Withania frutescens. Asparagus stipularis..135 . Many communities may be better described as arborescent matorrals.EUR25 Page 51 . & Sánchez Gómez. Rhamnus oleoides ssp.. Zizipho-Maytenetum europaei. phoenicea.Juniperus oxycedrus arborescent matorral Arborescent matorral dominated by Juniperus oxycedrus s. dominated by Juniperus excelsa or J.Juniperus excelsa and J. Alcaraz. Phlomis purpurea ssp.133. foetidissima arborescent matorrals Arborescent matorrals of Greece. limited to the Peloponnese and Asia Minor. Zyziphus lotus. 1) 2) 5220 PAL. Plants: Asparagus albus.Mediterranean arborescent matorral 5210 PAL.17 * Arborescent matorral with Zyziphus Pre-desert deciduous scrub of Periploca laevigata.A5 16.A2 17. Mayteno-Periplocetum). 32.A2 to 32. Sub-types 32.Juniperus thurifera arborescent matorral Formations derived from 42. listed under 32. J.133 . angustifolia. Chamaerops humilis. almeriensis. Díaz.131 .136.

italicum ssp. H. Camphorosma monspeliaca. Pistacia lentiscus. Flora et Vegetatio Mundi. Artemisia densiflora or Thymelaea passerina. hirsuta. T. italicum ssp. Artemisia densiflora.18 * Arborescent matorral with Laurus nobilis Humid arborescent matorral with tall laurel (Laurus nobilis). 1) 2) 3) Thermo-Mediterranean and pre-steppe brush 5310 PAL.). sylvestris.EUR25 Page 52 . Quercion ilicis: Lauro-Quercetum ilicis facies of Laurus nobilis (from Asturias to the Basque Country). 10: 1 . Acaraz. Smilax aspera var. italicum ssp. (1992). tartonraira. forming the transition between cliff vegetation or clifftop phryganas and thermo-Mediterranean scrub. Plants: Laurus nobilis. 1) 2) 5320 PAL.: 32.Peinado. Vegetation of South-eastern Spain. italicum. T.217 Low formations of Euphorbia close to cliffs Low formations of Helichrysum (H. H. Euphorbia pithyusa. & Martínez Parras. hirsuta. i. Rubia peregrina ssp.: 32. Phillyrea latifolia.CLASS. longifolia. Camphorosma monspeliaca. Ceratonia siliqua.CLASS. Pistacia lentiscus. tartonraira in the immediate vicinity of sea cliffs. T.CLASS. generally of humid or cool stations. Plants: Arbutus unedo. italicum) with spurges (Euphorbia pithyusa.487. M. Quercus ilex. Corresponding categories The syntaxa of the Spanish types are: Quercetea ilicis. Laurus nobilis. microphyllum. J. Plants: Helichrysum italicum ssp. Fraxinus ornus. microphyllum. F. altissima.. Olea europaea var.a. 5230 PAL. Viburnum tinus.216 Laurus nobilis thickets Lower facies of Laurus nobilis thickets described under 5230 code in the Annex I. Thymelaea passerina. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual .: 32. T.M. Querco-Oleion sylvestris: Viburno tini-Fraxinetum orni lauretosum nobilis (southern mountains of Valencia).

Low to medium height scrub of the semi-arid zone of Cyprus characterised by Crataegus azarolus var. 32.93). Pelagi.26. Sardinia and Crete where they may extend to relatively high altitudes. Page 53 Interpretation Manual . Particularly extensive and robust stands occur in Sicily. in Sicily.: 32. central Greece. and sometimes approach in appearance. with the halo-nitrophilous scrubs (15. they also occur extensively in the meso-Mediterranean zone. They are most prevalent on the Tyrrhenian coast of central and southern Italy.22 . remarkable tertiary relict of Macaronesian origin.Palmetto brush Chamaerops humilis-dominated formations. Anthyllidetalia terniflorae. 32. that reach their greatest extension or optimal development in the thermo-Mediterranean zone. Alicante). with more sporadic occurrences in the Guadalquivir basin.Mediterranean pre-desert scrub. however. for the most part indifferent to the siliceous or calcareous nature of the substrate. Sub-types : 32. Isles Eolie. south-eastern France. the mostly eastern Mediterranean phryganas. 32. Murcia.26 . in the Mediterranean zone and the less arid parts of the Saharo-Mediterranean transition zone of North Africa. Corsica.Xerophilous Crataegus azarolus var.441p 18 Communities dominated by hummocks of very tall stands of Lotus tree Zyziphius lotus. Crete. in their great local diversity they are a western counterpart of. Outposts of these communities also exist in Sicily. Pantelleria. strongly characterised. the Aegean archipelagos.CLASS. which. Sicily. Periplocion angustifoliae.5330 1) Thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub Scrub formations characteristic of the thermo-Mediterranean zone. Sicily and its satellite islands and Mediterranean North Africa. Sardinia. mostly thermo-Mediterranean but sometimes meso-Mediterranean.Genista fasselata brush Brushes dominated by the tall. It develops at low to medium altitudes (300-500 m) on calcareous substrates. Malta and Pantelleria 32.8B5p . Egadi.Diss-dominated garrigues Garrigues invaded and dominated by the high tussocks of Ampelodesmos mauritanica. the Balearics. the Pelagie islands.23 . thermophile formations endemic to the south of the Iberian peninsula. Also included are the numerous. southern and eastern Iberia. extremely rich in African and endemic species. Sardinia. on account of their strong structural singularity.21G1.21G .EUR25 . the Peloponnese. peninsular Italy and its islands. 32. they occur as a facies of the thermo-Mediterranean brushes of the Balearics. aronia with an abundance of herbs and grasses and belonging to the GenistoCeratonietum. and enclaves of the Mediterranean periphery of Anatolia and the Levant. other thermo-Mediterranean brushes or garrigues rich in the physiognomically important palmetto can be identified by a combination of this code and that of the other appropriate subdivision of 32. a highly distinctive region of unique climatological. and the Tyrrhenian coasts and islands of peninsular Italy. the Egadi islands. Shrub formations constituting. Palmetto brushes are best represented in the coastal areas of south-western. very locally. 32. 31. biological and landscape character within Europe. are included in the Annex I priority habitat 'Matorral with Zyziphius' (32. 32.25 .Tree-spurge formations Stands of Euphorbia dendroides. notably on slopes facing the gulf of Corinth. Similar formations occur in the upper arid (Mediterranean arid) zone of North Africa. are listed separately under 33. typically thermo-Mediterranean. aronia scrub. spiny Genista fasselata of very restricted distribution in the eastern Mediterranean basin. of those of the coasts of northern Catalonia. Included here are those formations.17).724) and the localised gypsum scrubs (15. and.24 . Several of the most remarkable formations remain in only a few undisturbed localities and are gravely at risk18.2.Thermo-Mediterranean broom fields (retamares) PAL. much of the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the arid zone of southeastern Spain (Almeria.22 to 32. Very local formations in Mediterranean North Africa occupy the steep rocky slopes of some coastal capes and isolated inland sites (Ichkeul).

They are best developed in the eastern Mediterranean. hemispherical cushionforming species. Teucrium polium. 1) 2) 5420 PAL.26 . Mediterranean North Africa. Ulex argentatus ssp. ramosissima. Cytisus aeolicus. Sicily and its associated islands. Plantago subulatum. Helichrysum italicum. haenseleri. G. Maytenus senegalensis var. Fumana thymifolia. Interpretation Manual . Cistus parviflorus.EUR25 Page 54 .441p . G. variously accompanied by Thymelaea hirsuta.23 .25 . Teucrium brevifolium. an admixture of species belonging to these two vegetation complexes. where they constitute an often narrow belt between the cliff communities and thermoMediterranean brushes.: 33. Helichrysum italicum. s. in addition to characteristic. valentina. Plants: Sarcopoterium spinosum. ephedroides. Salsola webbii. L.1 West Mediterranean clifftop phryganas (AstragaloPlantaginetum subulatae) Rare. Pistacia lentiscus. Genista umbellata. characterised by the presence of Astragalus massiliensis or Anthyllis hermanniae. 32. Anthyllis hermanniae. Genista cinerea ssp. aronia.Euphorbia dendroides.Spiny spurge garrigues Euphorbia melitensis garrigues of Malta 2) Plants: 31. 1) 2) 19 Cushion-forming thermo-Mediterranean sclerophyllous formations. often thorny and summer deciduous. Genista acanthoclada.CLASS. cushion-forming thermo-Mediterranean sclerophyllous associations of clifftops and adjacent areas dispersed along the coasts. the Cilento coast of Campania. gussonei. retamoides.Chamaerops humilis. 32.G. where they may occupy considerable surfaces in coastal areas and occasionally inland. 31. G. Thymelaea hirsuta. Euphorbia acanthothamnos.: 33. extremely local and isolated.Ziziphus lotus.West Mediterranean formations dominated by retamas (Lygos spp. 32. They also include a few rare. relict associations of the west Mediterranean. Thymus capitatus. of coastal Anatolia. Satureja thymbra. Ballota pseudodictamnus. europaeus. of mainland Greece and the Ionian islands. Plants: Anthyllis hermanniae. fasselata. Cistus salvifolius.3 Sarcopoterium spinosum phryganas Low. G.Crataegus azarolus var.21G . Erica manipuliflora. much more widespread and diverse than the western Mediterranean formations. Sideretis foetens.8B5p . speciosa. the Balearics. 32. raetam ssp. 32. Fumana arabica. mostly characteristic of the edge of seashores and of maritime cliffs. G. 32. pseudoretamoides. Lithospermum hispidulum. Stachys spinosa. often endemic or very rare. incorporating. Ballota acetabulosa. Armeria ruscinonensis. monosperma.) or by large.Ampelodesmos mauritanica. Periploca laevigata ssp. Cistus creticus.Lygos sphaerocarpa.CLASS. Teucrium divaricatum. Centaurea spinosa. erinaceus. Rhamnus oleoides. thorny formations of hemispherical shrubs of the coastal thermo-Mediterranean zone of Aegean islands. G. angustifolia. spartioides ssp.22 . Plantago subulatum. 32. dorycnifolia. Armeria ruscinonensis.24 . ssp. L. limited to the Iberian peninsula. non-spiny thermo-Mediterranean brooms of genera Cytisus and Genista.441 – Euphorbia melitensis. G. Phrygana 19 5410 PAL.

7).CLASS. morisii. 5430 PAL. sardoa-dominated communities of north-western Sardinia. Teucrium subspinosum. Berberis cretica. Ononis spinosa. Astragalus balearicus. Phlomis cretica.and oro. 33. 33. Anthyllis fulgurans. Sideritis syriaca. Teucrium subspinosum. 33. microphyllum.: 33.8 . Helichrysum italicum ssp. hermanniae ssp. 33.7 .9 . sardoa. Genista acanthoclada.Cyrno-Sardian Genista phryganas Thermo-Mediterranean formations of headlands and peninsulas of Corsica and Sardinia dominated by cushion-forming spiny Genista corsica or G.4 .A Endemic phryganas of the Euphorbio-Verbascion Cushion-forming thermo-Mediterranean sclerophyllous formations. Sub-types : 33. Sideritis syriaca. Matthiola pulchella. Phagnalion graecum. Calabria). *Centaurea balearica.Pantelleria phrygana Coastal formation of hemispherical shrubs with the Pantelleria endemics Helichrysum saxatile ssp.Sarcopoterium spinosum. 33.Calicotome villosa. Micromeria juliana.Genista corsica. A. Helichrysum italicum ssp. Verbascum spinosum. Astragalus balearicus. impoverished Sarcopoterium spinosum formations of Capo St.5 . Plants: 33. vicariant of the west Mediterranean. Anthyllis fulgurans. hermanniae ssp. with Euphorbia acanthothamnos. they may also enter in the composition of mid-elevation formations of less distinctive appearance which can be listed under 32. errerae. which assume an evident phrygana appearance. 33.Mid-elevation phryganas of Crete Varied formations of supra. hystrix. hystrix. 33.6 . 33. G. 33. often thorny and summer deciduous. Hypericum empetrifolia.Mediterranean levels of Crete resulting from the broad contact between phryganas and hedgehog-heaths (32. western Crete.75) as well as in that of the coastal formations listed here.Genista acanthoclada ssp. Satureja biroi. 33.8 Launaea cervicornis.Euphorbia acanthothamnos. A. 33. Helichrysum italicum ssp. Micromeria juliana.6 .Italian Sarcopoterium phryganas Very local.Hypericum phryganas Extremely rare. Micromeria graeca.A Helichrysum saxatile ssp. Berberis cretica.Balearic clifftop phryganas Formations of the coasts of Mallorca and Minorca dominated by the cushion-forming Balearic endemics Launaea cervicornis. microphyllum. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual .9 .4 to 33. local colonies of hemispherical shrubs of Hypericum aegyptiacum forming open phryganas on calcareous rocks by the sea in the Ionian islands. Origanum microphyllum.4 . microphyllum. Salvia triloba. Micromeria nervosa.7 . Phlomis cretica. Hypericum empetrifolia. 33. errerae and Matthiola pulchella. italicum.5 . Sardinia and Lampedusa. Verbascum spinosum.482. *Centaurea balearica.EUR25 Page 55 .Sardinian Genista acanthoclada phrygana Very local Genista acanthoclada ssp.Hypericum aegyptiacum. morisii. Helichrysum italicum ssp. These endemic species participate in the constitution of hedgehog-heaths (31.A . Origanum microphyllum. Satureja biroi. Balearic and Sardinian clifftop phryganas. Micromeria juliana. Elia (southern Sardinian coast) and of the Gulf of Taranto (Puglia. Genista acanthoclada.

gemelinii. Sedum reflexum.CLASS. Similar communities may develop on artificial substrates. Olsson. (1974). In some regions of Belgium and Germany this habitat is very closely linked with Xerobromion and Mesobromion associations.: 34. Festuca psammophila. Sedo-Cerastion p. Corresponding categories German classification : "340403 ausdauernder Sandtrockenrasen mit geschlossener Narbe". Dianthus deltoides. Petrorhagia prolifera. Cardaminopsis arenosa. Sedum spp. P002)". 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . frequently open grasslands on more or less calciferous sand with a subcontinental centre of distribution (Koelerion glaucae.). Dolomit) (lückige Vegetation. This habitat type occurs in association with non coastal dune complexes. Cerastium spp. Plants: Allium schoenoprasum. Herniaria glabra.11 * Rupicolous calcareous or basophilic grasslands of the Alysso-Sedion albi Open xerothermophile pioneer communities on superficial calcareous or base-rich soils (basic volcanic substrates).-typ". Nordic classification: Asplenium ruta-muraria-Asplenium trichomanes-Homalothecium sericeumvariant of "Sedum album-Tortella spp... Sileno conicae-Cerastion semidecandri.CLASS. H. Hornungia petraea. Carex praecox.. Koelerion glauca. Nordic classification: "5141 Koeleria glauca-typ".: 34.12 * Xeric sand calcareous grasslands Dry. Saxifraga tridactylites. 1) 2) 3) 4) 6120 PAL. Acta Phytogeogr.. these should not be taken into account. Corresponding categories German classification: "320101 natürlicher Karbonatfels (Kalk.EUR25 Page 56 . Studies on South Swedish sand vegetation. Euphorbia seguieriana. Poa badensis. Plants: Alyssum alyssoides. Silene chlorantha. Suec. 60:1-170. Helichrysum arenarium. Carex ligerica. Astragalus arenarius. Gypsophila fastigiata. Jovibarba spp. Sempervivum spp. Arabis recta. Alyssum montanum ssp. Teucrium botrys.NATURAL AND SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLAND FORMATIONS Natural grasslands 6110 PAL. dominated by annuals and succulents of the Alysso alyssoidis-Sedion albi Oberdorfer & Müller in Müller 61.

"U11 Polytrichum sexangulare-Kiaeria starkei snow-bed". Minuartia verna. 1) 2) 6150 1) Siliceous alpine and boreal grasslands Boreo-alpine formations of the higher summits of mountains in the Alps and Scandanavia with outliers elsewhere such as the Tatra.L.: 34. Plants: Viola calaminaria and metallophyte races of Thlaspi caerulescens. This pioneer vegetation is not considered to be a priority. The threatened endemic taxa are generally absent from the pioneer vegetation of younger terrils.34 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . 36.32. zinc.6130 PAL. Festuca ophioliticola. Plant communities on serpentine in Scotland. Cochleria alpina sensu lato. Carex bigelowii. if these sites shelter characteristic or outstanding plant species.CLASS. 49 141-162. Silene vulgaris. Campanula barbata. "U9 Juncus trifidus-Racomitrium lanuginosum rush-heath". mosses and lichens. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6140 PAL. lead).314 Siliceous Pyrenean Festuca eskia grasslands Subalpine and lower alpine closed mesophile Festuca eskia grasslands of north-facing slopes (ubacs) and depressions in the Pyrenees with Arnica montana.: 36. 36. rich in heavy metals (e.11. "U10 Carex bigelowii-Racomitrium lanuginosum moss heath". Cassiope tetragona. Also included are associated snowbed communities. Plants: Juncus trifidus. Ranunculus pyrenaeus. United Kingdom classification: "OV37 Festuca ovina-Minuartia verna community". Seminatural sites are to be taken into account mainly if natural sites are very rare or absent from a region or. (1982). Birse E. "U8 Carex bigelowii-Polytrichum alpinum sedge heath". Armeria maritima. Gentiana punctata. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "U7 Nardus stricta-Carex bigelowii grass heath". 36. with subspecies and ecotypes adapted to heavy metals.CLASS. Trifolium alpinum.44 Calaminarian grasslands of the Violetalia calaminariae Generally open natural or semi-natural grasslands 1) on natural rock outcrops.2.EUR25 . These open grasslands are characterised by a highly specialised flora. Plants: Festuca eskia. "U12 Salix herbaceaPage 57 PAL.: 36. Carex bigelowii. Selinum pyrenaeum. with Juncus trifidus.g. Corresponding categories German classification : "3405a natürliche und halbnatürliche Schwermetallrasen". 2) river gravels and shingles. Vegetatio. 3) on old terrils or spoil heaps around mines. Leucorchis albida.CLASS. Phyteuma betonicifolium.

: 36. Oxytropis pyrenaica. of the Apennines and the Jura. Helianthemum nummularium ssp.g. Erigeron uniflorus.Wind edge naked-rush swards Meso-xerophile. rosae and Carex rupestris. Carex capillaris. Saussurea alpina. Gentiana campestris. the Pyrenees.Calciphilous stepped and garland grasslands PAL. Topographic. often grazed or mowed. Also included are the grasslands of the subalpine (oro-Mediterranean) and alpine levels of the highest mountains of Corsica (36. 153:1-80.41 .Closed calciphile alpine grasslands Mesophile. and. stripped and garland fescue grasslands of siliceous upper slopes and summits of the high Mediterranean mountains. and the Mesophile. Acta Bot.361 Oro-Iberian Festuca indigesta grasslands Thermophile. Fenn.41 to 36. L. & Virtanen. the Abruzzi and the mountains of the Balkan peninsula. Helianthemum oelandicum ssp. open. very locally. 5) Oksanen. grasslands on deep soils of the subalpine and lower alpine levels of the Alps.41 to 36.: 36. Draba siliquosa. Pulsatilla alpina ssp. Dianthus monspessulanus ssp. developed locally above treeline. locally extending into the Euro-Siberian domain at the subalpine level (Festucetalia indigestae). Draba aizoides. 36. Draba fladnizensis. alpina. 36. Plants: Festuca indigesta. Phyteuma orbiculare. grandiflorum. sternbergii. short turfs of the subalpine and alpine levels of the southern and central Apennines. Sesleria sphaerocephala. Dianthus glacialis. Polygala alpestris (36. Alchemilla flabellata. with Dryas octopetala. Carex nigra. Scandinavian mountains and. mostly closed. Oxytropis carinthiaca.38). 6160 PAL. Antennaria carpatica. Alchemilla conjuncta.42 . fine soils of protruding ridges and edges exposed to strong winds in the alpine and nival levels of the Alps. Oxytropis halleri. Carex atrata. Globularia nudicaulis. Aster alpinus. 1) 2) 6170 1) Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands 1) Alpine and subalpine grasslands of base-rich soils. on calcareous substrates (36. the Pyrenees. closed. Draba carinthiaca.43) of mountain ranges such as the Alps.12. Potentilla nivea. vigorous. relatively closed and unsculptured swards of Kobresia myosuroides (Elyna myosuroides) forming on deep. (1995). Gentiana tenella.38 Interpretation Manual . Oxytropis foucaudii. Anthyllis vulneraria. the Cantabrian Mountains.CLASS. altitudinal and regional pattern in suboceanic and continental heath vegetation of northern Fennoscandia.43. Draba aizoides. Astrantia major.CLASS. Can also include associated snowpatch communities (e. alpestre. R. Astragalus alpinus.43 . Carex brevicollis. 36. Carex curvula ssp. the Carpathians.37. locally.EUR25 Page 58 . Alchemilla hoppeana. Gentiana nivalis. Arabidion coeruleae). Geranium argenteum. Dryas octopetala. Carpathians and Scandinavia. 36.37). Scandinavian Kobresia grasslands with Carex ruprestis are included. Carex foetida. the mountains of the Balkan peninsula.Racomitrium lanuginosum snow-bed" and "U14 Alchemilla alpina-Sibbaldia procumbens dwarf-herb community". Pyrenees. Sub-types : 36. with Oxytropis jacquinii (Oxytropis montana). 36.

Sub types: 1) Interpretation Manual .Oro-Apennine closed grasslands Mesophile. Sanicula azorica. 551-584. Ranunculus cortusifolius. insularis. Alchemilla developed locally above treeline. the Carpathians. Pulsatilla alpina ssp. Senecio malvifolius. Sagina pilifera. Astrantia major. 36. 3) 5) 6180 PAL. dolomite or calcareous volcanic rock (basalt.38 . Lactuca watsoniana.Dryas octopetala. gabbro) and the soils are shallow rendzinas. 36. open.: 38. Geum montanum.5 Macaronesian mesophile grasslands Secondary grasslands of the highest levels. 36. "CG13 Dryas octopetala-Carex flacca heath". andesite.37 . Festuca jubata. 36. Rumex azorica. Polygala alpestris. Gentiana nivalis. 1) 2) 6190 PAL. Bot.Alpine heavy metal communities: included in habitat 6130 'Calaminarian grasslands (Violetalia calaminariae)'.Plantago subulata ssp. Alchemilla flabellata. Globularia nudicaulis. on calcareous substrates. 55:349-375.: 34. the Pyrenees. Tidskr. Tolpis azorica. (1961). Ammi spp. alpina. Alchemilla hoppeana. alpestre.Festuca violacea ssp. Cardamine caldeirarum. crispifolia.CLASS. the mountains of the Balkan peninsula and the Mediterranean mountains. Helianthemum nummularium ssp. Bellardiochloa violacea. Phyteuma orbiculare. Bringer. with very local outposts in the Jura. 36. Phleum brachysrachyum. dry xeric slopes in medium altitude mountains of the Pannonic basin and adjacent regions at 150-900 m a. Helianthemum oelandicum ssp. "CG14 Dryas octopetala-Silene acaulis ledge community".-G. Gentiana campestris. Armeria multiceps.Xero-thermophile. Trifolium thalii. Plants: Holcus rigidus. closed.CLASS. stepped or garland grasslands of the Alps. Sibbaldia procumbens. 2) Plants: 36. macrathera. Bellis azorica. Nordic classification: "123 Lågörtvegetation på rikt/kalkrikt underlag". Astragalus alpinus. K.. Den lågalpina Dryas-hedens differentiering och ståndortsekologi inom Torneträsk-området.43 . Sven. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "CG12 Festuca ovina-Alchemilla alpina-Silene acaulis dwarf-herb heath".44 . grandiflorum. Deschampsia foliosa. Aster alpinus. Dryopteris azorica.41 to 36. pioneer rock sward associations occurring on steep. D. Paronychia polygonifolia. Anthyllis vulneraria.37 . short turfs of the subalpine and alpine levels of the southern and central Apennines. Veronica alpina.38 . Draba aizoides.Oro-Corsican grasslands Grasslands of the subalpine (oro-Mediterranean) and alpine levels of the highest mountains of Corsica. sculptured.EUR25 Page 59 .35 Rupicolous pannonic grasslands (Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis) Open. Euphrasia grandiflora. The base rock is limestone. 1-2.

. TermészetBÚVÁR Kiadó. 1-2. They are in contact with karst shrub (Cotino-Quercetum pubescentis) and karstic beech woods (Orno-Fagetum). Linum dolomiticum. Seseli leucospermum. & Sánta. pp. (Red Book of Hungarian Plant Communities. Biscutella laevigata agg. "Acidophilous open rock grasslands (identification code: G3)". A. Iris pumila. 34. Seslerion rigidae) Central European calcicolous subcontinental rock-ledge grasslands of orogenous affinities.353 . (eds. Alysso saxatilis-Festucion pallentis) Central European subcontinental xerothermophile grasslands of siliceous collinear and montane rock ledges. in the latter case.31 to 34. Daphne cneorum. Anacamptis pyramidalis.3522 . B. Vincetoxicum pannonicum. S. This habitat is formed on the one hand by steppic or subcontinental grasslands (Festucetalia valesiacae) and.53. developed on rendzinas over limestones or dolomite on southfacing steep slopes with extreme conditions of insolation. often occupying stations with a comparatively cool microclimate. Neue Klassifikation der Felsenvegetation im pannonischen Raum und angrentenden Gebiete. Helianthemum nummularium agg. 1-2. Budapest. 4) Dolomitic grasslands are stable associations preserving many relict species. joannis. a distinction is made between primary Xerobromion grasslands and secondary (semi-natural) Page 60 PAL. Bot. Sesleria sadleriana. Stipa eriocaulis. (1966). by the grasslands of more oceanic and sub-Mediterranean regions (Brometalia erecti).34 1) Interpretation Manual . S. Polygala amara. on the other. Festuca amethystina 3) Corresponding categories Hungarian classification: “Calcareous open rock grasslands (identification code: G2)".Vols. Draba lasiocarpa. Közlem..34. Pulsatilla grandis. Alyssum montanum. pulcherrima. Paronychia cephalotes. 49-54 5) Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates(Festuco-Brometalia) ( * important orchid sites) Dry to semi-dry calcareous grasslands of the Festuco-Brometea. 768 (in Hungarian) Zólyomi. temperature variation and evaporation.Acidocline pale fescue grasslands (Asplenio septentrionalis-Festucion pallentis.Calci-orophile pale fescue grasslands (Diantho lumnitzeri-Seslerion albicantis.) (1999).CLASS.Circum-Pannonic calcicline pale fescue grasslands (Bromo pannonici-Festucion pallentis) Species-rich xerothermophile subcontinental rock-ledge grasslands of the western and southern periphery of the Carpathian arc. "Closed rock grasslands (identification code: H1)". 34. Chrysopogon gryllus. A. which may persist for several thousand years. During primary succession the limestone and siliceous rock grasslands become closed and form transition to slope steppe vegetation (Festucion rupicolae). then rock shrub vegetation (Spiraeion mediae) and thermophile oak woods (Corno-Quercetum) and rock forests (Tilio-Fraxinetum). Carex humilis. Borhidi. Vörös Könyv Magyarország növénytársulásairól. Globularia punctata.EUR25 . montane or submontane with a strong representation of species characteristic of higher-altitude communities. Dianthus regis-stephani. Bromus pannonicus. 2) Plants: Festuca pallens.351 .: 34.

V. "34020101 submediterraner Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden. Libelloides spp. O.). "34020301 subkontinentaler Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden. " CG7 Festuca ovina-Hieracium pilosella-Thymus praecox/pulegioides grassland". Euphorbia seguierana. purpurea.31 . Polygala comosa. insectifera. In France the following sub-types are found: 34. Das grosse südliche Alvar der Insel Öland. O. "CG8 Sesleria albicans-Scabiosa columbaria grassland". Arabis hirsuta. Festuca valesiaca. 36)]. Festucetalia valesiacae: Adonis vernalis. Eryngium campestre.32 . Primula veris. morio. brachgefallen". "CG2 Festuca ovina-Avenula pratensis grassland". Ophrys apifera. Eine Pflanzensoziologische Übersicht. Dianthus carthusianorum. auf tiefgründigem Boden)". 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . German classification: "340101 submediterraner Trockenrasen auf karbonatischem Unterground". Stipa capillata. O. gemäht". 44:269-331.34 . "34020302 subkontinentaler Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden.33 . Carex caryophyllea. gemäht". joannis. Koeleria pyramidata. falcata. (1950).Sub-Atlantic xerocline calcicolous grasslands [Mesobromenalia erecti Royer 87 (IX 212: Brometalia erecti Br-Bl. O. Bromus inermis. "34020103 submediterraner Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden. Hippocrepis comosa.. "340103 subkontinentaler Trockenrasen auf karbonatischem Untergrund". Abandonment results in thermophile scrub with an intermediate stage of thermophile fringe vegetation (Trifolio-Geranietea). 34. Orchis mascula. Animals: Papilio machaon. Scabiosa columbaria. Xerobromion . 34. Sven. Albertsson. mascula. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "CG1 Festuca ovina-Carlina vulgaris grassland". N. Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera). Campanula glomerata.Bromus erectus. "3403 natürlicher Steppenrasen (kontinental. 2) Plants: Mesobromion . "CG6 Avenula pubescens grassland". Bot. ustulata. militaris.Mesobromion grasslands with Bromus erectus. brachgefallen". Brachypodium pinnatum. Globularia elongata.EUR25 Page 61 .Subcontinental (Euro-Siberian and eastern) grasslands of the inner Alps stretching perhaps to Alsace (Stipo capillatae-Festucenea valesiacae Gaultier 89 prov. "CG5 Bromus erectus-Brachypodium pinnatum grassland". Silene otites. teucrium.Central European calcareo-siliceous grasslands generally established on hyperxerothermophile sands. O. beweidet Mähweide". "34020303 subkontinentaler Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden. Tidskr. Important orchid sites should be interpreted as sites that are important on the basis of one or more of the following three criteria: (a) the site hosts a rich suite of orchid species (b) the site hosts an important population of at least one orchid species considered not very common on the national territory (c) the site hosts one or several orchid species considered to be rare. S. "CG3 Bromus erectus grassland".Sub-Atlantic xerophile calcicolous grasslands (Xerobromenalia erecti Royer 87).Anthyllis vulneraria. Nordic classification: Avenula pratensis-Artemisia oelandica-variant of "5213 Avenula pratensisFragaria viridis-Filipendula vulgaris-typ" Often in association with scrubland and thermophile forests and with dry pioneer Sedum meadows (Sedo-Scleranthea). CG4 Brachypodium pinnatum grassland". "CG9 Sesleria albicans-Galium sterneri grassland". the latter are characterised by their rich orchid flora. "34020102 submediterraner Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden. Fumana procumbens. very rare or exceptional on the national territory. Veronica prostrata. O. beweidet Mähweide". Centaurea scabiosa. Mantis religiosa (Neuroptera). Leontodon hispidus. partly denuded (Koelerio macranthae-Phleion phloeidis Korneck 74 (Koelerio macranthae-Phleenalia phloeidis (Korneck 74) Royer 87. 34. Carlina vulgaris. Medicago sativa ssp. Sanguisorba minor.

Harz Pulsatillo micranthae-Nardetum. Omphalodion commutatae (dolomitic and silico-basiphile). low-nitrogen soils ranging from neutro-basic to calcareous: Stipo capensis-Brachypodietea distachyae (Br-Bl. In general. Page 62 PAL.Geo-montani-Nardetum. Campanula barbata. Vegetation highly varied. panicea. on siliceous substrates in mountain areas (and submountain areas. erecta. Rivas-Martínez 1978. 47) Brullo 85. Thero-Brachypodietalia: Thero-Brachypodion. Poetea bulbosae: Astragalo-Poion bulbosae (basiphile). hill and montane regions. Hypochoeris maculata. Trachynietalia distachyae Rivas-Martínez 1978: Trachynion distachyae (calciphile). 36. Mähweide)".EUR25 .Tuberarietea guttatae Br. Leontodon helveticus. Arnica montana. Hypericum maculatum.-Bl. In France a distinction can be made between: (a) annual herbaceous vegetation of dry. Polygala vulgaris. Plants: Antennaria dioica. Nardetalia: 35. C. Carex ericetorum. nitrocline and xerocline soil: Brachypodietalia phoenicoidis (Br-Bl. German classification : "34060101 gemähter Borstgrasrasen der planaren bis submontanen Stufe". Lathyrus montanus.31 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . In Italy this habitat mainly exists in the South and on the islands (Thero-Brachypodietea. 1) 2) 6230 * Species-rich Nardus grasslands. Species-rich sites should be intrepreted as sites with are remarkable for a high number of species. C. Plants: Brachypodium distachyum. P. Nardus stricta.1-Violo-Nardion (Nardo-Galion saxatilis. Bayerischer Wald .Leontodonto-Nardetum. short-grass annual grasslands rich in therophytes.: 34. 31) Molinier 34. dry or mesophile. B. Perennial communities . therophyte communities of oligotrophic soils on base-rich.Thero-Brachypodietea. Potentilla aurea. perennial Nardus grasslands occupying siliceous soils in Atlantic or sub-Atlantic or boreal lowland. pallescens. the habitats which have become irreversibly degraded through overgrazing should be excluded.CLASS. Violion caninae). mostly open. 1952 em. Annual communities . but the variation is characterised by continuity. Black Forest . Lygeo-Stipetea). often calcareous substrates. Meum athamanticum. in Continental Europe) Closed.5 * Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea Meso. Animals: Miramella alpina. Corresponding categories The habitat sub-types belonging to the Nardion alliance shows a strong regional differentiation: Alps and Pyrenees . retusum. 36. Sedo-Ctenopsion (gypsophile).Lycopodio-Nardetum.and thermo-Mediterranean xerophile. Festuca ovina. Trifolio-Periballion (silicolous).1. initial. In the United Kingdom.31.CLASS. Galium saxatile. Poetea bulbosae. Leucorchis albida. the habitat covers the most species-rich sites of the types "CG10 Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris-Thymus praecox" and "CG11 Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris-Alchemilla alpina grass heath". (b) vegetation of more or less closed grasslands on deep. Gentiana pneumonanthe. Platanthera bifolia. Pedicularis sylvatica.6220 PAL. "34060102 beweideter Borstgrasrasen der planaren bis submontanen Stufe (incl.: 35.Nardion. Veronica officinalis. Viola canina.

S. onobrychis. Medicago minima. Ranunculus illyricus.Stuttgart. Phlomis tuberosa.EUR25 Page 63 . Gagea pusilla. Teucrium chamaedrys. They are partially of natural. Poa badensis. Plants: Festuca vallesiaca. Geographical distribution: Austria. H. partially of anthropogenic origin. Syntaxa for Austria: Astragalo excapi-Crambetum tatarici. Crambe tataria. (1993). arenaria. Potentilla arenaria. Hesperis tristis. Achillea pannonica.CLASS. pp 578. A. Nordic classification : "5133 Nardus stricta-typ" and "5233a Carex nigra-Carex panicea-Nardus stricta-variant". G. excapus. Artemisia austriaca. Festuca rupicola. Gustav Fischer. Peucedanum alsaticum. Festuca rupicola.315 * Sub-pannonic steppic grasslands Steppic grasslands. Astragalus austriacus. Daphne cneorum. Iris humilis ssp. Globularia cordifolia. Ranunculo illyrici-Festucetum valesiacae. austriacus.91 * Pannonic loess steppic grasslands Grassland communities rich in perennial grasses and herbs on loess deposits.CLASS. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. Mähweide)". Nonea pulla. 2 uppl.. "34060201 gemähter Borstgrasrasen der montanen bis hochmontanen Stufe". chamaephytes and perennials of the alliance Festucion vallesiacae and related syntaxa. 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . Scorzonera austriaca. Helianthemum canum. T. Salvia nemorosa. 6240 PAL. Mucina. Falcaria vulgaris. Poa-Festucetum valesiacae. Corresponding categories Syntaxa for Austria: Astragalo austriaci-Festucetum sulcatae. dominated by tussock-grasses. Stockholm. Teucrio botryos-Andropogonetum ischaemi. New York. L. Seseli hippomarathrum. 1) 2) 3) 5) 6250 PAL. Elymus hispidus.. Allium flavum. nowadays restricted to specific land forms like loess ridges formed by fluviatile erosion and accumulation. Iris pumila.. "34060203 brachgefallener Borstgrasrasen der montanen bis hochmontanen Stufe". Ornithogalum pannonicum. Alyssum alyssoides. 5) Sjörs. These xerotherme communities are developed on southern exposed slopes with AC-soils on rocky substrate and on clay-sandy sedimentation layers enriched with gravels. Astragalus vesicarius. Chrysopogon gryllus. Anthropogene Vegetation.: 34. (1967). Teil 1. Bromus inermis. Agropyron pectinatum."34060103 brachgefallener Borstgrasrasen der planaren bis submontanen Stufe". Nordisk växtgeografi. Chamaecytisus supinus. Grabherr. Carex humilis. A. Botriochloa ischaemum. Oxytropis pilosa. Jena. onobrychis. joannis. Ellmauer. Stipo joannisAvenastretum besseri. Plants: Artyemisia pontica. 240 pp. Svenska Bokförlaget Bonniers.: 34. Stipa capillata. A. "34060202 beweideter Borstgrasrasen der montanen bis hochmontanen Stufe (incl. Medicagini minimae-Festucetum valesiacae. A. Originally covering large areas.

Gustav Fischer. 35. Helychrysum arenarium. Cynodon dactylon. 6260 PAL. S.. Plants: Agrostis capillaris. Includes habitats which are still traditionally used and also recently abandoned habitats with a species-rich grassland vegetation. Myrmeleotettrix antennatus. with lacunar ground cover. Festuca pseudovina. T.5) Mucina.CLASS. Gymnademia conopsea.EUR25 Page 64 . Jena. Teil 1. Koeleria glauca. Antennaria dioica. Hypochoeris maculata. pp 578..CLASS. angustifolia. G. pulcherrima. New York. 5224 Germanium sylvaticum-type. Gustav Fischer. Lychnis viscaria. thus in the Pannonic basin and the areas dominated by its communities. Geographical distribution: Austria. 5223 Leucanthemum vulgare-type. gmelinii. Species composition varies in different geographical areas. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. 5213 Avenula pratensis-Fragaria viridis-Filipendula vulgaris-type. Stipa capillata.Gampsocleis glabra. Dianthus serotinus. subfossil dune systems) within the range of the Pannonic steppes (34.91). Plants: Festuca vaginata. Scythris kasyi...Stuttgart. *Callimorpha quadripunctaria. Equisetetum ramosissimi. Botrychium spp.. Anthropogene Vegetation. Italy. Several endangered fungi-species also occur.Stuttgart. Ellmauer. 1) 2) 3) 5) 6270 * Fennoscandian lowland species-rich dry to mesic grasslands This habitat type occurs in the Fennoscandian lowlands varying from dry to mesic grasslands mainly on siliceous substrates. Grabherr. Brometum tectorum.A1 * Pannonic sand steppes Formations dominated by medium or tall perennial tuft-forming grasses or suffrutescents. F. The vegetation is formed by long-term continuous grazing and/or mowing. Cletis maculosa. Jena. Centaurea scabiosa ssp. Grabherr. France. Gypsophila fastigiata. Potentillo arenariae-Festucetum pseudovinae.. (1993). Entoloma spp. Erysimum diffusum. The habitat often supports species-rich vascular plant communities. Animals: insects . L.1212.22. Teil 1. Bassia laniflora. Ellmauer. C.Trifolium repens –type.: 34. Alchemilla spp. G. Galium verum. Geoglossum spp. Mucina. Anthropogene Vegetation. Fungi : Hygrocybe spp. pp 578. Corresponding categories Nordic classification: 5212 Festuca ovina-Lychnis viscaria-type. rubra. Gentianella campestris. on different soils and moisture regimes and different management regimes. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. 38. T. Primula veris.1223. Festuca ovina. Zygaena laeta. Succisa pratensis. (1993). Bistorta vivipara. 5222 Agrostis capillaris-Alchemilla spp. Z. Plantago lanceolata. 38. PAL. G. Euphrasia spp. Alyssum montanum ssp. Anthoxanthum odoratum.241 (1997 version) 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . New York. sadleriana. jacea ssp. Dianthus deltoides. punctum.. together with their associated therophyte communities developed on mobile or fixed sands (alluvial sands. Ranunculus polyanthemos. paniculata.. Leontodon hispidus. Syntaxa for Austria: Festucetum vaginatae..: 35.. No fertilization may occur. L.

Plantago argentea. album. Linum catharticum.75 2) Interpretation Manual . Ditrichum flexicaule.. On Öland the Nordic alvar represents a subtype with dominating Helianthemum oelandicum and other endemic species. Plants and animals have special adaptations to these conditions. Acta Phytogeogr.completely or partially. Saxifraga adscendens. Jurinea mollis.3171. 44: 269331. Allium schoenoprasum var. Annual freezing and thawing give rise to movements at the soil surface creating small patches of bare soil occupied by annual plants. For example the invertebrates must have strategies for overwintering. will dry up .L (1982). Svensk Bot.Dynamik och konstans i Gotlands flora och vegetation.. The inclination is near zero and the draining process is extremely slow. -type. Leucanthemum liburnicum. Acta Phytogeogr. Freeze-thaw action creates soil polygons with a characteristic patterning of vegetation. Sedum acre. E. Gentianella amarella.: 34.Cetraria nivalis. Includes the following communities. 40. The flora and fauna is very rich in species and many of them are rare. PAL. 34. Corresponding categories Nordic vegetation types: 5151 Sedum album-Tortella spp. Centeurea rupestris. on Öland and Gotland called “vätar” . Plants: Carex humilis. on Gotland e.Encalypta spp. C. 34. Iris cengialti. Geranium columbinum. petraea. Chrysopogono-Centaureetum cristatae & Danthonio. Suec. Fumana procumbens. The ground is covered with a 5-30 cm deep crumbling soil. symphycarpa. Tidskrift. Pulsatilla patens.. Bromus erectus. which is the product of weathering of the underlying rock. grandis. Melica ciliata.EUR25 . .Carici humilis-Centaureetum rupestris. The flat rocks may be covered with a thin layer of soil. Tortella tortuosa. Fulgensia spp. nr 72. Schistidium apocarpum. Hornungia petraea.CLASS. Potentilla tabernaemontani. with an ecological character strongly influenced by winter climatic conditions.: 34. (1950).Vegetation development and sheep grazing in limestone grassland of south Öland. Artemisia oelandica. S. on Öland also Galium oelandicum. Istria and the Balkan peninsula. Suec. which sometimes are filled with water. Toninia caeruleonigricans. N.. Genisto holopetalae-Caricetum mucronatae. alvarense.CLASS. where they coexist with steppic grasslands of the Festucetalia valesiacae (6210). Where a thin soil layer exists. Pettersson. S. Festuca ovina. Pulsatilla vulgaris ssp. tridactylites. developing in areas of lesser continentality than the latter and incorporating a greater Mediterranean element. type and 5213c Avenula pratensis-Artemisia oelandica -variant Albertson.g. Crepis tectorum ssp. 5152 Festuca ovina-Tortella spp. Asperula tinctoria. In Nordic alvar there are also depressions.. Aspicilia calcarea. Silene uniflora var. Bryophytes. I. Cladonia pocillum. Page 65 PAL. a number of which are rare. Arenaria gothica. pumila. In summertime those wetlands.. salicina. Inula ensifolia.Das grosse südliche Alvar der Insel Öland. (1958). Tragopon dubius. it is often frozen to ice and covered with snow. Lichens. Plants: Androsace septentrionalis. Genista holopetala#. Sweden.3173 (1997 version) 2) 3) 5) 62A0 1) Eastern sub-mediteranean dry grasslands (Scorzoneratalia villosae) Xeric grasslands of the sub-Mediterranean zones of Trieste.Scorzoneretum villosae.6280 1) * Nordic alvar and precambrian calcareous flatrocks Nordic alvar and Precambrian calcareous flatrocks are very species-rich ecosystems. Rosén. B.1151. Nordic alvar is a habitat type of cambro-siluric or precambrian calcareous rocks.

Lindbergella sintenissii. Sesleria juncifolii. Hypericum confertum ssp. Minuartia pichleri. It is an important habitat of raptors. Anthemis plutonia. Alyssum cypricum. Q. The substrates are ultramafic rocks such as serpentine.CLASS.ilex. There are also similar communities at lower altitudes (350 –450m) on Akamas (western Troodos).EUR25 Page 66 . in juxtaposition or rotation. Hyacinthella millingeni. Q. rigoi. Centaurea cyprensis. Gentiana clusii. of large insects and their predators and of the endangered felid (*Lynx pardinus) Plants: Quercus suber. Corydalis rutifolia. including several endemic species.11 x 91. Cynoglossum troodi. are shaded by a fairly closed to very open canopy of native evergreen oaks (Quercus suber. Q. Trinia glauca. Euphrasia marchesettii#. including the threatened Iberian endemic eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thymus integer 1) 2) Sclerophillous grazed forests (dehesas) 6310 PAL. Pedicularis friderici-augusti. Ranunculus cadmicus var cypricus Low altitude form Alyssum chondrogynum. Euphorbia cassia ssp.: * Serpentinophilous grasslands of Cyprus Perennial herb communities restricted to ultramafic areas of Cyprus such as the Troodos mountains and the Akamas peninsula. Dianthus strictus ssp troodi. Q. Gentiana lutea#.coccifera).rotundifolia. pasture land or Meso-Mediterranean arborescent matorral. werhlite & hurzburgite. 62B0 PAL. Onosma troodi .rotundifolia. The vegetation consists of small patches of sparse plant cover on rocky outcrops and stony places with a specialised flora. Alyssum troodi.Hladnikia pastinacifolia. Q. stenobotrys.: 32. dunite.2 Dehesas with evergreen Quercus spp. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Occurs at 700 to 1950 m in the central Troodos range although the most representative communities occur above 1700m. Euphorbia triflora. A characteristic landscape of the Iberian peninsula in which crops. A akamasicum.coccifera.ilex. Plants: High altitude form Acinos troodi. of the crane (Grus grus).CLASS. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . Q.

palustris. N. U. Serratula tinctoria. on more or less wet nutrient poor soils (nitrogen. Ekstam. V. Juncus conglomeratus. Dianthus deltoides. Inula britannica. Potentilla erecta.Molinia coerulea. these grasslands are in close contact with Nardetalia communities.4 Mediterranean tall humid herb grasslands of the Molinio-Holoschoenion Mediterranean humid grasslands of tall grasses and rushes. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6420 PAL. 37.: 37. Stockholm. "5234 Carex flacca-Primula farinosa-Orchis spp. they correspond to a deteriorated stage of draining peat bogs. Galium uliginosum.311: on neutro-alkaline to calcareous soils with a fluctuating water table. in particular in dunal systems.CLASS. The soil is sometimes peaty and becomes dry in summer.312: on more acid soils of the Junco-Molinion (Juncion acutiflori) except species-poor meadows or on degraded peaty soils. relatively rich in species (Eu-molinion). Tetragonolobus maritimus. Lotus uliginosus. They stem from extensive management. a transition toward Cnidion dubii alliance is observed. Colchicum autumnale.Molinia caerulea-Potentilla erecta mire" are excluded). extending along the coasts of the Black Sea. For the Molinia meadows of river valleys. Plants: 37.EUR25 Page 67 .: 37. LTs förlag.Semi-natural tall-herb humid meadows 6410 PAL. & Forshed. In some regions. German classification: "35020102 Pfeifengraswiese auf kalkreichen Standort". 37. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "M26 . Cirsium dissectum.Molinia caerulea-Crepis paludosa fen meadow" and "M24 Molinia caerula-Cirisum dissectum fen meadow type" ("M23 . Carex pallescens. Ophioglossum vulgatum.CLASS. Inula salicina.. (1988). Sanguisorba officinalis.Viola persiciflora. Sub-types : 37. Silaum silaus. peaty or clayey-siltladen soils (Molinion caeruleae) Molinia meadows of plain to montane levels. Dianthus superbus.311 .-typ" and "5235 Molinia caerulea-typ". Luzula multiflora. Selinum carvifolia. N.Juncus effusus/acutiflorusGalium palustre rush pasture" and "M25 . Aronsson. 209 pp. anglica. 1) Interpretation Manual . P. Nordic classification: "5233 Carex nigra-Carex panicea-Molinea caerulea-typ".312 . Ängar. Om naturliga slåttermarker i ängslandskapet. Crepis paludosa. Cirsium tuberosum.31 Molinia meadows on calcareous. widespread in the entire Mediterranean basin. phosphorus). sometimes with a mowing late in the year or.

Bot. (1976). Dactylorhiza elata. Senecio doria. A. Silaum silaus. Medd. Plants: 37. common species in the region have no conservation priority. napellus. Genista tinctoria.: 37. Cyperus longus. Dorycnium rectum.8 . "39050201 montane bis hochmontane Hochstaudenflur". Lamium album. Molinia caerulea. "6701 subalpine bzw. Similar communities to 37. A. Inula viscosa. Calamagrostis arundinacea. Orchis laxiflora.7 . Eupatorium cannabinum. Melica cupanii. Petasites hybridus. Schoenus nigricans. Serratula tinctoria. Oenanthe pimpinelloides. 37. Angelica archangelica. Lythrum salicaria. Nordic classification: "126 Högörtängsvegetation". Naßgrünlandbrache der planaren bis hochmontanen Stufe". Cirsium helenioides. Euphorbia pubescens. Prunella vulgaris. Linum tenue. Asteriscus aquaticus. Filipendula ulmaria.Hygrophilous perennial tall herb communities of montane to alpine levels of the BetuloAdenostyletea class. Succisa pratensis. pyrenaicum. 6430 PAL. German classification: "390101 krautiger Ufersaum an besonnten Gewässern".CLASS. Impatiens glandulifera.Wet and nitrophilous tall herb edge communities. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "U17 .8 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels 37. E.7 and 37. alpine Hochstaudenflur (Alpen)". "39050101 feuchter Staudensaum der planaren bis submontanen Stufe". without any cutting.2) Plants: Scirpus holoschoenus (Holoschoenus vulgaris). Senecio fluviatilis. Crepis paludosa. "35020203 nährstoffreiche. Den sydsvenska fuktängen. (1987).8. "39050202 montane bis hochmontane Hochgrasflur (Calamagrostion arundinaceae)". Larsson. J. dynamic och skötsel. Sonchus maritimus ssp.8 .7 . Tetragonolobus maritimus. Erica terminalis. should not be taken into account. Phytocoenologia 15:455-484. Dahl. Agrostis stolonifera. Silene dioica. Lysimachia punctata. H. "35020303 nährstoffreiche. Cicerbita alpina. Alliaria petiolata. mit Cardamine amara. Page 68 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Pulicaria dysenterica. occur at lower altitude along rivers and forest borders (in Wallonia -Belgium for example). Naßgrünlandbrache der planaren bis submontanen Stufe". Convolvulion sepium. Avd. acutus. aquatilis. 37. Cirsium oleraceum. with a weak development. "390102 krautiger Ufersaum an beschatteten Gewäsern (z. Chaerophyllum hirsutum. Geranium robertianum. Aegopodion podagrariae. Peucedanum ostruthium. Alpine-subalpine plant communities of South Scandinavia. Vegetation. Juncus maritimus. Geranium sylvaticum.bzw. reuteri. Ekol. lachenalii. Aegopodium podagraria. Cirsium monspessulanum. Briza minor. A. Carex mairii.EUR25 . Hypericum tomentosum.B. Bitteres Schaumkraut)". Large areas of wet meadows let lie fallow and neophyte communities with Helianthus tuberosus.Glechoma hederacea.Aconitum lycoctonum (A. Peucedanum hispanicum. Galium debile. Sanguisorba officinalis. along water courses and woodland borders belonging to the Glechometalia hederaceae and the Convolvuletalia sepium orders (Senecion fluviatilis. Nitrophilous edge communities comprising only basal. Epilobium hirsutum. Digitalis grandiflora. Feucht. Filipendulion). Trollius europaeus. Feucht. O. vulparia). C. Lund 31. Trifolium resupinatum. Adenostyles alliariae.bzw. Lysimachia ephemerum. let lie fallow. tetrapterum. These tall herb communities could also develop in wet meadows.Luzula sylvatica-Geum rivale tall herb community".

CLASS. Sarja A. C. The traditional management as hay meadows has usually ceased. Scutellaria hastifolia. Plants: Carex acuta. venosum).Über die Vegetation der Alluvialwiesen im Gebiet der geplanted Stauseen von Lokka und Porttipahta im Finnischen Lappland. Lythrum virgatum. This point has to taken into account during site selection. Viola persicifolia. Eurola. Fenn.EUR25 Page 69 . Aquilo. Ser. Hanhela. III. Molinia caerulea. C. dry alluvial meadows.und Kemi -Thäler. boreale.bzw. Convallaria majalis. Scient. Corresponding categories German classification : "35020201 närrstoffreiche. Festuca ovina. aquatilis.6440 PAL. Type includes areas that are not yet severely overgrown with trees and bushes. P. extensive Feucht. 1) 2) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Trollius europaeus. Calamagrostis purpurea. Plants: Cnidium dubium (C. (1994). This is a transition habitat between wet and dry meadows and which cover small areas. . Galium boreale. 1) 2) 3) 4) 6450 PAL. extensive Feucht.23 Alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii Alluvial meadows with natural flooding regime belonging to the Cnidion dubii alliance. mutabilis. Solidago virgaurea.: 37. Equisetum fluviatile. "35020202 närrstoffreiche. Deschampsia cespitosa. canescens. Carex praecox var. S. Naßwiese der planaren bis submontanen Stufe (incl. Calamagrostis-alluvial meadows. Juncus atratus. (1909). tall-herb alluvial meadows.CLASS. Cajander. (1967). Carex acuta or C. E.: - Northern boreal alluvial meadows Along large rivers with placid river sections which are frozen every winter. 24:1-43. Deschampsia caespitosa-alluvial meadows.Oulangan kansallispuiston tulvaniityt. A. Salix triandra. Gratifolia officinalis. the type is affected by flooding in spring. Die Alluvionen der Tornio. suzae. Nardus stricta.. Thalictrum simplex subsp. Allium angulosum Oenanthe lachenalii. aquatilis-alluvial meadows.bzw. Phalaris arundinacea.Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Vegetation der Alluvionen des Nördlichen Eurasiens. Acta Soc. Botanica. Naßwiese der planaren bis submontanen Stufe". Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. 5:1-119. Mähweide)". Phalaris-alluvial meadows. Includes several vegetation types which vary according to the moisture (flooding) gradient: Equisetum fluviatile-alluvial meadows. Elymus fibrosus. under continental to subcontinental climatic conditions. 37(5):1-222. "350204 Flutrasen".

Crocus cyprius (proposed for Annex II and IV). 1) 3) Mesophile grasslands 6510 PAL. Marchiori.: 38. Knautia arvensis. Alyssum cypricum. Trisetum flavescens ssp. 24: 125-134.. Nordic classification: "5223 Leucanthemum vulgare-typ". Juncus littoralis. Serapias cordigera. Pimpinella major.6460 PAL. Polypogon semiverticillatus. (1988-1989). Carex distans. Crepis biennis. Rhinanthus lanceolatus. The floristic structure is characterised by species which occur only or mainly at this habitat in Cyprus. Plants: Arrhenatherum elatius. on serpentinised substrate with basic pH. and by a few endemic species occuring only at the high altitude damp places in the Troodos mountains Plants:. Alopecurus pratensis. frische Weide der planaren bis submontanen Stufe (incl.CLASS. depending on the rainfall but even in summer the soil is wet and muddy. Leucanthemum vulgare. Scirpoides holoschoenus. Wet to dry sub-types occur. Daucus carota. Hypericum perforatum. FItosoc. Not. Calamagrostis epigejeos. Page 70 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Oenanthe pimpinelloides. Schoenus nigrigans. 1m) meadows developing at an altitude of around 1650 m on seasonally inundated depressions. Leontodon hispidus. Tragopogon pratensis. G. Carex divulsa. L. Sanguisorba officinalis. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "MG4 -Alopecurus pratensis-Sanguisorba officinalis grassland".EUR25 . The meadows are inundated from October-November until June-July. Poa pratensis. S. Viola siechiana.. epipejeos and Poa pratensis. frische Mähwiese der planaren bis submontanen Stufe".: *Peat grasslands of Troodos Calamagrostis epipejeos tall (c. "34070102 artenreiche. Taraxacum holmboei.CLASS. flavescens. Linum bienne.. If management practices become intensive with heavy applications of fertiliser. Contributo alla conoscenza dei prati e pratopascoli della Bassa Valsugana (Trento). Pteridium aquilinum. Ornithogalum chionopilum. Centaurea jacea.2 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis. German classification: "34070101 artenreiche. G. Sburlino. Campanula patula. the species diversity rapidly declines. nudicaulis. The vegetation cover is thick and the dominant graminoids C. epipejeos and Juncus littoralis and other herbs form a continuous mat on the soil. Malva moschata. Mähweide)". These extensive grasslands are rich in flowers and are not cut before the grasses flower and then only one or two times per year. such as C. belonging to the Arrhenatherion and the Brachypodio-Centaureion nemoralis alliances. Brachypodium firmifolium. Sanguisorba officinalis) Species-rich hay meadows on lightly to moderately fertilised soils of the plain to submontane levels. Buffa.

CLASS. sylvaticum. Aronsson. Phyteuma halleri. 6520 PAL. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Anthoxanthum odoratum. The type does not include abandoned meadows being invaded by trees. Plants: Trisetum flavescens and with Heracleum sphondylium. Narcissus poeticus. Chaerophyllum hirsutum and many others. Viola cornuta. Crepis mollis. Om naturliga slåttermarker i ängslandskapet. Narcissus poeticus. Lilium bulbiferum.. LTs förlag. Thlaspi caerulescens. Trollius europaeus. Geranium sanguineum. Sjörs. Trollius europaeus.: - * Fennoscandian wooded meadows A vegetation complex consisting of small copses of deciduous trees and shrubs and patches of open meadows. Carum carvi. Nordisk växtgeografi. (1988). pubescens) and Quercus robur. Ängar. Sc.CLASS. Pimpinella major. Alchemilla spp. Page 71 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . Lilium bulbiferum. Festuca ovina. Geranium phaeum. (Polygonum bistorta). F. Phyteuma halleri. Astrantia major. Bistorta major. Thlaspi caerulescens. P. C. (1967). Crocus albiflorus. Cirsium heterophylum. 1) 2) 3) 5) 6530 PAL. H. 209 pp. Ulmus glabra or Alnus incana are the common tree species. Corylus avellana. Primula elatior. Campanula glomerata. Viola tricolor ssp. British types with Geranium sylvaticum. & Forshed. B. Viola cornuta. N. pyrenaica. Helianthemum nummularium. Malva moschata. Crocus albiflorus. sylvaticum. grazing of grassland and pollarding or lopping of trees. I prati falciabili della Val di Sole (Trentino occidentale). Silene dioica. 40 (1): 3-122. Listera ovata.EUR25 . Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : ""MG3 Anthoxanthum odoratum-Geranium sylvaticum grassland". Stockholm. Cypripedium calceolus. subalpina. Tilia cordata. S. orbiculare. Viola tricolor ssp. Anthoxanthum odoratum. Silene dioica.Ekstam. pyrenaica. Many threatened species preferring old pollarded deciduous trees of semi-open habitats occur. orbiculare. Centaurea nemoralis. P. Campanula glomerata. Valeriana repens. Primula elatior.: 38. Pimpinella major. N. St. G. Carum carvi..31 Mountain hay meadows Species-rich mesophile hay meadows of the montane and sub-alpine levels (mostly above 600 metres) usually dominated by Trisetum flavescens and with Heracleum sphondylium. Salvia pratensis. birch (Betula pendula. S. Muscari botryoides. subalpina. C. "5225 Festuca ovina-Bistorta vivipara-typ" and "5226 Festuca rubra-Bistorta vivipara-typ". Centaurea nemoralis. Astrantia major. Briza media. 240 pp. 2 uppl.. Nowadays very few areas are managed but traditionally these areas were managed by a combination of raking. The habitat type includes managed areas and overgrown areas with old pollarded or lopped deciduous trees. Bistorta major (Polygonum bistorta). Cotoneaster scandinavicus. Pedrotti. Nat. Species-rich vegetation complexes with rare and threatened meadow species and well developed epiphytic flora of mosses and lichens are characteristic. Stockholm. Dactylorhiza fuchsii. U. Chaerophyllum hirsutum. D. Salvia pratensis. (1963). Plants: (In addition to the above mentioned tree species). G. Trent. hay-cutting. Valeriana repens. Nordic classification : "5224 Geranium sylvaticum-typ". Sambucina. vulgaris. Muscari botryoides. Svenska Bokförlaget Bonniers. Malva moschata. Geranium phaeum. vulgaris. Crepis mollis. Crataegus spp.

Vaccinium oxycoccos. Chamaedaphne calyculata... in the Boreal region also Betula nana. Ants. poor in mineral nutrients. "M20a Eriophorum vaginatum blanket and mixed mire .120:1-66. Drosera rotundifolia. Glyphesis cottonae. Boloria aquilonaris. RAISED BOGS AND MIRES AND FENS Sphagnum acid bogs 7110 PAL. Stethophyma grossum. 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . imbricatum. Utricularia intermedia. S. Fennica . U.g. Animals: Dragonflies.Colias palaeno. Scheuchzerietalia palustris p. C. Sorbus hybrida. with perennial vegetation dominated by colourful Sphagna hummocks allowing for the growth of the bog (Erico-Sphagnetalia magellanici. Oulanka Reports. Scheuchzeria palustris..Vegetation and soil of the wooded meadows in Nåtö. Häggström.problems.Metrioptera brachyptera. Scheuchzerietalia palustris p. Odontoschisma sphagni. (1988). such as after a fire or during a natural climatic cycle e.Formica transkaucassia. caerulea.. Vacciniina optilete. majus. D. methods and perspectives. Eriophorum vaginatum. C. Rosa spp.-A.). Acta Bot. vulgaris.EUR25 Page 72 . alpestris. Aland. P. A. Plantago lanceolata. intermedia 5) Häggström. Cladonia spp.. S. Eriophorum gracile. Butterflies. Nordic classification: "312 Ristuvvegetation". C. "M3 Eriophorum angustifolium bog pool community".: 51. Ledum palustre and Sphagnum angustifolium.. U. limosa. Ranunculus ficaria. Utricularietalia intermedio-minoris p. Sphagnum magellanicum.. ochroleuca. Hypenodes turfosalis. ombrotrophic.Leucorrhinia dubia. A. "M18 Erica tetralix-Sphagum papillosum raised and blanket mire".-A. Spiders. Primula veris. minor.. a period of drought.Pardosa sphagnicola. Orchis mascula.Carex fusca. juncea.Andromeda polifolia.Protection of wooded meadows in Ăland . R.. 8:88-95. S. fuscum. Utricularietalia intermedio-minoris p.1 * Active raised bogs Acid bogs.CLASS. in the Boreal region also Sphagnum balticum and S. "314 Mjukmatte-och lösbottenvegetation" and "311 Skogmossvegetation" when comprising a part of the mire complexe. Caricetalia fuscae p. Primula farinosa. S. Drosera anglica. "360102 Hochmoor der montanen bis hochmontanen Stufe". intermedia. The term "active" must be taken to mean still supporting a significant area of vegetation that is normally peat forming.. Polygala amarella. "313 Fastmattevegetation". but bogs where active peat formation is temporarily at a standstill. Cricket/Grasshopper. are also included. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "M1 Sphagnum auriculatum bog pool community". Calluna vulgaris. Carex pauciflora. Caricetalia fuscae p. Somatochlora arctica. Plants: Erico-Sphagnetalia magellanici. sustained mainly by rainwater. Coenonympha tullia. (1983).species poor sub community". Rhynchospora alba.Malus sylvestris. Aeshna subartica. with a water level generally higher than the surrounding water table. fusca. Eugraphe subrosea. German classification: "360101 Hochmoor der planaren bis submontanen Stufe".

there is a reasonable expectation of re-establishing vegetation with peat-forming capability within 30 years. characteristic of western and northern Britain and Ireland. Nature Conservation Council . or where components of bog vegetation have been eradicated by closed canopy woodlands.). Tuxen. Bericht über das internationale Symposium in Stolzenau/Weser 1964 der Internationale Vereinigung für Vegetationskunde (R. In spite of some lateral water flow. (1984). in oceanic climates with heavy rainfall. Sites unlikely to qualify as SACs are those that consist largely of bare peat. N. Växtsociol. (1923). except in Finland and Sweden where active raised bogs are the predominant mire complex type in hemiboreal and southern boreal regions.-Bl. Peterborough.4) In order to support the conservation of this ecosystem over its geographic range and its genetic diversity. E. Some aspects of the ecogeographical gradient in Irish ombrotrophic bogs. Malmer. that are dominated by agricultural grasses or other crops. They often cover extensive areas with local topographic features supporting distinct communities [Erico-Sphagnetalia magellanici: Pleurozio purpureae-Ericetum tetralicis. Curtis. (1965). A..CLASS. Junk.R. (1972).320. Die Vegetation des Hochmoores Komosse.Tuxen. Suec. Guidelines for the selection of biological SSSI's. Ed. where practicable.G. & Fujiwara.2 Degraded raised bogs still capable of natural regeneration These are raised bogs where there has been disruption (usually anthropogenic) to the natural hydrology of the peat body.2 Blanket bogs ( * if active bog) Extensive bog communities or landscapes on flat or sloping ground with poor surface drainage. S. Vegetation on these sites usually contains species typical of active raised bog as the main component. Eurola. Eine erweiterte Gliederung der Oxycocco-Sphagnetea. 306 . Junk. Oswald. Acta Phytogeogr.Tuxen. J. Den Haag. 1) Interpretation Manual .. K. Sv. 1:1436. 50:149-158. 1) 5) 7130 PAL. with appropriate rehabilitation management. Handl.520.: 51. 500 . Dublin. There are very few intact or near-intact raised bogs in Europe. Ed. A classification of the bogs and wet heaths of northern Europe (Oxycocco-Sphagnetea Br. Miyawaki. J. Peat Congress. Sites judged to be still capable of natural regeneration will include those areas where the hydrology can be repaired and where. Key to Finnish Mire Types.1 and 52. Nature Conservation council (1989). R. 5) 7120 PAL. S. (1968). In: Grundfragen und Methoden in der Pflanzensoziologie. but the relative abundance of individual species is different. status and conservation. (R. & Kaakinen. In: Pflanzensoziologische Systematik. blanket bogs are mostly ombrotrophic. et Tx.EUR25 Page 73 . Moore. marginal areas of lower quality as a result of damage or degradation which abut active raised bogs may need to be included.). protected and. Schouten.J. regenerated.CLASS. The southern mires.: 52.. Vaccinio-Ericetum tetralicis p. (1984). Hicks. H. Den Haag. M. leading to surface desiccation and/or species change or loss. Government Publications. 1: 414 .432. Sällsk. Dublin. 1943).C. (in press). The raised bogs of Ireland: their ecology.

5 Transition mires and quaking bogs Peat-forming communities developed at the surface of oligotrophic to mesotrophic waters. Pedicularis sylvatica. "M15 Scirpus cespitosus-Erica tetralix wet heath".J. 500 . Rhynchospora alba. Junk. Myrica gale. with characteristics intermediate between soligenous and ombrogenous types.).J. Eriophorum vaginatum. nemoreum. Vaccinium myrtillis. Campylopus atrovirens. Bericht über das internationale Symposium in Stolzenau/Weser 1964 der Internationale Vereinigung für Vegetationskunde (R. Molinia caerulea. Potentilla erecta. 306 . 52.Tuxen. Utricularietalia intermedio-minoris p.]. rubellum.J.. showing their characteristic differences. Ireland.1. Rubus chamaemorus. Caricetalia fuscae p.EUR25 . Eine erweiterte Gliederung der Oxycocco-Sphagnetea. Nature Conservation Council . bogs locally dominated by sphagna (Sphagnum auriculatum. R. Cumbria. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "M1 Sphagnum auriculatum bog pool community". subnitens). particularly in parts of western Ireland. Within these blanket bogs. however. Narthecium ossifragum. In: Pflanzensoziologische Systematik.J. Pinguicula lusitanica. S. Empetrum nigrum. The term "active" must be taken to mean still supporting a significant area of vegetation that is normally peat forming. Drosera rotundifolia. auriculatum. Scirpus cespitosus. strictly speaking. Tuxen. Pleurozia purpurea. Eriophorum vaginatum. S. Guidelines for the selection of biological SSSI's. losing their distinctive marginal features.Calluna vulgaris.Scheuchzerietalia palustris p. 2) Plants: 52. magellanicum. there are other peat-forming systems which.1 – HyperAtlantic blanket bogs of the western coastlands of Ireland. Colloques Phytosociologiques. form part of various biotopes of aquatic and amphibious zones. In many other areas. Junk. S. "M20 Eriophorum vaginatum blanket mire". 1943). Erica tetralix. Ed. fens and moorland. Den Haag. Western England and Wales. "M17 Scirpus cespitosus-Eriophorum vaginatum blanket mire". K. Den Haag. S. Sphagna play an important role in all of them but the cyperaceous component is greater than in raised bogs. (R.. A. Diplophyllum albicans. (1972). They present a large and Page 74 1) Interpretation Manual .2 . Miyawaki. Northern Wales . VII: 213 . Drosera rotundifolia. Animals: birds . Sphagnum pulchrum. Nature Conservation Council (1989).CLASS. G. et Tx. Polygala serpyllifolia. Western blanket bog (Pleurozio purpureae-Ericetum tetralicis) in Ireland and Great Britain. Erica tetralix. papillosum. (1980). A classification of the bogs and wet heaths of northern Europe (Oxycocco-Sphagnetea Br. (1968).320. S. S.: 54. Ed. Moore. Narthecium ossifragum. In the United Kingdom discrete areas of raised bog and blanket bog may occur in some districts.Calluna vulgaris. Calidris alpina. strictum..223.2 – Blanket bogs of high ground. & Moore. Mylia taylorii.Tuxen. J.Pluvialis apricaria. hills and mountains in Scotland. "M19 Calluna vulgaris-Eriophorum vaginatum blanket mire".-Bl. & Fujiwara.).520. In: Grundfragen und Methoden in der Pflanzensoziologie. S. 52. western Scotland and its islands. peatlands which may have begun as raised bog have became merged in a general expanse of blanket bog. compactum. 3) 4) 5) 7140 PAL. "M18 Erica tetralix-Sphagnum papillosum raised and blanket mire". S. Doyle. compactum. Scirpus cespitosus. S. Sub-types in the British Isles 52. or. Racomitrium languginosum. mucilaginous algal deposits (Zygogonium). Peterborough. Carex panicea. S. Schoenus nigricans. tenellum.

Scheuchzeria palustris.2-3). Menyanthes trifoliata. Campylium stellatum. sand. fimbriatum. fusca. rotundifolia. "360202 Übergangs. Carex rostrata. In large peaty systems. Lycopodiella inundata. "S27 -Carex rostrata-Potentilla palustris fen".122) and of transition mires (54. rotundifolia. sometimes. "M5 . "3323 Carex nigraDrepanocladus exannulatus-Calliergon spp. subsecundun. cuspidatum.Carex rostrata-Sphagnum squarrosum mire". Rhynchospora alba. R. slightly peaty substratum.oder Zwischenmoor der montanen bis hochmontanen Stufe". These mires and bogs belong to the Scheuchzerietalia palustris order (oligotrophic floating carpets among others) and to the Caricetalia fuscae order (quaking communities). but also on naturally seep.or frost-eroded areas of wet heaths and bogs. Carex limosa. and closely related. Epilobium palustre.-typ". Oligotrophic water-land interfaces with Carex rostrata are included. Nordic classification: "312 Ristuvvegetation". (1949). Lycopodiella inundata. "3331 Carex spp.: 54. "32 Fattigkärrvegetation (except 321)". forming on stripped areas of blanket bogs or raised bogs.-Sphagnum spp.EUR25 Page 75 . Sphagnum sp. (S. Bot. They are generally accompanied by aquatic and amphibious communities.-Drepanocladus spp.-typ". Associated with amphibious communities (22. In the Boreal region this habitat type includes minerotrophic fens that are not part of a larger mire complex.6 Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion Highly constant pioneer communities of humid exposed peat or. with Rhynchospora alba. ponds) and mineral soil. D..-Phragmites-Iris pseudacorus-Sphagnum-typ". "3333 Potentilla palustris-Carex spp.Carex rostrata-Sphagnum recurvum mire". 43:274-309. Pedicularis palustris. "3321 Trichophorum caespitosumMolinia caerulea-Sphagnum spp. Carex diandra. Scorpidium scorpioides. S.4). S. R.Drepanocladus exannulatus-typ". Aneura pinguis. in flushes and in the fluctuation zone of oligotrophic pools with sandy. Drepanocladus revolvens.-typ".CLASS. "Trichophorum caespitosumDrepanocladus revolvens-variant of 3323". Plants: Rhynchospora alba.-Sphagnum spp.oder Zwischenmoor der planaren bis submontanen Stufe". S. E. S. Du Rietz. papillosum. the most prominent communities are swaying swards. Carex lasiocarpa. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "M4 . R. floating carpets or quaking mires formed by medium-sized or small sedges. "314 Mjukmatte-och lösbottenvegetation på öppna mossar".diverse range of plant communities.57). 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . bogs (51. Calliergon giganteum.2 et 54. 2) Plants: Eriophorum gracile. "Carex spp.Drepanocladus spp. Sven. Drosera intermedia. fusca. 3) 4) 5) 7150 PAL. open swamps and small fens in the transition zone between water (lakes.1-2) or humid grasslands (37. angustifolium. to those of shallow bog hollows (51. D. associated with sphagnum or brown mosses. #Liparis loeselii. Carex chordorrhiza. Tidskr. German classification: "360201 Übergangs. S. "3341 Carex spp. fens (54. These communities are similar.Carex rostrata-Sphagnum warnstofii mire".3). Hammarbya paludosa. G. Drosera intermedia. fusca. "M8 . "M9 Carex rostrata-Calliergon cuspidatum/giganteum". Huvudenheter och huvudgränser i svensk myrvegetation. riparium.-Sphagnum fallax-subsecundum-variant of 3331".

. (1992).. P. Epilobium hornemanni. R. "S24 Peucedano-Phragmitetum australis". . 3513 Saxifraga stellaris-Philonotis fontana-type. Pohlia wahlenbergii. P. Montia fontana. trivialis. The water is cold.Calliergon spp. calycantha. E.3 *Calcareous fens with Cladium mariscus and species of the Caricion davallianae Cladium mariscus beds of the emergent-plant zones of lakes. sarmentosum. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "S2 Cladietum marisci". Bryum weigelii. (1991). "M14 Schoenus nigricans-Narthecium ossifragum mire". 3432 Filipendula ulmaria . remota. S. Stellaria alsine. and rich in oxygen and minerals. "M24 Molinia caerulea-Cirsium dissectum fen Page 76 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual .CLASS. pseudotriquetrum. nemorum.. fallow lands or succession stage of extensively farmed wet meadows in contact with the vegetation of the Caricion davallianae or other Phragmition species [Cladietum marisci (Allorge 1922) Zobrist 1935].Key to the vegetation of northern Fennoscandian fjelds. C. Poa alpigena. 3521 Philonotis-type. laestadii. "M13 Schoenus nigricans-Juncus subnodulosus mire". R. 3523 Paludella-type. 86.. these springs often have running water during the winter even if the surrounding areas are frozen and snow-covered.7160 PAL. Warnstorfia exannulata.CLASS. due to the rapid percolation. 1) 2) 3) 5) Calcareous fens 7210 PAL. Ranunculus lapponicus. Calliergon giganteum.Mossor som indikerar särskilt skyddsvärda våtmarksbiotoper. mire". of even temperature.Drepanocladus -type.Carex spp. Kilpisjärvi Notes. hyperboreus. B. Tidskrift. "S25 Phragmites australis-Eupatorium cannabinum fen". "M9 Carex rostrata. Paludella squarrosa -type Hedenäs. Carex appropinquata. & Löfroth.. Rhizomnium spp. Plants: Cladium mariscus. Philonotis spp. E. Springs may have a basin where the water wells up and an adjacent outflow with typical vegetation. davuricum.Brachythecium rivulare. #Kostelezkia pentacarpos. M.. E. capillaris. paniculata. S. Plants: Cardamine amara. Bryophytes. Eurola. Chrysosplenium spp. Corresponding categories Nordic classification : 3511 Sphagnum .EUR25 .: 5411(1997 version) Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens Springs and springfens are characterized by continuous flow of ground-water. L. Scapania spp. S.: 53. In springfens the water seeps up through the ground and the accumulated peat. alsinifolium. Svensk Bot.. Plagiomnium undulatum. B.Drepanocladus spp. enhancing the growth of specialized vegetation. 12: 1-28. C. schleicherii. The invertebrate fauna is often very specific to this habitat and the flora rich in northern species. Since the water originates from deeper layers. C. & Virtanen. 3512 Montia fontana-Epilobium hornemannii-type.

EUR25 . "220402 kalkreiche.or tufa-producing small sedge and brown moss communities developed on soils permanently waterlogged. Pinguicula vulgaris.meadow". Ölands växtvärld. In the Boreal region also Carex appropinquata. (1971). Sterner. Plants: Arabis soyeri. S. Cratoneuron commutatum. These formations are found in such diverse environments as forests or open countryside. "SD14 Salix repens-Campylium stellatum dune slack" and "SD 15 Salix repens-Calliergon cuspidatum dune slack". falcatum. Södra Kalmar län III. Calciphile small sedges and other Cyperaceae usually dominate the mire communities. temporäre Sturzquelle". C. it is essential to preserve its surroundings and the whole hydrological system concerned. German classification: "220102 kalkreiche Sicker. Epilobium davuricum. (1926). Hjalmar Appeltoffts Bokhandel.12 * Petrifying springs with tufa formation (Cratoneurion) Hard water springs with active formation of travertine or tufa. They are generally small (point or linear formations) and dominated by bryophytes (Cratoneurion commutati). often calcareous water supply. "220302 kalkreiche Sturzquelle". Page 77 PAL. chasmophytic communities of cold and humid environments and heaths and calcareous grassland (Festuco-Brometalia). which belong to the Caricion davallianae. R. Malmer. Oslo. Nordic classification: "3441a Cladium mariscus-variant". Eucladium verticillatum. Philonotis calcarea. Bryum pseudotriquetum. Juncus triglumis. N.CLASS. German classification: "3804 Schneidenröhricht". In: IBP i Norden 7. 45-58.: 54. Mosses: Catoscopium nigritum. and with the water table at.und Sumpfquelle". temporäre Sicker. when it occurs.2 Interpretation Manual . Drepanocladus vernicosus. In order to preserve this habitat of very limited expanse in the field. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 7230 1) Alkaline fens Wetlands mostly or largely occupied by peat. Saxifraga aizoides. but also with acid fens. Universitetsforlaget. commutatum var.cossoni. Förslag till riktlinjer för en enhetlig klassificering av myrvegetation i Norden. other reed beds and tall sedge communities. pp. 4) 5) In contact with calcareous fens (7230). Peat formation. Nordic classification: "3521 Philonotis-typ" and "3522 Cratoneuron-typ". Cratoneuron decipiens. C. fens. filicinum. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "M37 Cratoneuron commutatum-Festuca rubra spring community" and "M38 Cratoneuron commutatum-Carex nigra spring community". Scorpidium revolvens. Can form complexes with transition mires. "220502 kalkreiche. the substratum. Kalmar.: 54. with a soligenous or topogenous baserich. Gymnostomum recurvirostrum.und Stumpfquelle". 7220 PAL. extensive wet meadows. is infra-aquatic. Cochlearia pyrenaica (in sites with heavy metals). 237 pp.CLASS. or slightly above or below.

Carex davalliana. D.. although they may be phytosociologically referable to alkaline Molinion associations. 2) 3) 5) Plants: Schoenus nigricans. C. panicea. russowii. "352 Rik källkärrvegetation". in transition mires (54.2). 53. cruenta. specialised. Dactylorhiza incarnata.3). in conjunction with the relevant principal code. Juncetum subnodulosi & Cirsietum rivularis. 7240 PAL. Cinclidium stygium. a grasslike growth of Schoenus nigricans. C. Typha lugdunensis. Fissidens adianthoides. The sub-units below. contain a large representation of the Caricion davallianae species listed. Eriophorum latifolium. Low vegetation composed principally of species of Carex and Juncus (Caricion bicoloris-atrofuscae). Drepanocladus intermedius. bicolor.4) or spring communities (54. slow-flowing rivers and calm backwaters. are understood to include the mire communities sensu stricto (Caricion davallianae). in addition to being integrated in the fen system. Epipactis palustris. castaneus. Herminium monorchis.121) and in a few other situations. Myrvegetation i Bergslagen. describe the composition of the fen. vaginata. Acta Phytogeogr. 53.CLASS.5. J. Eleocharis quinqueflora. Tomentypnum nitens. and together with codes selected from the categories just mentioned. C.6) and amphibious or aquatic vegetation (22. traunsteinerioides.: 54. may form part of the fen system. The codes below can be used. which can. Scirpus cespitosus. hostiana. their transition to the Molinion. e. 21:1-299. alone or in combination. J. Page 78 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . traunsteineri. to signal their presence. Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum. Tofieldia pusilla.brevifolia. They are among the habitats that have undergone the most serious decline. genesii. (1948). C.. on tufa cones (54. They are essentially extinct in several regions and gravely endangered in most. D. sandy. or on alluvial sands of pure. Bryum pseudotriquetrum and others. majalis ssp. sometimes somewhat argilous or peaty substrates soaked by cold water. fen sedge beds (Cladietum mariscae. in moraines and on edges of springs. H. this somewhat parallels the definition of an integrated class Molinio-Caricetalia davallianae in Rameau et al. Primula farinosa. lepidocarpa. Rich fens are exceptionally endowed with spectacular. Juncus subnodulosus. D. D. 22. with communities related to transition mires (54. 53. Wet grasslands (Molinietalia caerulaea. Sjörs. strictly restricted species. peri-Alpine and northern British communities colonising neutral to slightly acid gravely. C. ferrugineus. and assemblages that. Pinguicula vulgaris. stony. flava. Acrocladium cuspidatum. 54.characterised by a usually prominent "brown moss" carpet formed by Campylium stellatum. Kobresia simpliciuscula. Eriophorum latifolium. C.3). #V.EUR25 . Animals: #Vertigo geyeri.3 * Alpine pioneer formations of Caricion bicoloris-atrofuscae Alpine. C. in wet grasslands (37). rivulets. glacial torrents of the alpine or sub-alpine levels. ferrugineus. A permanent or continuous soil frost over a long period is essential for the existence of this habitat type. S.1). reed formations (Phragmition. T. fen communities can occur as small areas in dune slack systems (16. microglochin. 37). Swertia perennis. Carex spp.3. D. J. arcticus.1) developing in depressions. #Liparis loeselii. D. Outside of rich fen systems. Corresponding categories German classification : "6402 Alpine Scwemmböden mit niedriger Vegetation". Corresponding categories Nordic classification : 34 Rikkärrvegetation-typ". C. Suec. revolvens. 1989.g. maritima. shuttleworthii. T. triglumis. minima. tall sedge beds (Magnocaricion. Ctenidium molluscum. Cratoneuron commutatum. S.5). Juncus alpinoarticulatus. cold. and a very rich herbaceous flora including Tofieldia calyculata. Plants: Carex atrofusca.

Scheuchzeria palustris.lato). 1) 2) 5) 7320 PAL. In prealpine areas in Sweden and in hill regions of Kainuu and Kuusamo in eastern Finland. S. The palsas are usually 2-4 metres high. rotundata. European mires. Academic Press. S. Scorpidium scorpioides. chordorriza. Elsevier. but also with communities of Caricion davallianae.D. orohemiarctic and alpine regions.: 54. Boreal mires 7310 PAL.Corresponding category of the Nordic vegetation types: "3422 Carex atrofusca-Drepanocladus revolvens-typ" and "3423 Carex saxatilis-Drepanocladus revolvens-typ". russeolum. Key to Finnish mire types. Saxifraga hirculus. S. Betula nana. Eurola. flark-fens. (ed. Mosses.: 54. C. Molinia caerulea. Erebia disa. S. where the climate is slightly continental and the mean annual temperature is below -1°. aongstroemii. Mires: Swamp. pine mires and spruce swamps and mires on thin peat of different types dominate.P. Amsterdam. (1965). which are peat mounds with sporadic permafrost. Empetrum nigrum (s. Warnstorfia exannulata (Drepanocladus exannulatus). bog. subsecundum. lindbergii. Mountain mires. Ruuhijärvi. middle and northern boreal zones characterised by minerotrophic fen vegetation in the central parts of the complexes. (1984). 1) Interpretation Manual . Rubus chamaemorus. Nola karelica. lasiocarpa. carpet or mud-bottom fens.CLASS.8 * Aapa mires Mire complexes in southern. 50:249-256. S. Limprichtia revolvens (Drepanocladus revolvens). Hypoxyxtis pluviaria. 47-97.. E. Animals: Butterflies . Hicks. Eriophorum vaginatum.EUR25 Page 79 . Thricophorum cespitosum. Persson.Pyrgus centaureae. C. C.lato) spp. pulchrum. Plants: Chamaedaphne calyculata. Acta Phytogeogr. excluding the palsas. R. (1983).).Sphagnum papillosum. majus. unraised Sphagum fuscum-bogs. but up to 7 metres high palsas have been found in Finland and Sweden. Hydro-topographical mire-units are: mixed mires. P. In: Gore. Dactylorhiza incarnata. jensenii. string-fens. 11-117. In: Moore. E. The mires are mainly minerotrophic.9 * Palsa mires Mire complexes in the northern boreal. & Kaakinen. London. sloping fens (>5 grades) are typical variants of aapa mires. Å. S. livida. Drepanocladus (s.J. C. Apamea maillardi. Regional studies. unpatterned topogenous or soligenous lawn-. Moths: Syngrapha diasema. 4B. Poor Sphagum fens are the most common vegetation types whilst brown moss fens can be common in some regions. In some limited areas with calcareous bedrock rich fens dominate in the complexes. In the mire margins. They occur rarely also in the Suomenselkä water divide region in western Finland as well in Lapland. A. Ecosystems of the world. fen and moor. The Finnish mire types and their regional distribution. S.. S. S. Suec. Carex rostrata. (ed).CLASS. subfulvum. 4) 5) Associated with humid meadows managed extensively.

. Mires: Swamp. 47-97. Nordic classification: "1251a Cryptogramma crispa-variant". A.-G. Carex rotundata. Achillea nana. (1965). distentifolium). (1984). 11-117. bog. 4B. Chionophobous plant communities.: 61. In Ireland and the United Kingdom. Cladina spp. saxatilis.. K. German classification: "6304 Silikatschutthalde der Alpen".D. & Kaakinen. E. Amsterdam. "7141 Veronica fruticans -typ" and "7142 Veronica fruticans-Juniperus communis -typ". The Finnish mire types and their regional distribution.. Ranunculus glacialis. Ecosystems of the world. D. Lichens: Ochrolechia spp. Eurola. R. growing on more or less moving "cryoclastic systems" with variable granulometry and belonging to the order Androsacetalia alpinae. grandiflorum. ladanum. sites sheltering rare arctic-alpine plants (post glacial remnants) have a high conservation value. b) Galeopsietalia ladani: Galeopsis ladanum ssp. Athyrium alpestre (A. Key to Finnish mire types. Hicks.. C. Geum reptans. Doronicum clusii.EUR25 . fen and moor. In: Moore. Ledum palustre. S. Anarrhinum bellidiflorum. Ruuhijärvi.J. Oxyria digyna. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "U21 Cryptogramma crispa-Deschampsia flexuosa community" and "U18 Cryptogramma crispa-Athyrium distentifolium snow bed".CLASS. Cryptogramma crispa. Vaccinium microcarpum. hermaphroditum. (ed. Empetrum nigrum ssp.1 Siliceous scree of the montane to snow levels (Androsacetalia alpinae and Galeopsetalia ladani) This habitat consist of: a) communities of siliceous scree of the upper montane level to the permanent snow level. Suec. Poa laxa. lichens and sometimes in ferns (Cryptogramma crispa). It consists of alpine communities often rich in bryophytes. Bringer. London. Viola valderia. This habitat is generally in close association with the chasmophytic vegetation on siliceous rocky slopes (8220). Saxifraga bryoides. Linaria alpina. (ed). Mosses. Plant cover of the alpine regions. 50:257-262. Cerastium uniflorum. belonging to the order Galeopsietalia. Betula nana.2) Plants: Eriophorum russeolum. European mires. Luzula alpinopilosa. S. b) vegetation of the montane level of the west and centre of Europe growing on screes sometimes of artificial origin (extraction of materials). 5) ROCKY HABITATS AND CAVES Scree 8110 PAL.P. Academic Press. Acta Phytogeogr. Plants: a) Androsacetalia alpinae: Androsacae alpina. P. Regional studies.). In: Gore. Cladonia spp. Elsevier. Page 80 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual .Dicranum elongatum. (1983). Cryptogramma crispa.

Xatartia scabra. Trisetum spicatum ssp. Ptychotis heterophylla. of Mediterranean mountains. calcareous.Pyreneo-Alpine thermo-siliceous screes. 61.33 . Petasition paradoxi. Suec. Saxifragion praetermissae.8120 Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii) Calcshist.CLASS. Iberidion spathulatae. Screes of Mediterranean southern France. Galeopsis pyrenaica. In Ireland and United Kingdom preference should be given to sites sheltering rare arctic-alpine plants (post glacial remnants). German classification: "6302 Kalkschutthalde der Alpen".. Thlaspietalia rotundifolii p. K. Papaver rhaeticum.Oro-Cantabrian calcareous screes. Viola cenisia. Saxifraga biflora. Plants: Drabion hoppeanae (calcschist screes) : Draba hoppeana. Chionophobous plant communities. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "OV38 . Senecion leucophyllae.2 2) 2) 3) 4) 5) 8130 PAL. of calcareous substrates in the Pyrenees. Campanula cenisia. usually composed largely of big stones or boulders. Bringer. sunny middle European upland or lowland sites. Crucianella latifolia.Peri-Alpine thermophilous screes.: 61.3 Western Mediterranean and thermophilous scree Screes of warm exposures in the Alps and the Pyrenees.34 . Calcareous screes of the Pyrenees.Provençal screes. Stipetalia calamagrostis and Polystichetalia lonchitis orders. Herniaria alpina. Siliceous screes of warm slopes of the sub-alpine level of the Alps and of the alpine and subalpine levels of the Pyrenees. Linaria supina. Armeria alpina. Centranthus ruber. sunny calcareous screes of the montane and sub-alpine levels of the Alps and of the uplands and lowlands of western and central middle Europe. Linarion filicaulis. with Gouffeia arenarioides. Berardia subacaulis. unstabilized. Basiphile screes of the Cordillera Cantabrica. Morina persica. Galium villarsi.-G. Petasition paradoxi. Plant cover of the alpine regions.31 . Taraxacion pyrenaici. Sub-types : 61. Hutchinsia alpina. Nordic classification: "7143 Arenaria norvegica-typ".32 . Leontodon hyoseroides. Valeriana montana. Mostly coarse. with Senecio leucophyllus. 61. of warm. hills and lowlands and. locally. Artemisia genipi. with the associations respectively of Drabion hoppeanae. Stipion calamagrostidis.35 . Taraxacum pyrenaicum. 61. PAL. Thlaspion rotundifolii . Page 81 1) Interpretation Manual . Acta Phytogeogr. ovatipaniculatum.. Pimpinello-Gouffeion. Leontodontion hyoseroidis. Thlaspion rotundifolii (calcareous scree): Thlaspi rotundifolium. Sideritis scardica (marl screes): Petasites paradoxus. The vegetation belongs to the Androsacetalia alpinae p.Gymnocarpium robertianum-Arrhenatherum elatius community". or marl screes of the montane to alpine levels under cold climates.CLASS. Gypsophila repens.Pyrenean calcareous screes. Arabis alpina.: 61. (1965). 50:257-262. 61.EUR25 .

Senecio pyrenaicus ssp. alpestris. Campanula cochleariaefolia. 64. Crepis pygmaea. Papaver suaveolens. Linaria supina. 2) Plants: 61.38. Kilini). L.35 . Linario-Senecion carpetani p. carpetanus. Androsace ciliata.3A . 61. 61.Greek serpentine screes. the Iberian Range.38 . Papaver suaveolens.Gouffeia arenarioides. Doronicum grandiflorum. floristically rich formations of the "dark" screes of the Cordillera are related to those of 61.Nevadan siliceous screes.EUR25 Page 82 . Arabis cantabrica. Crepis oporinoides.31 . braunblanquetii. Iberis aperta.Ranunculus glacialis.CLASS. leroyi. Rumex suffruticosus. 61. Galeopsis angustifolia. Linaria aeruginea var. alpina. Senecio pyrenaicus ssp. Scrophularion sciaphilae Screes of the calcareous Baetic mountains of southern and south-eastern Iberia. Linario-Senecion carpetani.33 . Silene haussknechtii. Crepis oporinoides. belong to the latter. 61. Digitalis purpurea var. Campanulion hawkinsonianae. Aethionema saxatile. Fern-dominated chaotic. Epilobium anagallidifolium.Iberis spathulata. Ranunculus brevifolius. boulder fields of siliceous and calcareous Iberian mountains. 61.36 . Carduus carlinoides. Hutchinsia alpina. Crepis pygmaea.4 Eastern Mediterranean screes Screes of the high Greek mountains with vegetation of the order Drypetalia spinosae. Conopodium butinioides. the Leonese mountains. Sub-types : 61.Senecio leucophyllus. Crepis pygmaea.: 61. Xatartia scabra. Iberis lereschiana.34 . Siliceous screes of the Cordillera Cantabrica.61.3B .42 . Parnassus. Arenaria serpentini. Giona. Galium pyrenaicum. Galium cometerhizon. Taygetos. Taraxacum pyrenaicum. Holcion caespitosae. aizoides. Campanula arvatica. Olympus. nevadensis. Solidago virgaurea var. Screes of the Cordillera Central.Central Mediterranean screes Screes of the Italian peninsula and of the large Mediterranean islands. carpetanus. though somewhat intermediate towards 61. Crucianella latifolia. carpetana. 61. Ranunculus alpestris ssp.Achnatherum calamagrostis. Rumex scutatus. Gymnocarpium robertianum. 61. Arabis cantabrica. Siliceous screes of the high levels of the Sierra Nevada. S. Linarion filicaulis p. Digitalis purpurea var. granatensis. parnassifolius. Centranthus ruber. Drypion spinosae (Silenion caesiae). nevadensis. L.Linaria filicaulis. Galium pyrenaicum.Greek limestone screes. Less widespread formations restricted to serpentines of the Pindus. alpina. 61. Lentodon hyoseroides.Iberian fern screes.Senecio tournefortii var. Armeria alpina. Galium cespitosum. Salix breviserrata. carpetana. Senecio thapsoides.37 .Linaria saxatilis. very rich in endemics.. Plantago monosperma. Formations of the higher mountains of Greece (Pindus. Epilobium anagallidifolium. Eryngium glaciale.Southern Iberian calcareous screes.Oro-Cantabrian siliceous screes. R. Dryopteridion oreadis. Cardamine glauca. Santolina oblongifolia. Digitalis purpurea var. other more species-poor ones.39 .Carpetano-Iberian siliceous screes. Festuca glacialis.38 . Rhynchosinapis cheiranthos ssp. Santolina oblongifolia. Doronicum grandiflorum ssp.32 . Ranunculus parnassifolius ssp. Saxifraga praetermissa. 61. nevadensis. characterised by Trisetum hispidum and Rumex suffruticosus. Viola lapeyrousiana. with Linaria saxatilis. Saxifraga oppositifolia. Taraxacum alpinum. Holcus caespitosus. Viola magellensis. 61. Dryopteridion submontanae. Campanula jaubertiana. with Campanula hawkinsoniana. Alyssum scardicum. Reseda gredensis. with Drypis spinosa. Cirsium gregarium. Reseda gredensis. Minuartia cerastiifolia.Ptychotis heterophylla. 1) Interpretation Manual . 61. Holcus caespitosus. 8140 PAL.351. Rumex suffruticosus. Saxifraga oppositifolia. Conopodium butinioides.39 . Sisymbrium supinum.41 . Viola crassiuscula. favargeri. Veronica alpina. Linaria glacialis. Saxifraga praetermissa. Platycapno-Iberidion granatensis.

Viola magellensis.Drypis spinosa.: 61. a non-priority Annex I habitat type.42 . Inula attica. 1) 2) 3) Rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation 8210 PAL. are included. Silene haussknechtii. with Epilobium collinum. often in dry.: 61. b) montane and oroMediterranean (Potentilletalia speciosae. Galeopsis segetum. Ranunculus brevifolius. Galion degenii and 1) Interpretation Manual . This habitat type should be clearly distinguished from 8130 . Aethionema saxatile. 61.Western Mediterranean and thermophilous scree. warm stations in associations with Stipetalia calamagrostis. Odontites luskii.EUR25 Page 83 . mixta. Galeopsis angustifolia.: 62. Alyssum scardicum. Anarrhinum bellidifolium. rupestris. Arenaria serpentini. Two levels may be identified: a) thermo. often resulting from quarry activity. and colonised by very impoverished forms of the Alpine communities. Upland siliceous screes.2) Plants: 61. notably Cryptogramma crispa.41 . but should not be taken into account. Cardamine glauca. Petasites paradoxus. lichens and sometimes ferns. Corresponding categories German classification: "320401 natürliche Schutthalde aus Karbonatgestein". Rumex scutatus. in the mediterranean region and in the euro-siberian plain to alpine levels. 8150 PAL. including Silenion aurticulatae.313 * Medio-European calcareous scree of hill and montane levels Calcareous or marly screes of the hill and montane levels extending into mountainous regions (subalpine and alpine). I. Senecio viscosus. C. Senecio viscosus. Anarrhinum bellidifolium.CLASS.12 Medio-European upland siliceous screes Siliceous screes of hills of western and central Europe. belonging essentially to the Potentilletalia caulescentis and Asplenietalia glandulosi orders. Cryptogramma crispa 1) 2) 8160 PAL.and meso-Mediterranean (Onosmetalia frutescentis) with Campanula versicolor. Senecio thapsoides. Cryptogramma crispa.Campanula hawkinsoniana.1 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation Vegetation of fissures of limestone cliffs.CLASS. Galeopsis segetum. Dryopteris robertiana (=Gymnocarpium robertianum).CLASS. usually rich in mosses. Plants: Achnatherum calamagrostis. Plants: Epilobium collinum.

Boreal communities with Asplenium viride. (1980). pachyrachis.17.1A . 62.34). 62. 4:1-203. Potentilla saxifraga. Dolomit)".14 . Pteris cretica. 34.11 . allionii. & Ballelli (1982). Draba tomentosa.13 . Söyrinki. Asplenium ruta-muraria. en Italie centrale (2-11/7/1982): 189-201. Potentilla alchimilloides. &Marceno C. screes (61) and limestone pavements (62.Ramondion nathaliae). Brullo S. Int. Silenion auriculatae. Dianthion rupicolae nouvelle alliance sud-Tyrienne des Asplenietalia glandulosi. Asplenium viride. northern Sweden. Mesothermic shady fern groups of the supra-Mediterranean level (Polypodion australis): Polypodium cambricum ssp. australe. aretioides. Saxifraga media.Western Mediterranean communities (Asplenion petrarchae): Asplenium petrarchae. Scabiosa limonifolia. S. Minuartia rupestris.S. This habitat type presents a great regional diversity. Erodium petraeum. #Asplenium jahandiezii.15 and 62. Potentilla nebrodensis. 62. with many endemic plant species (indicated under point 2). Biscutella laevigata.Southern Italian communities (Dianthion rupicolae): #Dianthus rupicola. V. 2) Plants: 62. Asplenium celtibericum. Phyteuma charmelii. Kernera saxatilis.12 .1C .19 and 62. Die Flora von Oulanka Nationalpark.16. Saxifraga corbariensis. Nordic classification: "712 Klippvegetation på rika/kalkbergarter".1. Cheilanthes acrostica. . P. S. La végétation des gorges calcaires des Apennins de l'Ombrie et des Marches. Silene campanula. Växtekol. 62. Autecology of cliff and scree plants in Sarek National Park. -alpine level communities : Androsace helvetica. Corresponding categories German classification : "320101 natürlicher Karbonatfels (Kalk. Asplenium sagittatum. Nordfinnland. L. -xerophilous communities : Ceterach officinarum. N. P.Euro-Siberian communities and Mediterranean communities of the supra to oroMediterranean levels (Potentilletalia caulescentis): -shady communities : Cystopteris fragilis.Central Pyrenean communities (Saxifragion mediae): Asperula hirta.EUR25 Page 84 . Phytosoc. Fennica 154.1B . (1979). Guide-itinéraire Exc. Phytosoc. Campanula tanfanii. lingulata. 62. Doc. Stud. Cirsietalia chamaepeucis. Asplenium trichomanes ssp. 62. Cymbalaria pubescens. Melica minuta. Asplenium trichomanes.31-34. (1973).18. This habitat constitutes mosaics with Xerobrometea communities (34. Ramondion nathaliae). 62.Liguro-Apennine cliffs communities (Saxifragion lingulatae): Saxifraga callosae ssp. nivalis. Trisetum bertolonii. N. Ramonda myconi. 62. 6: 131-146. 3) 4) 5) Interpretation Manual . Primula marginata. Acta Flor. 62. & Saari.Centre and Southern Italian communities (Saxifragion australis): Saxifraga australis. Hieracium stelligerum. Woodsia glabella.Greek and Southern Italian calcareous cliff communities (Campanulion versicoloris. +Androsace cylindrica. Ballota frutescens. Antirrhinum siculum. Draba aizoides. Phyteuma cordatum.4). Asplenium trichomanes ssp. In Ireland and the United Kingdom: sites sheltering relict arctic-alpine flora and important bryophyte and/or lichen assemblages. Karlsson. inexpectans.. Biondi E. Ptilotrichum pyrenaicum. longifolia.

Saxifraga pedemontana ssp. C. Saxifraga retusa ssp. aspera.Northern Greek siliceous cliff vegetation (Silenion lerchenfeldianae): Silene lerchenfeldiana.Alpine siliceous cliff vegetation (Pyrenees and Alps) and of Hercynian system and its periphery (Androsacion vandellii): Androsace vandellii. (1954). S. A. alternifolium.27 . In Ireland and the United Kingdom: sites sheltering relict arctic-alpine flora and important bryophyte and/or lichen assemblages.26 .22 . This habitat type is found in close association with siliceous scree (8110) and pioneer grassland (8230). 62. Züge aus der flora un vegetation der rapakivifelsen im sudöstlichen teil des rapakivigebietes von Laitila in Südwestfinnland.21. Jovibarba allionii. prostii.Provenço-Iberian siliceous cliff vegetation on rock faces rich in basic silicates (basalts and peridots).:38-49.South-western Alpine siliceous cliff vegetation (Saxifragion pedemontanae): Saxifraga pedemontana. (1961).: 62. cervicornis.8220 PAL. Vanamo. 62. Ann.CLASS.26): Asarina procumbens. adulterinum. billotii.21 62. Primula hirsuta. "713 Klippvegetation på serpentinbergarter. 16 Suppl. J. Communities of montane level of Pyrenees and Cevennes (Asarinion procumbentis: includes 62. S. of the thermo to meso-Mediterranean levels (Phagnalo saxatilis-Cheilanthion maderensis): Cheilanthes maderensis. adiantum-nigrum. foreziense. Eritrichium nanum. A. vellaea. which presents many regional sub-types. Nordic classification: "711 Klippvegetation på fattiga bergarter". A. Corresponding categories German classification: "320102 natürlicher Silikatfels (ohne Serpentinit)". onopteris. 62.2A . Galium tendae.high altitude siliceous cliff vegetation of Iberian mountains: . Asplenium balearicum. Kallio. A.see 62.29 is included): Asplenium septentrionale.2 Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation Vegetation of fissures of siliceous inland cliffs. Sierra Nevada (Saxifragion nevadensis): Saxifraga nevadensis. Soc. florulenta.Western Iberian siliceous cliff vegetation of the submontane level (Cheilanthion hispanicae): Cheilanthes hispanica. Arch. Murbeckiella boryi. Saxicolous communities of the plain to hill levels under Middle European climate (Asplenion septentrionalis) and communities of the plain level under oceanic climate (Asplenion billotii-Umbilicarion rupestre: 62. "320103 natürlicher Serpentinitfels". 62. Sempervivum montanum ssp. C. orogredensis.29 : see 62.25 . Saxifraga continentalis. Turkuensis A XVII:1-64. Anarrhinum bellidifolium. Regionale Züge in der Felsenvegetation und flora Ostfennoscandiens. .23 . A. Plants: 62.Cyrno-Sardian siliceous montane cliff vegetation (Potentillion crassinerviae): Potentilla crassinervia. burnatii. Phyteuma scheuchzeri.Hercynian serpentine cliffs (Asplenion cuneifolii): Asplenium cuneifolium.28 . tinaei. 62. #S. Dianthus graniticus. Silene requientii.EUR25 Page 85 . Interpretation Manual . A. S. P. 62. Armeria leucocephala. 62. marantae. 62. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Jalas. Univ.Boreal siliceous cliffs (rapakivi cliffs).Central Iberian mountains (Saxifragion willkommianae): Saxifraga willkommiana. retusa. described under point 2. C.21 .24 .

Vegetation of coastal Bohuslän. & Ivarsson. The rock surface is almost devoid of overlying soils (considerably less than 50% cover) except for some patches of shallow skeletal or loessic soils. Sedum acre. the ecosystem is maintained by grazing in some regions. semidecandrum. Nordic classification : partly "711 Klippvegetation på fattiga bergarter" and "5211 Sedum spp. (1965). Dryas octopetala). Seslerio-Mesobromenion). Scleranthus perennis. In Sweden.EUR25 Page 86 . Gagea bohemica. colonising superficial soils of siliceous rock surfaces. Gagea saxatiles. sometimes there is encroachment of peat. C. The surface is covered by Sedum album. Suec. means that isolated shrubs can only survive in prostrate growth form (e. The species composition reflects a more continental. Sedum reflexum. this open vegetation is characterised by mosses. dryer and cooler climate. P002)".: 62. heath and scrub also occur (e. This habitat is associated with the 8220 type.: 62. lichens and Crassulacea. Veronica fruticans.8230 PAL. the small pockets of soil are occupied by communities of Mesobromion (e. as well as formations of herbaceous species typical of calcareous woodland. Sedo albi-Veronicion dillenii: Veronica verna. 1) Interpretation Manual . The fissures provide a cold humid microclimate where shade-tolerant vascular plants such as Geranium robertianum and Ceterach officinale occur.CLASS. although more extensive areas of deeper soil occasionally occur. This morphology offers a variety of microclimates allowing the establishment of complex vegetation consisting of a mosaic of different communities. lichens (Aspicilia calcarea. Corylo-Fraxinetum). combined with severe winds. Cerastium pumilum.g. limestone blocks are larger and cracks are smaller.42 Siliceous rock with pioneer vegetation of the SedoScleranthion or of the Sedo albi-Veronicion dillenii Pioneer communities of the Sedo-Scleranthion or the Sedo albi-Veronicion dillenii alliances. Thamnolia vermicularis. this. Veronica dillenii. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 8240 PAL. H. Ceratodon purpureus. The vegetation colonising calcareous rocks is included under 6110 " Rupicolous calcareous or basophilic grasslands of the Alysso-Sedion albi)" and 8240 "Limestone pavements. The pavements are mostly exposed with scattered cushions of bryophytes.g. P.CLASS.Polytrichum piliferum. Rumex acetosella. Sempervivum montanum.-Viola tricolor-Aira praecox-typ". Mosses. at the margins of ungrazed sites Geranium sanguineum occurs. and corresponds to the vegetation colonising siliceous rocks. As a consequence of drought. Apart from areas of species rich scrub (generally Prunetalia spinosae). R.3 * Limestone pavements Regular blocks of limestone known as "clints" with loose flags separated by a network of vertical fissures known as "grykes" or "shattered pavements". Riccia ciliifera. 50:111-122. more seldom covered by a thin layer of soil. containing more loose limestone rubble. Sedum annuum.g. Corresponding categories German classification : "320102 natürlicher Silikatfels (ohne Serpentinit) (lückige Vegetation. Sedum sexangulare. Plant species belonging to the two syntaxa: Allium montanum. Acta Phytogeogr. Silene rupestris. Plants: Sedo-Scleranthion: Sempervivum arachnoideum. Sedum album. Hallberg.

trichomanes ssp. (1991).F.CLASS. The cavernicolous terrestrial invertebrates are mainly coleoptera. Tortella tortuosa. 217-233.N. (1982). Cavernicolous aquatic invertebrates constitute a 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . E.g. 181-198.M. This fauna is mainly composed of invertebrates which exclusively live in caves and underground waters.(1976). Bobe. 3. Sweden . Gymnocarpium robertianum. Grimmia pulvinata). trichomanes ssp. D. Unpubl. Limestone heaths in south-west Britain: their soils and the maintenance of their calcicole-calcifuge mixtures. Schistostega pennata) and algal carpets at the entry of caves. Dubl. 3. diploma work. Etherington.Conservation assessment of British limestone pavements based upon floristic criteria.Sedum album. Animals: Very specialised and highly endemic cavernicolous fauna. occasionally. O' Sullivan.. Gentiana verna. Very locally in the United Kingdom. bats. Epipactis atrorubens.g. R. Polygonatum odoratum. Aspicilia calcarea. Ribes spicatum. Ceterach officinale. (1982). or that are of paramount importance for the conservation of Annex II species (e. Grimmia pulvinata. A. typ". semidecandrum.. Verrucaria nigrescens.: 65 Caves not open to the public Caves not open to the public. J. Soc. quadrivalens and. Life Sci. Rosa spp.Verrucaria nigrescens) and bryophytes (Tortella tortuosa. J. belonging to the Bathysciinae and Trechinae families in particular. Fraxinus excelsior. A. A.D. which are carnivorous and have a very limited distribution. amphibians). 2) Plants: Britain and Ireland . The lowland grasslands of Ireland. R. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "W8 Fraxinus excelsior-Acer campestre-Mercurialis perennis woodland" and "W9 Fraxinus excelsior-Sorbus aucuparia-Mercurialis perennis woodland". hosting specialised or high endemic species. certain arctic alpine species such as Gentiana verna and Dryas octopetala are characteristic and in The Burren.D. & Evans. Thamnolia vermicularis. J. Some sites in Ireland host an open Taxus-Juniperus scrub of major interest. 3) 5) Other rocky habitats 8310 PAL. It includes underground relic forms of a fauna which has been diversified outside. The vegetation in the cracks contains Gymnocarpium robertianum. München. B. Asplenium ruta-muraria. Biological Conservation. including their water bodies and streams. Cerastium pumilum. ancient woodland containing Tilia cordata occurs which is of great conservation importance.R. Dubl. Kelly. Plants: mosses only (e.Asplenium spp. these species occur with Atlantic-Mediterranean species such as Neotinea maculata. Cotoneaster spp. Ward. Schweden. C. (1981). Dryas octopetala. 9. Asplenium ruta-muraria. & Kirby.S. Soc. Nordic classification: "5151b Asplenium ruta-muraria-Asplenium trichomanes-Homalothecium sericeum-variant" variant of "5151 Sedum album-Tortella spp. 131-142. Cystopteris fragilis. bushes of Prunus spinosa. Irish native woodlands over limestone. Dryopteris villarii. Gefässpflanzenvegetation und Mikroklima der Karstspalten des Grossen Alvars auf Öland.EUR25 Page 87 . Life Sci. quadrivalens.

"310202 natürliche Höhle (Bereiche ohne Tageslichteifluß). 5) 8320 PAL. nouvelles de l'environnement n° 94-5. the decapode crustacean Munidopsis polymorpha. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . with Viola cheiranthifolia and a few individuals of Silene nocteolens and Argyranthemum teneriffae.Teide violet community.5 . colonised by. among which many are threatened (see Annex II). dominated by crustaceans (Isopoda. and several crustaceans of the genus Speleonectes. Speleonectes spp. With regard to vertebrates. 1-4. in particular. endemic to that locality.Fumaroles Orifices in volcanic areas through which escape hot gases and vapours.Volcanic ash and lapilli fields 66.Barren lava fields Almost bare lava formations of other volcanoes. "310201 Balme (Halbhöhle) bzw. Amphipoda. 66. 66.3 .4 .Etna summital communities Communities of Mount Etna. Conseil de l'Europe.Lava tubes Caves formed by hollow basaltic tubes resulting from the cooling of the surface of lava flows whose molten interior continued to flow. Animals: crustaceans: Munidopsis polymorpha. 66. Naturopa. Vers la conservation intégrée des habitats souterrains. Sub-types : 66. Syncarida. Eingangsbereich mit Tageslichteinfluß". and of lower altitudes on Etna and Teide. besides communities related to ones covered in other sections. Very open formation of the summit of the Teide volcano of Tenerife.highly endemic fauna. Argyranthemum teneriffae. 3) Corresponding categories German classification: "3101 natürliche Höhlen und Balmen". Silene nocteolens.1 to 66.6 Fields of lava and natural excavations Sites and products of recent volcanic activity harbouring distinct biological communities.g. Their very extreme environment is colonised by paucispecific but highly distinct communities.1 . Plants: Viola cheiranthifolia. Caves also shelter some very rare amphibious species like #Proteus anguinus and several species of the #Speleomantes genus. Violetea cheiranthifoliae. Stereocaulon vesubianum) and invertebrates.2 . above (2700) 3000 metres. The very large tube created by the volcano La Corona of Lanzarote harbours unique communities of invertebrates. above the limit of hedgehog heaths. Copepoda) and include many living fossils. 66. lichens (e. De Broyer C. caves constitute hibernation sites for most European bat species.EUR25 Page 88 . Lichens: Stereocaulon vesubianum.: 66. Aquatic molluscs.CLASS. belonging to the Hydrobiidae family are also found.6 . Several species can live together in the same cave.

and their young succession stages. the main features of natural old forests disappear. the trees from previous generations. and meeting the following criteria: rare or residual. Interpretation Manual . including partially submerged sea caves. at least at high tide. . the more stable microclimate. . .CLASS.7. 11.EUR25 Page 89 . . Natural old forests represent climax or late succession stages with slight human impact or without any human impact. i. which is carried out practically throughout this region. Old natural forests are habitats of many threatened species.forests of tall trees and high forest.forests of native species.forests having benefited from continuous sustainable management over a significant period.forests with a high degree of naturalness. Natural recently burned forest areas are very important habitats for PAL.26. the considerable amount of dead and rotten wood. Present natural old forests are only minor remnants of those originally occurring in Fennoscandia.e.CLASS. Their bottom and sides harbour communities of marine invertebrates and algae. With intensive forestry.8330 PAL.presence of old and dead trees.forests with a substantial area.: 63.: 41.2 and 63.C 20 For forest habitat types the following additional criteria were accepted by the Scientific Working Group (21-22 June 1993): . 11. but in spite of that they maintain many characteristics of the natural forests.B8. the great variation in tree age and length and species composition. have been naturally common in the boreal region. . with typical undergrowth. and invertebrates (mostly beetles). 41.294 Submerged or partially submerged sea caves Caves situated under the sea or opened to it. 1) 8340 PAL. lichens.3 Permanent glaciers Rock and true glaciers. burned forest areas.: 12.C3. 42. 1) FORESTS (Sub)natural woodland vegetation comprising native species forming forests of tall trees. Nowadays they are extremely rare because of efficient fire protection and forestry.D5. 41.CLASS. Some of the present old natural forests have human impact. especially bryophytes. and / or hosting species of Community interest 20 Forests of Boreal Europe 9010 1) * Western Taïga Natural old forests as well as those young forest stages naturally developing after fire. fungi. Because of the important role of fire.

Sorex minutus. Zur systematik der Kiefenfelder Fennoscandiens. Thorsteinsson. Ann. Kielland-Lund..Picea abies. Virkkala. Population contraction of the whitebacked woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos in Finland as a consequence of habitat alteration. Vanamo 16 Suppl. Inst. 5) Interpretation Manual . In Sweden most of the old natural forests are in the north and only some of them in the south. L. Pleurozum schreberi.natural old pine forests . (1981). Dicranum spp. Animals: Mammals . Soc. Aporpium cargae. Vaccinium myrtillus.recently burnt areas . Trientalis europea. I. Betula spp. Nord 1994:7. H. Tanninen. fenn.Picoides tridactylus. flor. Biological Conservation 66:47-53. In Finland nowadays most of the natural old forests are found in eastern and northern parts. (1961). T. abieticola.F.. *Osmoderma eremita. 92(8):1-45. D.:65-83. Epiphytic lichen diversity on Salix caprea in old-growth southern and middle boreal forests of Finland.younger forests naturally developed after fire 2) Plants: Pine forests . ArbGemein. The following sub-types are distinguished. 9:53-250. Phlebia centrifuga. Gloiodon strigosum..many endangered species. Populus tremula. J..Pinus sylvestris. except in the oro-hemiarctic treeless zone. 31:77-92.. Pleurozium schreberi. Pytho kolwensis. Skeletocutis odora... stellae. B. Porvoo. T. (1995). Arch. Pinus sylvestris. Fenn. S. Vaccinium myrtillus. V. Vegetationstyper I Norden. Empetrum nigrum. Peltis grossa. R. Löfgren.natural old mixed forests . Moller. northern) and different site types. 11/12:127-141.. Haugen. Storrank. R. Typical of natural burned areas is a great amount of dead burned wood and a varying density of living trees which greatly conditions the regeneration of the forest. in southern and western parts of the country only remnants of these forests remain. Fennici. J. Deschampsia flexuosa. Originally natural old forests were found in the whole boreal and hemiboreal zones. (1994). & Tiainen. Beetles . (1981).*Pteromys volans.Evernia divaricata.Betula spp. Oxalis acetosella. M. Calluna vulgaris. J. Hylocomium splendens. Kalela. Laine. Equisetum sylvaticum.. The character of the forests vary with the different boreal zones (hemi-. zool. Cladonia spp. Fungi . Phellinus populicola. Commun. Suomen metsätyypit. according to the main tree species and site type variation: . Naturskogar i Norden. Dendrocopos leucotos. Kalliola. Perisoreus infaustus. Kuusinen.natural old spruce forests .-soz. (1994). Wsoy. Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Kielland-Lund. Bot. (1993). I. Die Waldgesellschaften SO-Norwegens. Maianthenum bifolium. Gelatoporia pannocincata. Lobaria pulmonaria.EUR25 Page 90 . T. bot. 308 pp. #Cucujus cinnaberinus. & Ragnarsson. (1973). Birds . R.natural old deciduous forests . Påhlsson. et al. Deciduous forests . Phytocoenolog. southern. Kujala. Lichens .. Mitt. Nordiska Ministerrådet Tema Nord 1994:665 pp.Tragosoma depsarium. Agrostis capillaris. (1967). Haploporus odorus.. For. Suomen kas vimaantiede. A. Waldvegetationszonen Finnlands und ihre klimatischen paralelltypen. Myopus schisticolor. P. Fomitopsis populicola. minor.Amylocystis lapponica. Alanko. Deschampsia flexuosa. middle. P. Spruce and mixed forests .

The most common tree species are Quercus robur. Bryophytes. Oslo. Corylus avellana. insects and soil-organisms is high. Naturvårdsverket Rapport 3991. and often also spruce. Further inland the influence of the sea is weakened.. dominates the tree layer and dwarf shrubs dominate in the field layer. Homalia trichomanoides. There is typically a considerable amount of dead wood and a long continuity of woodland cover on the sites. Jönköping. PAL. 44. Cliostomum corrugatum. No 11. (1991). J. Zygodon spp. the soils are often poor in nutrients and coniferous forests are typical. Porella platyphylla. (1973). (1984). Orthotrichum spp. T. & Ingelöf. ArtDatabanken. Pettersson. although podsol soils are otherwise typical for boreal forest. Also soil horizons are poorly developed. fungi. Tricholoma album.CLASS. Polygonatum multiflorum.4151. Skogsstyrelsen.Auricularia mesenterica. Fraxinus excelsior.: 41. coniferous and mixed natural thickets and forests developed on land upheaval coasts of the Baltic sea. Mycena galericulata. Ulmus spp. Kielland-Lund. Poa nemoralis. Pine. Acer. In: IBP i Norden.CLASS.8. Lichens.. B. Tilia. Tilia cordata or Acer platanoides.Ädellövskog . & Fiskesjö..Den levande döda veden. Characteristic for these habitats are stages of primary succession from shore grassland vegetation to climax forests or various wetland types. Fungi.. Hepatica nobilis.B8. but in many areas lichens are abundant.2 (1997 version) 1) Interpretation Manual . Universitetsforl. Biatorella monasteriensis. (1996). “2234 Fraxinus excelsior –type” .EUR25 Page 91 . Mercurialis perennis.F2 (1997 version) 1) 2) 3) 5) 9030 * Natural forests of primary succession stages of landupheaval coast This type includes different types of deciduous. Lobaria pulmonaria. Eichomitus campestris. T. Uppsala. J..Lövnaturskogens flora och fauna. Phlyctis agelaea Corresponding categories Nordic classification: “2233 Ulmus glabra –type” .ekologi och skötsel.: 31.. In many cases the forests have previously been used for grazing or mowing. Milium effusum. Samuelsson.C3.A classification of Scandinavian forest vegetation for mapping purposes. Alder and birch are dominant in the tree layer and willows are often common in the shrub layer. 41. The species-diversity of lichens. PAL. 41.Arthonia vinosa. The youngest pioneer forests near the sea are often low or tall herb deciduous forests. Almgren. Lathyrus vernus.9020 * Fennoscandian hemiboreal natural old broad-leaved deciduous forests (Quercus. Dentaria bulbifera. Gyalecta flotowi. Anemone nemorosa. Fraxinus or Ulmus) rich in epiphytes The hemiboreal natural old broad-leaved deciduous forest forms a transition between the Western Taiga and the nemoral forests. 41. Plants : Allium ursinum. Grasses are abundant.Antitrichia curtipendula.. G. sulphureum. In the ground layer mosses are common. thickets or swamps. Vegetation succession can also proceed from willow swamps through forest swamps to mires. A. Bevarande och nyskapande i naturen. “2235 Tilia cordata –type” and “2236 Quercus robur-Ulmus glabra-Tilia cordata –type”. Ganoderma lipsiense.

Stereocaulon paschale. Occur also in isolated northern Fennoscandian fells and in gently sloping or flat subarctic (hemiarctic) uplands.. –type”. Havas.Topographic. (1995). 1) 2) 3) 5) 9050 1) Fennoscandian herb-rich forests with Picea abies This type occurs in areas of brown forest soils with mull.. Vartiainen.. 42. czerepanovii-Vaccinium myrtillusDeschampsia -type . Gymnocarpium dryopteris. Rich types. Western Central Norway. Cornus suecica. K. L. Oksanen.CLASS.. Rubus saxatilis. Vanamo Tom.CLASS. czerepanovii Forests dominated by Betula pubescens ssp. (1980). Geranium sylvaticum. Ann.Forest vegetation in Hemne. 2214 Betula pubescens ssp. 2213 Betula pubescens ssp. (1973). Fenn. but the species composition varies greatly between northern. Melica nutans.Succession of island vegetation in the land uplift area of the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia. ravines and slopes with fine sediment and a favourable water regime. Empetrum hermaphroditum. particularly in N Finland. Finland. often in low-lying areas. insbesondere der Grauerlenwälder. 115: 1-105 5) 9040 PAL. P. Trollius europaeus Corresponding categories Nordic classification: 2211 Betula pubescens ssp. southern and western Fennoscandia. Due to different ecological characteristics. Hylocomium splendens. Dicranum spp. Miscellanea. (1963)..: 41. an der Kuste der Bottenwiek. occuring and often dominating the subalpine belt of the Scandinavian mountain (fell) chain (”Fjällen”). Ser.I. Vaccinium myrtillus. czerepanovii-Geranium sylvaticum-Rubus saxatilis -type. Hämet-Ahti. Hierochloë odorata. Cladonia spp. Selsk. Many other units have unclassified and undescribed variants occurring in land upheaval areas. Aune.. vegetation varies from lichen poor and dwarf shrub dominated types to those rich-in-tall-herbs. Acta Bot. The forests are characterized by Page 92 PAL. Tall herbs and ferns dominate. The succession of this vegetation type normally leads to the dominance of spruce in the tree layer. Plants : Poor types.Zonation of the mountain birch forests in northernmost Fennoscandia. Trientalis europaea. 12. T. E. Sør-Trøndelag. Cicerbita alpina..-type. norske Vidensk. L. 34 (4). & Virtanen. “2216 Betula pubescens-Molina caerulea-Sphagnum spp. Fennica 153: 1-80. Zool. Acta Botanica Fennica. czerepanovii-Geranium sylvaticum-Aconitum lycoctonum-type . although the broad-leaved trees often comprise a significant element.Zur ökologie der Laubwelder. (1967). R. czerepanovii-Empetrum hermaphroditumCladonia ssp..3) Corresponding categories Nordic classification: “2215 Betula pendula-Vaccinium myrtillus-Deschampsia flexuosa –type”. altitudinal and regional patterns in continental and suboceanic heath vegetation of northern Fennoscandia. Aquilo.C4 . Pleurozium schreberi. Bot. Bot.C3 (1997 version) Interpretation Manual .C22. Aconitum lycoctonum. czerepanovii (mountain birch). “7213 Hippophaë rhamnoides-type” . Linnea borealis. 6: 314-346.EUR25 . 127 pp. 2212 Betula pubescens ssp..: 42.B72 (1997 version) Nordic subalpine/subarctic forests with Betula pubescens ssp. coastal variants. 42.

Carex ericetorum. mesic and moist grass-herb forests.-type and 2126 Picea abies-Geranium sylvaticum-Aconitum lycoctonumtype .distinct layers of vegetation. the main groups being dry. Diplazium sibiricum. ot. The bottom layer is covered unevenly by bryophytes.5: 34-64. Lathyrus niger. although deciduous species may occur. Pinus sylvestris. Several vegetation types have been described. Thus aspect and slope inclination. Rubus saxatilis. Cicerbita alpina. Pulsatilla patens. Thymus serpyllum. Cirriphyllum piliferum.. vegetation on sunny esker slopes is often relatively rich in species and particularly contains many leguminous plants as well as some eastern steppe plant species. Hierochloë australis. Carex remota. Oxytropis campestris. or connected to.Haintypenuntersuchungen im mitteleren Süd-Häme. erythrocarpa. In terms of ecological site factors they are more variable than the surrounding forest on flatter ground. Calypso bulbosa. Ann. Impatiens noli-tangere.Rubus saxatilis-type . P. Carex pediformis. Bot.. Botrychium virginianum. Paris quadrifolia. pediformis. . The top of an esker is often characterized by Pinus sylvestris and the slopes sometimes by Picea abies. 4:121-218. vernalis. the bush and tree layers are well developed including a variety of species..CLASS. Calamagrostis arundinacea. # Cypripedium calceolus. Juniperus communis. Silene nutans. Dianthus arenarius. (1967).g.. Stands of esker forests on sunny slopes are often characterized by a relatively open tree structure and in addition the undergrowth often consists of species of warmer climate (e. Epipogium aphyllum. U. Mäkirinta. rupestris Corresponding categories Nordic classification: 2114b Pinus sylvestris . Fragaria vesca. About six different forest site types of eskers have been described. Gypsophila fastigiata) and some endangered butterfly species. 1) 2) 3) 4) Interpretation Manual . Geranium sylvaticum. C. Koponen. Matteuccia struthiopteris. Fenn. Eurhynchium spp. which reflect the effects of solar radiation and soil and air temperatures are important ecological factors. (1968). Fenn.EUR25 Page 93 . Sometimes ground water is flowing near the ground surface.. representing a gradient from xeric lichen rich forests to humid herb-rich forests. Corresponding categories Nordic classification: 2124 Picea abies-Oxalis acetosella-Melica nutans -type. As a result of ecological characteristics. Pteridium aquilinum. Southern Finland. T. L. Pulsatilla patens. Eskers are glaciofluvial gravel and sand formations which consist of relatively sorted material. fennica. Plants : Antennaria dioeca. Hypochoeris maculata.Fragaria vesca -variant. Viola selkirkii. Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. Melica nutans. Crepis paludosa. Melica nutans.Brachythecium spp. A. 2125 Picea abiesDryopteris spp. In particular the microclimate differs notably between shaded and sunny slopes. Mosses. vernalis. which give rise to a specific species rich ”wet-forest” flora and invertebrate fauna. Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Viola rupestris subsp.: - Coniferous forests on. P.. Süd-Finnland. vernus. 2115 Pinus sylvestris Lathyrys spp. Ann. Milium effusum. Plagiomnium spp. often forming ridges over 20 meters high. Astragalus alpinus. the field layer is dominated by herbs and grasses. 3) 5) 9060 PAL. Brachypodium pinnatum.On the dynamics of vegetation and flora in Karkali Nature Reserve. 2) Plants : Actaea spicata. Polygonatum odoratum. glaciofluvial eskers This type includes Fennoscandian conifer forests found on or close to eskers.

44. Botrychium spp. Zool. The tree layer consists either of deciduous broad-leaved species such as Quercus robur..A14 (1997 version) Interpretation Manual . Melampyrum cristatum. alder (Alnus incana) or spruce (spruce-dominated are often degraded types). Gray alder (Alnus incana). Acta Bot. Antennaria dioica.9112.) Mill.915. Tilia cordata. A mosaic of patches with different water PAL. (1991) . (1969) . Prunella vulgaris. Particularly in Sweden there are pastures with old.. Alnus incana. 28: 201-224.K. Fenn. LT:s förlag. In wooded pastures vegetation is dominated by grassland species with elements of grassland vegetation. P.. A. (1987). Plants : Agrostis capillaris. During recent decades the tree layer of wooded pastures has in many cases become thicker and the typical structure has then been obscured. Bot. B.CLASS. 9070 PAL. wooded wetlands with some peat formation.: 44. officinalis.Topographic. H. that was a characteristic feature of the former land use in Finland In Finland scattered in the whole of the country. In Sweden scattered over the whole country. microclimatic and edaphic control of the vegetation in the central part of the Hämeenkangas esker complex. Nordenskjölds Samfundets Tidskrift. A rich assemblage of threatened lichens. Regional variation is considerable. Ranunculus polyanthemos.. (1987) .g. V. Fragaria vesca.: - Fennoscandian wooded pastures A vegetation complex in which the tree layer varies from sparse forest to small copses of trees and shrubs and patches of open grassland. Wooded pastures are usually dominated by birch. western Finland. and invertebrates are associated with the bark and dead or decaying wood. S Finland. 25-33. silver birch (Betula pubescens) and willows (Salix spp. 1) 2) 4) 5) 9080 1) *Fennoscandian deciduous swamp woods Deciduous swamps are under permanent influence of surface water and usually flooded annually. Coeloglossum viride.Besondere Züge der Vegetation und Flora auf der Osen. Veronica chamaedrys. 44. Bot. mostly in Southern and Central Finland. fungi.CLASS. Arch. Soc.Multivariate analysis of esker vegetation in southern Häme.Ekarnas hagar.EUR25 Page 94 . 6:105-111. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in the hemiboreal zone and black alder (Alnus glutinosa) reaching the middle boreal zone are typical tree species. 16 Suppl. Succisa pratensis. Quercus. & Pettersson. Ann.-A. Vanamo. Uotila. 134: 1-70. Fenn. Bot. very rare or extinct in northern boreal zone. in Finland. Fennica. pine. Ekman.Ecology and area of Pulsatilla patens (L. Fenn. Campanula persicifolia. Fraxinus excelsior. Alnus incana or conifers (Picea abies. Rajakorpi. Fraxinus and Corylus. 47: 68-90.5) Heikkinen.. These habitats have a representative mosaic of copses of trees (usually deciduous trees) and grassland with a long continuity of grazing. Geranium sylvaticum. J. Betula spp.. Jalas.) are also common. The type also includes (particularly in Finland) deciduous forests established after slash-and-burn cultivation. in hemiboreal zone there are also subtypes dominated by e. C. Pinus sylvestris). (1961) . They are moist or wet. R. large oaks.Den nordiska hagen. (1987). Ann. but the peat layer is usually very thin. Häggström.

rhynchospora. E.CLASS. On the mainland they are rare.EUR25 . European mires. C. Abies alba and Picea abies of the montane and high-montane levels of the greater Hercynian ranges. Associated with the habitat type: Residual alluvial forests (91E0) Ruuhijärvi. loliacea. & Kaakinen. Plants: Fagus sylvatica.Salix spp. C. Lycopus europaeus. fimbriatum. of the western subPannonic and the intra-Pannonic hills.Carex elongata -type. Calamagrostis canescens. not or little accompanied by self sown conifers. 2242 Alnus glutinosa . Mires: Swamp. C. C. chalybea. P. . or in some cases Quercus robur. 47-67. Amsterdam. (1983). riparium Corresponding categories Nordic classification : 2241 Alnus incana -type.Filipendula ulmaria . Calla palustris. but wet flooded surfaces are dominant.Key to Finnish mire types.: 41. Abies alba. S. A.Filipendula ulmaria -type. Lysimachia thyrsiflora. C. Deciduous swamp woods are most common in Finland in the southwestern archipelago and other coastal areas. R. 2243 Alnus spp. disperma.. Pseudobryum cinclidioides.Lycopus europaeus type. Iris pseudacorus. Picea abies. C. the Jura and the Alpine periphery. C. stricta. In: Moore. Calamagrostis villosa. the Alps. Solanum dulcamara. the Carpathians and the Bavarian Plateau.111 Medio-European collinar woodrush beech forests Acidophilous Fagus sylvatica forests of the lesser Hercynian ranges and Lorraine. Fagus sylvatica-Abies alba or Fagus sylvatica-Abies alba-Picea abies forests developed on acid soils of the medio-European domain of central and northern Central Europe.) Ecosystems of the World 4B. Corresponding categories Page 95 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . diandra. S. The following sub-types are included: 41.11 Luzulo-Fagetum beech forests Fagus sylvatica and. . Polytrichum formosum and often Deschampsia flexuosa. Luzula luzuloides. Helodium blandowii. Academic Press. Eurola. Thelypteris palustris. Spagnum squarrosum. tenuiflora. (ed. Polytrichum formosum and often Deschampsia flexuosa. 2) Plants : Carex caespitosa. Lythrum salicaria. Regional studies. and generally with an admixture of Quercus petraea. Pteridium aquilinum. with Luzula luzuloides. the Jura. elongata. Betula pubescens . of the collinar level of the greater Hercynian ranges. Mosses. Calamagrostis villosa. fen and moor. S. 3413 Alnus spp. bog. in the canopy. (1984).P. C.. teres.Calliergon cordifolium.D. from the Vosges and the Black Forest to the Bohemian Quadrangle. Elsevier. Around the tree stems are small hummocks. Pteridium aquilinum. In Sweden they are common throughout the whole region. Glyceria lithuanica.J.). (ed. Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba or Fagus sylvatica. In: Gore.112 Medio-European montane woodrush beech forests Acidophilous forests of Fagus sylvatica. 41. London 3) 4) 5) Forests of temperate Europe 9110 PAL. Vaccinium myrtillus. Vaccinium myrtillus.level and vegetation is typical for the type. in higher mountains. S.The Finnish mire types and their regional distribution. 11-117.

CLASS.Nordic classification: "2221 Fagus sylvatica-Deschampsia flexuosa-Vaccinium myrtillus-typ" 5) Lindgren. Melampyrum pratense. Ruscus aculeatus. growing on acid soils. Lonicera periclymenum. in higher mountains. rich in epiphytes c) pure beech forests or acidophilous beech-fir forests of the montane level. leaching or with an evolution towards podsol type.131 . The acid substrate corresponds to alterations of acid rocks or to silt with flints more or less degraded or. various Dentaria spp. These beech forests present different varieties: a) subatlantic beech-oak forests of the plains and hill levels with Ilex aquifolium b) hyper-Atlantic beech-oak forests of the plains and hill levels with Ilex and Taxus.: 41.: 41. Taxus baccata. Fagus sylvatica-Abies alba or Fagus sylvatica-Abies alba-Picea abies forests developed on neutral or near-neutral soils. The humus is of moder to dysmoder type. The soils are of acid brown type.p. Bot.13 Asperulo-Fagetum beech forests Fagus sylvatica and. Sub-types : 41. Vaccinium myrtillus. Notiser 123:401-421. of 1) Interpretation Manual . with mild humus (mull). Plants: Ilex aquifolium. Teucrium scorodonia.. German classification: "43070502 bodensaurer Buchenwald der planaren Stufe". Deschampsia flexuosa. of Galium odoratum and Melica uniflora and.Medio-European collinar neutrophilous beech forests Neutrocline or basicline Fagus sylvatica and Fagus sylvatica-Quercus petraea-Quercus robur forests of hills. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "W14 Fagus sylvatica-Rubus fruticosus woodland" pp and "W15 Fagus sylvatica-Deschampsia flexuosa woodland p. 9120 Atlantic acidophilous beech forests with Ilex and sometimes also Taxus in the shrublayer (Quercinion robori-petraeae or Ilici-Fagenion) Beech forests with Ilex. of Lamiastrum (Lamium) galeobdolon. umbellatum. Holcus mollis.". Pteridium aquilinum.a survey. Beech forest vegetation in Sweden .CLASS. with Ilex aquifolium in the field layer. If the intensity of the management decreases beech and also Ilex often regenerate spontaneously. PAL.EUR25 Page 96 . in mountains. H. (1970). low mountains and plateaux of the Hercynian arc and its peripheral regions. of the plain to montane levels under humid Atlantic climate. forming a richer and more abundant herb layer than in the forests of 9110 and 9120. Oak may dominate in some of these forests due to the coppice-with-standards regime of the past centuries.12 1) 2) 3) 4) 9130 PAL. characterised by a strong representation of species belonging to the ecological groups of Anemone nemorosa. to old alluvial deposits. of the medio-European and Atlantic domains of Western Europe and of central and northern Central Europe. Hieracium sabaudum. L.

the Jura, Lorraine, the Paris basin, Burgundy, the Alpine piedmont, the Carpathians and a few localities of the North Sea-Baltic plain. 41.132 - Atlantic neutrophile beech forests Atlantic beech and beech-oak forests with Hyacinthoides non-scripta, of southern England, the Boulonnais, Picardy, the Oise, Lys and Schelde basins. 41.133 - Medio-European montane neutrophilous beech forests Neutrophile forests of Fagus sylvatica, Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies, or Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba and Picea abies of the montane and high-montane levels of the Jura, the northern and eastern Alps, the western Carpathians and the great Hercynian ranges. 41.134 - Bohemian lime-beech forests Fagus sylvatica or Fagus sylvatica-Abies alba forests rich in Tilia spp., of the Bohemian basin. 41.135 - Pannonic neutrophilme beech forests Neutrophilous beech forests of medio-European affinities of the hills of the Pannonic plain and its western periphery. 2) 3) Plants: Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Picea abies, Anemone nemorosa, Lamiastrum (Lamium) galeobdolon, Galium odoratum, Melica uniflora, Dentaria spp. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "W12 Fagus sylvatica-Mercurialis perennis woodland p.p." and "W14 Fagus sylvatica-Rubus fruticosus woodland p.p.". Nordic classification: "2222 Fagus sylvatica-Lamiastrum galeobdolon-Melica uniflora-typ" and "2223 Fagus sylvatica-Mercurialis perennis-Allium ursinum-typ". Bergendorff, C., larsson, A. & Nihlgård, B. (1979). Sydliga lövskogsbestånd i Sverige. Statens naturvårdsverk. Rapport. SNV PM 1278, Solna, 68 pp.


PAL.CLASS.: 41.15

Medio-European subalpine beech woods with Acer and Rumex arifolius
Fagus sylvatica woods usually composed of low, low-branching trees, with much sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), situated near the tree limit, mostly in low mountains with oceanic climate of Western Europe and of central and northern Central Europe. The herb layer is similar to that of the forests of 9130 or locally of 9110 and contain elements of the adjacent open grasslands. Plants: Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus, Rumex arifolius.



PAL.CLASS.: 41.16

Medio-European limestone beech forests of the Cephalanthero-Fagion
Xero-thermophile Fagus sylvatica forests developed on calcareous, often superficial, soils, usually of steep slopes, of the medio-European and Atlantic domaines of Western Europe and of central and northern Central Europe, with a generally abundant herb and shrub undergrowth, characterized by sedges (Carex digitata, Carex flacca, Carex montana, Carex alba), grasses (Sesleria albicans, Brachypodium pinnatum), orchids (Cephalanthera spp., Neottia nidus-avis, Epipactis leptochila, Epipactis microphylla) and thermophile species, transgressive of the Quercetalia pubescentiPage 97


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petraeae. The bush-layer includes several calcicolous species (Ligustrum vulgare, Berberis vulgaris) and Buxus sempervirens can dominate. Sub-types : 41.161 - Middle European dry-slope limestone beech forests Middle European sedge and orchid beech woods of slopes with reduced water availability. 41.162 - North-western Iberian xerophile beech woods Fagus sylvatica forests of relatively low precipitation zones of the southern ranges of the Pais Vasco and of superficially dry calcareous soils of the Cordillera Cantabrica, with Brachypodium pinnatum ssp. rupestre, Sesleria argentea ssp. hispanica, Carex brevicollis, Carex ornithopoda, Carex sempervirens, Carex caudata, Cephalanthera damasonium, C. longifolia, Epipactis helleborine, Epipactis microphylla, Neottia nidus-avis. 2) Plants: Fagus sylvatica, Carex digitata, C. flacca, C. montana, C. alba, Sesleria albicans, Brachypodium pinnatum, Cephalanthera spp., Neottia nidus-avis, Epipactis leptochila, Epipactis microphylla, Buxus sempervirens. Corresponding categories Nordic classification: "2223 Fagus sylvatica-Mercurialis perennis-Allium ursinum -typ".


PAL.CLASS.: 41.24

Sub-Atlantic and medio-European oak or oakhornbeam forests of the Carpinion betuli
Forests of Quercus robur (or Quercus robur and Quercus petraea) on hydromorphic soils or soils with high water table (bottoms of valleys, depressions or in the vicinity of riparian forests). The substrate corresponds to silts, clayey and silt-laden colluvions, as well as to silt-laden alterations or to siliceous rocks with a high degree of saturation. Forests of Quercus robur or natural mixed forests composed of Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus and Tilia cordata. Endymion non-scriptus is absent or rare. Plants: Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Acer campestre, Tilia cordata, Stellaria holostea, Carex brizoides, Poa chaixii, Potentilla sterilis, Dactylis polygama, Ranunculus nemorosus, Galium sylvaticum. Corresponding categories German classification: "430703 Stieleichen-Hainbuchenwald feuchter bis frischer Standorte". Nordic classification: "2223 Fagus sylvatica-Mercurialis perennis-Allium ursinum-typ". Not to be confused with forests of Quercus robur arising from the management of beech-oak forests as coppice or coppice-with-standards on well drained soils. Diekmann, M. (1994). Decidious forest vegetation in Boreo-nemoral Scandinavia. Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 80:1-112.






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Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests
Quercus petraea-Carpinus betulus forests of regions with sub-continental climate within the central European range of Fagus sylvatica, dominated by Quercus petraea (41.261). Also included are related lime-oak forests of eastern and eastern-central European regions with a continental climate, east of the range of F. sylvatica (41.262). Plants: 41.261 - Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus, Sorbus torminalis, S. domestica, Acer campestre, Ligustrum vulgare, Convallaria majalis, Carex montana, C. umbrosa, Festuca heterophylla; 41.262 - Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides, Carpinus betulus. Corresponding category Nordic classification: "2224 Carpinus betulus-typ".

PAL.CLASS.: 41.261, 41.262



PAL.CLASS.: 41.4

* Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines
Mixed forests of secondary species (Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus glabra, Tilia cordata) of coarse scree, abrupt rocky slopes or coarse colluvions of slopes, particularly on calcareous, but also on siliceous, substrates (Tilio-Acerion Klika 55). A distinction can be made between one grouping which is typical of cool and humid environments (hygroscopic and shade tolerant forests), generally dominated by the sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) - sub-alliance Lunario-Acerenion, and another which is typical of dry, warm screes (xerothermophile forests), generally dominated by limes (Tilia cordata, T. platyphyllos) - sub-alliance Tilio-Acerenion. The habitat types belonging to the Carpinion should not be included here. Plants: Lunario-Acerenion - Acer pseudoplatanus, Actaea spicata, Fraxinus excelsior, Helleborus viridis, Lunaria rediviva, Taxus baccata, Ulmus glabra. Tilio-Acerenion - Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Quercus sp., Sesleria varia, Tilia cordata, T. platyphyllos. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "W8 Fraxinus excelsior-Acer campestre-Mercurialis perennis woodland" and "W9 Fraxinus excelsior-Sorbus aucuparia-Mercurialis perennis woodland". German classification: "430604 Sommerlinden-Begulmen-Blockschuttwald", "430603 Ahorn-LindenHangschuttwald (wärmere Standorte)", "430602 Eschen-Ahorn-Schlucht- bzw. -Hangwald (fleucht-kühle Standorte)", "430601 Sommerlinden-Hainbuchen-Schuttwald". Nordic classification: "2233 Ulmus glabra -typ", "2235 Tilia cordata -typ" and "2236 Quercus robur-Ulmus glabra-Tilia cordata-typ". In Boreal region corresponding species-poor communities often with Anemone nemorosa, Corydalis spp., Primula veris. Slight changes in the conditions of the substrate (especially "consolidated" substrate) or humidity produce a transition towards beech forests (Cephalanthero-Fagenion, Luzulo-Fagenion) or towards thermophile oak forests. Bergendorff, C., Larsson, A. & Nihlgård, B. (1979). Sydliga lövskogsbestånd i Sverige. Statens naturvårdsverk. Rapport. SNV PM 1278, Solna, 68 pp.






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with many ferns." and "W17 Quercus petraea-Betula pubescens-Dicranum majus woodland p.: 41. Trientalo-Quercetim roboris.p. Sub-types : 41. 1) 2) 3) Interpretation Manual . G. Syntaxa: Peucedano-Quercetum roboris. trees. low-branched.54 .CLASS. pubescens.53 Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles Acidophilous Quercus petraea woods. Forests of this type often prevail in the northern European plain and occupy more limited edaphic enclaves. Vegetation i sydsvenska ekskogar-en regional jämförelse. mostly found in Scotland.". & Tyler. poorly developed. with a herb layer formed by the group of Deschampsia flexuosa.-typ". "W11 Quercus petraea-Betula pubescens-Oxalis acetosella woodland p.531 . Molino-Quercetum.Irish sessile oak woods Quercus petraea woods of Ireland.54 Old acidophilous oak woods with Quercus robur on sandy plains 41. with Molinia caerulea and Peucedanum gallicum.Forests of Quercus robur and. Wales. Sven.EUR25 Page 100 . composed of Quercus robur.". 41. 41. Betula pendula and Betula pubescens. particulary rich in evergreen bushes. (1986). Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "W10 Quercus spp. Plants: Quercus petraea. Northern England and South Western England. Å. and is often invaded by bracken. 80:133-143.51 and 41. often mixed with Sorbus aucuparia and Populus tremula. on podzols. Sorbus aucuparia. lichens and evergreen bushes.9190 PAL. Populus tremula.Acidophilous forests of the Baltic-North Sea plain.p.CLASS.532 . on very oligotrophic. Plants: Quercus robur. Tidskr. Bot. Rühling.p. B.British sessile oak woods Acidophilous Quercus petraea woods of western Britain. Corresponding categories Nordic classification: "2231 Quercus petraea/robur-Melampyrum pratense-Deschampsia flexuosatyp" and "2232 Quercus robur-Melica spp. mosses. Syntaxa: Querco-Betuletum. includes Frangula alnus. Ilex aquifolium. the herb layer is formed by Deschampsia flexuosa and other grasses and herbs of acid soils (sometimes includes Molinia caerulea).51 . with low. sporadically Quercus pyrenaica or hybrids. the bush layer.: 41. often sandy (or moraine) and podsolized or hydromorphic soils.-Pteridium aquilinum-Rubus fruticosus woodland p. including Arbutus unedo. Blechnum ssp. Betula pendula. 1) 2) 3) 5) 91A0 PAL.

indigenous pine forests of Pinus sylvestris var. endemic in the central and north eastern Grampians and the northern and western Highlands of Scotland and associated Betula and Juniperus woodlands of northern character within this area. Bryophytes. Populus tremula. Goodyera repens.86 Thermophilous Fraxinus angustifolia woods Non-alluvial.861 .Iberian narrow-leaved ash woods Fraxinus angustifolia woods of the Iberian peninsula.Sphagnum birch woods 44. Pleurozium schreberi. Sub-types : 44.862 .A1 to 44. Juniperus communis.. Pinus sylvestris var. Corallorhiza trifida. communis-Oxalis acetosella woodland". Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: the majority of Caledonian forests belong to "W18 Pinus sylvestris-Hylocomium splendens woodland". Ledo-Pinion) i. [Vaccinio-Piceetea: Piceo-Vaccinienion uliginosi (Betulion pubescentis.A4 * Bog woodland Coniferous and broad-leaved forests on a humid to wet peaty substrate. with species specific to bogland or. These communities are generally dominated by Betula pubescens. Ilex aquifolium. however.Scots pine mire woods Page 101 1) Interpretation Manual .]. such as Vaccinium spp. Moneses uniflora. pendula. as well as in separate strips in valleys and along brooks. Pyrola minor. which are minerotrophic mire sites along margins of different mire complexes. with the water level permanently high and even higher than the surrounding water table. Deschampsia flexuosa. scotica.51 * Caledonian forest Relict. The water is always very poor in nutrients (raised bogs and acid fens). Frangula alnus. Sphagnum spp. Moneses uniflora. more generally.CLASS. pyrenaica.: 41.91B0 PAL. Plants: Corallorhiza trifida. Linnaea borealis. non-ravine formations dominated by Fraxinus angustifolia. The dominant trees are: Sorbus aucuparia. They are mostly open and have a ground layer rich in ericaceous species and bryophytes. not all of these forests are semi-natural. B.: 44. Linnaea borealis. Orthilia secunda. Pinus rotundata and Picea abies. in particular Hylocomium splendens.CLASS. Betula pubescens. to oligotrophic environments.a. 41. Trientalis europaea. Listera cordata.A2 . Pinus sylvestris. Plants: Fraxinus angustifolia.EUR25 . Trientalis europaea.CLASS. Goodyera repens. Listera cordata.A1 .: 42.. Orthilia secunda.Hylocomium splendens. Sub-types : 41. In the Boreal region. 1) 2) 91C0 PAL. also spruce swamp woods. scotica.Sicilian narrow-leaved ash woods Fraxinus angustifolia woods of western Sicily. Stands dominated by Juniperus belong to the category "W19 Juniperus communis ssp. Carex spp. often mixed with Quercus pubescens or Q. Pyrola minor. 1) 2) 3) 91D0 PAL. and often harbouring abundant Deschampsia flexuosa.

Salicion albae) Riparian forests of Fraxinus excelsior and Alnus glutinosa. of temperate and Boreal Europe lowland and hill watercourses (44. Diplazium sibiricum. Viola palustris. C. Alno-Ulmion pp.A4 .A3 . P. Ulmus glabra. uliginosum. C. Sphagnum spp. tenuiflora. such as Ranunculus ficaria. "321 Skogs-och krattkärrvegetation".).3: Alno-Padion).44. but otherwise well-drained and aerated during low-water. "440103 Spirken-Moorwald". "440101 FichtenMoorwald". IVV 1982. Cardamine amara.2 and 44. riparian woods of Alnus incanae of montane and sub-montane rivers of the Alps and the northern Apennines (44. V. Herb layer . Pinus rotundata. Betula pubescens.Mountain pine bog woods 44. ranunculoides.) Struktur und Dynamic von Wäldern. Corydalis solida.13 * Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Pandion. In:Dierschke. "440102 Waldkiefern-Moorwald". Ber. Rumex sanguineus. German classification: "430101 Birken-Moorwald". C. white willow gallery forests (44. C. Carex canescens.Alnus glutinosa. (1982). sub-montane grey alder galleries (44. ash-alder woods of fast-flowing rivers (44. This habitat includes several sub-types: ash-alder woods of springs and their rivers (44. Symp.33 . Picea abies. Cirsium oleraceum) and various vernal geophytes can occur. Frangula alnus. 3) Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification : "W4 Betula pubescens-Molinia caerulea woodland". Intern. S. "440104 Latschen-Moorwald". sylvatica. 44. ash-alder woods of slow-flowing rivers (44. Nordic classification: "311 Skogsmossevegetation". Carex spp.Equiseto hyemalis-Alnetum incanae Moor 58). B. 4) 5) Forests on the edge of upland bogs or transition mires may form a transition towards swamp forests (Alnetea glutinosa. S. Alnion incanae.. however. Populus nigra. Page 102 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . montane grey alder galleries (44. nigra. Cirsium oleraceum. The Spanish types belong to the alliance Osmundo-Alnion (Cantabric atlantic and southeast Iberia peninsula).Mire spruce woods In most of the Irish sites. The herbaceous layer invariably includes many large species (Filipendula ulmaria. 2) Plants: Agrostis canina. All types occur on heavy soils (generally rich in alluvial deposits) periodically inundated by the annual rise of the river (or brook) level..13 Salicion albae). generally degraded and invaded by commercial forestry species. B. pratensis.22 . K. Hylocomium umbratum and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus. pendula. Überlegungen zur Problematik ihrer Zuordnung zu höheren syn systematischen Einheiten.CLASS. Dierssen.32 . strigosa. H. where forests of Picea abies on a sphagnum rich ground layer also occur. C. these forests represent sub types of raised bogs.EUR25 . Anemone nemorosa. rostrata. 91E0 PAL.. remota. Trientalis europaea. pp.31 . Vaccinium oxycoccus. hill or sub-montane rivers (44.Carici remotae-Fraxinetum).Pruno-Fraxinetum.Calamagrosti variae-Alnetum incanae Moor 58).2: Alnion incanae). formations with Pinus sylvestris are confined to the northern mountains.13: Salicion albae). fragilis and Populus nigra. Carex acutiformis. along medio-European lowland. & Dierssen. those stands dominated by Betula pubescens or Pinus sylvestris may be of interest. C. Betula pubescens. A. Ulmo-Fraxinetum). carpatica. Juncus acutiflorus. Kiefernreiche Phytocoenosen oligotropher Moore im mittleren und nordwestlichen Europa. in spruce swamp woods also: Carex disperma. C.3. C.21 . In Greece. Molinia caerulea. 299-331. Cardamine spp. (ed. C.: 44. arborescent galleries of tall Salix alba.Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae). Plants: Tree layer . sylvestris. Fraxinus excelsior.Angelica sylvestris. Angelica sylvestris. echinata. Salix alba. Alnus incanae. fragilis.

glabra. Vitis vinifera ssp. U. Equisetum spp. Phalaris arundinacea. tremula. Humulus lupulus. minor. These forests develop on recent alluvial deposits. The undergrowth is well developed.och askskogar. Nordic classification: "2223 Ulmus glabra-typ". "43040502 Hartholzauenwald ohne Überflutung".CLASS. Plants: Quercus robur. This habitat type often occurs in conjunction with alder-ash woodlands (44. 3) Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "W5 Alnus glutinosa-Carex paniculata woodland". Hedera helix. Alpen). Corydalis solida. A 4) 5) 91F0 Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur. Gagea lutea. Bot. German classification: "43040401 Weichholzauenwald mit weitgehend ungertörter Überflutungsdynamik". Geum rivale. Populus nigra. P. "W6 Alnus glutinosa-Urtica dioica woodland)" and "W7 Alnus glutinosa-Fraxinus excelsior-Lysimachia nemorum woodland". canescens. Nordic classification: "2234 Fraxinus excelsior-typ" and "224 Alskog". The soil may be well drained between inondations or remain wet. Fraxinus angustifolia. succession towards Carpinion (Primulo-Carpinetum) can be observed. they may develop also from alluvial forests of hard wood trees. Most of these forests are in contact with humid meadows or ravine forests (Tilio-Acerion). 85:377-384. Stellaria nemorum. "430403 Schwarzerlenwald (an Fließgewässern)". "2236 Quercus robur-Ulmus glabra-Tilia cordata typ".EUR25 Page 103 . liable to flooding during regular rising of water level or. (1991). Brunet. Lysimachia nemorum. Ulmus laevis. Tamus communis. of low areas liable to flooding following the raising of the water table. Following the hydric regime. the woody dominated species belong to Fraxinus. Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor. "430401 Grauerlenauenwald (montan. Geranium sylvaticum. PAL. "43040402 Weichholzauenwald ohne Überflutung". along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris) Forests of hardwood trees of the major part of the river bed. Fraxinus excelsior. Rumex sanguineus. Prunus padus. Corresponding categories German classification: "43040501 Hartholzauenwald mit weitehend ungestörter Überflutungsdynamik". Sven. These forests form mosaics with pioneer or stable forests of soft wood trees. Ribes rubrum. Vegetation i Skånes alm. Tidskr. Ulmus or Quercus genus. J.4 1) 2) 3) 4) Interpretation Manual . in low areas of the river bed. Filipendula ulmaria. "430402 Eschenwald (an Fließgewässern)". U. Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia. Alnus glutinosa.. Alpenvorland.: 44. Urtica dioica.3).Equisetum telmateia. P. Lycopus europaeus. sylvestris.

Plants: Quercus pubescens. Tanacetum corymbosum. Staphylea pinnata.EUR25 Page 104 . sometimes only shrubby. Knautia drymeia. Symphytum tuberosum. calcareous soils.and herb layer are dominated by subcontinental and submediterranean plant species. S. G. Helleborus dumetorum. (1996). Festuca heterophylla. Colutea arborescens. Pécs. Dentaria bulbifera. II. Syntaxa include. Wallnöfer. Cornus mas. Viola suavis. Orchis purpurea. Borhidi. the woods are often fragmentary and low-growing. Isopyrum thalictroides. They occur in shady. S. Arabis pauciflora. Milittis melissophylum. Galium sylvaticum. Carex michelii. Pulmunaria mollis ssp. B. Borhidi. The herb layer is rich in species and often contains xerothermic species from dry grasslands or forest fringes. torminalis.): Critical Revision of the Hungarian Plant Communities. Symphytum tuberosum. Galium schultesii.2B. L. Potentilla alba. Mucina. Fraxino pannonici-Carpinetum.267 2) 4) 5) 91H0 1) * Pannonian woods with Quercus pubescens Xerophyle oak woods of the periphery and hills of the Pannonic plain dominated by Quercus pubescens on extremely dry. mollis. Euphorbia amigdaloides. Glechoma hirsuta.. cerris.266. (ed. (1967). Lactuca quercina. Eichen-Hainbuchenwälder Ungarns. 199. 77: 245-269. An annotated checklist of the Hungarian plant communities. Plants: Carex pilosa. P. Occasionally Tilia platyphyllos and Fraxinus excelsior can become dominant. Q. particularly on deep soils but also on hill tops with shallow. Sorbus torminalis. H. Grabherr. Campanula bononiensis. Quercus petrae. In: Borhidi. Gagea spathacea. Buglossoides purpurcaerulea.91G0 1) * Pannonic woods with Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus Forests with Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus of the plains and low hills of south eastern central Europe on varied soil types (both calcareous and siliceous substrates). Feddes Repert.7374 2) 4) Interpretation Manual . Csapody. Carpinus betulus. White-oak woods often form mosaics with dry grasslands.CLASS. Die Pflanzengesellschaften Österreichs. The forest vegetation. Pyrus pyraster.CLASS. Acer campestre. & Kevey. Limodorum abortivum. Janus Pannonius Univ. Quercus cerris.: 41. Scilla drunensis. A. A. PAL. 41. Viola mirabilis. (1967). southern exposed locations on shallow. Because of these extreme site conditions. Galanthus nivalis.. robur. PAL. The shrub. Fraxinus ornus. I. Übersicht der Carpinion-Gesellschaften der Tschechoslowakei. S. Euphorbia angulata. micrantha. Tilia cordata. A. purpurascens. Feddes Repert. Acer tataricum. Primulo veris-Carpinetum. 41. 77: 296-316. Euonymus verrucosa. A. humid valleys and slopes. Euphorbia polychroma. oligotrophic substrates. Q.: 41. Die geobotanischen Verhältnisse der Eichen-Hainbuchenwälder Südosteuropas. Vinca minor These habitats may form a transition towards xerophile oak woods (Quercus petraeae-cerris forests and Quercus pubescens woods). Sorbus domestica. turrita. Neuhäusl U. (1993). Teil III. Neuhäuslova-Novotna (1968). 95-138.


* Euro-Siberian steppic woods with Quercus spp.
Xero-thermophile oak woods of the plains of south-eastern Europe. The climate is very continental, with a large temperature range. The substrate consists of 'Loess' (Chernozem soils). Quercus robur, Quercus cerris and Quercus pubescens dominate in the treelayer of this habitat type, which is rich in continental stepic vegetation elements and geophytes of the Aceri tatarici-Quercion Zólyomi 1957. Plants: Quercus cerris, Q. pubescens, Q. robur, Q. petraea, Acer campestre, Sorbus torminalis, Cornus sanguinea, Crataegus monogyna, Euonymus verrucosa, Ligustrum vulgare, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus pyraster, Rhamnus cathartica, Ulmus minor, Buglossoides purpurocaerulea, Carex michelii, Dactylis polygama, Geum urbanum, Lathryrus niger, Polygonatum latifolium, Pulmonaria mollis spp. mollis, Tanacetum corymbosum, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. This habitat type, which formed the natural vegetation of south-eastern Europe, is today very fragmented. In Austria they are often degraded by invasion of Robinia.




PAL.CLASS.: 42.A71

* Taxus baccata woods of the British Isles
Taxus baccata woods with Sorbus aria or Mercurialis perennis of dry valleys and scarps of the chalk of south-east England, very locally of the Durham Magnesium limestone, Morecambe Bay and elsewhere. They also occur in the forest of Muckross (Killarney, Ireland). Plants: Buxus sempervirens, Ilex aquifolium, Mercurialis perennis, Sorbus aria, Taxus baccata. Corresponding categories United Kingdom classification: "W13 Taxus baccata woodland".


2) 3)


Illyrian Fagus sylvatica forests (Aremonio-Fagion)
Fagus sylvatica forests of the Dinarides and of associated ranges and hills, with outliers and irradiations in the southeastern Alps and in the mid-Pannonic hills. In these areas they are in contact with, or interspersed among, medio-European beech forests such as 9130, 9140 and 9150. Species diversity is greater than in the Central European beech woods and the Aremonio-Fagion constitutes an important centre of species diversity. Plants:. Fagus sylvatica, F. moesiaca, Acer obtusatum, Ostrya carpinifolia, Abies alba, Quercus cerris, Sorbus graeca, Tilia tomentosa, Anemone trifolia, Aremonia agrimonioides, Calamintha grandiflora, Cardamine trifolia, C. waldsteinii, Corylus colurna, Cotoneaster tomentosa, Cyclamen purpurascens, Dentaria eneaphyllos, Dentaria enneaphyllos, Dentaria trifolia, Doronicum austriacum, Epimedium alpinum, Euphorbia carniolica, Hacquetia epipactis, Helleborus niger ssp. niger, H. odorus, Knautia drymeia, Lamiukm orvala, Lamium orvala, Lonicera nigra, Omphalodes verna, Pancicia serbica, Primula vulgaris, R. hypoglossum, Ruscus spp. Saxifraga lasiophylla, Scopolia carniolica, Scrophularia scopolii, Sesleria autumnalis, Vicia oroboides



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Borhidi, A. (1963). Die Zönologie des Verbandes Fagion illyricum. I. Allgemeiner Teil. - Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 9: 259-297. Borhidi,A. (1965). Die Zönologie des Verbandes Fagion illyricum. II. Systematischer Teil. - Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 13: 53-102. Horvat, I., Glavac, V. & Ellenberg, H. (1974). Vegetation Süd-Osteuropas. Stuttgart, pp. 768. Maricek, L., Mucina, L., Zupanic, L., Poldini, I., Dakskobler, I. & Acceto, M. (1992). Nomenklatorische Revision der Illyrischen Buchenwälder (Verband Aremonio-Fagion). Studia Geobotanica 13b: 121-135. Török, K., Podani, J. & Borhidi, A. (1989:). Numerical revision of Fagion illyricum alliance. Vegetatio, 81: 169-180.


Illyrian oak –hornbeam forests (Erythronio-Carpinion)
Forests of Quercus robur or Q. petraea, sometimes Q. cerris, and Carpinus betulus on both calcareous and siliceous bedrocks, mostly on deep neutral to slightly acidic brown forest soils, with mild humus in the SE-Alpine-Dinaric region, West- and Central Balkans extending northwards to Lake Balaton mostly in hilly and submontane regions, river valleys and the plains of the Drava and Sava. The climate is more continental than in sub-Mediterranean regions and warmer than in middle Europe; these forests are intermediate between oak-hornbeam woods (e.g. 9170) of central Europe and those of the Balkans and merge northwards into the Pannonic oak woods (91G0). They have a much higher species richness than the Central European oak woods. Outliers of these forests also occur in Frioul and the northern Apennines. Plants:.Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. cerris, Carpinus betulus, Acer tataricum, Tilia tomentosa, Castanea sativa, Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. pannonica, Euonymus verrucosa, Lonicera caprifolium, Adoxa moschatellina Cyclamen purpurascens, Dentaria pentaphyllos, Epimedium alpinum, Erythronium dens-canis, Knautia drymeia, Helleborus macranthus, H. dumetorum ssp. atrorubens, H. cyclophyllus, , Asperula taurina, Lathyrus venetus, Potentilla micrantha, Dianthus barbatus, Luzula forsteri, Primula vulgaris, Pseudostellaria europaea, Ruscus aculeatus, Tamus communis. Borhidi, A. (1967). Die geobotanischen Verhältnisse der Eichen-Hainbuchenwälder Südosteuropas. Feddes Repert. 77: 296-316. Borhidi, A. & Kevey, B. (1996). An annotated checklist of the Hungarian plant communities. II. The forest vegetation. In: Borhidi, A. (ed.): Critical Revision of the Hungarian Plant Communities. Janus Pannonius Univ. Pécs, 95-138. Marinecek, L. (1994). Zur Nomenklatur der Hainbuchenwälder des Erythronio-Carpinion. SimpozijPevalek (Zagreb): 57-62





Pannonian-Balkanic turkey oak- sessile oak forests
Sub-continental thermo-xerophile Quercus cerris, Q. petraea or Q. frainetto forests of the Pannonic and northern Balcanic hilly regions and in lower mountains with the continental Acer tataricum and lacking typically sub-Mediterranean species such as Carpinus orientalis and Ruscus aculeatus. Distributed generally between 250 and 600 (800) m above sea level and developed on varied substrates: limestones, andesites, basalt, loess, clay, sand, etc., on slightly acidic, usually deep brown soils
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PAL.CLASS.: 41.769

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Plants:. Quercus petraea Q. dalechampii, Q. polycarpa, Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Acer tataricum, Ligustrum vulgare, Euonymus europaeus, Festuca heterophylla, Carex montana, Poa nemoralis, Potentilla alba, Potentilla micrantha, Tanacetum corymbosum, Campanula persicifolia, Digitalis grandiflora, Vicia cassubica, Viscaria vulgaris, Lychnis coronaria, Achillea distans, Achillea nobilis, Silene nutans, S. viridiflora, Hieracium racemosum, H. sabaudum, Galium schultesii, Lathyrus niger, Veratrum nigrum, Asphodelus albus, Peucedanum oreoselinum, Helleborus odorus, Luzula forsteri, Physospermum aquilegifolium, Molinia litoralis Borhidi, A. (1996). A critical revision of the Hungarian plant communities. – Janus Pannonius University, Pécs, 138 pp. Borhidi A. and Sánta A. (eds.) (1999). Vörös Könyv Magyarország növénytársulásairól. 1-2. kötet. (Red Book of Hungarian plant communities. Vol. 1-2.) - TermészetBÚVÁR Alapítvány Kiadó, Budapest. 768 pp. (in Hungarian). Horánszky, A. (1964). Die Wälder des Szentendre-Visegráder Gebirges. - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Pócs, T., Domokos, É., Pócs-Gelencsér, I. & Vida, G. (1958): Vegetationsstudien in Őrség (Ungarisches Ostalpenvorland). - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Simon, T. (1979). Vegetationsuntersuchungen im Zempléner Gebirge. - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.



*Pannonic inland sand dune thicket (Junipero-Populetum albae)
Xerophilous mosaic of open scrub or open woodlands with Juniperus communis and Populus species and open or closed sand steppe grasslands of sands, particularly sand dunes, of the DanubeTisza confluence of the Pannonic plain. Woodland herbaceous species are lacking and the habitat in general more closely resembles semi-desert scrub than steppe woodland. Plants:. Populus alba, P. canescens, P. nigra, Juniperus communis, Ligustrum vulgare, Rhamnus catharticus, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus spinosa, Prunus mahaleb, Rubus caesius, Euonymus verrucosus, Berberis vulgaris., Festuca vaginata, Syntrichia spp., Fumana procumbens, Euphorbia seguieriana, Polygonatum odoratum, Poa angustifolia, Koeleria glauca, Stipa joannis, Bromus tectorum, Epipactis bugacensis, E. atrorubens, Cephalanthera rubra Altbacker, V. (1998). Növényevő emlősök és a vegetáció kapcsolatának vizsgálata homoki társulásokban. (A study of the relationship between herbivores and the vegetation in sand communities.) - pp. 125-143 in: Fekete, G. (ed.): A közösségi ökológia frontvonalai. (Frontiers in communities ecology.). Scientia Kiadó, Budapest (in Hungarian). Borhidi, A. (1996). Critical revision of the Hungarian plant communities, Janus Pannonius University, Pécs, p. 138. Borhidi A. & Sánta A. (eds.) (1999). Vörös Könyv Magyarország növénytársulásairól. 1-2. kötet. (Red Book of Hungarian plant communities. Vol. 1-2.) - TermészetBÚVÁR Alapítvány Kiadó, Budapest. 768 pp. (in Hungarian). Fekete, G., Molnár, Zs. & Horváth, F. (eds.) (1997). Nemzeti Biodiverzitás-monitorozó Rendszer II. A magyarországi élőhelyek leírása és határozója és a Nemzeti Élőhely-osztályozási Rendszer. (National Biodiversity Monitoring System II. Description and identification key of Hungarian habitats, and the National Habitat Classification System.) - The Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, pp. 374. (in Hungarian).

PAL.CLASS.: 41.87



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Carex humilis. Calamagrostis varia. the Pienini. Festuca tatrae. carpatica. Quercus robur. Sambucus racemosa.CLASS. Rubus cfr.134 2) 91Q0 1) Western Carpathian calcicolous Pinus sylvestris forests Isolated.5C52 2) 91T0 1) Central European lichen pine forests Natural lichen-rich acidophilous Pinus sylvestris forests belonging to the alliance Dicrano-Pinion occurring on inland nutrient poor sands of the north-eastern plains and hills of Central Europe and of PAL. Soldanella carpatica. Primula auricula ssp. Athyrium filix-femina. Populus tremula. hungarica PAL. Erica herbacea and Polygala chamaebuxus are absent and the undergrowth includes a number of species of continental distribution and xerothermic affinities including western Carpathian endemics. Aquilegia vulgaris. Galium lucidum. Pinus sylvestris. Carex alba. Festuca tatrae.Pinus sylvestris. the inner-Carpathian basins and the Erzgebirge. Carex humilis. D. Teucrium chamaedrys. Abies alba.CLASS.: 42. Geranium sanguineum. Hylocomium splendens. Dryopteris austriaca. or fir-dominated fir-spruce or fir-pine-oak forests developed on mesotrophic acid soils of Little-Poland. G. hungarica. They are rich in ferns.15p Interpretation Manual . sudeticus. in particular of the Holy Cross mountains and of sub-Carpathic hills.CLASS. Rubus idaes.542 2) 91R0 1) Dinaric dolomite Scots pine forests (Genisto januensis-Pinetum) Pinus sylvestris woods of dolomites and dolomite rendzinas of the Dinarides. dominii. Anthericum ramosum. Polytrichum formosum. Lycopodium annotinum. Cyclamen purpurascens. Plants:.52112. hirsutus. Picea excelsa. Linum flavum. Gentianella fatrae. Pinus silvestris. Betula verrucosa.EUR25 Page 108 . Phegopteris polypodioides. Iris aphylla ssp. Campanula carpatica. Minuartia langii.91P0 1) Holy Cross fir forests (Abietetum polonicum) Upland fir. Cyanus triumfettii ssp. Globularia aphyllanthes. serrata. carnea. Genista januensis. Epipactis atrorubens. Alnus glutinosa.: 42. praecox. bryophytes and lowland forest species shared with deciduous forests of the Tilio-Carpinetum.: 42. Oxalis acetosella. 61. Phegopteris dryopteris. Galeobdolon luteum. Thymus carpathicus.CLASS. They are developed within the Illyrian beech forest zone (91K0) and often occupy somewhat higher elevations than the similar dolomite Pinus nigra woods of unit 42.: 42. Quercus sessilis. macranthus. PAL. Majanthemum bifolium. Luzula pilosa. Erica herbacea. Koeleria tristis. E. Plants:. Dianthus nitidus. C. Plants:. PAL.6214. the Velka Fatra. Buphthalmum salicifolium. Hepatica nobilis. calcicolous Pinus sylvestris forests of the western Carpathians limited to a few small enclaves in the Strazov mountains. Campanula carpatica. Polygala chamaebuxus. Helleborus niger ssp. Carex alba. lutescens subsp. Thymus pulcherrimus ssp. Pulsatilla slavica. Fagus silvatica.

Brachypodium pinnatum. The trees are low growing as the soils are nutrient deficient and subject to drought stress 2) Plants: Pinus sylvestris. Symphytum cordatum. Cladonia furcata. Chimaphilla umbellata. leucophylla. Koelerio glaucae-Pinetum sylvestris. Camerino Interpretation Manual . moesiaca or F. Ukrainian and eastern Serbian Carpathians. Globularia punctata. 4) 91U0 1) Sarmatic steppe pine forests (Cytiso-Pinetalia) Xerophilous Scots pine woods of the Sarmatic region of western Eurasia and of areas with an extremely continental micro climate in northeastern Central and Eastern Europe. heuffelii. Moehringia pendula. Ptilidium ciliare These forests are often a characteristic stage of natural succession on inland dunes (61. Saxifraga rotundifolia ssp. Plants: Pinus sylvestris. Primula elatior ssp. Juniperus communis. Vaccinium myrtillus. Leucanthemum waldsteinii. Cardamine glanduligera (syn Dentaria glandulosa). Similar woodlands on coastal sand dunes should be regarded as '2180 Wooded dunes of the Atlantic. Towards its western limit this habitat is restricted to well drained habitats such as inland dunes and cliffs. Hepatica transsilvanica. orientalis. Plants:.1D Dacian Beech forests (Symphyto-Fagion) Fagus sylvatica. F.) & Corynephoro-Pinetum sylvestris. Syntaxa included are the Anemono-Picetum sylvestris.5232 2) 3) 91V0 PAL.EUR25 Page 109 . Galium kitaibelianum. Aconitum moldavicum. Orthilia minor. stands of plantation origin should not be included.the nemoral belt of the middle and southern Sarmatic region. Festuca drymeja 1) 2) 5. Cladonia gracilis. Cladonia silvatica. Documents Phytosociologiques. Pulmonaria rubra. Pyrolo-Pinetum sylvestris (p. Coronilla vaginalis. taurica forests of the Romanian. Peucedano-Pinetum.15). Continental and Boreal region'. (1991). and of the west Ukrainian pre-Carpathic hills and plateaux.CLASS. There are many relict species of continental origin. or. Euphorbia carniolica. east of the Uz and the Stry. Silene heuffelii. F.: 42. Caragano-Pinetum.2 Lesostepní bory PAL. Ophrys insectifera.CLASS. Corresponding categories Czech classification: L8. Prodrome des associations vegetales des Carpates du sud-est (Carpates Roumaines). Ranunculus carpaticus. Coldea GH.: 41. Hieracium rotundatum. locally. Pyrola minor.

CLASS. Populus tremula.CLASS.181. the Leonese interior. Daphne laureola. with Abies alba and Abies nebrodensis (Geranio nodosi-Fagion.185 and 41. isolated beech forests of Mount Etna. Geranio striati-Fagion).187).63 . highly fragmented and harbouring many endemics.EUR25 .186). Crataegus monogyna and Prunus spinosa (41. with Ilex aquifolium.181. Taxus baccata. of the collinar and montane levels of the Cantabrian chain and its satellite ranges west to the Sierra de Picos de Ancares in Galicia. *A. at the southern limit of the range of the species (41. Relict beech forests of the Madonie.186 and 41. the Cordillera Central. the monti Peloritani. nebrodensis.6 Galicio-Portuguese oak woods with Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica Quercus pyrenaica -dominated forests (Quercion robori-pyrenaicae). Relict beech forests of the Madonie. highly fragmented and harbouring many endemics. on sites colder than those of 41.Maestrazgan Quercus pyrenaica forests Page 110 1) Interpretation Manual .187 * Apennine beech forests with Abies alba and beech forests with Abies nebrodensis Beech forests of the hill level.Mediterranean deciduous forests 9210 1) * Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex Thermophilous beech forests. the Montes de Toledo and the Sierra Morena. Linario triornithophorae-Quercetum pyrenaicae Quercus pyrenaica formations of medio-European character.61 . This habitat type includes: Monte Gargano Foresta Umbra.and sometimes meso-Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica forests of western Iberia. Plants: Fagus sylvaticus.: 41.Cantabrian Quercus pyrenaica forests Melampyro pratense-Quercetum pyrenaicae. Daphne laureola. silicicolous beech forests of the Aspromonte range of Calabria with Taxus baccata. characteristic of areas with comparatively low precipitation. very locally. Fagus sylvatica. in the rain shadow of the coastward ranges or the interior oro-Cantabrian hills. Plants: Abies alba. very locally. Geranio striati-Fagion).62 .: 41. the monti Peloritani. Nebrodi and. Nebrodi and. Sub-types : 41.186 2) 9220 PAL. Sorbus aucuparia and Betula pendula (41.Central Iberian Quercus pyrenaica forests Supra. 1) 2) 9230 PAL. Ilex aquifolium. 41. PAL.: 41.186).CLASS. the Iberian Range. 41. with Ilex aquifolium.181). rich in Taxus baccata (41. 41.185). Crataegus monogyna and Prunus spinosa (41. with Taxus baccata and Ilex aquifolium (Geranio nodosi-Fagion.

Quercus pyrenaica forests of south-western France north to the Sologne where they constitute relatively extensive formations on poor soils. robur. Teucrium scorodonia.65 . Q.Portuguese Quercus faginea forests Arisaro-Quercetum fagineae Humid. dense. restricted to a very few isolated localities. the Sierra de Alfacar. relict Quercus faginea forests of Portugal. a. 41. 9240 PAL.Catalonian Quercus canariensis stands Carici depressae-Quercetum canariensis Formations of Catalonia rich in Quercus canariensis. the northern flanks of the Sierra de Cazulas and the Sierra Tejeda.Baetic Quercus pyrenaica forests Adenocarpo decorticantis. 41. Plants: Quercus faginea.772 . Quercus faginea.Balearic Quercus faginea woods Aceri-Quercetum fagineae p. luxuriant Quercus canariensis forests of the sierras of extreme southern Spain.775 . 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . 2) Plants: Quercus pyrenaica.773) are forest types of unique character in Europe and of extreme biological importance. in more humid locations Fraxinus angustifolius and Acer granatense accompany Q. with Betula pendula. or rich in. Molinia caerulea.773 -Andalusian Quercus canariensis forests Rusco hypophylli-Quercetum canariensis Humid and hyper-humid.77 Quercus faginea and Quercus canariensis Iberian woods Forests and woods dominated by Quercus faginea. 41.Cephalanthero rubrae-Quercetum pyrenaicae Quercus pyrenaica forests of the sub-Mediterranean siliceous enclaves of the Maestrazgo and eastern Catalonian ranges. epiphyte-clad. Q. Cephalanthero longifoliae-Quercetum fagineae. pyrenaica. Relict formations of Mallorca dominated by. Quercus canariensis or Quercus afares. Deschampsia flexuosa. canariensis. 41.772 and 41.CLASS.771. Lonicera periclymenum. 41.: 41. Fraxino orniQuercetum fagineae Xero-mesophile Quercus faginea formations of slopes and plateaux of middle elevations of the Spanish Meseta and associated ranges. 41. The humid formations of south-western Iberia (41. Violo wilkommii-Quercetum fagineae. limited to the Aljibe and a very few localities in the Serrania de Ronda. Holcus mollis.French Quercus pyrenaica forests Betulo-Quercetum pyrenaica i. Daphno latifoliae-Aceretum granatensis. reduced to a very few relicts in the Penagolosa and Prades massifs.64 . Sub-types : 41.Quercetum pyrenaicae Quercus pyrenaica forests of siliceous supra-Mediterranean areas with sub-humid climate of the western Sierra Nevada.EUR25 Page 111 .774 .Spanish Quercus faginea forests Spiraeo obovatae-Quercetum fagineae.

Plants: Fagus sylvatica. 1) 2) 9260 PAL.g.781 .: 41. often with an admixture of Q. characterised by the presence of Abies borisii-regis.1A. north to Herzegovina. Montenegro. 1) 2) 9270 PAL. of Macedonia.1A Hellenic beech forests with Abies borisii-regis Fagus sylvatica forests with reduced medio-European character and high endemism.1B Quercus frainetto woods Fagus sylvatica or Fagus moesiaca forests. Quercus frainetto. sometimes of considerable height. characterised by the presence of numerous species of the Quercion frainetto.782 .Helleno-Balkanic Trojan oak woods Usually low formations dominated by Quercus trojana. Plants: Fagus sylvatica. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual .EUR25 Page 112 .78 Quercus trojana woods Supra-Mediterranean.19 and 41. Albania and the Vardar valley of Paeonia. more thermophile than those of 41. Sub-types : 41. foresta Gaglione). bosco delle Pianelle. and occasionally meso-Mediterranean woods dominated by the semideciduous Quercus trojana or its allies (Quercetum trojanae). often with junipers or maples. Plants: Quercus trojana. Doronicum caucasicum. ilex and its associated vegetation (Murge: e. of Quercus trojana and Q.CLASS.: 41. Galium laconicum.: 41. occurring in the transition zone between the supra-Mediterranean and montane levels. Helleborus cyclophyllus (Fagion hellenicum).9 Castanea sativa woods Supra-Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean Castanea sativa-dominated forests and old established plantations with semi-natural undergrowth. Abies borisii-regis. 41. Plants: Castanea sativa. 1) 2) 9280 PAL.CLASS. Thrace and Thessaly.CLASS.: 41. pubescens.Apulian Trojan oak woods Relict woods.9250 PAL. Lathyrus venetus.CLASS.

baetica. Relict Betula parvibracteata riparian galleries.: 42.1271). Populus alba. Diplazium caudatum. Betula parvibracteata.. Cupressus atlantica or Cupressus dupreziana (Acero-Cupression). Salix and others Distinctive.52 and 44.141). Populus caspica..52).CLASS.and meso-Mediterranean alder galleries of deep. Salix fragilis or their relatives (44. Salix spp. Populus euphratica (Populus diversifolia). Plants: Cupressus sempervirens. baeticum. lianas. is accompanied by Myrica gale.EUR25 Page 113 . dominated by Cupressus sempervirens. steep-sided valleys. Populus alba. Ulmus spp.. Arisarum proboscideum and a rich fern community including Pteris incompleta.141 and 44. The Rhododendron-alder galleries are often in contact with humid to hyper-humid Quercus canariensis forests (41. relict thermo. 1) 2) 92B0 Riparian formations on intermittent Mediterranean water courses with Rhododendron ponticum. Galium broterianum. Plants: Salix alba.A1 Cupressus forests (Acero-Cupression) Montane forests of the Mediterranean basin. Salix atrocinerea. #Culcita macrocarpa (44.: 44. they may be absent or sparse in some associations which are then dominated by species of the genera listed above (44. Arisarum proboscideum. Mediterranean and Central Eurasian multi-layered riverine forests with Populus spp.. Acer spp.6). Tall poplars. baeticum. Frangula alnus ssp. PAL.. Frangula alnus.54 1) 2) 4) Interpretation Manual .773) and with Salix pedicellata formations (44.9290 PAL.CLASS. are usually dominant in height.: 44. Alnus spp. Plants: Rhododendron ponticum ssp. Frangula alnus ssp. Juglans regia.. an extremely local endemic. 1) 2) 92A0 PAL.CLASS. with Rhododendron ponticum ssp. The dominant species. Tamarix spp.6 Salix alba and Populus alba galleries Riparian forests of the Mediterranean basin dominated by Salix alba.54). baetica. Scilla ramburei (44.

where the species is now extinct. Some of these formations. Others. Hypericum hircinum. Dactylis glomerata and may be rich in mosses. Thasos. Celtis australis. representatives occur in other Aegean islands. S. Anemone blanda.71 and 44.Oriental plane woods (Platanion orientalis) Forests of Platanus orientalis. in the Pelion. detritus cones.Sicilian plane tree canyons Relict Platanus orientalis-dominated or P. Salix spp. Nerium oleander. where luxuriant gorge forests reach 1300m. creticum. Clematis vitalba. Fraxinus angustifolia. Populus alba. belonging to the Platanion orientalis alliance. C. ravine sides or other poorly stabilised substrates.712 .721 . are true plane tree woods.711 . in the Peloponnese.72 .71 . and great biogeographical and historical interest of Platanus orientalis in Sicily. Alnus glutinosa. purpurea.72 Platanus orientalis and Liquidambar orientalis woods (Plantanion orientalis) Forests and woods. Cornus sanguinea. and particularly. of Greece. local. in Thrace.Rhodian sweet gum woods 1) Interpretation Manual . with very limited range in south Asia Minor and Rhodes. and because of the very isolated occurrence. Various associations have been described. Sub-types : 44. Crataegus monogyna. as they grade into each other. the Anapo. reginae-olgae. in the Iblei range of south-eastern Sicily. Ranunculus ficaria. dominated by Platanus orientalis (oriental plane) or Liquidambar orientalis (sweet gum). around the Olympus massif. formations with Platanus orientalis. such as on the Sirmeto. colonising poorly stabilised alluvial deposits of large rivers. S. 44. Hedera helix. temporary rivers and gorges. Symphytum bulbosum. 44.713 . The accompanying flora may include Salix alba. in the gorges of the Cassabile and of the Anapo. where they constitute species-rich communities. Saponaria officinalis. The plane tree galleries are particularly well represented along the Ionian coast and in the Pindus. Cyclamen hederifolium. Aristolochia rotunda.Helleno-Balkanic riparian plane forests Platanus orientalis gallery forests of Greek and southern Balkanic watercourses.92C0 PAL. of the gorge of the Sirmeto. sylvestris. in particular. Fraxinus ornus. reflecting regional and ecological variation in the composition of the undergrowth. distinctive. Biarum tenuifolium. they are distributed throughout the mainland and archipelagos.EUR25 Page 114 . shady gorges.Hellenic slope plane woods Platanus orientalis woods on colluvions. in Euboea and in Crete.: 44. Vitis vinifera ssp. Cercis siliquastrum. 44. spring basins. Plane tree woods have had a much greater extension in Sicily and probably in Calabria. such as Rhodes. repandum. Rubus spp. Restriction to gorges is increasingly pronounced towards the south. Juglans regia. Galanthus nivalis ssp. P. lichens and ferns. Vitex agnus-castus. gravel or boulder deposits of permanent or temporary torrents. for the most part riparian. the bottom of steep. A large forest has. Helleborus cyclophyllus. orientalis -rich galleries of the Cassabile. 44.CLASS.Sweet gum woods Riverine forests dominated by the Tertiary relict Liquidambar orientalis. in the vicinity of the Nebrodi. Arum italicum. Brachypodium sylvaticum. existed on the Alcantara. they are all listed here. Alnus glutinosa. Dracunculus vulgaris. nigra. in particular. 44. the Irminio and the Carbo rivers. C. Calamintha grandiflora. among which Pteridium aquilinum is often abundant. Samos. Melissa officinalis. Ruscus aculeatus. elaeagnos. are Populus alba. Rosa sempervirens. particularly in the Taygetos.. Samothrace. other important local complexes exist in Macedonia.

in the Canary Islands. Pistacia lentiscus. cerasiformis and Pistacia atlantica.1 Olea and Ceratonia forests Thermo-Mediterranean or thermo-Canarian woodland dominated by arborescent Olea europaea ssp. The formations with Tamarix africana should not be taken into account.: 41. sylvestris. closed canopy to qualify for this unit.11 . with poorly developed undergrowth and a ground layer dominated by Adiantum capillus-veneris in damp areas. often associated with Quercus macrolepis or Q. Securinega tinctoria. A climax olive forest. Crete. Sardinia. 1) 2) Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests 9310 PAL. Vitex agnus-castus.. Viburnum tinus.: 45. This forest constitutes the only European formation of this species and harbours the unique. concentrated aggregation of Jersey Tiger Moths. Page 115 1) Interpretation Manual .EUR25 . the communities most resembling olive forest are found in southern Andalusia (Tamo communis-Oleetum sylvestris: extinct?). Sicily.735 Aegean Quercus brachyphylla forests Stands of Quercus brachyphylla.CLASS. 2) Plants: Platanus orientalis.CLASS. and chaste tree galleries and thickets and similar low ligneous formations of permanent or temporary streams and wetlands of the thermo-Mediterranean zone and south-western Iberia. Elsewhere. on Rhodes. Calabria. Most formations will be listed as arborescent matorral (35. in Menorca (Prasio majoris-Oleetum sylvestris).84 Southern riparian galleries and thickets (NerioTamaricetea and Securinegion tinctoriae) Tamarisk.: 44. oleander. Plants: Quercus brachyphylla. Prunus lusitanica. but a few stands may have a sufficiently tall. with Ceratonia siliqua and Pistacia lentiscus exists on the north flank of Djebel Ichkeul in northern Tunisia. ilex. Myrtus communis or. 1) 2) 9320 PAL.CLASS. Tamarix spp. Plants: Nerium oleander. Sub-types : 45.Wild olive woodland Olea europaea ssp. sylvestris .81 to 44. Ceratonia siliqua. by Olea europaea ssp. Panaxia quadripunctaria.Liquidambar orientalis gallery forest of the Petaloudhes Valley. and of the most hygromorphic locations within the Saharo-Mediterranean and Saharo-Sindian zones. Liquidambar orientalis. 92D0 PAL.12).dominated formations.

21 . mostly in ravines. 9330 PAL. often with Olea europaea ssp.dominated formations. often mixed with deciduous oaks.3 Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests Forests dominated by Quercus ilex or Q. Ceratonia siliqua. penetrating locally. sylvestris and Pistacia lentiscus. The most developed examples.Supra-Mediterranean holm-oak forests Formations of the supra-Mediterranean levels. they have nevertheless been included.11. Plants: Quercus suber.: 45.Meso-Mediterranean holm-oak forests Rich meso-Mediterranean formations. and because restoration may be possible.South-western Iberian cork-oak forests Quercion fagineo-suberis Quercus suber forests. where they constitute carob-dominated facies of the wild olive woodlands (45.22 . in Mallorca (Cneoro tricocci-Ceratonietum siliquae).CLASS. 1) 2) 9340 PAL. cerasiformis.3. are to be found in Tunisia. in Crete. Myrtus communis. rotundifolia. France and north-eastern Spain. in south-eastern Sicily. but not necessarily.2 Quercus suber forests West-Mediterranean silicicolous forests dominated by Quercus suber.Tyrrhenian cork-oak forests Quercion suberis Mostly meso-Mediterranean Quercus suber forests of Italy. Corsica.13 . calcicolous. exiguous Quercus suber enclaves in the Q. 45. on the slopes of the Djebel. Sardinia.45. Page 116 1) Interpretation Manual . Sub-types : 45. 45.Carob woodland Ceratonia siliqua . and some of the types listed below no longer exist in the fully developed forest state relevant to category 45.11). 45.31 . into the thermoMediterranean zone.23 -North-western Iberian cork-oak forests Very local. 45.32 . Pistacia lentiscus. or Ostrya carpinifolia. cerasiformis and Pistacia atlantica formations of the Canary Islands. often. Acer spp. 45. often with Q.24 .11).Aquitanian cork-oak woodland Isolated Q. pyrenaica forest area of the valleys of the Sil and of the Mino (Galicia). 2) Plants: Olea europaea ssp. suber-dominated stands occurring either as a facies of dunal pine-cork oak forests or in a very limited area of the eastern Landes. sylvestris.CLASS.11). Olea europaea ssp. usually more thermophile and hygrophile than 45.: 45.Canarian olive woodland Olea europaea ssp.EUR25 . Pistacia atlantica. both to provide appropriate codes for use in 32. faginea or Q. in eastern Sardinia. of the south-western quadrant of the Iberian peninsula.12 . Sub-types : 45. They are most often degraded to arborescent matorral (32. in Puglia. They are often degraded to arborescent matorral (32. Sicily. some truly forest-like. canariensis.

mist-bound. as exemplified by the species of the composite genus Pericallis. the laurel forests of each island harbour a distinctive set of endemic plants and animals. stands. 2) Plants: Quercus ilex.CLASS. often fairly open. Jasminum fruticans. Semele. ilex.EUR25 . they are.791 .63 * Macaronesian laurel forests (Laurus. This habitat type includes: .) of higher elevations.Hellenic valonia oak woods Quercus macrolepis formations of continental Greece and its archipelagos. while others. Sub-types : 41. a better representation survives of the hyper-humid forests (Culcito-Juniperion brevifoliae p. most often degraded into open woodland or even arborescent matorral. . as well as of adjacent Albania. Rhamnus alaternus. of the order of 10. L. among which many are restricted to these communities (Pruno-Lauretalia). luxuriant.: 41. even in mature state. Generally. 45. largely invaded by the introduced Australian Pittosporum undulatum. evergreen. in Attica.) have been totally or almost totally degraded. Visnea and Phyllis. Genera such as Picconia. Phillyrea angustifolia.79 Quercus macrolepis forests Woods dominated by the semi-deciduous Quercus macrolepis. moreover. Gesnouinia.000 ha .: 45. grove-like. less luxuriant and drier than the fully developed forests that can be constituted by the closely related Q. rotundifolia. Ixanthus are entirely endemic to these communities. in the north-western Peloponnese. 1) 2) 9360 PAL. rotundifolia.Quercus rotundifolia woodland Iberian forest communities formed by Q.lauriphyllous forests of Madeira (45.Apulian valonia oak woods Relict Quercus macrolepis formations of Salento (Tricase).61 to 45. less tall. 41. in particular.33 . each of the formations of the various archipelagos harbours distinctive endemic species.792 .34 . implexa. Page 117 1) Interpretation Manual . more modified. Ocotea) Humid to hyper-humid. Plants: Quercus macrolepis. well developed forests exist. in Thrace. in Thessaly.lauriphyllous forests of the Azores (45. such as Isoplexis. 9350 PAL. reach in them their maximum development. Smilax aspera.62 Pruno-Lauretalia azorica) still occupying a relatively large surface. the well-marked races of the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs or the carabid fauna.CLASS.). Species characteristic of the undergrowth are Arbutus unedo. Q. exist on the maritime slopes of the low mountains bordering the gulf of Arta and in western Etolia. Lactucosonchus. extremely rich in floral and faunal species.63 Ixantho-Laurion azoricae).45. Rubia peregrina. where the humid forests of the coastal areas (Myrico-Pittosporietum undulati p. lauriphyllous forests of the cloud belt of the Macaronesian islands.Aquitanian holm-oak woodland Isolated Quercus ilex-dominated stands occurring as a facies of dunal pine-holm oak forests. Pistacia terebinthus. Lonicera etrusca. .61 Ericetalia azorica p.lauriphyllous forests of the Canary Islands (45. in addition. in the Ionian islands and on Lesbos. mostly of the meso-Mediterranean zone.

: 45. stygiana. *S. Asparagus fallax. maderensis). Convolvulus canariensis. perado.48 *Scrub & low forest vegetation with Quercus alniflora Arborescent Quercus alnifolia-dominated formations on basic eruptive substrates of the Troodos range. ssp. l. Geranium canariensis. #Picconia azorica.CLASS. Rubia peregrina. Animals: Columba bollei. canariensis. F. Plants: Phoenix canariensis. eregrina. l. junionae. Rubus bollei. Ixanthus viscosus. I. C. Ardisia bahamensis. Myrica faya. Sambucus lanceolata. The Canarian palm groves are mostly characteristic of the bottom of barrancos and of alluvial soils. I. P.7 * Palm groves of Phoenix Woods. C. C. Persea indica. teydea. ombriosa. Visnea mocanera. Smilax aspera.2) Plants: Apollonias barbujana. Clethra arborea. S. Ilex canariensis. relict of various forests with a field layer rich in Ilex and sometimes with Taxus (42. t. Carex canariensis. 9390 PAL. below 600 metres. The palm groves of Crete are restricted to damp sandy coastal valleys.CLASS. Euphorbia melifera. 9370 PAL. azorica. #Phoenix theophrasti. and about four other smaller coastal groves. Isolexis canariensis. polatzeki. Sonchus fruticosus. padifolium. Hedera canariensis. Pleiomeris canariensis (=Myrsine canariensis). notably on the south coast of the prefectorate of Rethimnon. Cryptotaenia elegans. Sideretis canariensis. Ocotea foetens.CLASS. perado ssp. Viburnum tinus ssp. S. of the supra-Mediterranean level on various substrates. ssp.A7). after the fading of the tree layer. Prunus lusitanica. Fringilla coelebs ssp. Tamus edulis. Juniperus brevifolia. F. often riparian. Phoenix theophrasti and Phoenix canariensis.8 Forests of Ilex aquifolium 1) Communities dominated by arborescent Ilex aquifolium. Valle Gran Rey in La Gomera. ssp. palmensis. they include the extensive forest of Vai. They generally form patches inside or outside forests. V. subcordatum. Teline maderensis (=Cytisus maderensis). #Frangula azorica.: 45. excelsa. azorica. *Pittosporum coriaceum. formed by the two endemic palm trees. hixa. These woods correspond to the senescence stage of a forest with a undergrowth with Taxus and Ilex (belonging among others to the Ilici-Quercetum ilicis). divaricata. particularly representative examples are found at Fragata. trocaz.EUR25 . perado ssp. Ruscus streptophyllus. P. #P. Erica arborea. Page 118 1) Interpretation Manual . S. Canarina canariensis. where the luxuriant palm growth is accompanied by a thick shrubby undergrowth rich of Nerium oleander. Semele androgyna. Maspalomas and Barranco de Tirajana in the Gran Canary. Senecio auritus (=S.: 45. #E. Vaccinium cylindraceum. together with mattorals derived from these forests (32. 1) 2) 9380 PAL. Heberdenia excelsa. Laurus azorica. macrostachys. Masca in Ténériffe and Brena Alta in La Palma.1146).

Arbutus andrachne. Teucrium kotschyanu. Cistus creticus. Crepis fraasii. Scutellaria cypria var. and of anomalous stations in the montane level. 42. Geranium tuberosum. in the latter. pseudococcifera) or with Cistus creticus phrygana. Acer sempervirens.25 1) Interpretation Manual . Cyclamen persicum. The Anagyro foetidae. Analogous Picea abies forests of the montane and collinar levels of the inner basin of the Slovakian Carpathians subjected to a climate of high continentality. they are accompanied by an undergrowth of decidedly sub-alpine affinities. Allium neapolitanum. Calicotome villosa.21 to 42.: 42.EUR25 Page 119 . Sub-types: 42. Acer syriacum. Aristolochia altissima. 42. Pinus brutia. cypris. Serratula cerinthifolia.Hercynian sub-alpine spruce forests PAL.: 45. 42. Piceetum montanum.CLASS. Ferula communis. Arbutus andrachne. Anagyris foetida. Plants Quercus infectoria. calliprinos. Ptilostemon chamaepeuce var. Scaligeria cretica.22. intermediate and inner Alps. Pistacia terebinthus. Styrax officinalis.Inner range montane spruce forests. Glaucosciadium cordifolium. brachyphylla.23 . or phrygana (5420).CLASS. they are often in continuity with the montane spruce forests of 42. lentiscus. Sedum cyprium 93A0 Woodlands with Quercus infectoria (Anagyro foetidae. coccifera ssp.22 . of the outer.Quercetum infectoriae association may become degraded to maquis (9320). Picea abies forests of the lower sub-alpine level. Fontanesia philliraeoides. Crepis micrantha: Crataegus azarolus.23.2) Plants Quercus alnifolia.Alpine and Carpathian sub-alpine spruce forests. Salvia cypria.Quercetum infectoriae) Quercus infectoria woods constitute the potential natural vegetation growing on limestones and chiefly marly limestone substrata of the Troodos Mountains between 600 – 700 to 1000 –1100 m. characteristic of regions climatically unfavourable to both beech and fir. cypria. Picea abies forests of the montane level of the inner Alps. The spruces are often stunted or columnar. PAL.46 (p) 1) 2) 4) Temperate mountainous coniferous forests 9410 Acidophilous Picea forests of the montane to alpine levels (VaccinioPiceetea) Sub-alpine and alpine conifer forests (dominated by Picea abies and Picea orientalis). Piceetum subalpinum. Eryngium falcatum. Q. Q.21 . Agropyron panormitanum. Picea abies forests of the lower sub-alpine level of the Carpathians. Degraded stages of these communities are associated with Quercetalia ilicis maquis (Quercus coccifera subsp. P.

EUR25 . Two major types: 42.). with a usually species-rich undergrowth including Erica herbacea. Larici-Cembretum Rhododendretosum hirsuti Sub-alpine and montane Larix decidua. Polygala chamaebuxus.: 42.32 . the Hercynian ranges. Page 120 Interpretation Manual . the Jura.: 42.41 . developed on siliceous or decalcified soils of the subalpine level with a predominately ericaceous undergrowth comprising Rhododendron ferrugineum (Rhododendro-Vaccinion p.Eastern Alpine calcicolous larch and arolla forests. 9420 1) Alpine Larix decidua and/or Pinus cembra forests Forests of the sub-alpine and sometimes montane levels. Luzula albida. gypsum or siliceous substrate in a cool or thermophile situation depending on the region. mostly of the outer ranges. of the subalpine and montane levels. dominated by Larix decidua or Pinus cembra. 42. the subalpine levels of the Jura. or Larix decidua-Pinus cembra forests of the eastern and central Alps. 9430 PAL.35 2) Plants: Larix decidua. Vaccinium spp.4 Subalpine and montane Pinus uncinata forests (* if on gypsum or limestone) Mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) forests. Rhododendron hirsutum or Pinus mugo. 42. each occurring as a single dominant. Pinus cembra. the Carpathians.Carpathian larch and arolla forests Uncommon Larix decidua or Pinus cembra formations of the Carpathians.32 and 42. Pinus cembra or Larix decidua-Pinus cembra forests of the eastern and central Alps. 42. the Dinarides. on limestone. Sometimes mixed with Pinus sylvestris. 42.31 . 42. Calamagrostis villosa. Laricetum.CLASS.35 . the Jura and Pyrenean ubacs. on calcareous substrates.CLASS. Rhododendron ferrugineum.Eastern Alpine siliceous larch and arolla forests. usually open and with a very developed shrubby understory. mostly of the inner ranges. the two species may form either pure or mixed stands. together as codominants.42 xerocline mountain pine forests of the inner Alps. usually on siliceous substrates.Sub-alpine Picea abies forests of high Hercynian ranges 21. Sub-alpine Larix decidua. and of 1) 21 Bayerischer Wald. Harz (above 750 m) and Erzgebirge.Picea abies. Sub-types: 42. Larix decidua .Peri-Alpine spruce forests Spontaneous Picea abies formations occupying outlying altitudinal or edaphic enclaves within the range of more predominant vegetation types of the montane levels of the outer Alps. or mixed with Picea abies. the western Hercynian ranges and the Dinarides 2) Plants: Picea abies.31.mountain pine forests of the western outer Alps. more rarely with Larix-Pinus cembra. with an often species-poor undergrowth comprising Vaccinium myrtillus. and may be associated with Picea abies or Pinus uncinata.25 . Pinus cembra. Larici-Cembretum. of the western outer Alps and the Jura. PAL.

1) Interpretation Manual . Plants: Abies alba. Plants: Abies pinsapo.Pyrenean adrets. nigra of the Dinarides. Pinus dalmatica forests of the Dalmatian coastal areas. Coronilla vaginalis. Huperzia selago. Juniperus hemisphaerica. Austrian and Slovenian Alps and of the Apennines. Calluna vulgaris.: 42. the Pelagonides.CLASS.66 * (Sub-)Mediterranean pine forests with endemic black pines Forests of the montane-Mediterranean level. accompanied by a shrubby undergrowth in which Rhododendron ferrugineum is absent or rare (Junipero-Pinion p. 4) Mediterranean and Macaronesian mountainous coniferous forests 9510 PAL. Calcicolous forests. forests of the eastern Italian.CLASS.. uliginosum. Vaccinium myrtillus. dominated by pines of the Pinus nigra group. 42.19 Abies pinsapo forests Forests and stands of the endemic Abies pinsapo of the supra-meso-Mediterranean level. Polygala chamaebuxus.: 42.5) and sometimes pioneer phases of fir or spruce in disturbed zones. Pinus uncinata.15 * Southern Apennine Abies alba Relict Abies alba woods associated with the beech forests of the Geranio versicolori-Fagion.Alpino-Apennine Pinus nigra forests . Deschampsia flexuosa.Pinus nigra s. uva-ursi. on dolomitic substrate (high tolerance to magnesium).61 .CLASS.Western Balkanic Pinus nigra forests .EUR25 Page 121 . 1) 2) 9530 PAL.62 . Cotoneaster integerrimus.A). Daphne striata. Pinus mugo scrub (31. J. In association with bog woodland (44. Thesium rostratum. V. Rhododendron ferrugineum. ultra basic serpentine outcroppings.: 42. Rhododendron hirsutum. often with a dense structure. Dryas octopetala. Homogyna alpina. Erico-Pinion p.s. A. Lycopodium annotinum.) 2) Plants: Arctostaphylos alpina.61 to 42. Rhamnus saxatilis.Pinus nigra ssp. nana. 1) 2) 9520 PAL. Sub-types : 42. Erica herbacea. Astrantia minor. Crepis alpestris.

Genista corsica. mostly in siliceous meso-Mediterranean. Erica arborea.66 . on adrets and at lower altitudes.Pantellerian mesogean pine forests Pinus pinaster woods of Pantelleria. they are very developed. faginea woodlands.Calabrian laricio pine forests . pyrenaica or.65 .Corsican laricio pine forests .Iberian mesogean pine forests Pinus pinaster forests of the Iberian peninsula.montane forests of Pinus pallasiana of Greece and the Balkan peninsula. the Aspromonte and Etna. Longestablished plantations of these pines.821 . pinaster (=Pinus mesogeensis) of the western Mediterranean. north-western Italy. upper meso-Mediterranean and supra-Mediterranean situations of Spain. Sila Piccola). Sardinia and Pantelleria.Pinus salzmannii forests of Spain (Pyrenees. 42. Pinus salzmannii. as facies of laricio pine forests.and supra-Mediterranean levels of Corsica.822 . northern Iberian Range. 2) Plants: Pinus laricio. 42. south-eastern France. atlantica of south-western France and the western Iberian peninsula. 42. they occur locally within the supra-Mediterranean zone. 42.81 . Corsica. appearing mostly as substitution communities of Quercus rotundifolia. mostly appearing as substitution or paraclimactic stages of forests of the Quercetalia ilicis or Ceratonio-Rhamnetalia.823 . calabrica forests of the Sila (Sila Greca.63 . 42.Franco-Italian mesogean pine forests Pinus pinaster forests of siliceous lower meso-Mediterranean areas of Provence.64 .dominated woods of the Corbières.Maritime pine forests Forests and plantations of Pinus pinaster ssp.Salzmann's pine forests .826 .Pallas's pine forests .Pinus laricio forests of the mountains of Corsica (1000 to 1800 m) on granitic soils.Corsican mesogean pine forests Pinetum pinastri.Mesogean pine forests Forests of Pinus pinaster ssp. Pinus pinaster-dominated forests of the meso.824 .42.: 42. Page 122 1) Interpretation Manual . and with an undergrowth basically similar to that of paraclimactic formations. Q.8 Mediterranean pine forests with endemic Mesogean pines Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic woods of thermophilous pines. mostly in its upper levels. Pinus pallasiana.82 . and of mostly siliceous or clayey soils of the hills of Liguria and Tuscany. within their natural area of occurrence. calcareous periphery of the Sierra Nevada) and the Causses.CLASS. 42. 9540 PAL. Teucrium marum.825 .. Animals: Sitta whiteheadi. Maestrazgo. sierras de Cazorla.Corbières mesogean pine forests Isolated Pinus pinaster . Q. accompanied by a maquis-like understory. sierra de Gredos.EUR25 . 42. Rosmarinus officinalis. Pinus nigra. Erico-Arbutetum p. Quercus ilex. in the meso-Mediterranean zone. Segura and Alcaraz.Sardinian mesogean pine forests Pinus pinaster formations on granitic substrates of northern Sardinia. mostly on granitic substrates. Sila Grande. Galio-Pinetum p. suber. 42. Sub-types : 42. Rubia peregrina. 42.Pinus laricio var. locally. with Arbutus unedo. 42. Calicotome spinosa. Pistacia lentiscus. serrania de Cuenca. Q. of marls and limestones of the upper meso-Mediterranean level of the Maritime Alps and the Ligurian Alps. Lavandula stoechas. are included.

Peninsular Italian stone pine forests Large. in particular. The distinction between spontaneous forests and long-established formations of artificial origin is often difficult. 42. 42. obviously artificial groves are not. while recent. 42.Sardinian stone pine forests Pinus pinea formations of Sardinia. 42. a splendid example exists.Iberian Aleppo pine forests Pinus halepensis forests of Spain. Campania. and locally.Balearic stone pine woods Pinus pinea formations of the Balearic Islands.845 . Pantelleria).833 .832 .84 . extensive and undoubtedly native.Iberian stone pine forests Pinus pinea forests of the Iberian peninsula. at least. 42. Chalcidice. Lampedusa. some of which may be of natural origin. 42.837 . where they reach their greatest development. 42. on Skiathos. Toscany. possibly spontaneous on coastal sands and in the Maures area. at least. possibly natural.83 . 42. some. The latter are thus included here. These are thus included here.Peninsular Italian Aleppo pine forests Interpretation Manual .Stone pine forests Mediterranean forests and old naturalised plantations of Pinus pinea. in particular on old dunes of the east coast.Provenço-Ligurian Aleppo pine forests Mostly lower meso-Mediterranean Pinus halepensis forests of Provence and of the lower slopes and coastlines of the Maritime and Ligurian Alps.Provence stone pine woods Pinus pinea formations of Provence. 42. while recent. of probable native origin. they are mostly restricted to eastern regions on the Mediterranean slope of the Catalonian mountains.846 .Greek stone pine forests Pinus pinea woods of the littoral and coastal hills of the Peloponnese.Sicilian stone pine forests Pinus pinea formations of the Monti Peloritani. the pre-Baetic ranges of the upper Guadalquivir basin.841 .843 .42. 42. a frequent colonist of thermo.831 .Corsican stone pine woods Pinus pinea formations of the littoral of Corsica. spontaneous. Adriatic coasts of the Italian peninsula. native only on Ibiza and Formentera.835 .Sicilian Aleppo pine woods Pinus halepensis formations of Sicily and peripheral islands (Egadi.838 .Sardinian Aleppo pine woods Pinus halepensis formations of Sardinia. 42.Corsican Aleppo pine woods Rare and local Pinus halepensis woods of the Corsican coasts. obviously artificial groves are not. 42.and calcicolous meso-Mediterranean scrubs. Pinus pinea plantations of the Tyrennian. 42. ancient. 42. Emilia-Romana (Ravenna) and Friuli-Venetia Giulia (Grado). in Liguria.EUR25 Page 123 .844 . 42. north-western Sicily. Latium. present and probably native on all the major islands.Aleppo pine forests Woods of Pinus halepensis. rather local but probably in part.847 . they penetrate farther inland in the Ebro basin and around the headwaters of the Tagus and Guadalquivir systems.Balearic Aleppo pine forests Pinus halepensis formations of the Balearics.834 .836 . the Maestrazgo. Old introductions in many areas often makes the distinction between self sown forests and long-established formations of artificial origin difficult. Crete and Aegean islands. the southern Andalusian mountains.842 . considered native for at least two-thirds of their considerable expanse. 42. where certainly native woods occur on Isola di San Pietro and the Sulcis coast of Iglesiente.

as well as parts of the Kuratsonas range in the north-west. La Palma. 42. the Kerki mountains. Eastern vicariants of Aleppo pine forests (42. extensive. 42. Leros and Ikaria. the coasts of the Peloponnese and of central continental Greece. Cistus symphytifolius. with Chamaecytisus proliferus. 42. and often extensive. mixed with Pinus pallasiana in the higher areas.852 . more luxuriant. taller. 2) Plants: Pinus pinaster ssp.Pinus halepensis formations of the Italian peninsula. 42. in the northern coastal area. 42. in the Sitia mountains and the Asterousia mountains.Aegean pine forests Pinus brutia forests of Crete and eastern Aegean islands. Disjunct formations of this pine or of related species..Aegean pine woods of Chios Remnant forests of Chios with a composition and stratification similar to those of the forests of Samos. these forests harbour the only European population of the nuthatch Sitta krueperi and the most significant one of the orchid Comperia comperiana. Pinus stankewiczii. distributed. Pinus leucodermis. the southern hills and the north-eastern peninsula. where the species is relatively widespread.859 .: 42.85 . up to about 400 to 500 metres. L. the northern Sporades.EUR25 Page 124 . 9550 PAL. Pinus brutia. Pinus eldarica) have been included. the Psiloriti range. spartioides. the southern interior and the middle elevation of Kali Limni. Juniperus cedrus. the Dikti range and. in particular in the Ambelos range.Aegean pine forests of the Dodecanese Pinus brutia formations of the islands of Simi. pinaster (=Pinus mesogeensis). in particular. the Ionian islands. of the dry montane level at around 800 to 2000 metres (locally down to 500 and up to 2500 metres) in Tenerife.Aegean pine forests of Thasos Broad Pinus brutia belt on the lower reaches of Thasos.Aegean pine forests of Samos Pinus brutia forests covering large expanses of Samos. pure or mixed with Cupressus sempervirens. 42.857 . particularly in Attica.Aegean pine forests of Karpathos Fairly extensive Pinus brutia forests of Karpathos.. atlantica.Aegean pine forests of Crete Pinus brutia-dominated forests of Crete and its satellite islands Gavdos and Gaidaronisi.Aegean pine woods of Samothrace Mostly sparse Pinus brutia formations of the lowlands of Samothrace.Aegean pine forests of Rhodes Remnant Pinus brutia forests of Rhodes. Pinus halepensis.848 . Pinus pinaster ssp. Lotus campylocladus. Pinus pinea. Micromeria spp.855 . L. probably at least partially native ones are individualised in the subdivisions below.Greek Aleppo pine forests Pinus halepensis formations of Greece. 42. occupying Mount Olympus and surrounding hills in the south-eastern quadrant of the island. locally. formations. however. 42.851 . Pinus mugo.853 . described from Crimea and the Caucasian region (Pinus pityusa. Chalcidici. they comprise. 42.856 . they are widespread in particular in the White Mountains. Gran Canaria and Hierro. of 1) Interpretation Manual .858 . Euboea and Skiros.CLASS. hillebrandii.Aegean pine forests of Lesbos Extensive Pinus brutia forests of Lesbos. these forests. Thessaly. 42.854 . Kos. still represented by some relatively natural formations with rich scrub undergrowth. 42.9 Canarian endemic pine forests Forests of endemic Pinus canariensis. Daphne gnidium.84). Adenocarpus foliolosus.

and occasionally with Ilex canariensis and Arbutus canariensis.forest formations dominated by Juniperus thuriferae of Spain (calcareous substrates in the supra-Mediterranean levels of the Iberian Range and neighbouring plateaux. cantabrica. as are dense carpets of mosses. J. with an undergrowth often formed by Cistus monspeliensis. spartioides.A2 to 42. in the western Alps. Cistus symphytifolius. 2) Plants: Pinus canariensis.CLASS. Micromeria hyssopifolia.: 42. Viburnum lantana. spartioides. Pruniccia sometimes mixed with Pinus laricio. enclaves on the periphery of and within the Sierra de Guadarrama.95 Canary pine-juniper woods Junipero cedri-Pinetum canariensis Pinus canariensis and Juniperus cedrus formations of steep. Chamaecytisus proliferus. transitional towards juniper formations and their degradation scrubs.EUR25 Page 125 . 42. hillebrandii. gypsiferous soils of the Ebro basin. hillebrandii. L. dry.A5 and 42.13 and 31. 42. valleys in the interior of Corsica -Pinnera. in particular Adenocarpus viscosus. L. often with Pinus sylvestris. Dendrocopos major canariensis and D. sabina. Rhamnus alpinus. Juniperus hemisphaerica and Berberis hispanica. with an abundance of Erica arborea and Myrica faya. m. warm calcareous supra-Mediterranean slopes of the Isère valley. south-facing slopes in the lower part of the Pinus canariensis belt. between 300 and 500 metres. regis-jubae. Medium altitude forest formations dominated by Juniperus spp. with Juniperus nana. are the only habitat of Fringilla teydea. Sub-types : 42. L. rocky. Salvia canariensis. Sub-types : 42. occurring both on rare local limestone deposits and in a few siliceous stations. invaded by species of the supraCanarian level. Rudda.and north-west-facing slopes in the lower reaches of the Pinus canariensis belt. Lotus campylocladus.3) should not be included. Adenocarpus foliolosus. 42. in particular. Bystropogon origanifolius. southern France (Montagne de Rie). warm calcareous supra-Mediterranean slopes of the south-western Alps. Echium aculeatum. Juniperus cedrus. Sierra Taibilla).Spanish juniper woods (Juniperon thuriferae) . Euphorbia obtusifolia ssp. clay soils of the Campo de Montiel. between 700 and 1200 metres.91 Canary pine-rockrose forests Climax Pinus canariensis forests within the main zone of altitudinal occurrence.94 Canary pine-broom woods Formations of the highest altitudes of the Pinus canariensis belt. 9560 PAL. Hypnum cupressiforme.A2 . salzmannii. These woods are the main habitat of Regulus teneriffae. calcareous southern slopes of the Cordillera Cantabrica. 42.which well-preserved examples have become rare. Lotus campylocladus. in Drôme. Juniperus cedrus. Berberis vulgaris ssp. 1) Interpretation Manual . The arborescent matorrals (32. thanneri. P. fogbound north. Micromeria spp. Hautes-Alpes and Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. with Rhamnus lycioides. L. rocky slopes of high altitudes of Tenerife and La Palma. with an undergrowth characterised and often dominated by Cistus symphytifolius and comprising Chamaecytisus proliferus.A8 * Endemic forests with Juniperus spp. epiphytic lichens are abundant.92 Canary pine-dry scrub forests Formations of dry. Daphne gnidium.93 Canary pine-heath forests Formations of humid. Argyranthemum adauctum. between the Rio Pisuerga and the Rio Luna. warm.

J. restricted to steep rocky slopes.A73 .forest formations dominated by Juniperus excelsa. often with Ilex aquifolium. This habitat type may have two origins: senescent phase of a beech wood or beech-fir wood. Lithodora fruticosa.EUR25 Page 126 . drupacea.).A73 * Mediterranean Taxus baccata woods Woods dominated by Taxus baccata. the San Pedrone range and the Cap Corse mountains. 2) 4) Plants: Juniperus brevifolia.Grecian juniper woods (Juniperetum excelsae) . Ilex aquifolium. around lake Prespa). Plants: Asparagus albus.Taxus baccata and Ilex aquifolium woods of the Catena del Marghine and the Mount Limbara system. both above and in the proximity of Taxus.forest formations dominated by Juniperus foetidissima on adrets of the upper supra-Mediterranean level in Greece.42. Chamaerops humilis. Habitat sub-types included: 42. stipularis. Ilex aquifolium. Rhamnus lycioides. montane areas in the Tenda range.Syrian juniper woods . In the north and centre of Portugal there are Taxus baccata relicts. La Gomera (Maytenio-Juniperion phoeniceae p. Periploca laevigata. excelsa. Juniperus phoenicea formations of Tenerife. but they should not be included in this habitat type. Taxus baccata.: 42. surrounded by layered stands of beech-yew. Greece.Stinking juniper woods . 42. Gran Canaria. made up of clusters of Taxus after the fall of the tall species. 42.136). of the Ostryo-Carpinion zone of the mountains of northern Greece (up to 900-1000m. foetidissima. Mercurialis perennis. Mayteno-Periplocetum angustifoliae.133). J. 42. Periplocion angustifoliae: Arisaro-Tetraclinidetum articulatae.135) and the ericoid-dominated facies of the Macaronesian Juniperus formations (31.A4 . thurifera. 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . of very local occurrence.Sardinian yew woods .CLASS. J.CLASS. cedrus.Formations of Taxus baccata. J. Sorbus aria.A6 * Tetraclinis articulata forests Xero-thermophile forests of Arbor-vitae (Tetraclinis articulata). Juniperus excelsa and J. La Palma. endemic Juniperus brevifolia formations of the Azores (Juniperion brevifoliae p.). Hierro.Macaronesian juniper woods .A72 and 42. Lavandula dentata. articulata should also be considered a part of this habitat.: 42. Gran Canaria. J.A8 . Arisarum vulgare.A72 .A3 . Teucrium carthaginense. J. Brachypodium retusum. sometimes in small isolated formations (Serras do Gerês and Estrela).3) are generally associated in the field. Tetraclinis articulata.A5 . 42. A. 1) 2) 9580 PAL.Corsican yew woods .Juniperus drupacea woods of the northern slopes of Mount Parnon. oxycedrus. Juniperus drupacea (32. Scrub formed by T. Buxus sempervirens restricted to cool. La Palma. phoenicea. The arborescent matorrals of Juniperus thurifera (32. 9570 PAL. foetidissima (32. residual Taxus stand with disappearance of the tall species. that may be included in this habitat type. Thymus glandulosus. J.Juniperus cedrus formations of the high altitudes in Tenerife. Gomera. Plants: Buxus sempervirens.

Cephalorrhynchus cypricus.CLASS.EUR25 Page 127 . Galium peplidifolium. Stellaria media. Lindbergella sintensii 1) 2) Interpretation Manual . endemic to the western summits of the Troodos range Plants Cedrus brevifolia.B2 *Cedrus brevifolia forests (Cedrosetum brevifoliae) Forests of Cedrus brevifolia. Quercus alnifolia. Arrhenatherum album.9590 PAL.: 42.