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# Tables of Constants for Control charts

## Table 8A - Variable Data

X bar and R Charts
Chart for Averages Control Limits Factor Subgroup size (n) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 25 ref : AIAG manual for SPC

## X bar and s charts

Chart for Averages Chart for Standard Deviation (s) Chart for Ranges (R) Divisors Divisors to to Control Estimate Factors for Control estimate Factors for Control Limits Factor Limits Limits x x

A2 1.880 1.023 0.729 0.577 0.483 0.419 0.373 0.337 0.308 0.223 0.153

d2 1.128 1.693 2.059 2.326 2.534 2.704 2.847 2.970 3.078 3.472 3.931

## D3 0.076 0.136 0.184 0.223 0.347 0.459

D4 3.267 2.574 2.282 2.114 2.004 1.924 1.864 1.816 1.777 1.653 1.541

A3 2.659 1.954 1.628 1.427 1.287 1.182 1.099 1.032 0.975 0.789 0.606

c4 0.7979 0.8862 0.9213 0.9400 0.9515 0.9594 0.9650 0.9693 0.9727 0.9823 0.9896

## B3 0.030 0.118 0.185 0.239 0.284 0.428 0.565

B4 3.267 2.568 2.266 2.089 1.970 1.882 1.815 1.761 1.716 1.572 1.435

Control Limits
UCLX = X + A2 R
LCL
X

x
R d2

CL X = X
CLR = R

= X A2 R

UCLR = D4 R
UCLX = X + A3 S

LCL R = D3 R

CLX = X

LCL X = X A3 S

CL s = s

UCL s = B4 s

LCL s = B 3 s

s c4

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## Tables of Constants for Control charts

Table 8B Variable Data
Median Charts
Chart for Medians Chart for Ranges (R) Chart for Individuals Control Limits Factor E2 2.660 1.772 1.457 1.290 1.184 1.109 1.054 1.010 0.975 ref : AIAG manual for SPC

## Charts for Individuals

Chart for Moving Range (R) Divisors to Estimate Factors for Control x Limits d2 1.128 1.693 2.059 2.326 2.534 2.704 2.847 2.970 3.078 D3 0.076 0.136 0.184 0.223 D4 3.267 2.574 2.282 2.114 2.004 1.924 1.864 1.816 1.777

Control Divisors to Limits Estimate Factors for Control Factor Limits x Subgroup size 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

~ A2
1.880 1.187 0.796 0.691 0.548 0.508 0.433 0.412 0.362

Centerline
CL

Control Limits
UCL
~ X

## Median Charts Charts for Individuals

~ X

~ = X

~ ~ = X + A2 R

LCL

~ X

~ = X A2 R

CLR = R

UCLR = D4 R

LCL R = D3 R

CL

= X

UCL X = X + E 2 R

LCL X = X E 2 R

CLR = R

UCLR = D4 R

LCL R = D3 R

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## Tables of Formulas for Control charts

Table 8 C Attribute Data
Centerline
ref : AIAG manual for SPC

Control Limits
Samples not necessarily of constant size

UCL
p chart for CL p = p proportions of units in a category

pi

= p+3

p (1 p ) ni

LCL p i = p 3

p (1 p ) ni
p (1 p ) n

## If the Sample size is constant (n)

UCL p = p + 3

p (1 p ) n

LCL p = p 3

np chart for number / rate of units in a category c chart for number of incidences in one or more categories

CL = np np

UCLnp = np + 3 np(1 p)
UCLc = c + 3 c

LCLnp = np 3 np(1 p)
LCLc = c 3 c

CL c = c

## Samples not necessarily of constant size

CLu = u
u chart for number of incidences per unit in one or more categories

UCLu = u + 3

u ni

LCLu = u 3

u ni

## using average sample size

UCL u = u + 3 u n UCL u = u 3 u n

## If the sample size is constant (n)

UCL u = u + 3 u n UCL u = u 3 u n

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