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**Chap 7 Resistance and Powering of Ship
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Objectives

• Prediction of Ship’s Power - Ship’s driving system and concept of power - Resistance of ship and its components · frictional resistance · wave-making resistance · others - Froude expansion - Effective horse power calculation • Propeller Theory - Propeller components and definitions - Propeller theory - Cavitation

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**Ship Drive Train and Power
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Ship Drive Train System

EHP Engine Reduction Gear

Bearing

Strut Screw Seals THP

BHP

SHP

DHP

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**Ship Drive Train and Power
**

Horse Power in Drive Train Brake Horse Power (BHP) - Power output at the shaft coming out of the engine before the reduction gears Shaft Horse Power (SHP) - Power output after the reduction gears - SHP=BHP - losses in reduction gear

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Power delivered to the propeller . shaft bearings and seals Thrust Horse Power (THP) .THP=DHP – Propeller losses E/G BHP R/G SHP Shaft Bearing DHP Prop.DHP=SHP – losses in shafting. THP Hull EHP
Relative Magnitudes BHP>SHP>DHP>THP>EHP
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.Power created by the screw/propeller .Ship Drive Train and Power
Delivered Horse Power (DHP) .

• EHP of the model ship is converted into EHP of the full scale ship by Froude’s Law.Effective Horse Power (EHP)
• EHP : The power required to move the ship hull at a given speed in the absence of propeller action (EHP is not related with Power Train System) • EHP can be determined from the towing tank experiments at the various speeds of the model ship. Towing Tank Measured EHP V Towing carriage
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EHP (HP)
POWER CURVE
YARD PATROL CRAFT
1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Ship Speed.Effective Horse Power (EHP)
Effective Horsepower. Vs (Knots)
Typical EHP Curve of YP
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Effective Horse Power (EHP)
Efficiencies
• Hull Efficiency
EHP ηH = THP
.Hull efficiency changes due to hull-propeller interactions. .
Poorly-designed
. .High THP is needed 8 to get designed speed.Poorly-designed ship : η H 1 Well-designed .THP is reduced.Well-designed ship : η H 1 . .Flow is not smooth.

6 for well designed propeller
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.Effective Horse Power (EHP)
Efficiencies (cont’d)
EHP • Propeller Efficiency Screw THP SHP DHP
η propeller
THP = DHP
• Propulsive Coefficients (PC)
EHP ηp = SHP
η p ≈ 0.

Total Hull Resistance
• Total Hull Resistance (RT) The force that the ship experiences opposite to the motion of the ship as it moves. • EHP Calculation
ft RT (lb) ⋅ VS s EHP(H P ) = ft lb 550 sH P
RT = total hull resistance VS = speed of ship
ft lb ⋅ ft J RT ⋅V S ⇒ ( lb ) ⋅ = = = Watts : Power s s s 1 Watts = 1 / 550 H P 10
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dimension CT = 2 2 lb ⋅ s 2 ft 2 0.Non-dimensional value of total resistance
RT lb ⇒ ⇐ non .5ρ Vs S 4 ft
ft s
CT = Coefficient of total hull resistance in calm water RT = Total hull resistance
ρ = Fluid density VS = Speed of ship S = wetted surface area on the submerged hull
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.Total Hull Resistance (cont)
• Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance .

ρ .Total Hull Resistance (cont)
• Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance (cont’d) -Total Resistance of full scale ship can be determined using
CT .5ρSVS ⋅ CT
CT : determined by the model test
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ρ : available from water property table S : obtained from Curves of form VS : Full scale ship speed
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. S and VS
RT (lb) = 0.

Vs (knots)
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8
10
12
14
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RT ≈ CT ⋅ VS ∝ VS
n
2
EHP ≈ RTVS ≈ CT ⋅ VS ⋅ VS ∝ VS
n
2
n = from 2 at low speed to 5 at high speed
n = from 3 at low speed to 6 at high speed 13
. Rt (lb)
Total Hull Resistance (cont)
5000
0 0 2 4
Ship Speed.• Relation of Total Resistance Coefficient and Speed
TOTAL RESISTANCE CURVE
YARD PATROL CRAFT
20000
15000
10000
Total Resistance.

ship’s velocity.Components of Total Resistance
• Total Resistance
R = R + R + RA T V W
RV : Viscous Resistance RW : Wave Making Resistance RA : Air Resistance
• Viscous Resistance . wetted surface area of ship generally affect the viscous resistance.Viscosity. 14
. ( due to friction of the water against the surface of the ship) .Resistance due to the viscous stresses that the fluid exerts on the hull.

shape of the ship above the water line. Froude number (ship length & speed) • Air Resistance .Resistance caused by waves generated by the motion of the ship . displacement.Typically 4 ~ 8 % of the total resistance
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.Resistance caused by the flow of air over the ship with no wind present . shape of hull.Air resistance is affected by projected area.Wave-making resistance is affected by beam to length ratio.Components of Total Resistance
• Wave-Making Resistance . wind velocity and direction .

Components of Total Hull Resistance
• Total Resistance and Relative Magnitude of Components
Resistance (lb)
Air Resistance Hollow Hump Wave-making
Viscous Speed (kts)
.Low speed : Viscous R .Hump (Hollow) : location is function of ship length and speed.
.Higher speed : Wave-making R 16 .

– A non-dimpled golf ball would really hamper Tiger Woods’ long 17 game
.Why is a Golf Ball Dimpled?
• Let’s look at a Baseball (because that’s what I have numbers for)
– At the velocities of 50 to 130 mph dominant in baseball the air passes over a smooth ball in a highly resistant flow. – Turbulent flow does not occur until nearly 200 mph for a smooth ball – A rough ball (say one with raised stitches like a baseball) induces turbulent flow
– A baseball batted 400 feet would only travel 300 feet if it was smooth.

Model ship : Studs or sand strips are attached at the bow to create the turbulent flow. 18
.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance
• Viscous Flow around a ship
Real ship : Turbulent flow exists near the bow.

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.It consists of tangential and normal components.Non-dimensional quantity of viscous resistance .It is assumed CF can be obtained from the experimental data of flat plate.
CV = Ctangential Cnormal= CF + KCF +
al orm n
flow
bow
tan
g
a nti e
l
ship
stern
• Tangential Component : CF .Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
• Coefficients of Viscous Resistance . Skin Friction .Tangential stress is parallel to ship’s hull and causes a net force opposing the motion .

2260 × 10 -5 ft 2 /s forfresh water = 1.075 CF = (log10 Rn − 2) 2 LVS Rn = ν
Semi-empirical equation
Rn = Reynolds Number L = L pp (ft)
VS = Ship Speed(ft/s)
ν = Kinematic Viscosity (ft 2 /s)
= 1.2791 × 10 ft /s for salt water
-5 2
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.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
Tangential Component of CV = CF 0.

Relation between viscous flow and Reynolds number · Laminar flow : In laminar flow. The layers do not mix transversely but slide over one another. · Turbulent flow : In turbulent flow. the fluid flows in layers in an orderly fashion. Flow over flat plate Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow
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5 Rn > about × 1021 5
Rn < about × 10 5
. the flow is chaotic and mixed transversely.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
• Tangential Component (cont’d) .

large eddy Full ship Slender ship small eddy
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. .Normal component generates the eddy behind the hull.A high pressure is formed in the forward direction opposing the motion and a lower pressure is formed aft. Fuller shape ship has larger normal component than slender ship.It is affected by hull shape.Normal component causes a pressure distribution along the underwater hull form of ship .Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
• Normal Component . .

K = Form Factor ∇(ft ) B ( ft ) K = 19 L( ft ) B ( ft )T ( ft ) L( ft )
3 2
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Normal Component of Cv = K CF CF = Skin Friction Coeff.It is calculated by the product of Skin Friction with Form Factor.Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)
• Normal Component (cont’d) .

2260 × 10-5 ft 2 /s forfresh water = 1.Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient
CV = Ctangential Cnormal= CF + K CF +
2 3 0.075 ∇(ft ) B ( ft ) CF = 2 K = 19 L( ft ) B ( ft )T ( ft ) L( ft ) (log10 Rn − 2)
LVS ν Rn = Reynolds Number Rn = L = L pp (ft) VS = Ship Speed(ft/s)
K= Form Factor
ν = Kinematic Viscosity (ft 2 /s)
= 1.2791 × 10-5 ft 2 /s for salt water
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) 2) Reynolds No. Rn ↑ ⇒ CF ↓ ⇒ KCF ↓
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.Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient
• Reducing the Viscous Resistance Coeff. .Method : Increase L while keeping the submerged volume constant 1) Form Factor K ↓ ⇒ Normal component KCF ↓ ∴ Slender hull is favorable. ( Slender hull form will create a smaller pressure difference between bow and stern.

Wave-Making Resistance
Typical Wave Pattern Stern divergent wave Bow divergent wave
L Transverse wave
Wave Length
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several crests exist along the ship length because the wave lengths are smaller than the ship length.Wave-Making Resistance
Transverse wave System
• It travels at approximately the same speed as the ship. This is the main reason for the dramatic increase in Total Resistance as speed increases. • As the ship speeds up. • At slow speed. • When the transverse wave length approaches the ship length.
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. the length of the transverse wave increases. the wave making resistance increases very rapidly.

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Transverse wave System
Vs < Hull Speed Wave Length High Speed Wave Length Hull Speed : speed at which the transverse wave length equals the ship length. 29 (Wavemaking resistance drastically increases above hull speed) Slow Speed
Vs ≈ Hull Speed
.

• Interaction of the bow and stern waves create the Hollow or Hump on the resistance curve. • Hollow : When the bow and stern waves are out of phase.Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Divergent Wave System
• It consists of Bow and Stern Waves. the crests matches the trough so that smaller divergent wave systems are generated. • Hump : When the bow and stern waves are in phase. the crests are added up so that larger divergent wave systems are generated.
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(Because mathematical modeling of the flow around ship is very complex since there exists fluid-air boundary.Froude number • The calculation of the coefficient is far difficult and inaccurate from any theoretical or empirical equation.
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• Wave-making resistance is affected by .displacement . wave-body interaction) • Therefore model test in the towing tank and Froude expansion 31 are needed to calculate the Cw of the real ship.Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Calculation of Wave-Making Resistance Coeff.beam to length ratio .hull shape .

Therefore increment of wave-making resistance of longer ship will be small until the ship reaches to the hull speed.Hull speed will increase.EX : FFG7 : ship length 408 ft Which ship requires more hull speed 27 KTS horse power at 35 KTS? CVN65 : ship length 1040 ft hull speed 43 KTS
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. . .Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Reducing Wave Making Resistance
1) Increasing ship length to reduce the transverse wave .

EX : DDG 51 : 7 % reduction in fuel consumption at cruise speed 3% reduction at max speed.Bulbous bow generates the second bow waves .Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Reducing Wave Making Resistance (cont’d)
2) Attaching Bulbous Bow to reduce the bow divergent wave . .Then the waves interact with the bow wave resulting in ideally no waves. design &retrofit cost : less than $30 million life cycle fuel cost saving for all the ship : $250 mil. practically smaller bow divergent waves. Tankers & Containers : adopting the Bulbous bow
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. .

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)
Bulbous Bow
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. corrosion. • For model. and fouling of the hull surface. empirical formulas can be used. • For ship.Coefficient of Total Resistance
Coefficient of total hull resistance
CT = CV + CW + C A = C F ( 1 + K) + CW + C A C A: Correlation Allowance
Correlation Allowance
• It accounts for hull resistance due to surface roughness. C A = 0 Since model surface is smooth. • It is only used when a full-scale ship prediction of EHP is made from model test results. paint roughness.

• Steering Resistance . yawing).Small in warships but troublesome in sail boats •Added Resistance .Other Type of Resistances
• Appendage Resistance . propeller shaft. rolling. heaving.Resistance due to sea waves which will cause the ship motions (pitching.
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.2∼24% of the total resistance in naval ship.Frictional resistance caused by the underwater appendages such as rudder. bilge keels and struts .Resistance caused by the rudder motion. .

Other Resistances
• Increased Resistance in Shallow Water . increment of wetted surface area → Increases frictional resistance . → Increases wave making resistance
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.The waves created in shallow water take more energy from the ship than they do in deep water for the same speed. suction. : Increment of frictional resistance due to the velocities : Pressure drop.Flow velocities under the hull increases in shallow water.Resistance caused by shallow water effect .

Basic Theory Behind Ship Modeling
• Modeling a ship .How do we scale the prototype ship ? .Geometric and Dynamic similarity must be achieved. .The ship needs to be scaled down to test in the tank but the scaled ship (model) must behave in exactly same way as the real ship.
prototype ship
?
Dimension Speed Force
model ship
prototype
Model
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.It is not possible to measure the resistance of the full-scale ship .

Geometric similarity exists between model and prototype if the ratios of all characteristic dimensions in model and prototype are equal.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
• Geometric Similarity . .
Scale Factor = λ LS (ft) λ= : Length LM (ft) S S (ft 2 ) λ = S M (ft 2 )
2
S : full scale ship M : Model
: Area : Volume
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∇ S (ft 3 ) λ = ∇ M (ft 3 )
3
.The ratio of the ship length to the model length is typically used to define the scale factor.

Dynamic Similarity exists between model and prototype if the ratios of all forces in model and prototype are the same. LSVS LMVM = . .Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
• Dynamic Similarity .Total Resistance : Frictional Resistance+ Wave Making+Others
CV = f ( Rn ). vS vM vM LS VM = VS . RnS = RnM . vS LM
CW = f ( Fn ) FnS = FnM VS VM = gLS gLM VM = VS LM LS
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Ship Speed=10kts.Both Geometric and Dynamic similarity cannot be achieved at same time in the model test because making both Rn and Fn the same for the model and ship is not physically possible.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
• Dynamic Similarity (cont’d) . Model Length=10ft Model speed to satisfy both geometric and dynamic similitude?
VM = VS LM LS
vM LS VM = VS vS LM
10 ft = 10( kts ) 100 ft = 1( kts )
100 ft = 10( kts ) (assume vM = vS ) 10 ft 41 = 100( kts )
. Example Ship Length=100ft.

· Have Rn different ⇒ Incomplete dynamic similarity . the following relations in forces are established.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
• Dynamic Similarity (cont’d) .Due to the partial dynamic similarity.
CWM = CWS
CVM ≠ CVS
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.However partial dynamic similarity can be achieved by towing the model at the “corresponding speed” .Choice ? · Make Fn the same for the model.

VS VM = gLS gLM
VS (ft/s) VM (ft/s) = LS (ft) LM (ft)
.688 ft/s
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. Model speed towed ?
VM = VS = VS
LM 1 = VS LS LS / LM 1 1 = 20kts = 4.47 kts λ 20
1kt.=1.Example : Ship length = 200 ft. Model length : 10 ft Ship speed = 20 kts.Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
• Corresponding Speeds
FnS = FnM .

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling
• Modeling Summary
CT = CV + CW + C A = CF (1 + K ) + CW + C A
1) CTM = CFM (1 + K M ) + CWM + C AM
Froude Expansion
Measured in tank
CWM = CTM −CFM (1 + K ) − C AM
2) CTS = CFS (1 + K S ) + CWS + C AS 3)
RTS ⋅ VS EHP ( hp ) = 550
( RTS = CTS * 0.5ρ S S SVs 2 )
(calculate d) ( due to scale factor λ. CFS KS = KM C AM = 0 C AS ≠ 0
. or calculated)
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CWS = CWM ( FnS = FnM . VS / gLS = VM / gLM ) C FM . Calculated or given ) ( Model is smooth) (given.