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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Oxidation and Reduction (Part 1) Redox reaction chemical reactions in which

ch both oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously. 1) Oxidation


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gain of oxygen, O2 by a substance loss of hydrogen, H2 from a substance a loss of electrons occurs when there is an increase in oxidation number

2) Reduction
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loss of oxygen, O2 by a substance gain of hydrogen, H2 from a substance a gain of electrons occurs when there is an decrease in oxidation number

Oxidation Number is the charge that the atom of the element would have if complete transfer of electron takes place. IUPAC nomenclature name inorganic compounds in order to avoid confusion due to elements have variable oxidation numbers. Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Gain and Loss of Oxygen 2CuO (s) + C (s) > 2Cu (s) + CO2 (g)
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Reduction: CuO loses its oxygen to form copper. CuO (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Carbon gains oxygen to form CO2. Carbon (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

PbO (s) + CO (g) > Pb (s) + CO2 (g)


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Reduction: PbO loses its oxygen to form lead. PbO (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Carbon monoxide (CO) gains oxygen to form CO2 . Carbon monoxide (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

H2 (g) + CuO (s) > H2O (l) + Cu (s)


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Reduction: CuO loses its oxygen to form copper. CuO (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Hydrogen (H2) gains oxygen to form H2 O. Hydrogen (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Gain and Loss of Hydrogen H2S (g) + Cl2 (g) > S (s) + 2HCl (g)
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Reduction: Cl2 gains hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride. Cl2 (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Hydrogen sulphide loses hydrogen to form sulphur. Hydrogen sulphide (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

2NH3 (g) + 3Br2 (g) > N2 (g) + 6HBr (g)


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Reduction: Bromine gains hydrogen to form hydrogen bromide. Br2 (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Ammonia loses hydrogen to form nitrogen. Ammonia (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Changes in Oxidation Numbers Redox reactions oxidation number of all elements change. Rusting of iron, combustion, displacement of metal from its salt solution, displacement of halogen from its halide solution and electrolysis are redox reaction. -10 . -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +10 <- Reduction || Oxidation ->
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H2 (g) + CuO (s) > H2O (l) + Cu (s) Hydrogen: 0 > +1 (Oxidised to water & Hydrogen is a reducing agent) Copper oxide: +2 > 0 (Reduced to copper & Copper oxide is a oxidising agent) 2Zn (s) + O2 (g) > 2ZnO (s) Zinc: 0 > +2 (Oxidised to zinc ion & Zinc is a reducing agent) Oxygen: 0 > -2 (Reduced to oxide ion & Oxygen is an oxidising agent) 2Mg (s) + CO2 (g) > 2MgO (s) + C (s) Magnesium: 0 > +2 (Oxidised to magnesium ion & Magnesium is a reducing agent) Carbon dioxide: +4 > 0 (Reduced to carbon & Carbon dioxide is an oxidising agent) Br2 (l) + 2HI (aq) > 2HBr (aq) + I2 (s) Hydroiodic acid / Hydrogen iodide: -1 > 0 (Oxidised to iodine & Hydroiodic acid is a reducing agent) Bromine: 0 > -1 (Reduced to hydrobromic acid & Bromine is a oxidising agent)

Non-redox reactions oxidation number of all elements remain unchanged.

Precipitation, decomposition and neutralisation are not redox reaction (non-redox reaction) Precipitation:
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AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) > AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq) +1 +5 3(-2) +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +5 3(-2)

No change in the oxidation numbers. Decomposition:


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ZnCO3 (s) > ZnO (s) + CO2 (g) +2 +4 3(-2) +2 -2 +4 2(-2)

No change in the oxidation numbers. Neutralisation:


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NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) > NaCl (aq) + H2 O (l) +1 -2 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 2(+1) -2

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Oxidation and Reduction (Part 4) Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Electron Transfer 2I- (aq) > I2 (aq) + 2e Oxidation: Iodide ion, I- is a reducing agent because it donates/loses electrons to become I2. Br2 + 2e > 2Br- (aq) Reduction: Bromine water, Br2 is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts electrons from I- to form bromide ions, Br-. > Overall reaction: 2I- (aq) + Br2 > I2 (aq) + 2Br- (aq) Conversion of Fe2+ Ions to Fe3+ Ions and Vice Versa A) Common oxidising agent (change Fe 2+ ions to Fe3+ ions):
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bromine, Br2 chlorine, Cl2 hydrogen peroxide, H2 O2 concentrated nitric acid, HNO3 acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution acidified potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution

Fe2+ (aq) > Fe3+ (aq) + e Oxidation: Iron(II) ion, Fe2+ is a reducing agent because it donates/loses one electron to become Fe3+.

Br2 (aq) + 2e > 2Br- (aq) Reduction: Bromine water, Br2 is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts electrons from Fe2+ to form bromide ions, Br-. > Observation: iron(II) sulphate solution changes colour from pale green to yellowishbrown. > Overall reaction: 2Fe2+ (aq) + Br2 (aq) > 2Fe3+ (aq) +2Br- (aq) B) Common reducing agent (change Fe 3+ ions to Fe2+ions):
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zinc powder, Zn aluminium, Al Magnesium, Mg Calcium, Ca Sulphur dioxide, SO2 Hydrogen sulphide, H2S Sodium sulphide solution, Na2SO3 Tin(II) chloride solution, SnCl2

Zn (s) > Zn2+ (aq) + 2e Oxidation: Zinc powder, Zn is a reducing agent because it donates/loses two electrons to form zinc ions, Zn2+. Fe3+ (aq) + e > Fe2+ (aq) Reduction: Iron(III) ion, Fe3+ is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts one electron to become Fe2+. > Observation: iron(III) sulphate solution changes colour from yellowish-brown to pale green. > Overall reaction: 2Fe3+ (aq) + Zn (aq) > 2Fe2+ (aq) + Zn2+ (aq
C) Investigate the presence of iron(II) and iron(III) ions

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Oxidation and Reduction (Part 7) Redox Reactions by the Transfer of Electrons at a Distance

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Oxidation half-equation: Fe2+(aq) > Fe3+(aq) + e Reduction half-equation: Cr2 O72-(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e > 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2 O(l) Overall reaction: Cr2 O72-(aq) + 6Fe2+(aq) 14H+(aq) > 2Cr3+(aq) + 6Fe3+(aq) + 7H2 O(l)