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# Harmonic Studies

Harmonic studies are performed to determine harmonic distortion levels and filtering requirements within a facility. Field measurements and computer simulations are used to characterize adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) and other nonlinear loads and simulations are then performed to determine the filter specifications and effectiveness. The application of harmonic filters will significantly alter the frequency response of the power system. An evaluation of the harmonic voltage and current limits, (e.g., IEEE Std. 519) is completed to determine the effectiveness of the proposed filter installation. The potential for harmonic distortion problems is dependent on two important factors: The level of harmonic generation which can be associated with loads in the plant. Harmonic currents are generated by loads which have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics. The number and sizes of these devices at a given bus determines the level of harmonic current generation. The system frequency response characteristics. The frequency response at a given bus is dominated by the application of capacitors at that bus. Series reactors for transient control or harmonic control significantly change the frequency response. Problems occur when the system response exhibits a parallel resonance near one of the harmonic components generated by the loads on the system (usually the 5th or 7th harmonic). Resistive load provides damping near these resonant frequencies. The combination of these two factors determines whether or not a harmonic problem will exist at a particular bus. It is also possible for harmonic problems to occur at buses remote from the harmonic source if local resonances exist. If capacitors are applied at any locations that have large adjustable- speed drives, the potential for resonance problems must be considered carefully. A harmonic study evaluates these concerns as described in the following sections:

Develop Base Case Harmonics Model
The first step in a harmonic study is to develop a system model to be used for the analysis. The model is developed from the oneline diagrams, the electrical equipment data (transformers, cables, machines, etc.), the utility system characteristics, and the load information. The result is a database that includes the following elements: Representation of the utility system supplying the facility. This system can be represented as a simple equivalent as long as there are no switched capacitors. However, it is quite likely that the utility does have switched capacitors on the supply system and these must be represented. Step-down transformers (ratings and nameplate impedances). Important low voltage circuits (specifically ASDs). Load data for each bus (kW, kVAr, kVA). Capacitor data (level of compensation, kVAr). The electrical database developed at this stage is used for the development of the harmonic analysis model of the system. The model must include important connected capacitors, cable capacitances, transformer characteristics, reactor values, motor representations, and an equivalent representation for the utility supply system. Harmonic measurements are very useful in that they provide information necessary to characterize the loads as well as provide a means for verifying the harmonic model. Measured harmonic currents are used as input to the model and simulated harmonic voltage distortion levels are then compared with measured values to determine the accuracy of the model. The model is developed for the SuperHarm® computer program used by Electrotek for harmonic analysis. This program permits convenient analysis of system frequency response characteristics as well as direct representation of important harmonic sources in order to simulate system harmonic levels.

Harmonic Measurements
Harmonic measurements are an important part of the overall investigation for a number of reasons. Most importantly, the measurements must be used to characterize the level of harmonic generation for the existing nonlinear loads.