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MODERN SWEDISH GRAMMAR

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S
P.

T O C
S

KHO
I)
I,

JL

M
TK

A.

XO R

T E

T &

SO N

F O R

AO

1m. Bjorkliagen, Phil. Lie.

MODERN
SWEDISH GRAMMAR

M O DERN

SWEDISH GRAMMAR
by

I m. Bj orkhag
in

e n,

Ph i

I.

Li

c.

Lecturer in Swedish,
the University of London.

STOCKHOLM
P.

A.

Norstedt & Soners


F
6 r
1

a g

STOCKHOLM
KUNGL. BOKTRYCKERIET.
P.

1923

A.

NORSTEDT

,V

^nNi

It

222444

PREFACE.
In the last few years the study of Swedish has been taken up with increasing interest in England. In 1918 a Swedish lectureship was
i.

instituted

Swedish was
e.

made

it

may be

One year later College, London. subject* in the University of London, chosen as one of the subjects in the B. A., M. A.
at University

a ^degree

and B. Com. examinations.


lectureship, has keenly felt the want grammar for the use of Englishmen.

1918 has held the above mentioned of a satisfactory Swedish Most of the existing grammars of the kind are so full of mistakes as to render them almost useless. The present volume, which is the fruit of four years' experience in Swedish class-teaching, will, it is hoped, prove a more
since

The undersigned, who

who begin learning the language. has been devoted to the pronunciation, which has always proved to be a stumbling-block to English students. For the analysis and description of the Swedish sound-system I have enjoyed the valuable assistance of Prof. Daniel Jones and Miss Lilias E. Armstrong, B. A., of the Phonetics Department, University College. Miss Armstrong has also kindly undertaken to read the proofs of the phonetic part of the book for which I here beg to express
reliable guide for those

Special

attention

my

sincere thanks.

original plan was to publish a Reader and Grammar comin one volume, but for several reasons it was found unpracThe two parts are therefore published separately. The second tical. part called "First Swedish Book" will appear simultaneously with For the beginner it forms a necessary complement to this volume.

My

bined

the

Grammar and
etc.

contains practical exercises in reading, conversa-

tion, writing,

The grammatical terminology is in accordance with the recommendations of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology
(published by John Murray, London, 1920).

6
I

have

much

pleasure

in

thanking

Mr

Sidney

J.

Charleston,

M.

A., F. R. Hist. S., late lecturer in English in the University of Upsala, Sweden, for his great kindness in revising the manuscript

and proof-sheets furnished.


Finally

and

for

the

many

valuable

suggestions

he

has

I am glad to take this opportunity of expressing my gratitude to C. A. Lowenadler, Esq., without whose generous financial assistance the publication of this work would not have

warm

been possible.

London, July, 1922.


1m. Bjorkliagen.

CONTENTS.
Page
Tables of Sounds
11

Sounds and Phonetic Symbols The Alphabet Orthography and Sounds

15

20
21

New

Spelling
for the Pronunciation

33

Length of Sounds

34
36 37 38 44 45
51

Key-words
Accentuation.
Stress

Intonation, with diagrams Signs used to indicate Accent

The Spoken Language The Noun. Articles The Use of the


Gender
Case
Declensions

Articles

56
61

64
69

Remarks on Number The Adjective. Declensions


Comparison
Adjectives used as Nouns
Inflection of Participles

76
77

84

89 92 94
97

The Numerals The Pronouns. Personal


Reflexive: sig

102

Possessive
Possessive reflexive: sin

103
104 107
112

Demonstrative
Determinative
Relative
Interrogative
Indefinite.
.

113 116 118

Page.

The Verb.

Auxiliary Verbs

125
130
152
154

Conjugations
Subjunctive Passive

Deponent Verbs
Periphrastic forms The Use of the Tenses
of the Auxiliary Verbs of the Infinitive, Participle and Supine Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

158
158 162
164 170

The Use The Use

180 180
181

Reflexive Verbs

Compound Verbs
The Adverb
Conjunctions
Prepositions Order of the

184

190
194

Words

201

PRONUNCIATION

Front

Card/na/ vowe/s Swed/sh vowe/s

(a-u)

(OL

u)

Front

Central

Front

Cardinal vowe>/s EngJ/sh isowe/s

13

Vowels

Consonants

f
S'fi

&&

ii
83

S-

3? ^

Sounds and Phonetic Symbols.


(Compare the tables on pp.
l.
11, 13.)

Consonants.
Labial.

The consonants
Note
cially
e.g.
1.

p,

6,

w,

v are

pronounced like the Eng-

lish corresponding sounds.

At

the beginning of fully stressed syllables, espe-

before

a vowel,

is

more aspirated than


after
t

in English,
s in

pa

(po-) on;
2.

Note
like

park Swedish

(par-k) park. is voiceless

and

words

rytm (ryt-m); entusiasm (antusias-m).


3.

Note

occur in Swedish.

The English sound represented by w does not The Swedish letter w is pronounced as v.
Dental.

Swedish

d,

n,

?,

s are

dental sounds, not alveolar


against

as in

English. the upper teeth.

The tongue

articulates

the inner edge of

Notice
in

the

word
1.

particularly the clear sound of I in Swedish, e.g. full (ful-), as compared with the dark sound in

English Note
e.g.

"full".

At
a

cially td (to-) toe; tal (ta-1) speech.

before

the beginning of fully stressed syllables, espevowel, t is more aspirated than in English,

Note
6,

2.

The English dental sounds

represented

by

and

u then", do not occur in Swedish. e.g. in the words "think", Note 3. The sound z as in "busy" does not occur in

Swedish.
1

The use

of the signs ()

and

( )

to indicate

Accent

is

explained on

p. 44.

16

Post-Alveolar.

The

specifically post-alveolar
c

sound in Swedish

is r.

It

is,

as

a rule, faintly rolled, especially between two vowels and after a consonant, e. g. bara (ba-ra ) only; frdn (fro-n) from. In other positions it is often fricative. When the dental sounds d, w, I, s, are immediately pre,

ceded by r in the spelling they become post-alveolar, i.e. their point of articulation is moved much further back, approximately to the r-position and further back than English f, d, n,

The tip of the tongue is curled somewhat backwards. 7, s. The resulting sounds might be described as "retroflex" t, d,
n,
I,

s.

Phonetic symbols:

t,

d,

n,

1,

s.

these sounds are represented by pronunciation the r is dropped

-rt,

-rd, -rn, -rl, -rs.

Orthographically In the

and the following consonant

acquires the retroflex character.


of words:

Compare the following


Dental
t,

pairs

Retroflex

t,

d, n,

1,

s.

d, n,

1,

s.

start (sta-t) start

stat (sta-t) state

bord
i

(bco-d)

table
c

morse (imos-8 ) this morning Karl (ka-1) Charles varna (va-na ) warn
c

bod (bw-d) shop mosse (mos-a ) bog kal (ka-1) bald


c

vana (va-na ) habit

Retroflex

further

back,

resembles the English sh-sound, but it is formed the tip of the tongue is curled back and the

lips considerably rounded.


is

In certain parts of Sweden (e.g. Stockholm) the retroflex s also used as the ordinary sh-sound, which in this book will be represented by the same symbol; e.g. passion (pasw-n);
(sin-) skin;
etc.

person (pssoxn); sju (su-) seven; skinn


star; forst (fes-t) first;

stjdrna

(see-na')

kors (kos-) cross;

Palatal.

The
formed

palatal

sounds

c;

(voiceless)
i

and

(voiced)

may

be

by pronouncing Swedish

with a very narrow space

17

between the tongue and the palate


tion.

so

as to produce fric-

The voiced
unvoiced

When

fricative sound, if isolated, is the sound j. These sounds are, as a rule, it becomes c.

accompanied by lip-rounding. In rapid speech j often loses sounds like English y in yes.
c

its fricative

character and

E.g.

Jccinna
(ja-)

(csn-a

feel;

tjocJc (cok-)

thick; Jcedja (oe-djV)


c

chain; ja

yes; jul (ju-1) Christmas; garna (J8e-na

willingly.

Velar.

K, g and
fore a front

(ng) are pronounced as in English, except berj vowel and in a final position, when they become
i.e.

palatalised,

their

further forward,

e.g.

point of articulation is moved bock (bok-) buck; fislc (fis-k) fish; 'bo'k
Icok (c0-k)

much
(bco-k)

book; vig (vi-g) agile;

kitchen; flog

(fl0-g) flew; flyg

(EIJ-) meadow; sjong (seen-) sang. the beginning of fully stressed syllables, especially before a vowel, k is more aspirated than in English, e.g. kom (kom-) come; ko (kw-) cow; kal (ka-1) bald.

(fly-g) fly; ring (rirj-) ring; ting

At

2.

Vowels.
Front.

when long,

When
sound
in

it is
(j).

closer than the English vowel in "be" (bi-). long and fully stressed it ends with a fricative
is it is

When
(if
(vi-)

short

it is

like the English

vowel

"mean"
Ex.: vi

shortened).

we; min (min-) my. is pronounced with the same tongue-position as i, but the The lips should be energetically rounded and protruded. u and German ti, which, acoustic effect is similar to French however, have narrower lip-opening. Long y ends with
a fricative sound
(j).

Ex.: by (by-) village; mynt (myn-t) coin.


2
222444.

Bjorkhagen, Modern

Sicedish

Grammar.

18
e
is

about the same sound as French

and German

e.

The

produce it is to lengthen out the English vowel in "lid" and try to pronounce it with tip of tongue pressed against the lower teeth, and the muscles tense. Ex.: ek (e-k) oak.
easiest

way

to

pronounced with practically the same tongue-position as and the same lip-position as y (lips rounded and protruded). It is approximately the same sound as French
is

eu in "peu". Ex.: do (d0-) to

die.

pronounced with practically the same tongue-position and but the lip-opening is reduced to a minimum the size of a pin's head). Long ia has such a nar(about row lip-opening that the sound, when fully stressed, ends up with a labial fricative. That is the reason why English people imagine they hear a b or p after it. Ex.: 1ms (hu-s) house; musik [musi-k] music.
is

as e

is

the same sound as English e and occurs both long and short.
Ex.: Idsa
c

in "bed" (or a little closer)

(le-sa

to read;

la'tt

(1st-)

easy.

<r

is

pronounced with practically the same tongue-position as s but with rounded Lip-opening wider than for lips. or y. It only occurs short. Ex.: host (hces-t) autumn.
in

se

is

"man"

approximately the same sound as Southern English a (a little closer). It occurs both long and short.
Ex.: bar
(bse-r)

berry; stjart

(sset-)

tail.

may be produced by isolating out the first element in the English diphthong in >how. It is like French a in "la". The lips are drawn somewhat to the sides. The sound only occurs short.
Ex.: hatt (hat-) hat.

19

Central.
is like English e in "finger" and nearer the front-position, espethough cially in double-tone words, where it becomes rather like z.

the neutral vowel in Swedish

little

closer

Ex.:

taket (ta-kat) the roof; gosse (gos-o

or gos-s

boy.

Back.
is

articulated

little

"father".

The
(JQ.)

lips

French a in "pas".
Ex.: ja
is

back than English a in be slightly rounded. Like The sound only occurs long.
further

should

yes.

rather like the English vowel in "ought" but has more lip-rounding. The sound only occurs short.

Ex.:
is

slott (slot-) castle.

closer than the English vowel in "ought". Narrow lipopening as for English o in "do". The sound is nearly always long.

Ex.:
is

get (go-) to go.

articulated further back than English oo in "book" and with an extremely narrow lip opening (as for ui-). The

sound occurs both long and short. When it is long and fully stressed it ends up with a labial fricative (just as m-). When it is short the lip-opening is a little wider and the
friction is omitted.

Ex.: ord (w-d) word; hon (horn-) she. is articulated nearer to the central position than English u in "value". (It closely resembles the first element in
the English diphthong in "no" as pronounced

by educated
is

Londoners).
to

The

easiest

way

to

produce

it

perhaps

aim at English u in "up" and keep the lips in the same position as for English o in "do". It only occurs

short. Ex.: hund (hun-d) dog.

20
is

little

lower than

11

and articulated nearer to the


oe

central

tongue-position.
u).

Lip-rounding as for
is

(a little

wider than for

The sound

intermediate between

English u in "burden"' and English u in "up" and may be produced by aiming at the latter sound while rounding the lips. It occurs both long and short.
c

Ex.: forst

[fast] first;

gora

[J9-ra ] to do.

3.

The Alphabet.
k
1

A
B
C

(Q.)

K
L

(ko-)

(be-)

c (se-)

Mm
N
P
n
o

(eL)

U V

(em-)
(sn-)
(to-)

Ww
X
Y
Z
x

u v

(ui-)

(ve-)

(dub-alt ve-)

D E
F
G-

d (de)
e (e.)

(ek-s)
(y.)

f (ef-)

p
r

(pe-)

H
I
i

g h

(ge-)
(ho-)

q (ku.)
(ser-)

E
S

A A

z (se-ta) a (o-)

.()

(i-)

s (SB-)
t (te-)

6 (0-)

(ji-)

T
u,
y, a,
I,

<7,

o,
i,
$">

d are called hard vowels.


are called soft vowels.

e,
l>i

9, j,

m, n
t

v are

voiced consonants.

are voiceless (breathed) consonants. /", h, k, p, s, and iv are now almost out of use. They occur only in q a few names of persons and places and are pronounced
as k
z occurs in a
celess).

and v respectively. few loanwords and

is

pronounced as

s (voi-

21

Orthography and Sounds.


4.

I.

Towels.

a
The Swedish letter a is pronounced: 1. when it is long as a-.
Ex.: ja
(ja.)

yes
c

2.

dag (da-g) day bara (ba-ra ) only when it is short as a.


paraply (paraply-) umbrella
f c

Ex.:. katt (kat-) cat


to

flicka (flik-a ) girl packa (pak-a ) pack Note. Swedish a is never pronounced as a in unstressed

or final position. c Ex.: finna (fin-a ) to find


c

seglade (se-glade
c

sailed

Amerika (ame-rika) Kristina (kristi-na )


c

flicka (flik-a

girl

is

pronounced:
1.

when
Ex.: se

it

is

long

as

e-,

(se-) see

lek (le-k)

play
c

genast (je-nas t) immediately Exception: the prefix er- is pronounced

ee-r-.

Ex.: erkdnna (se-rcsn'a) to confess erhdlla (8e-rhol a) to obtain


c

2.

short and not followed by Ex.: mest (mss-t) most


it is
c

when

-r as

s.

penna
3.

(psn-a

when

it is

) pen short and followed by

-r as 83.

Ex.: herr (heer-) Mr. vcrk (veer-k) work

4. in unaccented syllables ending in -e, -el, -en, -er, and in the definite article -en, -et, as 8. c Ex.: gosse (gos-9 ) boy fagel (fo-gal) bird
c

gossen (gos-an
A'.

the boy

finger

(firj-ar)

finger

taket (ta-kat) the roof

B. This

is

the only neutral vowel in Swedish.

i
is

pronounced:
1.

when
Ex.:

it is

long

as

i-

(close

and with
c

(vi-)

we

rida (ri-da

friction). to ride

2.

wise ~bageri (bagari-) bakery short as i (more open and without friction). Ex.: vind (vin-d) wind riddare (rid-ara ) knight
vis (vi-s)
it is

when

viss (vis-) certain

binda (bin-da

to

bind

represents three different sounds:

to,

o-

and

o.

to

occurs both

long and short,


1.

o-

is

long,

o is short.
to-

Examples

of

words with long


ord jord

(very close and with

labial friction). bo (bto-) dwell


stor (stw-r) great
slco (skco-)

(co-d)

word
earth
c

(jo)-d)

shoe
1

ort (w-t) place

mot (mw-t) against


broder (brw-dar ) brother bord (bco-d) table

borde

(bco-d8

)
c

ought
did
etc.

f/jorde (jw-d8

mod

(mw-d) courage,
:

The

prefix

o-

is

always pronounced
c

olycldlg (w-lyk lig)

oTtand (w-Qsn-d)
2.

unhappy unknown

omojlig (cfrmcBJ'lig) impossible

Examples of words with short to: orm (<or-m) snake blomma (bltom-a ) flower
c

ost (ws-t) cheese

mi tl (om-d) angry

novcmber (ntovem-bar) bonde (bo)n-da ) farmer


f

23

The plural ending


short
to

-or (1st Declension) is


c

pronounced with

(coll.

a):
)

flicker (flik-o)r
c

girls

gator (ga-ttor ) streets

The plural ending


is

-o in

the Past of the 4th Conjugation

pronounced with short to: bundo (bun -da/) bound skrevo (skre-vto ) wrote
c

The
is

old genitive

and dative ending


c

-o in

compound words

pronounced with short to: kyrkogard (cyr-ktogo


sannolik
3.
c

d)

churchyard

(san-toli k)

probable
o(only long): c sova (so-va ) sleep

Examples

of

words with

son (so-n) son


kol (ko-1) coal c lova (lo-va ) promise

ordna (o-dna ) arrange


c

villkor (vil-ko r) condition

and many words of foreign origin, e. g. garderob (gadero-b) cupboard mikroskop (mikrosko-p)
filosof (filoso-f)

philosopher

dialog (dialo-g)

epok (epo-k)

kom

Examples of words with o (only short): come (imperative) Stockholm (stok-hol m) bort (bot-) away [cf. bort (hot) komma (kom-a ) to come
4.
c

(kom-)

norr

(nor-)

North

The

helgon (hsl-gon
c

suffixes -ow, -ton f ) saint


)

Supine of bora] morgon (mor-gon ) morning and -or have o, e. g.


c

par on

(pse-ron

)
c

pear

tretton (trst-on

thirteen
c

doktor (dok-tor )
professorcr (prw-

professor (prcafss-or ) [but in the plural: doktor er (doktorar),

^T.

B.

The

suffixes -tion, -sion, -jon


(natsto-n);

have long

to.

Ex.:
jto-n).

nation

mission (misto-n); bataljon (batal-

24

represents two different sounds:


1.

ia-

and

u.

When
(ui-t)

it is

long

it

is

pronounced as u-.
sju (su-) seven
ful (fu-1)
r

Ex.: ut

ugly bruten (bru-t0n ) broken hus (hu-s) house buga (bu-ga) to bow N. B. In unstressed position, u acquires a more open sound and loses its friction. Ex.: om du lean (om du kan-) if you can musik (miasi-k) music
(jia-r)

djnr

out animal

d) cow- shed butelj (biatsl-j) bottle

ladugdrd (la-dugo
it is

2.

When

short

it is

Ex.: hund (hun-d) dog


full (ful-) full

pronounced as Imnna (kun-a )


c
c

u.

to

be able

gubbe (gub-8

old

man

under (un- dor) under

mun

(mun-) mouth

V
is

pronounced:
1.

when
ny

it is
c

long
four

as y- (close

and with
c

friction).

Ex.: fyra (fy-ra


(ny-)
2.

nya (ny-a ) new


c

(plural)

new

lysa (ly-sa

shine
friction).

when

it is

short as y (more open and without


nytt (nyt-)

Ex.: mynt (myn-t) coin


syster (sys-tar) sister

new
c

(neuter)

lydde (lyd-a

obeyed

d
is

pronounced:
1.

when

it is

long

as

o-.

Ex.: gd (go-) to go dr (o-r) year

mala (mo-la
^V.

B.

) to paint In unstressed position d acquires a more open sound.

25

Ex.: gd bort (go hot-) go away pa landet (po lan-dat) in the country
2.

when

it is

short
c

as

o.

Ex.: matt (mot-) measure


dtta (ot-a
)

eight

Idng (lorj-) long alder (ol-dar) age

a
represents two different sounds:
1.

ee

and

s.

When followed by
Ex.: (long)
liar (hse-r)

-r it is

pronounced

se.

This sound

occurs both

long and short.


(short)

here
c

Idra (lse-ra

teach

vdrk (veer-k) pain tvdrtom (tvaet-om-) on the contrary drr (ser-) scar

varld (vse-d) world

jam
pdrla
2.

(jse-n) iron
c

mdrka (meer-ka )
pronounced
(short)
s.

to

mark

(pse-la

pearl

In

other

cases

is

This sound occurs

both long and short. Ex.: (long) ndt (ns-t) a net


dta
lasa
c

rddd

(rsd-)

afraid
1

(s-ta

)
r

to eat
)

smdlta (smsl-ta ) melt


hast (hss-t) horse
c

(ls-sa

to read

apple (sp-l9

apple

o
represents three different sounds:
1.
9,

oe

and

0-.
9.

When followed by
Ex.: (long)

it is

pronounced
(short)

It occurs both

long and short.


for (f'9-r) for c .hora (h9-ra ) to hear

dorr

(der-)

door
c

torstig (t9S-tig

thirsty

hort (ha-t) heard c ora (9-ra ) ear

mork (mar-k) dark


forst (fs-t) first

orn (9-n) eagle

2.

In other cases
a.

it is

pronounced.
as
0-.

when

it is

long
c

Ex.: do (d0-) to die


) eye t rovare (r0-var8 ) robber

oga (0-ga
it is

b.

when

short

as
c

oe.

Ex.: host (hoes-t)

autumn
)

dromma

(droem-a

to

dream

fotter (foet-ar) feet

5.

II.

Consonants.

b
See
1.

is

pronounced:
1.

as s before the soft vowels

(e.

i,

?/).

Ex.:

cedt-r (se-d^r)

cedar

cigarr (sigar-) cigar


cylinder (sylin-dar) cylinder
2.

as

k in other

cases.
c

Ex.: fiicka

) girl tjock (cok-) thick

(flik-a

N. B.

The word och

is

pronounced

ok-.

d
See
1.

1.

Swedish d sounds like t before the genitive s. Ex.: Guds barn (gut-s ba-n) the children of God f godsdgare (gcot-ss gar8) squire

2. Swedish d is not sounded in the combination dj at the beginning of words.

Ex.: djup

(jui-p)

fljur (ju-r)

deep animal

djavul

(je-vul')

devil

djarv (jser-v)

bold

27

pronounced like English f. N. B. In the old orthography, which is still used by some writers, the v-sound was represented by f at the end of words, and by fv and f in the middle of words. Ex. bref (bre-v) letter c hafva (ha-va ) to have
is
:

tafia (ta-vla

picture
are written: brev,

In the new orthography these words


hava, tavla,
etc.

is

pronounced:
1.

as

1.

before the hard vowels


c

(a,

O,'M, a).

Ex.: yata (ga-ta


2.

street

god (gw-d) good


before
-e

gud (gw-d) god gd (go-) to go

in unstressed syllables.

Ex.: fay el (fo-gal) bird mager (ma-gar) lean


c

mage (ma-ga
o.

stomach

before a consonant.

Ex.: glad (gla-d) glad ynida (gni-da') rub


c

gnaga (gna-ga ) gnaw


4.

at the end of a syllable (except after

and

r).

Ex.: svag (sva-g)


II.

as

weak sag (so-g) saw before the soft vowels j 1.


goat

(e,

y,

a,

o}.

Ex.: git

(je-t)

forgylla (farjyl-a) to gild


2.

magister (majis-tar) teacher ga'rna (jse-na) with pleasure


c

gora
after
I

(J9-ra

to

make
others).

and

r in the following

Ex.: talg

(tal-j)

tallow

lielg (hsl-j)

church festival

words (and a few arg (ar-j) angry varg (var-j) wolf

28
1

berg (bair-j) hill fdrg (fser-j) colour

orgel (or-jal

organ

sorg (sor-j) sorrow


torg (tor-j) market-place

korg (kor-j) basket

Norge
III. as

(nor-ja)

Norway
(svser-ja).
c

Notice the pronunciation of Sverige

k before

and

t.

Ex.: hogst (hoek-st) highest


lagt (lak-t) laid

overlagsen (0-vakk san) superior

IV. as

r}

trijggt (tryk-t) safely before n in the same root-syllable.

Ex.: vagn (van-n) carriage regri (rsn-n) rain

lugn

(lurj-n)

calm

V. as
Ex.: geni

before e and
(sani-)

Agnes (an-nas) in foreign (French) words.


c

genius

passagerare

(pasase-rara

passenger
ingenjor (insenje-r) engineer
tragedi (trasadi-) tragedy

Eugcn

(euse-n)

VI. g is not sounded in the combination gj in the following words: gjorcle, gjort, gjord (jw-da jw-t, jo>d) did, done
1
,

gjuta (ju-ta

cast

h
is

pronounced as English h in most cases. h is not sounded in the combination hj at the beginning
Ex.: hjul

of words.

wheel hjalm (jsl-m) helm


(jui-1)

lijarta (jtut-a*)

heart herd hjord (jw-d)


after

hjort

(jco-t)

deer

N. B. Words formerly beginning with hv drop the h


the

new orthography.
Ex.:
(old spelling) hvilken (vil-kan
livad (va-d) hvit (vi-tj

(new spelling)
c

vilken

who

vad what vit white

29

is

pronounced: 1. as j in most
Ex.: ja
(JQ.)

cases.

yes
iron

yarn
2.

(jse-n)

jul (jui-1) Christmas as s in a few words of French origin.

Ex.: journal

(scona-1)

journal

projekt (prossk-t) project

U
is

pronounced:
1.

as

1.

before the hard vowels


(

(a,

o,

u,

a).

Ex.: kail (kal-) cold

bust (kus-t) coast


to

komma
2.

(kom-a

) i

come

Ml

(ko-1)

cabbage

in unstressed syllables. Ex.: vacker (vak-or) beautiful


rike (ri-ka
c

before e and

kingdom

3.

trdkig (tro-kig') dull before and after a consonant.

.Ex.:

4.

clock krage (kra-go ) collar morkret (mar-kret) the dark kniv (kni-v) knife at the end of a word.
(klok-a
)

Mocka

5.

Ex.: lok (bo>k) book before a soft vowel in a few loanwords. Ex.: bankett (banket-) banquet

II.

monarki (mwnarki-) monarchy ko (k0-) queue as 9 1. before the soft vowels


c

(e,

i,
c

?/,

a,

o).

Ex.: kedja (ce-dja

chain

2.

kemi (9mi-) chemistry kines (cine-s) Chinese in the combination kj


Ex.: kjol
(cco-1)

kypare (cy-par9 ) waiter kdr (cse-r) dear c kora (c9-ra ) drive


(j is

mute).

skirt

30

See
I

1.

is

not sounded
(jui-d)

in the combination

Ij

at the beginning

of words.

Ex.: ljud

sound

ljuv (jui-v)

sweet
c

ljus (jia-s) light

Ijuga (jw-ga

to tell lies

is

ljum (jum-) luke-warm mute in the words varld

(vse-d) world,

and

Icarl (ka-r)

man, fellow.

m
See
1.
.

n
See
1.

n is pronounced as 13 before A", and in a few words borrowed from the French. Ex.: tanka (tsrj-ka ) to think annons (anorj-s) advertisement The combination ng is pronounced as 13. Ex.: Idng (log-) long angel (sn/al ) angel
1 1

finger

(firj-ar)

finger

Idngre (krj-ra) longer


in the

X. B. The i]-sound is not followed by a g-sound as English words "finger" and "longer" (finge, loQga)-

The combination -gn at the end of a root-syllable nounced as rm.


Ex.: vagn (varj-n) carriage

is

pro-

ugn

oven lugn (lurj-n) calm


(uij-n)

vagnen (vaij-non) the carriage ugnar (ug-nar) ovens luyna (lug-na) to calm

P
See
1.

a
is

pronounced as

k.

It only occurs in proper names.

01

o-i

See

1.

The combinations
1,

rd,

rl,

rw,

rs,

rt are

pronounced as

d,

n,

s,

t.

See

1.

Ex.: hard (bo-d) hard


bo'rda (b9-da ) burden sorl (so-1) noise
c

forst (fas-t) first

for sent (fase-nt) too late c i morse (imos-8 ) this morning


ort (w-t) place borta (bo-ta ) away
c

barn

forlora (falter a) lose (ba-ii) child


c

gossarna (gos-ana ) the boys .B. At the end of words Swedish r has the same sound It is not mute or changed as at the beginning of words. into a neutral vowel (a) as in English.

N.

Ex.: finger (fig-ar) finger c doktor (dok-tor ) doctor ner (ne-r) down

skor (skco-r) shoes bar (ba-r) bare

dar

(dse-r)

there

gor

9<r ) (J

^^ s
8

See In words ending in


1.

-sion,

the combination

si is

pronounced

as

s.

Ex.: passion (pason) passion pension (par^sw-n) pension

sch-, sc~,

sj-, sTtj-

and

stj-

are pronounced as s. Ex.: schack (sak-) chess

Convalescent (konvabssn-t) convalescent [Exception: seen (se-n) scene] skjorta (sw-ta ) shirt sju (su-) seven skjuta (su-ta ) shoot sjo (s0-) sea
1 c

sjdl (ss-1) soul sjd'lv (sel-v) self


c

stjdla (ss-la

to steal
c

stjarna (sge-na

star

sjdtte

(sst-'a )

sixth

is

pronounced: I. as sk 1. before a consonant. Ex.: skrika (skri-ka ) to shriek


c

Ex.

before the hard vowels (, sA-a#(ska-ka ) shake skulle (skul-a


2.
c

o,
c

w, a).

should

skog
3.

(skto-g)

wood

sltdp (sko-p)

cupboard

at the

end of a root-syllable.
fisken (fis-kan) the fish
r

Ex.:

fish (fis-k) iish

mask (mas-k) w orm


[fdrsk (fses-k) fresh]
II. as s 1.

maskar (mas-kar
1

worms
o).

ruskig (rus-kig )
(e,
i,
c

bad

before the soft vowels


(se-d)

y, a,

Ex.: shed

(see-ra ) spoon inaskin (masi-n) engine shot (s0-t) shot (Past) c skynda (syn-da ) to hurry 2. in the words: manniska (men-isa'j man marskalk (mar-sal k) marshal
c

skdra

to cut

[but: wa'wsA;?^ (mn-sklig

human]

[or: mas-al k] skarlakan (sala-kan) scarlet

See

1.
ti

The combination
pronounced
tsi

in

before

words borrowed from the Latin and a.

is

Ex.: gratier (gra-tsiar) graces aktie (ak-tsie) share


initiativ (initsiati-v) initiative

The combination
foreign words ending

ti

is

pronounced as

(sometimes

ta) in

in -tion.

Ex.: lektion (hksto-n) lesson Confirmation (konfirmasw-n) confirmation nation (natsw-n) nation

The combination

th (only in proper names) Ex.: Luther (lut-or)

is

pronounced

t.

Thomander

(tcoman-ttar)

is

pronounced as

c.

Ex.: fortjusande (facui-sanda) lovely


tjog (9o-g) score
c

tjugo (cw-g<o

twenty

See

1.

w
only (never as English w).
occurs
in

proper names and

is

pronounced as v

x
is

pronounced as ks.
is

Ex.: exempel (ekssm-pal) example In words ending in -xion the combination xi

pronounc-

ed ks.
Ex.: reflexion (rsflsksw-n) reflection

is

pronounced as

s.

Ex.: zoologi (soologi-) zoology

6.

Spelling

Reform of

1906.

1906 some important changes were made in the orthoit graphy. When using dictionaries with the old spelling for should be borne in mind that hv, fv and f as symbols

In

2224-44.

Bjorklidgen,

Modern Swedish Grammar.

34
the

v-sound have
spelling
-dt

now been
has

abolished

and replaced by
-t

v.

The

been replaced by

(-it

after

a short

vowel).

Ex.: old spelling


Jivit

new

spelling
vit

white

sofva to sleep
brcf letter

sova
brev

(neuter of hand) known kant t/ott godt (neuter of god) good

Mndt

7.

Length of Sounds.
9) is
long,

1.

In Swedish a syllable with principal or strong

secondary stress (see 2. If the vowel is


short.

always

long.

the following consonant

is

Ex.: tal
3.

(ta-1)

speech
is short,

If the

vowel

the following consonant

is

long.

Ex.: tall (taL) fir-tree


4.

A
In

long

sound (vowel or consonant) can only occur


syllable the
is

in a stressed syllable.
5.

stressed

vowel
short
if

is
it

long
is

if

it

is

followed

by one consonant. than one consonant.

The vowel

followed by

more

Ex.: long

vowel
roof

short vowel
tack (tab) thanks

talc (ta-k)

(la-m) c fina (f i-na ) fine (plural) fat (fa-t)

lam

lame

lamm

(lam-)
c

lamb
)

finna (fin-a

to find

dish

fast (fas-t) fast

Note.
indicated

In
in

many words
the
spelling.

the length of the consonant is not This is especially the case with

and

>/.

35
Ex.:

dom
som

(dcom-)

judgment

(som-) who, that

man mun
lion

(man-)

man
she

(mun-) mouth
(horn-)

Jcom (kom-)
6.

came

The combination short vowel + short consonant (as English "put") only occurs in unstressed syllables. Unstressed syllables are always short. Ex.: lian liar Jcommit hem (han har komit hsm-) he has come home
in
7. Long consonants, which are rare night-time, good dog) are very common in

English (blackjoffee,

in

Swedish.

the long consonants between two short vowels and between a short vowel and a consonant, in which cases English has a short consonant.
8.

Notice

Ex.:

mamma
Anna

(mam-a
c

mama

pappa

(pap-a
c

(an-a

)
c

gosse (gos-a
c

)
)

papa boy
)

flicka (flik-a

)
c

girl

falla (fal-a

to fall
c

darra (dar-a ) tremble matta (mat-a ) carpet ladda (lad-a ) to load


c c

hugga (hug-a )
c

to

chop

gubbe (gub-a

)
c

old
)

man

straffa (straf-a

to punish

akt (ak-t) act


fish (fis-k) fish
9.

slappt (slap-t) slack

sharp (skar-p) sharp

Notice particularly the long //, />. and f in Swedish, after a short vowel. Immediately after the articulation of the vowel

the

tongue (or

but the explosion

lips) is placed in position for the consonant is deferred and preceded by a short

pause or stop.
Compare the following Swedish
topp (top-) top
sltepp (ssp-) ship lock (lok-) curl
lott (lot-) lot

pairs of words:

English
top ship
lock
lot

dogg

(dog-) bull- dog

dog

8.

Key- words for the Pronunciation.


A.

Consonants.
for the following consonants

Key- words are not required


p, b,
#,

d,

m,

n,

I,

r,

/;

r,

s,

h.

phonetic

symbol
d
t

bord
i

(bco-d) table
f

compare: bod (bw-d) shop


stat (sta-t) state

start (sta-t) start

morse (imos-9

this

mosse (mos-8

bog

sjo (s0-) sea


c 1

porlar (po-lar ) purls

pdlar (po-lar ) pales

n
j

varna (va-na

warn

vana (va-na ) habit

Ja

(JQ.)

yes
c

kedja (ce-dja ) chain ko (ko>) cow

9&

(go-) to

ga

B.
i-

Vowels.
hand (han-d) hand

bi (bi-)

bee
c

y-

binda (bin-da ) to bind by (by.) village

(/lad (gla-d)

glad

y
e-

mynt (myn-t) coin


se (se-) see

boll (boL) ball gd (go-) to go

ko (kw-)

cow

0-

do

(d0.) to die

ost (ws-t) cheese

ue-

hus (hu-s; house

Jcund (kun-d) customer


smo'r (sm9-r) butter

vdg

(vs-g)

way
horse

heist (hes-t)

work (m9r-k) dark


taket (ta-kat) the roof
c

oo
se-

host (ho2s-t)

autumn
Mr.

Mr

(hae-r)

here

gosse (gos-d

boy

se

Herr

Chaer-)

37

Accentuation.
9.

A.

Stress (expiratory accent).

1.

There are in Swedish four different degrees of stress: principal stress (3), generally placed on the first
lable of a word,
c.

g.

bagare, landsortsupplaga.

33

syl-

In words beginning with the prefixes be- and for- the principal stress is placed on the second
syllable,
e.

g.

besluta, forklara.

In loan-words and words ending in -eri the principal stress is generally placed on the last syllable,
e.

g. general,

agent, protestant, bageri.


(2),

2.

strong secondary stress

placed on the

first syle.

lable of the second part of a

compound word,

g.

armband, universitetsldrare. Strong secondary stress


minations
others,
2

is

also used in the ter-bar,

-dom,
g.

-het,

-lek,

-simp,

-sam, and

e.
3

ungdom,
2

sJconhet, Jcarlek,

ddrskap, up-

3.

weak secondary

penbar, gynnsam. stress

(1),

placed on the second syllable

of dissyllabic words with Tone II, e. g. flicka, tula. When several weak syllables follow in succession,

weak secondary
e.

stress

falls

on every other

syllable,

counting from the syllable with the pring. universitet, flickorna^

cipal stress,
4.

kallade.
e.

weakest stress
?

(0),
*

in all unstressed syllables,

den, flickorna, kallade,

30110103 universitet.
30

g.

han-

Notice particularly the second syllable in words

with Tone

I,

e.

g. foten,

compared with the

handen, fatter, ha'nder, as second syllable in words with

30

3 .

Tone

II.

e.

g.

gossen, rosor, kalla.

10.

B.

Intonation (musical accent).

1. There are in Swedish two principal kinds of tones or musical accent: the single-tone and the double-tone. Both are subject to a great number of variations according to the position of the word (in a sentence or isolated). Only the most important cases can be treated here. 2. The single-tone in isolated words is falling: ( 0? c [I-

in

told,

finger,

Jtandcn.

little

on

the

first

cond syllable.

In

Notice that the pitch drops very syllable; the low pitch sets in on the sethis the single-tone is different from the

falling tone in English (c. g. in ''finger") which drops to the low level on the first syllable: (^ _). 3. The double-tone is used in words of more than one syllable.
In isolated double-tone words of two syllables the pitch is falling both on the first and the second syllables, but the second syllable

begins on a higher pitch than the first: (^ i), e. g. in mamma. 4. The single -tone will in this book be referred to as Tone
5.

I.

The double-tone

will be referred to as Tone

II.

In single-tone words of two syllables the first syllable 6. has principal stress (3) and the second syllable is unstressed,
c.
f/.

Jianden.

In double-tone words of two syllables the first syllable has principal stress (3) and the second syllable has weak
7.

secondary stress (1), e. cipal stress (3) on the


secondary stress
tetskatalog.
(2)

g. flickan.
first

Compound words have


c. <j.

prin-

part of the compound and strong


xjoman, univcrxi-

on the second part,

8. The distribution of the tones in words of more than two syllables may best be seen on. the diagrams on pp. 42 and 43, which also show the modifications the tones iindergo when the words are placed in the middle or at the end of a sentence, and in questions.

11.

Tone

I.

Tone I (one lowing cases:


1. 2.

stress

and falling tone)

is

used in the

fol-

in monosyllabic words, in

e.

g.

fot,

vit,

gd.

many dissyllabic words ending in ~el, -en, -er (such words were monosyllabic in Old Swedish, the -e
having been put in later to
tion),
e.

facilitate pronuncia-

g.

fag el,

botten,

seger.

Two

important
e.

groups of words belong to this category: a) Irregular Plurals of the Third Declension,
fotter, liander, backer, siting er, getter, saker,
also bonder, fader, broder. b) the Present Singular of verbs of the Second

g.

etc.;

and

Fourth Conjugations,
bjuder.
3.

e.

g.

binder, Jcoper, vander,

in

the

definite

form of Nouns that have Tone I in the


N.
V.

indefinite form, ^ ^ x

e.

g. foten,
v

handen, fdgeln, fotterna,

handerna, broderna.
4.

in

Comparatives ending in
aldre, mindre.

-re

(but not -are),

e.

g. liogre,

5.

in

most

polysyllabic words (except compounds) with the principal stress on another syllable than the
first,
e.

g.

agent,

universitet,

protestant,

forklara,

telefonera, 'Eerzelius.

of the

N. B. The prefixes be- and for- change Tone II main verb to Tone I, e. g.

40

Tone II
tola

Tone

41
7.

Words

that mostly occur without stress in a sentence, such as Prepositions and Conjunctions, have Tone I,
e.

g. eller,

darfor, over, under.

12.

Tone

II.

Tone II

is

the categories enumerated above.

used in words that do not belong to any of The following groups may
native polysyllabic words with the prine.

be distinguished:
1.

The majority

of

cipal stress on the first syllable,

g. flicka, flickor,

gosse, gossar, kalla, ballade, kallat, kopa, kopte, ko-

^ ,x panae, gammat,

^ gamla,

kV^
trogen,

^ ^ ^ trognare, trognast
.

flickorna, gossarna, applena, binda, bundit, bindande.

2.

The majority

of

compound words,

e.

g.

guldring, affdrs-

man, Andersson, Bergztrom, aktiebolag, tdndsticksfabrik, utrikesdepartementet.


S V

Exceptions:
Sverige, Norge,

Tyskland,

England,
I.

Frankrike,

Danmark have Tone

Diagrams
(The

illustrating the Tones.


In isolated words.

stress is indicated in figures.)

A.

Tone

I.

Words

of 2 syllables:

Words

of 3 syllables:

Words

of 2 syllables:

Words

of 3 syllables:

Words

of

more than

3 syllables:

43

N.

13.

In questions the tones are

rising

instead of falling:

Tone

I.

X
X

44

13.

Signs used to indicate Accent.

1.

In

indicates
stress.

phonetic transcription used in this book a stop(-) principal stress and an inverted comma (') secondary
the

that
nant,

the
it

When placed immediately after a vowel, the stop indicates vowel is long; when placed immediately after a consoindicates that the consonant
is

long (and

in

consequence

the preceding vowel short).

placed immediately tlie vowel is long, and immediately after vowel a consonant if the consonant is long.
( ),

Ex.: mat (ma-t) food The inverted comma 2.


a
if

matt (mat-) weak


c

too,

is

after

Ex.:

sltonliet

(s0-nhe

t)
c

beauty

in a vowel carrying the 3. secondary stress, the inverted comma must, of course, be placed immediately after the vowel, whether the vowel is long or short. In most cases this causes no real inconvenience, as It certain vowels only occur long and others only short. should also be kept in mind that the ending vowel is long if it has strong secondary stress (2) (i-e* in compound words) and short if it has weak secondary stress (1) (see 9).

ungdom (un-dwm ) youth If a doublestressed word ends

Ex.: gosse (gos-a

boy (short ending vowel)


f

Ijusbld (ju-sblo
4.

light- blue (long ending vowel)


f

The
is

stop(-)

and

the

inverted
If

comma(
only a
If

serve not only to

indicate

stress

but also intonation.

stop(-) is used, the


)

word

Tone verted commaf) are used, the word


pronounced
with
I.

both a stop(

and an

inII.

is

pronounced with Tone


Tone

Ex.:
Tone
I II
1

matcn

(ina-tan) the food

fl-ickan (tiik-an

fotterna (foot-ana) the feet

gossarna (gos-ana

the girl c the boys )

45
5. The meaning of a word often depends on the tone. The word anden, for instance, may be pronounced either If pronounced with Tone I or Tone II: an-dan or an-dan with Tone I, it means the duck> (definite form of and). If pronounced with Tone II, it means the spirit (definite form
c
.

of ande).
6.

Many Swedish words mean


I and another thing
Tone
I

with Tone
Ex.:

one thing when pronounced when pronounced with Tone II.


Tone
II
c

anden (an-dan) the duck


buren (bu-ran) the cage panter (pan-tar) panther
eder (e-dar) your
slutet (sha-tat) the

anden (an-dan ) the


c
c

spirit

buren (bu-ran ) carried panter (pan-t9r ) pledges eder (e-dar ) oaths


c
c

end

slutet (sha-tat

closed

14.

The Spoken Language.


differs

Spoken Swedish
uage.
1.

very much from the written lang-

The following are All Nouns end in

the principal divergencies. -a in the definite plural.

Ex.: b'gona (ogoneri) the eyes liuscna (husen) the houses


2.

barna (barnen) the children The noun huvud head, has the form huve,
def. pi. huvena).
g.

(def.

form

Ituvetj

3. Adjectives ending in -ig glrop the Ex.: traki(g), trdki(g)t, tr&Jei(g)a, dull
4.

Many Pronouns

have special colloquial forms.


dsj-,
sej-

Ex.: ja' (jag)

mig, dig, sig are pronounced msj-. de, dem are pronounced dom-, e. g.

dom

sdjer they say;

jag sag dom I saw them


ndgot, intet have the forms nage, inge(t) ndgonting is contracted to na'nting

46
5.

Aft before an Infinitive

is

pronounced

o.

6.

The plural forms

of

Verbs are not used

in

colloquial speech.
Ex.:
ri I'dper we buy (vi Jcdpa) dom springer they run (de springa) dom sprang they ran (de sprungo) The Past of the 1st Conjugation has

7.

the same form

as the Infinitive.

Ex.: ja' kasta' I threw (jag kastade)


1

vi
8.

ropa

we

called (vi ropade)


la'

The short forms


said).

and so are used instead of


c

l<ul<

sade (put,
9.

The verb saga,

10.

sager, is pronounced ssj-a

sej-er.

few Verbs have short colloquial forms in the Ininstead of giva, giver to give bedja, beder to beg
tag a, tager to take
>

finitive

and the Present.


her

Ex.: ge, ger


be,

ta\ ta'r
bli',

blir

bliva, bliver to

become
-c

11.

The Supine
-it.

of

the 4th Conjugation ends in

or

instead of

Ex.: vi
12.

hava tagif) we have taken dom liar sprung e (-i) (de hava sprungit) they have run The Auxiliary Verbs have the following colloquial
liar tage (-i) (vi

forms:

jag dr de aro jag (vi) hade jag var


vi

colloquially pronounced ja
t

dom
ja (vi) had-s ja
vcic

roro

vi va-

jag shall
vi skola
13.
14.

ja ska- (unstressed ska)

viska-(
te

The prepositions mcd, till are pronounced me, The conjunction och is pronounced o.
Final
d,

(ti).

15.

g and

are often dropped after a vowel.

47

Ex.: de(t) (Definite Article and Pronoun)


va(d)

what
day

go(d) good (plural god)


(def. form da'n; plural dar) bread (def. form bro't] plural bro'n) bro(d) 16. Final nd is often assimilated to nn. Ex.: vinn (instead of vind or vinden) wind, the wind

da(g)

lumn (instead of Imnd

or Jmndcn) dog, the

dog

GRAMMAR

222444.

Bjorkhagen. Modern Swedish Grammar.

The Noun.
Articles.
15.
I.

The

Indefinite Article.

Masc.
Fern,

Com.

en son en gossc en doiter en flicka en park en skola

a son

Neuter

ett horn

a horn

a boy a daughter

ett apple

an apple

a girl
a park a school
is:

The

Indefinite Article

en

for masculine, feminine

and common gender;

ett^for neuter gender.

16.

II.

The

Definite Article.
is

The Swedish
as in English.

Definite Article

a terminal

article,

i.

c. it

is

affixed to the end of the Noun, and not placed before the

Noun

Singular.
Masc.
Fern,

sonen
gossen
flickan

the son

Neut.

the boy the girl

hornet the horn applet the apple

Com.

parken the park


skolan
the school

52

The -en

Definite Article
(or

-n)

in the singular is: for masculine, feminine, and

common gender;

-et (or

-t) for

neuter nouns.

The

in a vowel (and in a

shorter forms (-n and -) are used when the Noun ends few other cases, for which see below).

Plural.
Indefinite
1.

Definite

sJcolor

schools

skolorna

the schools
the princes the parks

prinsar parker

princes

prinsarna
parltcrna

parks skomakare shoemakers

skomakarna the shoemakers


-no)

(the final -e is dropped before


2. 3.

dpplen

apples

dpplena

the apples the horns


in

horn

horns

hornen

The
1.

Definite Article has three forms

the plural:

2nd and 3rd 1st, belonging nouns of the 5th Declension ending in Declensions; -are and -ande. The final -e in nouns ending in -are is dropped
for

-na

nouns
for

to

the

also

before -na.
2.

3.

-a for nouns of the 4th Declension. -en for neuter nouns of the 5th Declension.

17.
1.

Remarks on the Formation of the

Definite Singular.

Non-neuter nouns ending


I,

in

(Tone

see

B) take -n (not -en)


artikeln the article

unstressed -el, -er in the definite form:

fdgeln

the bird

dkern
segern
2.

the field
the victory
in unstressed -el, -er (Tone I) the definite form:

Neuter nouns ending


-e

drop the

before

-I

and

-r in

53
Indefinite

Definite

ett ett
ett

segel

a sail

seglet

the sail
the finger
-e
is

exempel an example a finger finger

exemplet the example


fingret

Notice: papper
in this

paper, papperet the paper; the

not

word because it has Tone II. dropped 3. Nouns (non-neuters and neuters) ending in unstressed -en (Tone I) drop the -e before the definite article:
Indefinite

Definite

botten
soclten

bottom
parish

bottnen the bottom

socknen the parish


vapnet
teclmet

vapen
tecken

weapon
sign

the

weapon

the sign
-e is

Notice: siden silk, sidenet the silk; the

not dropped in

word because it has Tone II. 4. The following nouns take the -en) although they have Tone II:
this
Indefinite

definite article

-n

(not

Definite

fader

father

fader n

the father
the mother

moder mother
broder brother
dotter
syster

modem
dottern

brodern the brother


the daughter
sister

daughter
sister

system the

The word himmel (Tone II) heaven, takes the definite 5. form himlen (sometimes himmeln or himmelen). 6. Non-neuter nouns ending in -are (e.g. skomahare shoemaker; bag are baker; liammare hammer) drop the final -e before
the definite article in colloquial speech:

skomakaren
bagaren

(coll.

(coll.

skomakarn) the shoemaker the baker bag am)

hammaren
7.

(coll.

hammam)
in a

the

hammer

Loanwords ending

vowel fluctuate:

54
iirmeen or anu>'n
the

army

idten or iden
liafcet (coll. ~kafet)

the idea
the cafe

poesien

(coll.

poesin)

poetry

filosop.cn (coll. filosofiii) philosophy


8.

Latin words ending in -or take the definite article -n


Indefinite

(not -en):
Definite

doktor

doktorn
professorn

professor
9.

Latin words ending in ~eum,


Indefinite

-ium

drop -urn before

the definite article -et.


Definite

museum

museet

laboratorium laboratoriet
10.

In colloquial speech some nouns ending in -n remain


definite form,
e.

unchanged in the
Indefinite

g.:
Definite

botten

bottom

Uapten captain

mun
grind

mouth
(pronounced
grin-) gate

botten (instead of bottnen) the bottom kapten (instead of kapteneri) the captain mun (instead of munneri) the mouth

grind (instead of grinden) the gate

11.

Nouns derived from Verbs and ending


in the definite form:

in

-an remain

unchanged

borjan

beginning; the beginning Idngtdn longing; the longing

12. The nouns cxamcn examination, and froltcn Miss, do not take the definite article. 13. Nouns containing a short vowel followed by -M, double

the -n in the definite form, e. g. mun mouth, munncn the mouth.

man man, manncn

the

man;

55
18.
1.

Remarks on the Formation of the

Definite Plural.

of

-na

In formal style masculine nouns often take -ne instead in the definite plural:
Indefinite

Definite

kungar kings
bag are bakers
2.

kungarne (or Jcungarna) bagarne (or bagarna)

the kings the bakers

Neuter nouns ending in unstressed


Indefinite

-el) -en,

-er drop

the

-e

before the definite article in the plural:


Definite

segel

sails

seglen

the sails
the examples

exempel

examples

vapen
tecken
fonster

weapons
signs

exemplen vapnen
tecknen
fonstren

the weapons the signs


the the

windows

windows

fruntimmer women
3.

fruntimren

women

Notice the following irregular plurals:


Indefinite plur.
Definite plur.

man man
gas
oga or a
4.

man
gdss

men
geese

mannen (double
gassen mossen

n!) the

men

goose

mus mouse
eye
ear

moss
ogon
oron

mice
eyes
ears

the geese the mice

ogonen
oronen

the eyes the ears

The noun huvud


huvena).

head, has the definite plural

huvudena

(coll.
5.

Notice

and the spoken language in the


Indefinite

the following divergences between the written definite plural of neuter nouns

belonging to the 5th Declension:


Definite

hus
segel

houses
sails

husen

(coll.

husena)

the houses

fonster
6.

windows

seglen (coll. seglena) fonstren (coll, fonsterna)

the sails

the windows

ears,

The definite plurals ogonen the eyes, and oronen the have in colloquial speech the forms ogona, orona.

56

The Use of the


A.

Articles.

The

Definite Article.

In most cases the use of the 19. Swedish corresponds to the use of the
English.
20.

definite article in
definite
article

in

The following are the


Abstract, appellative

principal exceptions:
material nouns,
article.
is

and

when used

in

a general sense, take the definite

Konsten dr

lang, livet dr kort. Ljuset gar fortare an ljudet.

long, life is short. travels faster than sound. Light

Art

Tiden gar. Den allmdnna

Time

flies.

opinionen. dro Jdoka djur. Elefanterna

Public opinion.

Elephants are sagacious animals.

21.

Notice particularly the following words:


helvetet hell

natiwen nature forsynen Providence


bdet fate
kristcnheten Christendom

paradiset paradise skdrselden purgatory

mdnniskan man (mankind)

mtinskligheten humanity

mannen man
kvinnan woman
~kyr~kan

parlamentet Parliament
eftervdrlden posterity samhdllet (societeten) society dlderdomen old age

church skolan school

universitetct college

ungdomen youth
himlen heaven

hovet court

staden town

Examples:
Sddant
forekommer
aldrig

Such things never


nature.

occur

in

naturen. Odct var emot honom.

Sddan dr ungdomen.

Fate was against him. Such is youth.

57

Fader

vdr,

som dr

himlen.

Our Father,
heaven.

whicli

art

in

Mdnniskan spar, Gud rdr. Kvinnan skapades efter mannen.

Man

Woman was

proposes, God disposes. created after man.

Jag gar i Jsyrkan om sondagarna. Om vardagarna gar jag i


sko Ian.

I go to church on Sundays.

On week-days

I go to school.

Han

har
22.

rest in till

staden.

He

has gone up to town.

Names

of meals, seasons, days,

and

festivals

take the

definite article.

De gingo nt efter middagen. Jay brukar ta en promenad fore


frukosten.

They went out

after dinner.

I generally go out for a

walk

before breakfast.

Om

sdndagarna

gar jag

On Sundays

I go to church.

kyrkan.

Varen dr en hdrlig drstid. Om somrarna bo vi pa landet.

Spring is a lovely season. In summer we live in the


country.

Han kom
23.

och hdlsade

pa

oss

He came

to see us at Christmas.

vid julen.

Names

of

streets,

squares,

parks,

and other

public

places take the definite article.

Jag lor pa Kungsgatan.


24.

I live in King's Street.

time and measure take the definite English the indefinite article is used. Nouns denoting time are preceded by a preposition (i, om). De Mr tavlorna kosta 500 kro- These pictures cost 500 kroner nor stycket. apiece. Handskarna kostade sju kro- The gloves cost seven kroner

Nouns denoting
in

article,

where

nor paret.

a pair.
tvd

Pennorna
dussinet.

kosta

kronor

The

pencils

are

two kronor

a dozen.

58

Tdget gar sextio engelska mil

The

timmen. Det hdnder cndast en gang om


i

train travels sixty (Englisli) miles an hour.

It only

happens once a year.

dret.
25.

Forra

last,

is

form.

Notice

the

Definite

followed by a noun in the definite Article of the Adjective in the


fiesta.

expressions

det

mesta,

de

Jagtraffadehonomfdrraveckan (mdnaden, dret).


(But: jag
vecka.
trciffar

met him
be

last

week (month,

lionom ndsta

year). I shall

seeing

him next

week.)

Det mesta teet kommer frdn Kina.

Most tea comes from China. Most shops are closed on Sundays.

DC fiesta affdrerna dro stdngda pd sdndagarna.


26.

Nouns preceded by

the epithets bdda both, vardera

either,

and

in gender a neither, require the definite article.

Pd

vardera sidan

(onpd omse
ute.

On

either side of the fairway.


out.

sidor)

om

segelleden.

Bdda gossarna

voro

Both boys were

27. In several cases, which cannot be specially classified, an indefinite form in English corresponds to a definite form in Swedish. Ex. hela dagen all day, liela natten all night, blind pa ena ogat blind of one eye, hdlften av landet half of the country, vara av den dsikten to be of opinion, forlora tdla-

patience, doma till doden sentence to death, vid soluppgdngcn at sunrise, om dagen by day, om natten by

modet
night,

lose

till

namnet by name,

till

utseendet by sight,
in

etc.

28.

The

definite

article

Swedish often corresponds

to a possessive adjective in English.

Han

stoppadc handen i fickan. Jcunde inte halla balansen.

He put his hand in his pocket. He could not keep his balance.

59
V

29.

Names
Jios

of persons, vessels,

and

hotels

do not take the

definite article.

Jag

bor

Lundstroms.

arn

staying at the Lundfor

stroms'.

Han
Han
a

restc

till

New York med He


Strand.

sailed

New York

in

Aquitania.
tog in
30.

pa

the Aquitania. He put up at the Strand.

In several cases, which cannot be specially classified form in English corresponds to an indefinite form in Swedish. han stcg av pa fel (ordtt) station he got out at Ex.: the wrong station, jag shall stiga av vid ndsta station I am getting out at the next station, i nuvarande ogonblick at
definite
1

the present moment, det d'r pel hb'ger (vdnster) sida it is on the right (left) hand side, norr (soder, osier, vaster) om Stockholm to the north (south, east, west) of Stockholm, spela piano play the piano, spela flojt play the flute, ha tandvdrJc have the toothache, etc.

B.

The

Indefinite Article.

In most cases the use of the ,31. Swedish corresponds with the use of the
English.
1.

indefinite article in indefinite article in

Notice the following expressions: With the indefinite article:

2.

en del av pengarna Without the indefinite


is

part of the
article:

money

han vdntar pa svar he


skriver

waiting for an answer, han

brev he is writing a letter, gora narr av ndgon make a fool of a person, ha oga for have an eye for, hurudan karl dr han? what sort of a man is he? han hade stor lust att for-

so'ka

got a headache,

he had a great mind to try, jag har huvudvdrk I have man har rdtt att forsvara sig one has a right to defend oneself, gora slut pa put a stop to, vara slut be at an end, tag a plats take a situation,

60
32. Predicative
gion, profession, trade,

nouns denoting a person's nationality, reliage etc. do not take the indefinite article.
or

They are as a rule preceded by the prepositions till or for, by the word som (except after the verbs vara and ~blivd).
Ibsen dr norrman, Strindberg dr svensk. Jlannnen var protestant, lians hustru katolik. Han dr Itikare till yrket.
Ibsen
is

berg

is

a Norwegian, Strinda Swede.

The husband was


his wife a

Roman

a Protestant, Catholic.

He

is

a physician by profesas a child he wrote no-

sion.

Redan

sow

barn skrev han

ro-

Even

maner.

vels.

Han

blev

vald till riksdags-

He was
not

elected a

Member

of

man.
33.

Parliament.

The

vilken

how

used after the word (or what) in exclamations, nor after Imr however,
indefinite
article
is

or

mdngen many

a (one).
(but: en

Vilken lidrlig utsikt!

What

a splendid view!

sddan hdrlig utsikt!} Inser du inte, vilket oerhort misstag du liar gjort?

Don't you realise what a termistake rible you have

Hur

stort misstag

jag an

liar
ett

gjort,

sd

har

du gjort

made? However great a mistake I have made, you have made


a
still

dnnu
ut.

storre.

Mdngen gang kan

det se mbrkt

Many

greater one. a time the outlook

may

be dark.

34. The indefinite article is placed before and not after the Adjective in expressions like the following: en halv mil half a mile, en halo timnie half an hour, ctt sddant svdrt problem so difficult a problem, vid en sddan tid

at such a time, hon var en lika skicklig politiker som Elisabet sjdlv she was as clever a politician as Elisabeth herself, ett alltfor stnrt mixstag too great a mistake, etc.

61

Gender.
35.
line,

The Swedish language has four Genders: mascucommon, and


neuter.
is:

feminine,

A
1.

Noun

masculine, if the

pronoun

han

(he) can be used instead

of the

Noun.

Ex.: gossen: lian the boy: he. 2. feminine, if the pronoun lion (she) can be used instead of the Noun. Ex.: flickan: lion the girl: she. 3. common, if the pronoun den
of the

(it)

can be used instead

Noun.
it.

Ex.: stolen: den the chair:


4.

neuter,

if

the pronoun det


it.

(it)

can be used instead of

the Noun.

Ex.: bordet: det the table:

In

masculine, feminine, and common nouns the

definite

singular ends in -n. Ex.: gossen, flickan; stolen. In neuter nouns the definite singular ends in Ex.: lor det.
36.
1.

-t.

I.

Masculine are:

Designations of men and male animals. Ex.: Erik; Jconung king, tjur bull, tupp cock. 2. Designations of higher animals are generally treated
as masculine even if they are
:

common to males and females. Ex. elefanten the elephant, hasten the horse, ornen the eagle.
37.
1.

II.

Feminine are:

Designations of women and female animals. Ex.: Maria; drottning queen, ho cow, Mna hen. 2. Nouns designating animals are often feminine if the nominative ends in -a. They may also be treated as of com-

mon

gender. Ex.: rdtta mouse, duva pigeon, fluga

fly.

62
3.

A
is it?

few other nouns ending

in -

c.

g.

klocka clock,

blomma
time
4.

flower.

N.B.

Hur

mycket dr klockan?
-niatniiska

Hon

<h-

hale sju.

What

It is half past six.

The
38.

noun

man

(including

both

man and

woman).
III.

Common

are:

Designations of things and animals (with the above exceptions) if the definite form ends in ~n.
1.

snigeln the snail, fdgeln the bird, fisken the fish, gdddan the pike, stolen the chair, so/fan the sofa, morgonen the morning, rosen the rose, Jiandcn the hand, foten the
Ex.:
foot.
2.

Names

of

months, seasons, and festivals.

Ex.: vdren

spring,

sommaren summer, hasten autumn,


Christmas, pdsken Easter, pingsten

vintern
3.

winter, julen

Whitsuntide.

Names

of trees.

Ex.: bjorken the birch, granen the spruce-tree, fallen the Scotch fir, poppeln the poplar.
4.

Vatter, Thcmsen the Thames, Thorsten the Thorsten, Balder the Balder.

Ex.:

Names of lakes, rivers, and boats. Mdlaren Lake Malar, Vattern Lake
in:

5.

Nouns ending

-ad,

-are,

-dom,

-hct,

-ing,

-leJc,

-ion.

domen

the month, hammaren the hammer, barnskonhcten the beauty, tdrningen the die, karchildhood, leken love, nationen the nation.
Ex.:

mdnaden

39.
1.

IV.

Neuter are:
if

Designations of things and animals form ends in -t.

the definite

Ex.: fdret the sheep, Met the bee, lejonet the lion, lordet the table, fonstret the window, taket the roof, scglet the sail, fingret the finger.

Names of continents, countries, mountains, provinces, towns, and other inhabited places.
2.

63

Ex. Europa, Asien, England, Sverige (Sweden), Mont Blanc, Dalarna, Stockholm, London, Mora, Drottningnolm. 3. The letters of the alphabet. Ex.: ett a an a, ett I a b, etc.
:

4.

Nouns ending
bryggeriet a museum,

in

-en',

-on (names of berries), -urn.


ett

Ex.:

the
ett

museum

brewery, liallonet the raspberry, laboratorium a. laboratory.

40.

Exceptions.

neuter articles (def.

titles ending in -bud and -rdd take the and indef.). Ex.: ett sandebud an ambassador, ett statsrdd a minister. N.B. The pronoun used instead of these nouns is han
1.

The masculine

(not det). Ex.: Ar statsrddet lieinma?

Is the minister at

home?

2.

takes

Nej, han har gait ut. No, he has gone out. The feminine appellation fruntimmcr woman, lady, the neuter articles, but the pronoun used instead of
(def.

fruntimmer is lion (not det). Ex.: Det ar ett fruntimmer


buren.

Son

ber ait fa tala

med

doktorn.

form fruntimret) i tamThere is a woman

in the hall.
3.

4.

She wants to speak to the doctor. The noun barn child, is neuter (ett barn, barnet). Nouns like kusin cousin, gemdl consort, patient patient,

are

masculine or feminine according as they refer to


5.

men

or

women.
In poetry abstract nouns are often personified and treated as feminine (sometimes masculine).
Ex.: sanningen truth, friheten liberty. 6. The noun sto mare, is neuter.
7.

altar, ett
8.

few words ending in -are are neuter: ett altare an ankare an anchor. Two nouns ending in -on are common: morgonen the

morning, aftoneti the evening.

64

41.
1.

Remarks on Gender.
in

Common

and neuter

Swedish correspond
it.

to

neuter

in English.
2.

3.

The pronouns den and det correspond to To know whether a noun denoting a thing
is

or an ani-

mal

common
No

tionary.

or neuter, it is necessary to consult a dichard and fast rules can be given.


are
c.

Common

g.:

Neuter are

e.

g.:

stolen the chair

bordet the table


golvet the floor Met the bee
fdret the sheep

bollcn the ball gdsen the goose geten the goat

Case.
42. A Swedish noun has two case-forms: nominative and genitive. The nominative is also used as objective case. 43. The genitive is formed by adding -s to tae nominative, both in the definite and in the indefinite form, both in the singular and in the plural:

Ex.:

Nona.
en skola a school

Gen.
en skolas of a school
sJcolans of the school
slcolors of schools

skolan the school


skolor schools

skolorna the schools

sliolornas of the schools


is

N.B.

No

apostrophe

used before the

-s.

44.
1.

Remarks on the
In

Genitive.
in ~s has the
is

The

same form

genitive of proper as the nominative.

names ending

writing, the genitive

65

by an apostrophe after -s. Ex.: Johannes' evangellnm the Gospel according to St. John. The genitive of nouns ending in -s, e. g. prins, dans, 2. should be avoided in the indefinite form.
indicated
3.

Latin names, especially those ending in -us, often take


:

the Latin genitive.

Ex. Pauli brev till romarna St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, Berselii park Berzelius' Park.

The Use of the


45.

Genitive.

in English.

The genitive in -s is more common in Swedish than Not only nouns denoting living beings but also

nouns denoting inanimate objects take the genitive in -s. Ex.: Imsets agare the owner of the house, bergets fot the foot of the mountain, en arans man a man of honour, parkens trad
the trees of the park, ljusets hastighet the rapidity of light, etc. 46. Even adjectives and participles used as nouns take
s in the genitive. Ex.: den gamles

tacksamhet the old man's gratitude, de


etc.

na'rvarandes mening the opinion of those present, In cases like the following the genitive 47.
in Swedish.

is

not used

Han

bor hos sin master.


receptet
till na'r-

He

is

staying at his aunt's.

Jag gick med

maste apotek.

I took the prescription to the nearest chemist's.

Han

gick

till

bagarcn.
)

He went

to the baker's.
>

En En En

van till hans far (or: av hans jars vanner). slakting till min hustru.
\

A
\

f +1 friend of his father


-i

L>

>

s.

relative of

my

wife's.

(Compare:

En

av mina vanner.

friend of mine.)

222444.

Bjdrkhagtn, Mode-n

SirecUsh

Grammar.

66

Prepositional Epithets.
48.

The English preposition

of

in epithets corres-

ponds to various prepositions in Swedish. Ex. slaget rid Trafalgar the battle of Trafalgar, kdrleken till Gud the love of God, herr Andersson frdn Stockholm Mr Andersson of Stockholm, dorren till rummet the door of the
:

room,
tain,

toppen
etc.

av

berget or bergstoppen the top of the

moun-

gudsfruktan the fear of God, tanken


49.

pa

doden the thought

of death,

quantity are not followed by a in Swedish. preposition Ex. en butelj vin a bottle of wine, en bit popper (or en pappersbit) a piece of paper, ett glas vatten a glass of water, ett par mdnader a couple of months, ett par skor a pair of of money, en hel del bcsvdr a shoes, mycket pengar plenty
:

Nouns denoting

great deal of of wires, etc.


50.

trouble,

ett stort

antal trddar a great

number

Notice the following expressions: Vi voro fyra stycken. There were four of us. Giv mig tvd stycken. Give me two of them. De dro for manga. There are too many of them.

51.

The expressions
en sorts.

a kind

of>,

a sort of

are transla-

ted

by

ett slags,

Alia mojliga slags manniskor.

Ett nytt slags potatis. Jag tycker inte om sddant. Tvd sorters papper.
52.
lations,

All sorts and conditions men. A new kind of potatoes.

of

I don't like that sort of thing. Two kinds of paper.

No preposition is used after geographical appelsuch as land country, rike kingdom, stad town, land-

*>kap province, etc.

On Gottland
Ostersjan.

ligger milt

The island
ed
in
Baltic.

of Gotland

is situat-

the

middle

of

the

Landskapet Dalarna. Konungariket Sverige.


53.

The province The kingdom


is
titel title,

of Dalarna.

of Sweden.

No preposition

used after the nouns mdnad


rop cry, parti game, betydelsc

month, namn name,


sense.

En
Han
De

bagare vid
fick

namn Lund-

baker of the name of Lundberg.


title of professor

berg.

titeln professor:
ctt

The

w as
r

be-

spclade

parti bridge.

Jannari mdnad dr den kallaste.

stowed upon him. They played a game of bridge. The month of January is the
coldest.

N.V.

Den

tjugoforsta
sista januari.

The The

21st of April.
last of

april.

Den
54.

January.
used in Swedish

No determinative pronoun

is

before a genitive in cases like the following:

Ljusets hastighet dr storre an

The rapidity
than
that

of light

is

greater

Ijudets.

of sound.

Indirect Object.
55.

No

preposition precedes the


attribute,

indirect object after

the

verbs

tillskriva

meddela communicate,

synas

seem, forefalla appear, tilllwra belong, lidnda happen.

Dikten har

tillskrivits

Tegner.
sina

The poem has been


to Tegner.

attributed

Han tneddelade mig


iakttagelser.

He communicated
tions to me.

his observa-

Oss forefaller det omojligt.

To us

it

seems impossible.

68

Huset tillhor nvig. Det foil Jtouoiu aldrig in, han kunde ha ortitt.

The house belongs


att

to me.

It never

occurred to

him that
to the

he might be wrong.

Har

ndgonthig
a\*
56.

It

ant poj-

Has anything happened


boys?

sition

The when it

indirect object
is

is often used without a prepogoverned by a predicative adjective.

Jag

skulle bli

er mycket

for-

bunden.

I should be very to you. in numbers.

much

obliged
to us

Fiendernavoro oss overlay sna


i

The enemy were superior The


old

antal.

De gamla
lika
57.

visorna dro

mig
tell"

songs

are as dear to

kdra som ndgonsin.

me
is

as ever.

The verb "to


(at).

translated

by

tala

om

for

or saga
..
.

bag
-tr

Tala inte om det for ndgon.} J ,A , , det inte at nagon.


.

Do
ATri

_.

not

tell

anybody.

Vem taladc om det for j Vem har sagt detJ


1
,

dig?}
J

Who

told

you?

Sag mig
er.

en sak.
att

Tell

me

something.

Jag har ndgonting

saga

I have something to say to you.

Sdg at

lionom, att han kommer hit. Sag dt honom,attjag villtala


1
l

Tell
Tell

him

to

come
I

here.

him that

want

to

speak

mcd honom.
58.

to him.

The
it

indirect

object is preceded

by the preposition
a
for

at to,

when

comes after the direct

object.

Han

kopte en segelbdt at inig och en dngmaskin fit

He bought me and min

sailing-boat

a steam-engine for

bror.
1

my
stress on dt.

brother.

With the

69

Declensions.
59.

different
60.

The Swedish language has five declensions, e. five ways of forming the plural of nouns. The plural of nouns belonging to the 1st Decleni.

sion ends in -or*

The plural ends in -ar.

of

nouns belonging

to the

2nd Declension

The

plural

of

nouns belonging to the 3rd Declension

ends in -er.

The plural
in -n.

of nouns belonging to the

4th Declension ends

The plural of nouns belonging to the 5th Declension has the same form as the singular.

61.

1st Declension.

Plural termination: -or.


Singular
1.

Plural

en sUola
sJcolan

a school

sfcolor

schools

the school
a rose the rose

sftolOTnn, the schools

2.

en ros rosvn
62.

rosor roses rosorna the roses

To the

1st Declension belong:

1.

street, flagga flag, tavla picture, etc. They drop the final -a before the plural termination: Jcronor, flickor, gator, tavlor.

Ex.:

Non-neuter nouns ending in -a. Itrona crown, fliclca girl, gata

(Exception: historia story, plur. historier.)


2.

few others:
leg, toffel

ros
slipper,

rose,

svan swan, vug wave, vad calf of the udcr vein.

70

In the plural:
ddror.

rosor,

svanor,

vagor,

vador,

tofflor,

N.B. Anor ancestors or pedigree, bannor chidings, matvaror victuals, inalvor entrails, are only used in the plural.

63.

2nd Declension.

Plural termination: -ar.

71
5.

The following nouns have an irregular plural


Sing.
Plur.

sommar summer
afton evening

somrar
aftnar

morgon morning
djdvul devil

morgnar
djdvlar

moder mother
dotter

modrar
dottrar

daughter

N.J3. Fordldrar parents, and are only used in the plural.

pengar (penning ar) money,

65.

3rd Declension.
Plural

Plural termination: ~er.


Singular
1.

en park parkvn
en hand

a park the park a hand


the hand

parks the parks

2.

hands?

hands
the hands

handen
3.

en protestant
protestanten

protestanter protestanternn
a negro

4.

en neger negern

negrer

the negro
a doctor
the doctor

negroes the negroes


doctors

5.

en doktor doktorn
ett

the doctors

6.

bageri

bagerist
7.

a bakery the bakery

bagerier
bagerierna,

bakeries
the bakeries

ett

museum
of this

museer
group have Tone
II.

musevt
1

Plurals
I.

Plurals of the other groups have

Tone
2

With the

stress shifted on to -or-.

6(>.

To the 3rd Declension belong:

monosyllabic nouns ending in a consonant, c. </. fdrg colour, vers verse, form form, dam lady, grans boundary. They have Tone II in the plural. 2. The following nouns, which modify their root-vowel in
1.

Many

the plural:
Sing.
Plur.

hand hand and duck


brand brand rand stripe
strand beach tand tooth
(n.) country tang pair of tongs stdng pole ledamot member

ha'nde.r

Under
brdnder rdnder
strdnder
t

cinder

land

lander
tdnger
st anger

son son
stad town
bolt

ledamoter (Tone II) soner (Tone II) stdder


bocJcer

book

fot foot

rot root

fdtter rotter

natt night

natter
bokstaver

bokstav letter in the

alphabet

N.B. All these plurals (except ledamoter and soncr) have Tone I. 3. The following nouns, which double the final consonant
in the plural:
Sinjr.
!I

Plur.

ft

tint

goat nut

getter (Tone I) nutter (Tone I)

73
4.

Nouns ending
JcunsJcap

in

-at?,

-slzap,

-nd'r

and

-else,

e.

g.

mdnad

knowledge, konstnar artist, lidndelse event. The final -c in -else is dropped in the plural: handelser. 5. Non-neuter nouns of foreign origin (loan-words) with the stress on the last syllable, e. g. akademi academy, arme

month,

army, ide idea, metall metal, diamant diamond, nation nation. Plur. akademier, .armeer, ideer, etc.
6.

Latin nouns

in

-eum and -ium,


before

e.

g.

museum, laboraending: museer,


-e be-

torium.

They drop -um


Loan-words ending

the

plural

laboratories
7.

in -arie,

-ie.

These drop the

fore the plural termination, e. g. bibliotekarie librarian, dktie share. Plur. bibUotelcdrier, aktier.
8.

Loan-words ending in Loan-words ending


in

-or,

e.

g.

doctor, professor.
-or-).

In

the plural: doktorer, professorer (with the stress on


9.

unstressed

-el,

-er,

e.

g.

fabel

mirakel miracle, muskel muscle, mobel piece of furniture, fiber fibre, neger negro. (Exception: tiger tiger, pi. tigrar.) The -e is dropped in the plural: fabler, miraJcler, muskier,
fable,

mobler, fibrer, negrer.


10.
11.

Neuter nouns ending in

-eri,

e.

g.

bryggeri brewery.

The following nouns ending


instead of -er:

in a

vowel form

their plural by adding -r


Sing,

mo
hustru

maiden
wife

pi.

mor
hustrur

jungfru
Jco

maid cow
claw
shoe
toe

jungfrur
Jcor

Ido
sJco

Idor

skor
tar
fra'nder (Tone I!)

td

frande (Tone II) relative


fiende

enemy

fiender

bonde (Tone II) peasant stadsbo town- dweller

bonder (Tone
stadsbor

I!)

74
12.

The following nouns

are

only

used in the plural:

grdnsdker vegetables, ranker intrigues, ferier vacation, /?nanser finances, kalsonger pants, orgier orgies, specerier,
ri kindlier

groceries.

67.

4th Declension.

Plural termination -n*

75

70.

5th Declension.

Plural like singular.


Singular
1.

Plural

ett

horn

a horn

hornet
2.

the horn

horn hornen

horns
1

the horns

3.

en bagare bagaren en resande resanden

a baker
the baker

a traveller

bagare 2 bagarnn resande

bakers
the bakers
travellers

the traveller resandensL 2 the travellers

71.

To the 5th Declension belong:

1. Neuter nouns ending in a consonant, e. g. barn child, namn name, hus bouse, bad bath. Also neuter loan-words

ending in a consonant, e. g. kapital, ackord. 2. Nouns ending in -are and -ande, e. g. skomakare shoemaker, resande traveller, anJcare (neuter!) anchor. 3. Some nouns (names of peoples and Latin words) ending in -er, e. g. belgier a Belgian, egyptier an Egyptian, indier an Indian, perser a Persian; akademiker academician, botaniker botanist, musiker musician.
4.

The names

of the suits in cards: hjdrter, ruter, klover,

spader hearts, diamonds, clubs, spades. 5. Nouns denoting measure: en mil a mile, en kilometer, en meter, en turn an inch, en liter, en ton (ton-).
72.
1.

The

neuter

take
2.

the

definite

article

nouns of this declension (except ankare) -en (instead of -na) in the plural:
-are,

hornen, barnen.

The

non-neuter

nouns ending in

-ande,

and

-er

have the regular


1

definite article -na in the plural:

bagarna,

See See

72. 1.

72. 2.

76

rcsandena,

cgypticrna.

The

final

-e in

-are

is

dropped be-

fore the definite article in the plural.


73.

The following nouns are


Sing.

irregular in

the plu-

ral:
Plur.

en

man
n!)

mannen (double
en gas

man the man


a

tniin

men
(double n!) the

mannen
gass

men

gdsen en lus
en

a goose the goose

gassen
loss

geese the geese


lice

a louse
the louse
a mouse
the

lossen

the lice

mus

musen
en fader

mouse

moss moss en
fader

mice
the mice
fathers

a father

fader n

the father en broder a brother brodern the brother

fdderna
broder

the fathers
brothers

brodcrna the brothers

Remarks on Number.
74.

The following nouns


plural (in
Sing.

and in the

are used both in the singular English only in the singular):


Plur.

rad a piece of advice ett goromdl a piece of business en mobel a piece of furniture en inkomst an income
ett

rad advice
(joromdl business

mobler furniture inkomster income


underrdttelser information

en underrdttelse a piece of in-

formation
(en)

kunskap knowledge

en penning a coin
ett framstcf/ progress en nyhet a piece of news

kunskaper knowledge pengar money fram xt eg progress nylicter news

77

Han har my diet smd inJcomster. Kunslcap ar maid. Han


liar

He

Knowledge

goda

Itunskaper

He

has a very poor income. is power. has a good knowledge of

frdmmande

sprak.

foreign languages.

De gjorde snabba Mina pengar dro


75.

framsteg.
stulna.

Det var goda nyheter.

They made rapid progress. My money is stolen. That is good news.

Notice the singular form of the following nouns:


a pair of scissors

en sax

(den har saxen these scissors) two pairs of scissors) (tvd saxar
en passare en tang a pair of compasses a pair of tongs ashes
contents
oats
riches

aska
innehdll

navre
riJcedom

en trappa tack
Ion

a flight of stairs

(i

trappan on the stairs)

thanks

wages

The Adjective.
I.

Declensions.
Indefinite Declension.

76.

A.

Singular

Non-Neuter

(M., F.

&

C.)

Neuter

varwi warm
Plural
(all

varmt
Genders)
a

varma
Ex.:

En varm sommar
Ett varmt bad Varma somrar

warm summer. warm bath. warm summers.

78

The Indefinite Declension has three forms, viz.: 1. One for the non-neuter singular: varm. 2. One for the neuter singular, formed by adding -: rarntt. One for the plural of all genders, formed by adding -a 3.
to the non-neuter sing.:

varma.

The
Ex.:

indefinite forms are also used

predicatively.
is

Sommaren dr varm the summer

warm.

Badet dr varmt the bath is warm. Somrarna dro varma the summers are warm.
77.

B.

Definite Declension.
(all

Singular and Plural

Genders)

varma
Ex.:

Den varma sommaren the warm summer. Det varma badet the warm bath. De varma somrarna the warm summers.
The
Definite Declension has

78.

It is like the plural of the Indefinite Declension. nite form is generally preceded by
the Definite Article of the Adjective:

only one form: varma. The defi-

den
det

for the for the

non-neuter in the singular; neuter in the singular;


of all genders.

de
79.

for the
It

plural

N.B.

must be observed that the Noun takes the


is

(terminal) Definite Article although the Adjective

preceded

det, de: den varma sommaren, de varma somrarna.


80.

by den 9

det

varma badet,

Remarks on the Formation of the Neuter


Indefinite Declension.

in the

1.
-t

Adjectives that end in a stressed

vowel take double

in the neuter.

79

Ex.: bid blue

neuter: bldtt

(pi.

blda)

grd grey wy new

grdtt
nytt
fritt

(pi. (pi.
(pi.

#rda) w/a)

/H

free

/Ha)
-ew drop the -n in

2. Adjectives that end in the neuter.

unstressed

Ex.: mogen ripe small liten

neuter: moget
fo'fefl

(pi. (pi.

mogna)

own
-

eget

(pi.

3. preceded by a consonant Adjectives that end in remain unchanged in the neuter.

Ex.: fast firm

neuter: fast
sfoZtf

(pi.

proud
4.

(pi.

Monosyllabic adjectives that end in -t preceded by long vowel have double -t and short vowel in the
Ex.: sot sweet
vat
5.

neuter.

neuter: sott

(pi.

sotd)

wet
that

vatt (pi.

Adjectives

end in

-it

remain unchanged in the

neuter.

Ex.:
6.

trott tired

neuter:

tr'ott

(pi.

trotta)

Adjectives that end in -d

preceded by
(pi.

consonant

drop the -d in the neuter.


Ex.: ond
evil

neuter: ont

onda)

blind blind

blint (pi. blinda)

hard hard mild mild


7.

Mr
m*7<

(pi.

hard a)
milda)

(pi.

Adjectives
into, -ft.

that

end in -d preceded by a vowel


neuter: gott

change -d

Ex.: #od

good glad glad

(pi.

#oda)

#Zaft (pi. glada}

80
Adjectives that end in -nn drop one -n in the neuter. Ex.: sann true neuter: stint (pi. sanna)
8.

adjectives are not used in the neuter of the Indefinite Declension: lat lazy, rcidd frightened, singular
9.

The following

hogcr right, vanster

left.

81.

Remarks on the Formation

of the Plural and the

Definite Declension.

Adjectives that end in unstressed -al\ -n?, -e/, -er drop the vowel proceeding -?, -n, -r in the plural and in the definite form.
1.

Ex.:

gammal
mogen
adel

old
ripe

plural and def. form:

gamla
mognci

(one m!)

noble

ddla
t

tapper
2.

brave
little,

appro,

The

adjective liten

is

irregular:

liten
ett

flicka

little girl

litet barn
flickor (barn)

little child

smd {en

little girls (children)

lilla flicJcan
det lilla barnet

the little girl the little child

de {densmd
3.

flicJcorna (barnen) the little girls (children)

the termination

In the masculine singular of the definite declension It should -e is sometimes used instead of -a. be used (in the masculine singular) instead of -a in always
a)

the following cases:

In exclamations and in solemn apostrophes.

Ex.: gode

Gud! good God!


vein!

Mre

dear friend!

81

the Adjective is used as a Noun. Ex.: denMinde the blind man (compare: den llinda the blind woman)
b)
c)

When

When

the Adjective

is

used after a proper name as a

surname.
Ex.: Karl den store
".--

Charlemagne
St.

Erik den helige


y C"
',<
.

Eric
.

Remarks on the Use of the Indefinite and the Definite


Declensions.
82.

A.

the indefinite declension


1.

The Adjective should be declined according when used:


indefinite adjectives:

to

with the

Ex.:

mdngen

(varje) tapper soldat

many

(every) brave

soldier
<v

ingen ovdnlig handling

ndgon vdnlig mdnniska


2.

no unkind action some kind person

with the

interrogative adjectives in exclamations:

Ex.: vilken hdrlig utsikt!


^i

what

a glorious view!

83.

13.

the

definite

The Adjective should be declined according to declension (but without the definite article) when

used:
1.

after a genitive:

Ex.: Anderssons

nya 1ms

hans (hennes, deras) nya husets nya dgare


2.

Jtus his (her, their)

Andersson's new house new house the new owner of the


house

after a personal pronoun:


I,

Ex.: jag olyckliga mannisJca!


3.

unhappy man!

after a possessive adjective:


(ditt, vart,
ert,

Ex.: mitt

sitt)

nya. bus

my

(thy, our, your,

his)
6 222444.

new house

Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar.

8L>

4.

after a demonstrative adjective:

Ex.: detta
5.

nya hns

(dct hiir

nya Imset)
the

this

new house
see over

after a determinative adjective:

Ex.: det

nya hus, som ser ddr borta

du

new 'house you

there

6.

after a relative pronoun:

Ex.: han

dr en man, vars goda smaJc jag Jean


lita

he

is

man whose good

taste

I can rely on

pa
(Com-

7.

in forms of address:

Ex.: hare van! dear friend! Jcara barn! dear child!


pare:
8.

Basta Herr Andersson! Dear Mr Andersson.)


little

When
:

the Adjective qualifies a following proper name:

Ex.
9.

lilla

Maria

Maria, Tjocka Bcrta Big Bertha.

commercial correspondence expressions like the folare often met with: ovanndmnda brev the above-menlowing tioned letter, nedan angivna dag the date indicated below,

In

narslutna skrivelse the enclosed


84.
definite

letter.

Notice that in all these cases the Adjective has the

form, but the Noun the indefinite form. Except after the demonstrative adjectives den hdr and den dar, when both the

Adjective and the


85.
definite

Noun take

the

def.

form.

adjective egen, own, takes the inform after a genitive and after a possessive adjective. Ex.: Anderssons egen bror Andersson's own brother, hans
(min, var) eg en bror his (my, our)
(ditt,

Exception: The

own

brother, mitt

vdrt,

ert,

hans) eget hus


(pi.

my

(thy, our, your,

his)

own

house,

vdra

egna

barn

our own

children).
86. Notice the omission of the Definite Article of the Adjective in expressions like the following: i samma dgonblick at the same moment, han sdlde det i ndrmaste 8tad he sold it in the nearest town;

83
Atlantiska oceanen the Atlantic Ocean, norra (so'dra, ostra
vastra, mellersta) Sverige the north (south, east, west, centre) of Sweden;

hela

landet

all

the

sjdlva kungen the


87.

King

country, halva staden half the town, himself, etc.


is

The

Definite Article of the Adjective

often omitted

in headings,

Ex.:

Andra

kapitlet Chapter TI, Franska revolutionen the French Revolution, etc.

Genitive of Adjectives.
88.

When
Han

an Adjective

is

used as a

Noun

it

takes

in the genitive.

Ex.:

dr de fattigas van.

He

is

Vi tro
.
,

pa

det

godas

slutliga seger.

the friend of the poor. believe in the

We

final victory of good.


89.

When

an Adjective follows after the

qualified

Noun

the Adjective takes the genitive -s instead of the Noun. den stores soner the sons of Charlemagne.

Indeclinable Adjectives.
90.

in the neuter

Adjectives that end in -a and and in the plural.

-e

remain unchanged

Ex.: ring a humble,

bra good, stilla quiet,

udda odd, ukta

genuine, samtida contemporary, gyllene golden, ode desert, gdngse current. En bra karl a good fellow, ett bra svar a good ans-

wer,
91.

etc.

The

flicka!

poor

adjective stackars does not change: stackars girl! stackars barn! poor child! stackars md'nni-

skor! poor people!

84

II.
92.
1.

Comparison.
of comparison are:
3.

The degrees

Positive:

2.

Comparative:

Superlative:

varm
warm

vann&re
warmer

varmast
warmest

The regular terminations of the Comparative 93. and the Superlative are -are and -ast. They are al-

ways
Ex.:

added

to the

non-neuter form of the Positive.

~kall

cold

stark strong

kallare starkare

kallast

starkast

ny new
trott tired

nyare
trottare

nyast
trottast

sann true
94.
-e

sannare

sannast
-el,

If
I,

the Positive ends in unstressed

-en, -er,

the

before

n, r is

Ex.: adel noble

dropped in the Comparative and Superlative. ddlast ddlare

mogen
95.

ripe

mognare
vackrare
-a,

mognast
vackrast
this

vacker pretty

If the Positive ends in

vowel

is

dropped in

the Comparative and the Superlative.


Ex.: ring a humble
96.

ringare

ringast

tive
-are

The following adjectives form their Comparaand Superlative by adding -re and -st (instead of
-ast).

and

Ex.: hog high grov coarse


stor big

hogre grovre
storre

hogst
grovst
storst

ung young tung heavy


lung long

yngre
tyngre
Icingre

yngst
tyngst
Idngst

trdng narrow

trdngre

trdngst

85
lag low fa few

Idgre

Idgst

farre

smarre small
tive
97. These adjectives modify their vowel in the Comparaand Superlative:

o is

changed into

a u

a
y
-r.

Smarre and fdrre have doable


98.

The following adjectives have


good
bdttre

irregular

com-

parison:

god

(or bra)

bast (def. form: bdsta)


(def. form: stimstd) vdrst (def. form vdrsta] didst (def. form: dldsta)
:

ddlig bad ond bad

sdmre
vdrre

sdmst

gammal

old

liten little

7dre mind re

minst

(def.

form: minsta)

de fiesta /?era (or fler) many mera (or mer) wes (def. form: mesta) mycken much 99. Some adjectives form their Comparative and Super-

manga

pi.

lative
i.

by mera more, and mest most, instead of terminations, the adjectives that end in -ad, -e, -isk and all Past Participles used as Adjectives.
e.

Ex.:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

godhjartad kind-hearted ode desert


nitisk zealous
dlsJcad beloved

mera godhjdrtad mera ode mera nitisk mera alskad


only
occur
in

mest godhjdrtad mest ode

mest nitisJc mest alskad


the Comparative

100.

Some

adjectives

and the Superlative.


Ex.: frdmre fore-, front inre inner
yttre outer

frdmst foremost innerst innermost


ytterst

outermost

Declensions of the Comparative and the Superlative.


I.

The Comparative.

101. The Comparative is indeclinable* It has the same form in the neuter as in the non-neuter, the same form in the plural as in the singular, and the same form in the definite as in

the indefinite declension.


Indefinite Declension.

Ex.: en varmare
ett

sommar

a warmer
a

varmare lad varmare somrar

summer warmer bath warmer summers

Definite Declension.

den varmare sommaren det varmare badet de varmare somrarna

the

warmer summer warmer bath the warmer summers


the

II.

The

Superlative.

Indefinite Declension.

form of the Superlative ends in -ast neuter and plural alike). (or -st), (common, Ex.: sommaren ar varmast the summer is warmest
102.

The

indefinite

badet ar varmast

the bath

somrarna

tiro

varmast

the

is warmest summers are warmest

Definite Declension.

103.

Superlatives ending

in

-ast take the termination -c

in

the definite form

(common, neuter and plural alike). Ex.: den varmaste sommaren the warmest summer '/</ varmaste ladet the warmest bath
de varmaste somrarna
the warmest

summers

87
104. N.B. Superlatives that end in -st (instead of -ast) take the termination -a (instead of -e) in the definite form.

Ex.: den yngsta dottern det dldsta barnet de bdsta eleverna


105.

the youngest daughter the eldest child

When

the best pupils used predicatively the Adjective

is

declined

either according to the definite or to the indefinite declension.

Ex.:

Era blommor Era blommor


106.

aro vackrast.
aro de vackraste.

Your Your

flowers are prettiest. flowers are the prettiest.

The indefinite form must be used when


same
object.
is

the com-

parison refers to different parts of the

Ex.:

Har
107.

dr sjon djupast.

Here the lake

deepest.

The definite form must be used when


by

the Super-

lative is followed
Ex.:"

a qualifying clause or phrase.

De har blommorna
raste, jag

aro de vack-

liar sett.

These flowers are the prettiest I have seen.

108. When used attributively (as an epithet) the Superlative is declined according to the definite declension. It is then generally preceded by the Definite Article of the Adjective
(den, det, de).

Ex.: den starkaste gossen det stdrsta huset


de Jcallaste ndtterna

the strongest boy the largest house


the coldest nights

in

The Definite Article of the Adjective is omitted 109. a number of stereotyped expressions, e. g.: i frdmsta rummet in the foremost place
i i

storsta hast

bdsta fall Notice also: Karaste du!

in great haste at best

Dearest!

Bdsta Herr Andersson!

Dear Mr. Andersson (beginning


of a letter).

88

110.

Remarks on the Terminations -a and


Adjective.

-e in

the

1.

The termination -a

is

used:
the positive.

a) in the definite

form of

Ex.: den Jcalla vintrrn

the cold winter

den stora gossen det lilla barnet de roda bloninwrna


b) in the definite

the tall boy the little child


the red flowers
in -st.

form of

the superlatives that end

Ex.: det ho'ysta bcrget

den storsta gossen de minsta mmmen


2.

the highest mountain the tallest boy

the smallest rooms


~e is used:
in

The termination

a)

in the definite fornTof the superlatives that end

-ast.

Ex.: den starkaste gossen den vackraste flickan


det morkaste molnet

the strongest boy the prettiest girl


the darkest cloud

de rikaste pcrsonerna

the richest people

b) sometimes in the definite form of the masculine (positive and sup. in -st), especially in elevated style.

Ex.: den (idle lor den

the noble lord the great

den store mannen den Hogste

man

Gode Gud!
kdre van! Baste Herr Andersson! den yngste brodern den fjamle
(den

The Most High Good God!


dear friend!

Dear Mr. Andersson,


the youngest brother the old man

gamla

the old
the rich

woman)

den rike (de rika Karl den store Erik den helige

man

the rich)

Charlemagne
St.

Eric

89

Genitive of Adjectives.
111.

The Adjective takes an


it

-s in

the genitive in the

following cases:
1.

When
When

follows the qualified Noun.

Ex.: Erik den heliges dod.


2.

The death

of St. Eric.

it is

used as a

No an.
The The
friend of the poor. right of the strongest.

Ex.:

De fattigas vein. Den starJcastes rd'tt.

Relics of old Case-inflections.


112. In the modern language the old case-inflections of Adjective have been retained in a few set phrases. 1. The dative termination -om in the following phrases: In due season. sinom tid.
bi.

the

Lyckan star dem djarvom


Det ar icke allom
2.

Fortune favours the brave.


It is not everybody's lot.
in:

givet.

The accusative termination -an

I ljusan lag a. Argan list.


3.

All ablaze.

Wicked cunning.
~o in:

The dative termination

Frdls oss ifrdn ondo. godo.

Deliver us from

evil.

Amicably.
Afresh.

Anyo.

Adjectives used as Nouns.


113. In English only a few adjectives used as Nouns take the plural termination -s, e. g. the blacks and the whites. In Swedish all adjectives used as Nouns take the termination

~a in the plural.

90

Ex.: dc fattiga de rika


114.

the poor the rich

Many

larly by Nouns.

those

English Adjectives used as Nouns, particudenoting nationality, are in Swedish expressed


the natives

Ex.: infodingarna (en infoding) vildarna (en vilde)

tyskarna (en tysk)

the savages the Germans

engelsmdnnen (never dc cn r
gelska) (en engelsmari) kineserna (en kines)
,

the English the Chinese the Italians


the Norwegians the French

italienarna (en italienare)

norrmdnnen (en norrman) fransmdnnen (en fransman)


ryssarna (en ryss)

the Russians

The corresponding
N. B.
1.

Adjectives in

Swedish

are: tysk, engclsk,

kinesisk, italiensk, norsk, fransk, rysk.

These Adjectives are not written with capital

letters in Swedish.

N. B. 2. The word svensk Swedish, Swede, is both Adjective and Noun. As a Noun it is inflected according to 'the 2nd Declension: en svensk, svensken, svenskar, svenskarna. When used adjectivally it is inflected like an ordinary Adjective.

Most Swedish Adjectives may be used 115. without the restrictions observed in English.
Ait forena det nyttiga

as-

Nouns

med

det

To combine

the

useful with

nojsamma.

Dc

En
Vi

rika och de fattiga. blind och en dovstum

the agreeable. The rich and the poor. blind man and a deaf-and-

bodde tillsammans.

dumb man

lived together.

unya

kunna

icke forstd de

We
.

gamla. Det var det enda, han kunde


gora.

young people cannot understand old people. It was the only thing he
could do.

Han var den enda frdnvarandc. He was the only person absent. Han insdg det fordelafctiga He saw the advantage of the
i

Det nya

erbjudandet. daruti ar icke sant, och det sanna daruti ar


underteck-

offer.

What
true,

is

new about
is

it

is

not

and what

true about

icke nytt.

De ndrvarande
Den okande
~bdka.

it is not new. Those present signed a

peti-

nade en petition. tion. Det ar det,som ar det svdraste. That is what

is

most

difficult.

kom

icke

till-

The unknown (man) did not


come back.

116. N. S. The word one which often replaces a Noun after an Adjective in English, has no equivalent in Swedish.

Den

dd'r

bollen

ar inte Ira;

'du shall fa en ny.

Han

var den ende, som kunde


vit Jcula

That ball is not good; you shall have a new one. He was the only one who
could do
it.

gora det. Giv mig en


svarta.

och tvd

Give me one white marble and two black ones.

Vi maste ta hand

om

de snid.

We

must take care

of

the

little ones.

Den

Onde.

The Evil One.

117.

Notice

the

use

of

the

adjective egen in phrases

like the following.

Han Han

liar

egen

bil.

liar tvd

egna barn.

He He

has got a car of his own. has got two children of his own.

118.

The Comparative
g.

is

often used in an

absolute
of

sense,

e.

en

sto'rre

penning summa

a largish

sum

money;

en yngre herre a youngish gentleman; battre folk gentlepeople; en langre tid a goodish while, etc.

Inflection of Participles
I.

The Past

Participle.

119.
a)

A.

Indefinite Declension.

Past Participles ending in -ad (1st Conjugation). The neuter singular is formed by changing -d into -. The plural is formed by adding -c (not -a/) to the
non-neuter sing.
Ex.:

En jay ad hare. Ett jagat lejon.


Jagade harar.

A.

hunted hare. hunted lion.


hares.

Hunted

b)

Past Participles ending in -d (2nd Conjugation). The neuter singular is formed by changing -d into -. The plural is formed by adding -a to the non-neuter sing.

Ex.:

En
Ett

hojd
ho'jt

Ion.

A
An

arvode.

raised salary. increased remuneration.


salaries.

Hojda
c)

loner.

Raised

Past Participles ending in -t (2nd Conjugation). The neuter singular remains unchanged. The plural is formed by adding ~a to the non-neuter sing.

Ex.:

En md'rkt nasduk. Ett ma'rkt lakan. Markta nasdukar.

marked handkerchief. marked sheet. Marked handkerchiefs.

A A

d)

Past Participles ending in -dd (3rd Conjugation). The neuter singular is formed by changing -dd into -tt. The plural is formed by adding -a to the non-neuter sing.

Ex.:

En

bebodd o. Ett bebott land.


oar.

An An

inhabited island.

Bebodda

inhabited country. Inhabited islands.

93
e)

Past Participles ending in -en (4th Conjugation). The neuter singular is formed by changing -n into -t. The plural is formed by adding -a to the non-neuter sing.,

and the

-e

before -n

is

dropped.

Ex.:

En

stulen Idocka.

Ett stulet paraply. Stulna IdocJcor. A


.

A A

stolen watch.
stolen umbrella.

Stolen watches.
termination
in

/;.

In

the

plural

the

-a

is

used for

all

the

Past Participles except those ending

-ad

(1st Conjugation).

Ex.: hojda, marlda, bebodda, stulna; but jagade, ballade.


120. B.
Definite Declension.

The

definite

forms of the Past Participles are like the

plural of the indefinite declension:

Past Participles ending in -ad (1st Conjugation) a) lake the termination -e in the definite declension.
Ex.:
Jtararna.
b) All the other Past Participles take the termination -a in the definite declension.

Den jagade

Jtaren.

Det jagade

lejonet.

De jagade

Den hojda lonen. Det liojda arvodet. De liojda Den mcirkta nasduken. Det markta lalcanet De markta nasdukarna. Den bebodda on. Dtt bebodda landet. De bebodda oarna. Den stulnci Jclockan. Det stulnct paraEx.:

lonerna.

plyet.

De

stulna Jclockorna.
Genitive.

121. C.

All Past Participles, when used as Nouns, take


genitive.

~s in

the

Ex.:

Den alskades namn. Det stulnas varde.

The name The value


perty.

of the beloved one. of the


stolen pro-

94

II.

The Present

Participle.
1

is

122. The Present Participle, when used as an Adjective, indeclinable.

Ex.:

Den uppgdende solai. Det leende ansiUet.


Ett ri/tande
rarna.
lejon.

The rising sun. The smiling face.

roaring lion.
ministers.

De ndrvarande

minist-

The present

When
Ex.:

used as a

Noun,
an-

the Present Participle takes ~s

in the genitive.

De narvarandes namn
tecknades.

The names

of those present

were taken down.

The Numerals.
123.
1.

Cardinal numbers.
neuter:
ctt

Ordinal numbers.
(den, det) forsta

en,
tvcl

2.

andra
tredje

3.

tre

4.
5.
6.
'7.

fyra
fern

fjdrde

femte
sjdttc

sex
SJU dtta

xjiuulr

8.
9.

dttonde

nio
tio

niondc
tiondc
'V/'/r

10.
11.

civ a

12.

tolv

tolftc

13.
14.

tretton

trcttondc

fjorton

fjortonde

15. 16.

femton
sexton

femtonde
sextonde

95
17.

(den, det) sjuttonde

adertonde
nittonde

tjugonde
tjugofdrsta

tjugoandra
tjugotredje

tjugofjdrde
tjugofemte
tjugosjdtte

tjugosjunde
tjugodttonde

tjugonionde
trettionde
trettioforsta, etc.

fyr(a)tionde

femtionde
sextionde
sjuttionde dttionde

nittionde
(ett)

hundrade
hundraforsta tusende
tusenforsta

(ett)

(ett)
(ett) (ett)

tusenandra,
.tusen

etc.

ett

sexhundra

sjuttiofem
1,000,000.
0.

sjuttiofcmte

en miljon
noil

Note

1.

Den

in the masculine:

Note 2. remain unchanged in the plural: ire hundra, fyra tusen. Note 3. En miljon is a Noun of the 3rd Declension. Plural: tvd

and den andra sometimes end in -e Karl I (den forste), Karl II (den andre). Ett hundra and ett tusen are really Nouns. They
forsta

miljoner,

etc.

96

124.

The Numerals
1

in Dates.
13th, 1897.

Jag ar fo'dd den 13 (trettonde ) maj 1897 (adertonhnndranito

was born on May

tiosjn).

Ar 1066

(tiohundrasextiosex) erovrades England.


.

In

1066
quered.

England was

con-

Stockholm
april

den

19

(nittondc)

Stockholm, 19th April, 1922.

1922 (nittonhundra-

tjugotvd).

Han

anlande den tredje augusti.

He

arrived on Aug. 3rd.

125.

The Numerals
dina cttor

as Nouus.
tell

Jag

Jean inte skilja

I cannot

your ones from

frdn dina sjuor.

your sevens.

"When used as
are

treated

as

Nouns the numerals 110 add an -a and nouns of the 1st Declension: eh ctta, tvda,
en
sjua, dtta, nia, tia. nolla. Definite form:
etc.

trea, fyra,

femma, sexa,
called

The

figure

as a

Noun

is

ettan, nollan, etc.

Plural: cttorna, tvdorna,

Attiotalet var realismens period.

The

eighties of realism.

were the period

Han

levdepd 1700-talet

(sjut-

He

lived in the 18th century.


of people were kil-

tonhundratalet).

Hundratals
dodade.

manniskor

blero

Hundreds
led.

Fabrikcrna sysselsatta tuscntals


arbctare.

The The

factories

employ

thou-

sands of workers.
council of ten. ens
att

De
Det

tios rdd.

ar

inte,

fel,

ivd

It takes
rel.

two to make a quarseven


is

trcita.

Den ena
ar nio.

d'r

sju ar, den

andra

One

is

years

old, the

other

nine.

97
126.
l

Fractional Numbers.

/2,

en halv;
5

/2,

tvd halva;
4
/8

V8

en trcdjedel;

/3 >

tvd tredjetre nionde-

dclar;
lar;
3

/e,

fern sjattedelar;

fy ra dttondelar;

/9 >

/ 21 >

t re

tjugoendelar.

to

The Fractional Numbers are formed by adding -del ("part") the Ordinal Numbers. If the Ordinal Number ends in -de,
is

the -de

dropped before
126
a.

-del (except in fjdrdedel

and sjimdedel).

Notice the following expressions:


ton.

Tre och en halv

Tvd och

ett

kvarts kilo kaffc.

Three tons and a half. Two kilos and a quarter of


coffee.

En En

Jcvart.

och en tredjedels mil. Fern och en halv mil.

A A

quarter of an hour. mile and a third.

Tvd dussin
Tre tjog

(ett

dussin) Imivar

(ett tjog)

dgg.

Dussintals Jcnivar.
Tjogtals dgg.

Five miles and a half. Two dozen knives. Three score of eggs. Dozens of knives.
Scores of eggs.

Pronouns.
127.

Personal Pronouns.
Singular

1st

Person
I
diiy

2nd Person

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

jag
Ack.

ni

thou,

you

&

mig me
han
hans
he
his

dig, e(de)r thee, you


3rd Person

Nom.
Gen. Dat. &Ack.
7

hon
hennes henne

she

den
dess

it

her

its
it

honom

him

her

den

det dess det

it

its

it

222444.

Bjiirkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar.

98

Plural
1st

Person

2nd Person

3rd Person

Norn.

vi

we

ni

you

Gen.
Dat.

& Ack.
1.

oss us
Instead

e(d)er you
of

de they deras their dem them

Note Note Note


ish

the

vi the possessive adjectives


2.

The

genitives

missing genitives of jag, du, ni, min, din, er, vdr are used. hans, hennes, dess, deras are in-

declinable.
3. Han, lion and de are the only words in the Swedlanguage that have special objective case-forms (honom,

hennc, dem).
128.

Du

is

used between intimate friends and members

of the family (like French "tu" and German "du"). Ni is not yet generally accepted as a form of address like "you" in English, but it is gradually coming into use. It
is

always correct when speaking to a stranger or to one's


If

in-

feriors.

you know

the title or the

name

of the individual

addressed,
definite

Verb

considered more polite to use the title (in the form) or name with the third person of the as if speaking of the person instead of to him.
it is

Talar ni svensJca?
Spelar ni schack?

Ni

Jean Me komma dit i lev all. Har profcssornvariti London? Have you Har generalkonsuln sett tid- Have you

Do you speak Swedish? Do you play chess? You cannot get there to-night.
been in London?
seen to-day's paper?
to

ningen for

dag?

Har greven pa teatern


Vill

(the Count) varit

Have you been


lately?

the theatre

nyligen?

fru Andersson dricha en


te?

Would you

like a cup of tea,

kopp

Mrs. Andersson?
Fetter sson en tand-

Har

herr

Have you got a match, Mr.


Pettersson?

129.

When

singular

form of the Verb.

addressing one person, ni is used with the In the spoken language (and

99
often in the written) the singular forms of the Verb are also used with ni when addressing several persons.
-130.

The pronoun

instead of ni in the plural

is

now

only used in elevated style (in the Bible, in poetry, etc.). It is followed by a special form of the Verb ending in -en:

dren,

hatfen, etc.

Ye

are,

Ye

had.

131.

In formal correspondence Ni

and Eder are writ-

ten with capitals.


132,
;

Den

refers to a noun of

common
is

gender.
It is on

Var dr bokcn?
:

Den liggerpd Where

the book?

bordd.

the table.
refers to a noun of neuter gender.

Det
pa
9

Var dr Uackliornet?
bordcL

Det star Where

is the inkstand? on the table.

It is

In colloquial speech the enclitic (affixed) forms 133. ? en, n are often used instead of honom, den; 'na instead of henne? 'et,Jt instead of det.
'

Ja($y stfen

intr.
ileri)

I did not see


dlir.

him

(or

it).

Ja(g) la'n (lade

I put

it there.

Har du setfna?
Vill

Har

du ha't sd trit. du funderat petit?

Have ycu seen her? If you want it, take it. Have you thought it over?

134.

The Use of Det.


they, so, that.

Det corresponds to English it, there, he, she, In some cases it h as no equivalent in English.
r

1.

Det

it,

that.
-

Vad dr det?
aeroplan.

Det

dr
i

ett

What

is

that?

It is

an aerois it

Hurndant vdder dr det


-

dag?

What

plane. sort

of weather
It is

Det

snoar.

to-day?

snowing.

100

Det
Det
det.
2.

dr svdrt

att tola svenska.

It is difficult to
ish.

speak Sweddid
it.

var rnte jag, som gjorde

It

was not

who

Det

= there.
Once upon a time there was
a boy.

Det
Det Det

var en gang en gosse.


finns ingenting kvar.

finns

500 backer

biblio-

There is nothing left. There are 500 books in the


'

li-

teket.

brary.
inget postkontor
i

Det

fanns den byn.

There was
Is

no post-office in

Ar det

ndgot

fel

med

det?

that village. there anything the matter


bell.

Det
3.

ringer.

with it? There is a ring at the


he, she or they.

Det =
dr

Vem

den ddr damen? Det dr en sldkting till mig. Vilka dro de ddr herrarna?
-

Who

is

that lady?

She

is

relative of mine.

Who

Det dr

svenskar.
so.

are those gentlemen? They are Swedes.

4.

Det =

Jag

dr somnig.

Det
och det
-

dr
lia

am

sleepy.

- -

So

am

I.

jag ocksd.

Han
Ar

har egen

bil,

He
Is

vi ocksd.

and
-

has got a car of his so have we.


doctor
so.
so.

own

doktorn inne?

Ja3 jag

the

in?

Yes, I

tror det.

think

Jag sade honom det. Sade han det? Jag hoppas (tror, formodar)
det.
5.

I told him Did he say


I

so?

hope

(believe,

suppose)

so.

Det
har ju
Jntr?

Han

rest till

without an equivalent in English. Frankrike, He has gone to France, hasn't he? Yes, he has. Ja,detltarlian.

101

Han

det gor Var snail


d'ldrar.

tycker om att resa, inte jag.


ocli

men

He
I

is

fond of travelling but


not.

am

hdlsa era for-

Tack, det shall

Please remember me to your -- I will.


parents.

jag gora. Han frdgade hennc, om hon var ond, ocli hon sade, att lion var det. Hur mycket tir klockan?

He

asked her if she was angry, and she said she was.

What

Det
Vem

vet

jag Me.
dti

time know.

is

it?

I don't

Varfor frdgar
talade

det?
for dig?

Why
Who
be
omitted

do you ask?
told you?
after

om det

N.B.

Det must

not

the

Auxiliary

Verbs

or after

frdga, veta, tola om.

135.

Impersonal Construction.

Phrases like "I am glad", "I am sorry", etc., are often rendered by an impersonal construction in Swedish.

Det var

trdkigt, ban komma.


l)dttre.

att

du

inte

am
am

sorry you cannot come.

Det var
Hur gar

roligt, att han dr


det for er?

glad he
are

is

better.

How

you getting on?


do
it.

Det gick mycket Ira for honom. Det forvdnar mig, att han inte
gjorde det. Det var kallt
i

He did very well. I am surprised he didn't


The water was cold. There is a knock at the

vattnet.

Det knackar pa dorren.

door.

102

Reflexive Pronoun.
S
13ti.

Sig.
in

Sig
It

refers back to the subject of the clause

which

it

occurs.

used when the subject is in the third person (singular or pluand the object is the same person as the subject. ral)
is

Han
De

sag sig

i i

spegeln.

He saw
glass,

himself in the

sago sig

spegeln.

They saw themselves


She was beside
herself.

glass. in the

Hon

var utom sig.

Han
De

drog honom efter 8ig. hade inga pcngar pd ig.

He

pulled him after him. They had not got any money

about them.
Note.
are used.
If the object
is

ordinary objective forms

another person than the subject the (honom, henne, den, det, dem)

Han

sag

honom
There

spegeln.

He saw him

(another person)

in the glass.
137.

are

no special reflexive pronouns for the

first

and

The ordinary objective forms persons. er, oss, er) are used also in a reflexive sense.
second
I enjoy myself.

(mig, dig,
.
,

Jag roar inig.

Du
Ni

roar dig. roar er.

roar 8ig. roar sig. Barnct roar sig.

Han Hon

You enjoy You enjoy He enjoys


She enjoys

yourself. yourself. himself.


1

'

herself.

The

Vi roa oxs. Ni roa er. De roa nig. Man har raft

We
You
att

child enjoys itself. enjoy ourselves.

enjoy yourselves.
one-

roa sig.

They enjoy themselves. One has a right to enjoy


self.

Singular
M., F.

&

C.

N.

min

mitt

104

DM nus
140.

fir

storrc

an vdrt.

Your
ours.

house

is

larger

than

in

expressions

Notice the peculiar use of the Possessive Adjectives like the following: din idiot you idiot, din

tlnmma dsna silly ass, jag, min dumsnut, trodde vad han sadc ape that I was, I believed what he said.
141.

The English
in Swedish.
elever.

construction

"a friend of mine"

is

not used

En

av mina

Ndgra Vem ar den


-

av mina vdnner.

Some

pupil of mine. friends of mine.


is

da'r unge mannen? Dct ar en slakting till oss.

Who
is

that

young man?

He

a relation of ours.
old acquaintance of yours.

En gammal
142.

bckant

till

dig

(er).

An

Notice the following expressions:


be-

Jag kunde inte for mitt liv gripa, vad han menade.
Dei kommer att Hi min Dina gelikar.

For the
not

life

of

me

I could

dod.

understand what he meant. It will be the death of me.

The

likes of you.

143.

Possessive Reflexive Adjective.


C.

Singular
M., F.

&

N.
sitt

Plural All genders

sin
144.
It

sina

his, her, its, their

XJH corresponds

to the reflexive

refers back to the subject of the clause

to the subject of a previous clause). or several possessors in the third person.


to

personal pronoun sic/. which it occurs (not The subject may be one
in

Sin can only be used the object (not the subject). qualify 145. When English "his", "her", "its", "their" are not used
/.
.

reflexively,

when they do

not refer back to the subject of the

105
clause
in

personal pronouns:

which they occur, they correspond to the genitives hans, hcnnes, dess, deras.

of the

Han

sag sin far pd gatan.

He saw

his (own)

father

in

the street.

Hans
ut.

(not

sin!)

far

gicJc

His father went

out.

Han
Han Han

sag

hans

far

pa

gatan.

He saw

his (another person's) father in the street. his

sag sin far gd


sag, att

ut.

He saw
out.
ut.

(own) father go

hans

far gicJc

He saw
out.

that his (own or somebody else's) father went

lion sag sin far gd

ut.

She saw her (own) father go


out.

Hon
ut.

sag, att

hennes

far gicJc

She saw
out.

that

her (own

or

somebody else's) father went


(not sin!) far gickut.
boJc

Hennes Hennes
Hon
lade

pd bordet. sin bole pa bordet.


lag

Her father went out. Her book lay on the


She put her (own)
the table.

table.

book on

Hon

lade

hennes

bole

pd

bor-

det.

She put her (another person's) book on the table.


Their parents are in America.

Deras
dro
i

(not sina!) fordldrar America.


fordldrar

De ha inte sett sina pd flera dr.


Jag har
aldrar.

They

have

not

seen
for

their

(own)
years.
for-

parents

several

aldrig sett

deras

have never seen their parents.

De ha

forlorat sitt

enda barn.

They have

Han

bor hos en av

sina

van-

He

is

lost their only child. staying with a friend

ner.

of his.

Remarks on the Personal Pronouns and the Possessive


Adjectives.
146.

henne
Jag

The English form "her" corresponds and sin in Swedish.


dr dod.

to

hennes,

Hennes mor
Hon

Her mother
She has

is

dead.

liar aldrig sett

henne.

I have never seen her.


lost her mother.

har forlorat sin mor.


147.

The Swedish form er (Eder) corresponds to "you", and "yours" in English. "your"
Det var
roligt att Iraffa er.

am

glad to meet you.

Ni har glomt er hatt. You have forgotten your hat. Jag liar tagit er, och han har I have taken yours, and he
tag-it

min.

has taken mine.


pleonastic

148.

A
:

mig occurs

in

expressions like the


fool!

following

Det var

mig

en

dum

en!

"What a

149.
tive.

Personal Pronoun

may

be qualified by an Adjec-

Tack, Tear a dul Stackars dig (du)!


150.
In

Thank

you,

my

dear!

Poor you!
like

cases

the

following,

where the ownership

is

implied
to

in

the context, the definite article of the noun corresponds


in
i

a possessive adjective
stoppade hdnderna

English.
fie-

Han

He

put his hands in his pochis hat on his head.

korna.

kets.

Han

satte hatten pa Imvudet. De forlorade minnet. Hon brot benet av sig.

He put
They

lost their

memories.

She broke her

leg.
is

151.

In some cases the English Possessive Adjective

not expressed in Swedish.

107

Jag

ber

om

ursakt.

(Or: for-

beg your pardon.


has changed his mind. have lost my way.

Idtf)

Han
Jag

har dndrat

sig.

He
I

liar gdtt vilse.

152.

Demonstrative Adjectives or Pronouns.


N.
Plural

M., F. & C. den that denna (-e) this den ddr that den heir this

det that detta this det ddr that det heir this

de those dessa these de ddr those de har these

Note 1. Den, det, de, are also used as the Definite Article of the 'Adjective. As Demonstrative Pronouns they have stronger stress. 2. The form denne (instead of denna) is often, used ,-, Note
in the masculine.

Note

3.

Den har
in

nerally used
153. like

and den ddr are the forms geconversation (instead of denna and den).
when used
substantively, are inflected

Den,

det, de,

the

when

personal pronoun den, det, de. Denna, detta, dessa, used substantively, take an -s in the genitive.

(ddr) gossen dr inte sa dum, som lian ser ut. Det svaret tycker jag om. De barnen ha aldrig gdtt .i
skola.
;

Den

That boy

is

not so stupid as

he looks.
I like that answer.

Denna
JJetta
, i

uppgift dr inte riktig.

vissie

jag forut.
Idngre Jcomna

Dessa elever aro

an de andra. Den ihdr tavlan dr vackrare an den ddr.

children have never been to school. This statement is not correct: This I knew before. These pupils are more advanced than the others. This picture is prettier than

Those

that.

108

JJet

ddr

tradet ar liogre tin

That

tree is taller than this.

det hdr.

De hdr
154.

skorna

tiro

inte sd

These shoes are not


as those.
adjective
the

so strong

starka som

de ddr.
a
demonstrative

After

noun takes the

definite article,

except after denna (detta, dcssa): den gossen, den hdr gossen (but: denna gosse); detta trad); det tradet, det ddr tradet (but: de hdr gossarna (but: dessa gossar).

155.

Densamma

and samma.
Plural

M., F.

&

C.

Neuter

densamma

the same the same

detsamma

desamma

samma
Note samme.
1.

samma

samma
densamme,

The masculine forms

often end in -e:

156.

Densamma (detsamma, desamma)


takes an
-s

is

Noun.

It

in the genitive.

Samma

used as a is used

as an Adjective.

Han
Det

ar alltid

densamme.
alldeles

He

is

always the same.

gor

mig

It is all one to me.

samma.
Jag
skall gor a det

med
han

det-

I will do it at once.

samma. I detsamma
raren

fick

se Id-

At

that very

moment he saw
in.

komma i dorren. De kommo pa samma gang. Han var klddd i samma gamla
kostym.

the master come

They arrived at the same time. He was wearing the same old
suit.

samma ogonblick dog han. Samma rcglcr galla aven


i

At

The same

that very moment he died. rules apply in this

detta fall.

case, too.

109

Note
form,
Jcostym,

1. After samma the Adjective takes the definite but the Noun the indefinite form: samma gamla

samma Idnga
2.

vcig.

Note

No

article

is

used before samma: pa samma

sdtt in the

same way.
157.

Sddan.

Dylik.
Plural

M., F.

(en)

& C. sddan such


dylik such Sddan and dylik
stilig

Neuter
(ett)

sddant

sddana
dylika
I should
it.

(en)

(ett) dyliltt

Note

1.

are used as Adjectives and Nouns.

Det ddr var en

Mt.

En

That

is

a line boat.

sddan skulle jag Sddant hdnder.


I sddant
(so) fall.

vilja ha.

like to

have one like

Sddan herre, sddan drdng. Sddana finns det gott om.


Giv mig
hort.

fern

sddana hdr!
liar

Ndgot dylikt

jag aldrig

These things will happen. In that case. Like master, like man. There are plenty of those. Give me five of these! I have never heard anything
like
it.

Han menade
likt.

nog ndgot dy"ddr", o. d.

I suppose he like that.

meant something

Sddana ord som "liar",


"*#", "dit",

Such words as "here", "there",


"hither",

"ww", "dd"

(och dylika)

liallas adverb.

"then",
verbs.

etc.,

"thither", "now", are called Ad-

Dylika
Note

metoder aro

Me
are

att

rekommendera.
2.

Such methods are not recommended.

to be

En,

ett

after as in English: en
158.

placed before sddan and sddan man such a man.

dylik, not

Sddan

is also

used in exclamations:

Ett

sddant

barn han dr!

En sddan

harlig utsikt!

What What

a child he

is!

a splendid view!

110

Remarks on Demonstrative Pronouns.


159. The Demonstrative Pronouns are often used su Instant ively, referring both to things and persons.

Jag mil Me ha den har, giv mig den ddr i stdllet.

Denne
Han
saken,

fir

oskyldig.

frdgade sin advokat

om
icke

men denne mile

ge ndgra upplysningar.

do not want this one, give that one instead. This man is innocent. He asked his solicitor about but he (the latter) wasi it, not willing to give any inI

me

formation.

Note

1.

The

English

word

one

(in

this one>,

that

one)

is

not translated.

160.

verb

to
is

be

plural
the

(that, these, those) used as the subject of the with a following predicative noun in the singular or N. B. Always in translated by det heir (det ddr).

"This"

neuter

singular,

irrespective

of

the

gender

or

number

of

the following noun.

Det har Det ddr


sJcor?

a'r

min

svagerska.

a'r

Vad ar det
161,

Tiennes pojkar. ddr for md'nni-

This is my sister-in-law. Those are her boys.

What

people are those?*

When

"this" refers to time


e.g.:
i

it is,

as a rule, translated
i

dag pa mordagar dag goncn this morning, day week, i dag endera dagen one of for dtta dagar sedan this day last w^eek,

by a prepositional phrase,
i

ar this year,
this

dtta

these days.
162.

Notice the following expressions:

jag mdste flytta. Just darfor. Det var pa dctsattet, han lyckades go'ra
det.

Det var darfor, som

That That That


do

is

why
why.

I had to leave.

is is
it.

how he managed
where he
is

to

ar

det,

han

Jtar orcitt

i.

That

is

wrong.

Ill

Jag gjorde pd
(sd Mr). Stirra inte

det liar sdttet

I did like this.

pd

det ddr sdt-

Do

not stare like that!

tet (sd ddr)! Herr den och den.

Mr. So-and-so.

Vid den och den tiden. Pd den ocli den plat sen.

At such and such At such and such


It is not so

a time. a place.
that.

Sd

ilia d'r det inte.

bad as

163.

Emphasizing Adjective or Pronoun.


Sjdlv.

When "myself", "himself", "ourselves", etc., are used as emphatic forms, as in: "I myself saw it", they correspond to the Swedish forms sjdlv, neuter sjdlvt,
plural sjdlva.

Han

gjorde det sjdlv.


det

He

did

it

himself.
it

Ldt dem gora

sjdlva. overtrd'ffade siy sjdlv. Nej, tdnkte jag for mig sjdlv jag skall inte gora det. Det skadar bar a honom sjdlv

Let them do

themselves.
I

Han

surpassed himself. No, I thought to myself,


will not do
It
it.

He

only hurts
else.

him and

no one

och ingen annan.

Vi kunna gora det sjdlva. Jag Jean laga till mitt te sjdlv.

We
of

can do

it

ourselves.
tea.

I can

make my own
it herself.

Hon

skulle aldrig

ha tankt pd

She would never have thought

det sjdlv.

Sjdlva

hung en.
164.

The King

himself.

Reciprocal Pronoun.
They helped each other. They carried one another's
burdens.
to

De De

hjdlpte

buro

varandra. varandras bordor.

Varandra (genitive varandras) corresponds


one another".

"each other",

112

165.

Determinative Adjective or Pronoun.


det,
to

Den,
tive,
etc.

referring

de are used as Determinative Pronouns a following relative clause, an Infini-

Den

tavla,

jag menar, ar

Me

den

ni tanker pa.
det storsta inflytanlians utveclding, var
liar gott orn

Den
det

av Gustav Adolf's larare,

picture I mean is not the one you are thinking of. The one of Gustavus Adolphus's

The

som hade

teachers

who had

the great-

pa

est influence

on his develophas plenty


fail

Johan Skytte. Aven den, som


pengar,
forsoket.

ment was Johan Skytte.

Even
of

the

man who

kan misslyckas vid


glanser, ar
ej alltid

money may
is

in the

Det, som
guld.

attempt. All that glitters

not gold.

De

elever,

som onska stanna


det.

hemma, fa gora

Stockholm och Goteborg dro de stader, som jag kanner last


till.

Those pupils who wish to stay at home, may do so. Stockholm and Gothenburg are the towns that I know
best.

Jag har
lera.

den

dran

att gratu-

Allow me

to congratulate

you!

166. Plural nouns qualified by the Determinative Adjective do not take the definite article: de elever, som (not: de eleverna). Singular nouns fluctuate.
. .

167.

If used as a

Noun
dem,
under

the form

dem

in the dative

the Determinative Pronoun has and accusative plural:

Han kdnde
som hade

inte ens igen skott honom

He

did

not

even
illness.

recognise

those

who had nursed him

lians sjukdom.

during his

113

Jag gav pengarna


168.

at

dem, som
de

gave the money

to

those
it.

bast behovde dem.

who were most


as Demonstrative

in need of

Den

det,

and Determinative

Pronouns

(or Adjectives) are always stressed. (Den, det, de used as the Definite Article of the Adjective are always unstressed: den lilla flickan, de smd barnen, etc.)

169.
to

X. B.

No determinative pronoun

is

used

in

Swedish

refer to a following genitive.

Guldets

egenskaper

tiro

icke

The

desamma som silvrets.

properties of gold are not the same as those of silver.

170.

Relative Pronouns.
are:

The Relative Pronouns

som
vars

(indeclinable, used in all genders) (only genitive) whose, of which

who, which, that

vad

(indeclinable, only neuter) what, that


(all

vilken, neuter vilket, plural


that, which.

genders) vilka, who,

171. Som is the' most common Relative Pronoun and almost the only one used in conversation. It may

used for all genders, singular and plural. in the genitive or after a Preposition.
be

It is

not used

Jag sag en

polis,

som

hade

saw a policeman who had


arrested a thief.

arresterat en tjuv. Jag hittade boken,

som jag hade tappat. Han gav bort alia de locker, som lian hade kopt.
Tradet, som ni ser da'r borta, ar en palm.
8
222444.

I found the book


lost.

which

had

He

gave away all the books he had bought.


tree

The
is
Sivedish

you

see over there

a palm.
Grammar.

Bjorkhagen, Modern

114

has to be used in connection with a Preposition, the Preposition is placed at the end of the relative clause, never before som.
172.

If sow

Jag banner Me den person, so tti ni talar om.


173.

don't

know

the person you


of.

are speaking

Instead

of

the

tives vars or vilkens (vilkets, vilkas)


tives,

missing genitive of som the genimay be used. The geni-

however, are avoided in conversation.


174.

They may

Vilken, vilket, vilka take an be preceded by a Preposition.


stdnyer,

-s in

the genitive.

Dar funnos hoga


vilka ndt
torka.

pd
att

hdngde for

There were high poles on which nets were hanging


to dry.

175.

and

vad.

It

Vars replaces the missing genitives of som may be preceded by a Preposition.


The
election,

Valet,

pd vars (or vUJcets) utf/dng sd mycket berodde,


var ovanligt
176.
livligt.

on the result of

which so much depended, was exceptionally lively.


is

The Relative Pronoun

often left out, though not

so often as in English.

Den person du tanker pd, dr


inte

The person you

are thinking

den jag menar.

of is not the one I mean.

177.

Superlative,

After ingen, ndgon, sddan, samma, and after a som must be used (not vilken or vad). Som after
to

sddan and samma corresponds


Ingen,
lean

English "as".
has seen
it

som en gang har sett det, Nobody who


had
I

once

ndgonsin glomma det. Jag har samma elcver, som jag hade forra dret. Jag Uopte den minsta, som
faint*.

can ever forget it. I have the same pupils as I


last year.

bought

the

smallest

one

there was.

115
$ 178.
tive
Vilkeri," vilket,

vilka

must be used when the Relaor

Pronoun
epithet

refers to a
(adjective).

whole clause,

when

it is

used

as an

Han

sager, att jag gor snabba

He

framsteg, vilket glcider rnig.

says that I am making rapid progress, which I am

Han kommer
mig,

nog

att

frdga

om jag vill folja med honom till Frankrike, i vilket fall jag tanker svara nej.
179.
allt.

glad to hear. am sure he will ask me if I should like to accompany

him
I

to France, in

am

going

to

which case answer "no".

Vad
till

is

used in the sense of that which" and after

Uppskjut inte

morgondagen,

Do

what you vad du Jean gora i dag. Han lyckas i allt, vad han He succeeds
foretager sig.

not put off till to-morrow can do to-day.


in everything he

undertakes.

180.

Indefinite Relative Pronouns.

som heist som whoever vem an whoever var och en som whoever vilken (vilket, vilka) som heist som
vein
ever

whoever, what-

vad som heist som vad an whatever


De
sdlde sina varor
till

whatever
sold their wares to

vem They
kdpa
ever

som
dem.
att
I

heist,

som

ville

whowould purchase them.

Vem ni an ar,
vara har.
heist

har ni icke ratt

Vem som
och
tola

som

(or:

[Var

en som) hor honom

are, you have no right to be here. Whoever hears him speak must admire him.

Whoever you

mdste betmdra honom.


(an) gor,

Vad du
sent

kom

inte for

till tdget.

Whatever you your train.

do,

do not miss

116

181.

Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives.


are:

The Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives

F.

&

C.

Neuter

Plural
(no plural)

vem who
vents whose

vad what
who,

vad for en

vad for

ett

what

vad for (ena)


vilka
(no plural)

what (kind of) (kind of) vilken who, what, vilket which vilkendera which vilketdera hurudan how, what hurudant
(kind of)

hurudana
-s

Note
in

1.

The following Interrogative Pronouns take an

genitive: vems, vilkens, vilkets, vilkas, vilkendcras, The others are not used in the genitive. vilketderas.

the

Vem dr den ddr mannen? Vilka dro de ddr mannen?


Vad Vad
liar
i

Who Who

is

that

are those

man? men?
done?
the

du gjort?
vdrlden gjorde du

What have you


Whatever
in

all

world

did

det for?

Vad for en bob vill ni ha? (or Vad vill ni ha for en bok?) Vaddr det ddrformdnniskor? What Vad dr det for slags karl? What
Vad for slag? Vad dr ni for ena?
(Coll.)

you do that for? What (kind of) book will you have?
people are those? sort of a fellow is he?

What? (Beg

pardon?)
(Plural). like best?

Who

Vilkenderatyckernibdstom?

you? Which do you

are

Hurudant
veckan?

var vddret forra


hatt hade hon?

What was
last

the

weather like

week?
kind of hat was she
this?

Hurudan
Vems

What

wearing:

pcnna dr

det

hdr?

Vilken spdrvagn

shall jag la'?

Whose pencil is Which tram do

I take?

J17

Note

2.

Vem
Vad

is

only used as used as a

Noun

and only about

persons. Note 3.

is

Noun.

Note
tive.

4.

VilJcen is used both as a

Noun

and as an Adjec-

1S2.
ject in

When the interrogative pronouns are used as the suba dependent question they are followed by som.
inte,

Jag
Vet

vet

vein

som
i

har
den

I don't

know who has done


there

it.

gjort det.
ni,

vad som
vilka

finns

Do you know what


in this box?

is

har Iddan?

Har

ni

liort,

som kommo Have


bocker

you heard who

came
he

forst?

first?
inte, vilka

(But: Jag vet

I don't

know which books

han har
183.

bestdllt.

has ordered.)
is

Vilken

also used in

exclamations:
a splendid view! a blunder you

Vilken hdrlig utsikt!


Vilket misstag

du har begdtt!

What What

have

made!
N. B.
184.

No

indefinite article is used after vilken in Swedish.

Notice the following expressions:

Hur

ser hans far ut?

What
like?

does

his

father

look

Hur

dr det fatt?

(or:

Vad dr

What
Which

is

the matter?

det?) Vilket ar det cna, och vilket dr det andra?

is

which?

118

185.

Indefinite

Pronouns and Adjectives.


Neuter
Plural

The

Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives are:

M., F.

&

C.

man
en)

one (gen. ens, objective


some, somebody (any,
no,

nag on
ingen

ndgot
intet
(coll.

ndgr
inget)

anybody)

nobody soinlig some

somligt

inga somliga

annan
den
all
all

other, else

annat
the

andra (andre)

det
allt

andra

andra de andra
alia

other

tndngen many, many

a (one)

tndnget

manga
some-

ndgonting
thing

ingenting nothing

allting everything -

var

every, each

varje

every, each

var och en

varenda

everybody, each (en) every (one)

vart varje vart och

ett
(ett)

vartenda

fa few

Hera
several

ndgondera
some

nag on av dem)
ingen av dem)

ndgotdera
intetdera
One has a right
self.

one, either

ingendera (=

no one, neither

Man

har

rdtt att forsvara sig.


faint

to defend one-

Ndgon
h rune.

hod'

om

det for

Somebody had
it.

told her about

119
varit har? har inte sett ndgon. Nej, jag Det var ndgra vanner till mig.

Har nag on

Has anybody been

here?

No, I have not seen anybody. They were some friends of


mine.
I have not done anything toIs

Jag har inte gjort

ndgot (ndkvar
i

gonting)

Ar

det

dag. ndgot black

day. there

any ink
-

left in

the
is

Nej, det dr kvar. inget (intet) Ndgonting ar bdttre an inbltickhornet?

ink-stand?

No, there

none
thing.

left.

Something

is

better than no-

genting. Ddrav blev intet.

Nothing came

of

it.

Ing en mdnnisJca har ndgonsin sett ndgonting dylikt.


liar ni

Nobody

has

ever
it.

seen

any-

thing like

ndgon annan

bok att

ar inte rent. Giv mig ett annat! Giv mig ndgonting annat! Jag har ingenting annat
att

lana mig? Det har glaset

Have you got any to lend me?


This

other book

tumbler is not clean. Give me another. Give me something else. I have nothing else to offer
you.

bjuda pa.
d'ro rika,
d'ro fattiga.

Somliga mdnniskor

Some people
are poor.

are rich, others


to

andra

De andra
och badat.

gossarna ha gdtt

The other boys have gone


have a bathe. Another time I will
stories.
tell

Hn annan
berdtta
(Vill ni ha

gang

shall jag
te

some

ndgra

sagor.

en kopp

till?

Would you
of tea?)

like

another cup
is

Allt dr

icke guld,

som glimmar.

All that glitters

not gold.

Vi mdste alia do. Var dttonde dag.

We

must

all die.

Once a week.
Trains leave every ten minutes.

Tag gd var

tionde minut.

Med fa

minuters mellanrum.

Every few minutes.

120

Varannan
dag.

dag.

Var

tredjc

Every other day. Every third


day.

Varje manniska
eri) liar

(or:

var och
liur svart

Everybody has
ties.

his peculiaridiffi-

sina cgendomliglietcr.
vet,

Var och en
det dr.

Everybody knows how


cult it
is.

har fa vdnner. Jag banner ndf/ra av dem.

Han

He
I

has few friends.


a few of them. a one would wish that

know

Mdngen simile
vore
i

onska, att lian

Many

ert stdlle.

Man
Han
De De

lean se slottet

Mrifrdn.

he were in your place. You- can see the castle from


here.

gav pojkarna
ett

var

sitt

He gave
each.

the boys

an apple

apple (or: gingo at


sutto

apple var).
hall.

var sitt pa var sin


bordct.

sida av

They went their several ways. They were seated on either


side of the table.

(or:

om)

Kan jag fa lite mera te? May I have some more tea? Han lyckades pd ett eller He managed somehow or other. annat sdtt. Om ndyon skulle Imacka pd If anybody should knock at
the door, do not open it. dorren, sd oppna inte. Det gamla spelet om "JZnvar". The old play "Everyman". Note 1. When used as Nouns, nag on, ing en, annan, envar, and mdngen, take an -s in the genitive.

Enligt ndf/ras men<n</.

According
opinion.

to

some people's
as

Note
also
is

2.

The
an
-s

plurals

somliga, alia

when used

Nouns

take

in the genitive.

The

genitive of var och en

vars och ens.


186.

The

interrogative
into

pronouns vcm, vad, vilken


pronouns by adding
like)
like)

(vilket,

vilka)

are

made

indefinite

som

heist.

vem

vad som

sorn heist anybody (you heist anything (you

121

vilken

heist any, anyone (you like) som heist plural: vilka som, heist
neuter: vilket

som

Vem som

heist ban gora

dot.

Anybody can

do

it.

Vad som heist duger. Anything will do. Han brukade titta in vid vil- He used to look time of the day. ken tidpd dagen som heist. Man Jean ta vilket tag som You can take any
heist.

in

at

any

train.

Frdga vem som lielst. Tank pd ett tal vilket som


heist.

Ask anybody.
Think
of

any number you

like.

Tag vilken

som

heist av

Take any one

of these books.

dessa backer.

Remarks on the Use of Certain


187.

Indefinite Pronouns.

Man.

Man
"one"
in

is

used a great deal more in Swedish than English. It is often used when English has
never can tell (or: there no knowing). You can get there by train. They say that he is ill.
is

1 "you", "we", "they", "people", or a passive construction.

Man
Man Man
Man
Man

Jean aldrig vet a.

You

Jean

Jcomma

dit

sdger (coll. att lian ar sjtiJc.

med tag. dom sager),


.
.
.

erJcanner allmant, att

It is generally acknowledged,

that
pdstdr, att Jian ar myc-

He

is

said to be very rich.

Jcet rik.

Varfor

svarar
talar

du

inte,

nar

man

Why

till

dig?

do you not answer when you are spoken to?

Compare French "on".

122

188.

Far, Varje, Varenda, AIL


all

Var, tives.
erida

rarjc,

varenda and

are only used as Adjecare

The corresponding noun-forms en. The neuter and plural forms

rar och

en, var-

of all: allt,

alia may

be used as Nouns.

Det dr

nag anting, som var (varje, varenda) mdnniska


borde veta.
It

Det ar ndgonting,som var och en(varenda en)borde veta. Det dr ndgonting, som alia
borde veta.

something that everybody ought to know.


is

Han
Allt

liar

all anledning

att

vara

He

has

every
-

reason

to

be

nb'jd.

satisfied.

mojligt.

Ndr

allt kommer omkring.


i

Han har misslyckats enda fall.

vartfor en.

All sorts of things. After all. He has failed in each and


every case. All for each and each for In every way. In every direction.
all.

En
Pa

for

alia och alia


sdtt.

allt

At alia

hall.

Allt emellandt. Han dr allt utom lyMig. Note


1.

Every now and

then.

He
is

is

anything but happy.

English "all"

often translated

by

hel.

Den franska renassan sens hela


forfining.

All

the

refinement

of

the

French renaissance.
All the time.

Hcla

tiden.

189.

Ndgon
are

and Ingen.

Ndgon
only
in

and

ingen

affirmative sentences but also

used as adjectives and nouns, not in negative and interrogative

sentences (where English has "any").

123

Jag har ingapengar.

Harm
vin kvar.

ndgra?
Jag
liar inte

Har

ni

ndgot ndgot?

have no money. any? I have no wine

Have you
left.

Have

you any?

Han

har ingapengar, och hon har inga heller.

He

has no money and she has none either.


is

Note
icke

1.

"No"
(icke

(none, nobody, nothing)

often translated

by

ndgon
a

nag of).

in

2. Any (anybody, anything), when used in a question, negative or conditional phrase, corresponds to ndgon (ndgot, ndgra) in Swedish.

Note

Jag har

inte sett

ndgon.

Har

ni sett

ndgon?
ndgon.

I have not seen anybody. Have you seen anybody?


If

Om

ni har sett

you have seen anybody.

Note

3.

mative phrase, corresponds som heist in Swedish.


Vilken pojke
gora
det.

Any (anybody, anything), when used in an affirto vilken (vilket, vilka, vad)

som

heist

Jean

Any

boy can do

that.

Vad som
Note
4.

heist duger.

Anything

will do.

"some" (any) is used in a partitive sense the partitive article in French) it is, as a (corresponding rule, not translated. Sometimes the word lite is used in this
to
sense.

When

Far jag
saker?

server a er lite gronTack, jag har.

May

I help

you

to

tables?

I have some,

some vegethank
coffee

you.

De hade

kaffe

med

sig

en

They had brought some


in a thermos flask.

thermosflaska.
190.

"Few"

is

translated

"Little" is

translated
is

"Somewhat"

by fd, "a few" by ndgra. by foga, "a little" by lite. translated by ndgot or tamligen.

124

"Some" before a Numeral

is

translated

by unge-

fdr or omkring. "Any" before a Comparative

is

not translated.

Jfoga eller indenting. Vdnta lite!


Beskrivningen dr
driven.

Little or nothing.
over-

ndgot

Wait a little! The description


exaggerated.

is

somewhat

Han

levde for

onikring

ire-

He

lived

some 300 years ago.

hundra dr sedan.

Jag orkar

inte dta mer.

De hunno

icke langre.

Fa
Jag

I could not eat any more. They did not get any further.

ha

sett det.

Few

have seen

it.

liar sett

ndgra stycken.

I have seen a few.

191.

Notice the following expressions:

Ndgonting gott something good, vi tycka om tennis bdda both of us are (we are both) fond of tennis, man kan saga bdda delarna (vilket som heist) you can say either, mdnget barn many a child, en for mycket one too many, myctva
ket folk

many

people.

192.

Annan.
to

Annan
other", and

(annat, andra) corresponds


"else", in English.

"other", "an-

Jag

skall gora det

en annan

I will do it another time.

gang.

Den

enes

dod,

den andres
ut,

One man's meat


poison.

is

another's

brod.

Den ena
A ena
sidan.
e

gick

och

den One went

out and the other

andra

stannade hemma. sidan a tuiftrff


.
.

stayed at home. On the one hand ... on the


other hand.

125

Dei har

ndgon annan gjort. Somebody else has done it. Vad annat kunde ni vanta? What else could you expect?
193.

Notice the following expressions: who eJse could it be? harom the other day, ett eller annat something or other, pa dagen ett eller annat satt somehow or other.

Vem

Jcunde det annars vara?

The Verb.
A.

Auxiliary Verbs.
Att hava
to have.

194.

Present

Past
I have

jag har du har ni har han har lion har den har det har
vi Jia(va) 1

you have you have


he has she has it has it has we have you have they have

jag hade du hade ni hade han hade hon hade den hade
det hade vi hade

I had you had you had he had

she had

ni ha(va) de ha(va)

ni hade de hade

had had we had you had they had


it it

Present Perfect
I

Past Perfect

have had jag hade haft I had had jag har haft have had du hade haft you had had du har haft you ni har haft you have had ni hade haft you had had han har haft he has had han hade haft he had had
1

The form hava

is

nearly always pronounced ha.

12(5

/ton har haft den har haft tlet har haft

she has had


it

lion

has had it has had vi ha(va) haft we have had ni ha(va) haft you have had fie ha(va) haft they have had

hade haft den hade haft

she had had


it

det liade haft vi hade haft ni hade haft

de hade

had had had had we had had you had had haft they had had
it

Future

jag shall

(or Icommer att)

hava

(lid)

I shall

have

shall hava you will have ni shall hava you will have nan shall hava he will have hon shall hava she will have den shall hava it will have it will have det shall hava vi shola (or komma att) hava we

du

shall have

ni shola hava de skola hava

you

will have

they will have

Future in the past

jag shulle hava

(ha)

I should have

shulle hava you would have ni shulle hava you would have han shulle hava he would have hon shulle hava she would have den shulle hava it would have it would have det shulle hava we should have vi shulle hava ni shulle hava you would have de shulle hava they would have

du

Imperative

Infinitive

hav

have

att Jiava (or

att Jia) to

have

127?

Supine

Past Participle

haft had

havd
verb

had

The auxiliary 195. subordinate clauses.

att liava is often

omitted

in

Som jag pa mitt

icke (liar) fdtt svar forra brev


.
.

As
If
I

have had no reply


previous letter
.
.

to

Om

jag

Me

my

(hade)

hunnit

med

dngbdten, hade jag tagit

I should

had missed the steamer have taken the train.

tdgct.

196.

Att vara
Indicative.

to be.

Present

128

Future in the past jag skulle vara I should be vi skulle vara we should be
Imperative be
Infinitive

var

varande

Present Participle being

att

vara

to be

varit

Supine been

Subjunctive.
Present

Past
I be

jag ma vara vi ma vara

we be

jag vore vi vore

I were

we were

197.

Vara

and bliva.

The verb vara denotes a The verb lli(va) denotes


ther

state == to be.
transition

from one state to ano-

= to

be, to

become, to

get.

Det dr morkt. Det borjar bli morkt. Det blir morJct om en


stund.

It is dark.

lit en

It is getting dark. It will be dark in

little

while. his father.

Han

var ra'dd for sin far. He was afraid of Han blev radd, nar han horde He was (became)
visselpipan.

frightened

De komma

att

vara

borta hela

when he heard the whistle. They will be away the whole


summer.
I

sommaren. Det shall bli

roligt att traffa

am

looking forward to seekilled in the war.

dem

igen.
i

ing them again.


kriget.

Han

blev dodad

He was

Nd'r jag kom, dod.

var han redan

When

came he was already

dead.

129

Hcnncs mor
sjuJc.

liar

Idnge varit

Her mother has long been

ill.

for fa,
reracl,

vccltan

ock

blev lion opesedan dcss liar


och latfre

lion

blivit

btittrc

Last week she was operated on, and since then she has become better and better
e\7 ery day.

for var dag.

198.

Other Auxiliary Yerbs.


Past

Present
1.

130

B.

Verbs with
199.

full

meaning.

Conjugations.
four Conjugations, distinguished

There are
In In

in

Swedish

by

the form of the Supine.


the 1st Conjugation the Supine ends in -at. the 2nd Conjugation the Supine ends in -f. In the 3rd Conjugation the Supine ends in -tt.
the 4th Conjugation the Supine ends in -it.

In

200.

Supine.

The Supine is the form of the Verb used after the auxiliary verb (itt Jiavci to have, in compound tenses. Ex.: j'ag liar fcallat I have called jag hade Izallat I had called

The function

of

the

Supine corresponds

to

one function

of the Past Participle in English.

201.

Past Participle.
is

The Swedish Past


to

Participle, on the other hand,

never used

form

the

Present
is

Perfect or the Past Perfect.

The Swedish

Past

Participle

aft hiirff (to


Ex.:
jfig fir

be'

used after the auxiliary verbs and 'to become') and as an Adjective.
I

an

mm

and

Itallad

am

called called

jag

l)lcv

Jtallfid I

was

Consequently there are two forms in Swedish (Supine and Past Part.) which correspond to the English Past Participle.
202.

Principal Parts.
are: Infinitive, Present,

of the Verb and Past Participle. Past, Supine,

The Principal Parts

131

203.

First Conjugation.

Supine ends in -at. Past ends in -ade.


Present
Past

jay

jag ballade

I called

du
ni

han kallar
lion

I call etc.

den
del
vi kallade

we

called

ni\ kalla
de\

we

call etc.

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

jag har kallat

I have called

ri ha(va) kallat

we have
called

jag hade kallat I had called vi hade kallat we had called


Future in the past

Future

jag shall

(or

kommer

att)

Italia

jag skulle Imlla

I should
call

I shall call

vi skola (or Jcomma

att)

kalla

vi skulle Italia we should


call

we

shall call

Imperative: Italia call


Infinitive: alt

kalla

to call

Present Participle: kallande calling Past Participle: kallad called (den dr kallad, det ar
lat,
cle

Jeal-

aro kallade)

Supine: (jag har) kallat called


1

jag? do

Negative and interrogative forms: jag kallar ickc I call? kallade jag icke? did I not call? etc.

do not

call,

Jcallar

132

Examples:
Infinitive

Present
lea

Past

c Supine
.

Past
Participle

kalla
call

liar

ballade

kallat

kallad
dansad-

dansa
dance
Ixxlft

dansar

dansade

dansat

badar
Jioppar
telefoncrar

ladade
Jtoppad**

ladat

ladad
(over)hoppad
telefonerad

bathe
lioppa

hoppat
telefonerat

jump
tclefonera

telcfoncrade

telephone

The

majority of Swedish verbs belong to the First Conjugation.

204.

Second Conjugation.
-te.

Supine ends in -t. Past ends in -de or

The verbs
classes.

of the Second Conjugation are divided into

two

The verbs belonging to the first class take -de in the Past and -d in the Past Participle.
Present
jar/ bojer
I bend

Past
//

vi boja

we bend

M>jde bojde

we

bent bent

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

jag bar

bojt vi 1ui(va} bojt

have bent we have bent

jay hade bojt I had bent vi hade bojt we had bent

133

Future

Future in the past


att)

jay

ttJgall (or

kommer

boja jag skulle boja

I should

I shall

bend
(or

bend
att)

ri skola

komma

boja

vi skulle boja

we

should

we

shall bend

bend

Imperative: bb'j bend Infinitive: att boja to bend Present Participle: bb'jande bending Past Participle: bb'jd bent (den dr bojd, det dr
tiro

bojt,

de

bb'jda)

Supine: (jag

liar) bb'jt

bent

134

To the
does
not

first in

class

belong verbs the root of which


t.

end

k9

p,

x,

If the root ends in ~r the termination -er

is

drop-

ped

in the

Present singular: jag hor,

j(t</

rot;

etc.

II.

Verbs belonging to the second class take -te Past and -t in the Past Participle.
Present
jftf/

in

the

Past
I

koper

buy

jay kopte
vi kopte

bought

vi

kopa

we buy

we bought

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

jay

liar kopt I have bought jftf/ hade kopt I had bought viha(va) kopt we have bought vi hade kdpt we had bought

Future

Future

in the past I should

jag skall (or Itommer att) kopa jag skulle kopa


I shall

buy
att) 7co^)ci

buy
vi skulle

vi skola (or Jcomma

kopa we

should

we

shall

buy

buy

Imperative:

Infinitive: att

Present
de

kop buy kopa to buy Participle: kdpande buying


r

Past Participle: kopt bought (den tiro Iwptd) Supine: (jag liar) kopt bought

koj>t.

(let

iir

k<">/>t,

135

136

Present

Past

jay bor
vi bo

I dwell

we dwell
Present Perfect

jag bodde vi bodde

I dwelt

we dwelt

Past Perfect

jag

liar bott I have dwelt vi ha(va) bott we have dwelt

jag hade bott I had dwelt vi hade bott we had dwelt


Future in the past

Future

jag
we

tt'kall (or

kommer

att)

bo bo

jag

skit lie

bo

I should dwell

I shall dwell

vi skola

(or komma att) shall dwell

vi skitlle bo we should dwell

Imperative: bo dwell Infinitive: att bo to dwell

Present Participle: boende dwelling Past Participle: bodd 1 (neuter: bott, Supine: (jag har) bott dwelt

pi.

bodda)

Examples:
Infinitive

Present

bo

bor 2

137

Only

few verbs belong


as
a

to the

Third Conjugation.
The
Infinitive

They
end
in

are, a.
206.

rule,

monosyllabic.

does not

Irregular Yerbs of the First Conjugation.

Infinitive
Sing.
lieta

Present
Plur.
hcta
lieter

Past
hctte

Supine
lietat

be called
liunna

kan
lever

Jcunna

Imnde
levde

kunnat
levat

be able
leva
live

leva

veta

vet

veta

visste

vetat

know
vilja

mil
207.

vilja

mile

velat

be willing

Irregular Yerbs of the Second Conjugation.


Present
Past
1

Infinitive

Supine
bragt
bort
dolt 2

Past Part.
bragt

bring a

bringar

bragte

bring bora

bor
to

borde
dolde 2

ought
dolja

doljer

dold 2

conceal

ylddja

gldder

gladde
gjorde
lade
skilde

ylatt

gladden gora
do,

yor
lagger
skiljer

gjort
lagt
skilt

yjord

make
layd
skild

lagga

lay
sJcilja

separate
1

The plural of the Present N. B. long vowel!

is

always

like the Infinitive.

sHturjd

anoint

130

ga
go
le

gar
ler

yick
log

yinyo
loyo

gdtt
Ictt

gang en
(be)lcdd

smile
se

scr

say
stod
slog

sago
stodo
sloyo

sett

scdd

see std

star

stdtt

(over)stdnden

stand
sld

sldr

slayit

slayen

strike

209.

Fourth Conjugation.
-it*

Past Participle ends in -en. Conjugation the Past is not formed by a termination as in the other conjugations but by changing the root-vowel, e. g. binda, Past. sing, band, plural bundo.

Supine ends in In the Fourth

The verbs
to the

of this conjugation are here classified according various vowel-changes.


210.
I.

Towel-change: (short)

-- a -- u.

Present

Past

jay binder I bind vi binda we bind


Present Perfect

jag band I bound vi bundo we bound


Past Perfect

have jag bound vi ha(va) bundit we have bound


I

liar bundit

jag hade bundit


vi

hade

had bound bundit we had bound


I

Future

jay shall

(or I shall bind

Jcommer

att)

binda

Future in the past jag skulle binda


I should bind

vi skola (or Jcomma we shall bind

atf)

binda

vi skulle binda

we

should bind

140

Imperative: bind bind Infinitive: att binda to bind Present Participle: bindande binding Past Participle: (den a'r) bunden bound;
aro)

((let

dr) bundet, (de

bundna

Supine: (jag har)

bundit bound

Infinitive

141

Future
I shall bite
i'i

Future

in the past
I should bite

jay shall (or kommer aft) bita jay sknlle bita


slcola (or Jcomma
shall bite
att)

bita

vi sktille bita we should bite

we

Imperative: bit bite Infinitive: att bita to bite Present Participle: bitande biting

Past Participle: (den bitna


Supine: (jag
liar)

a'r)

biten

bitten; (det

a'r) bitet,

(de aro)

bitit bitten

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

jag
vi

7iai' fliigit I

/tft(ra)

have flown fl-ngit \ve have

jay hade fluff it I had H hade flu git we had


Future

flown
flown

flown

Future

in the past

jag shall
vi

(or I shall fly

komnter

att)

flyga

jag

kulle flyga

I should fly
att)

skola

(or

komma

fly go,

vi skulle flyga

we

shall fly

we should

fly

Imperative: flyg Infinitive: att flyga Present Participle: flygande Past Participle: (den ar) (bort)flugen, (det
dro) (lort)flugna

fir)

(bort)fluget, (d(

Supine: (jag har) flugit

143

213.
Infinitive

IT.

Other Towel Changes.

144
Infinitive

srara

145
Infinitive

Present

Past
Sing.
Plnr.

Supine

Past Part.

far a

far

Infinitive Present

148
Infinitive Present

149
Infinitive

Present
vrider

Past
Sing. rred
at

Supine
Plur.

Past Part.

vrida

vredo
dto

vridit

widen
dten

twist
d'ta
Liter

atit

eat

Remarks on

the Terminations of the Verb,


215.

The

Infinitive.

First Conjugation: ait tala, att Italia, att bada. Second Conjugation: att Itopci, att bdja, att soka.

Third Conjugation: att bo, att tro, att sy, att fa. Fourth Conjugation: att binda, att Jsomma, att bita.

The

Infinitive

ends in

-a

in the 1st,

2nd and 4th

Conjugations. In the 3rd Conjugation the Infinitive ends in

another

vowel than

-a.

216.

The Present.
Singular.

First Conjugation: jag talar, jag kallar, jag badar. Second Conjugation: jag kb'per, jag bojer, jag sober.

Third Conjugation: jag bor, jag tror, jog syr, jag far. Fourth Conjugation: jag binder, jag Itommer, jag biter.

The Present singular of


in *ar.

the

1st

Conjugation ends

The Present singular


in -er.

of

the 2nd Conjugation ends


the

The Present singular


in -r.

of

3rd Conjugation ends

The Present singular


in -er.

of

the 4th Conjugation ends

150
Plural.

First Conjugation: vi tala, vi kalla, vi bada.

Second Conjugation: vi ko'pa, vi bdja, vi soka. Third Conjugation: vi bo, vi tro, vi sy, vi ga. Fourth Conjugation: vi binda, vi komma, vi bita.

The Present
tive.

plural has the same form as the InfiniException: vi tiro we are (Infinitive: vani).

217.

The

Past.

Singular.
First

Conjugation: jag talade, jag ballade, jag badttde. Second Conjugation: jag kb'pte, jag bojde, jag sokte. Third Conjugation: jag bodde, jag trodde, jag sydde. Fourth Conjugation: jag land, jag ~kom, jag let.

The Past singular of the 1st Conjugation ends in -ttde. The Past singular of the 2nd Conjugation ends in
-de or
~te.

The Past singular of the 3rd Conjugation ends in -dfle. The Past singular of the 4th Conjugation has no termination.
Plural.

First Conjugation: vi talade, vi kallade, vi badade.

Second Conjugation: vi kopte, vi bojde, vi sokte. Third Conjugation: vi bodde, vi trodde, vi syddc. Fourth Conjugation: vi bundo, vi kommo, vi beto.

The Past plural

of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Conjugations


-o.

as the singular. has of the 4th Conjugation ends in The Past plural

the same form

151

218.

The Imperative.

First Conjugation: tala,

Italia, bada. Second Conjugation: kop, boj, sok. Third Conjugation: bo, tro, sy, gd. Fourth Conjugation: bind, Jcom, bit.

The Imperative
the

of the 1st

and 3rd Conjugations has


is

same form as the Infinitive.

The Imperative of the 2nd and 4th Conjugations like the Infinitive minus -a.

219.

The Supine.

First Conjugation: talat, kallat, badat.

Second Conjugation: hopt, bojt, sokt. Third Conjugation: bo tt, trott, sytt, gait. Fourth Conjugation: bundit, kommit, bitit.
Supine of the .1st Conjugation Supine of the 2nd Conjugation Supine of the 3rd Conjugation Supine of the 4th Conjugation The Supine cannot be inflected.

The The The The

ends in ends in

-at.
-t.

ends in ends in

-tt.

-it.

220.

The Past

Participle.
is inflected

The Past
like

Participle of all
Adjective.

the conjugations
is

an ordinary
the

It takes -t in the neuter

and -a

plural. indefinite form.

in

The

definite

form

like the plural of the

definite

In the First Conjugation, however, the plural and the form of the Past Participle take -e instead of -a.

M., F.

and

C.

Xeuter
Jcallat
leapt

Plural

First Conjugation:

Itallad
ki'>j>t

kallade
Itopta

Second Conjugation:

bojd

bojt
trott

hnjdft

Third Conjugation: Fourth Conjugation:

trodd

trodda
bunchta
in

bnndcn

bnndct

Participle of the 1st Conjugation ends ad. The Past Participle of the 2nd Conjugation ends
t

The Past

in

or -d.

The Past

Participle of the 3rd Conjugation ends in -dd. The Past Participle of the 4th Conjugation ends in -en.

221.

The Present

Participle.

First Conjugation: talande, kallande,

badaude.

Second Conjugation: Mpande, bojtuide, sokande. Third Conjugation: bocnde, troende, syende, gdende. Fourth Conjugation: bihdande, kommande, bitatide.

The Present

Participle of the 1st, 2nd and 4th Con-

jugations ends in -ande. The Present Participle of the 3rd Conjugation ends
in

-cnde.

Subjunctive,
The special forms of the Subjunctive are gradually out of use in modern Swedish. Very few are retained falling in the spoken language. They all end in -1*. -l'li\. The Present Subjunctive is formed by replacing the
222.
-ft

of the Infinitive

by

-c

153
Infinitive
ait leva

Present Subjunctive leve

vd Isign a

v a Isiyn e

vara Jcomma
224.

vare

komine

The
is

Conjugations
trodde.

Past Subjunctive of the First, Second and Third like the Past Indicative, c. g.: talade, Uopte,

% 225.

The

formed

by

Subjunctive of the Fourth Conjugation is replacing the -o of the plural Past Indicative

Past

by

-c.

Plural of Past Indicative


(att giva)

vi
vi vi
vi

(ait se)

gdvo sago
voro
fingo

Past Subjunctive jay ydve, vi ydve

jay sdye, vi sdye


JGfl vore, vi vorc jay finye, vi finye
of the Sjbjunctive:

(att vara)
(att fa)

226.

Examples showing the use

Leve lionungen! Gud vare med dig! Vare d armed huru som

heist.

Rddde
Ske

sig den som Jean!


att det aldrig

din vilje!

Long live the King! God be with you! Be that as it may. Let him save himself who Thy will be done!
I

can!

Jag onskar, sommar!

bleve

wish
iner!

it

would never be sum-

Om Om
Om

jag vore hung. jag finyc, toy e jag platinte

If I

If

were king. were allowed, I would


the situation at once.

sen genast.

take
skulle
tid-

mdncn fimnes,
finnas

If

the
there

moon

did

not

exist,

det

inte

nagot

would be no

tide.

vatten.

Passive Voice.
227.

The
the

Passive

is

forms

of

Verb.
-s.

If the

formed by adding -> active form ends in

to the
-r,

active
-r is

the

dropped before

228.

1st Conjugation.

Present

Past
called

jag kallas vi kallas

am

we

are called

jag kallades I was called we were called vi kallades


Past Perfect

Present Perfect

jag har kallats


called

I have been

jag hade kallats


called

I had been

vi Jia(va) kallats we have been called Future

vi

hade kallats we had

been

called

j ag skall (Jcommer att) kallas


I shall be called

Future in the past jag skulle kallas I should


be called

vi skola (komma

att)

kallas

we

shall be called

vi skulle kallas we should be called

(Past Participle:

kallas to be called kallad called) kallats been called Supine:


Infinitive: att

229.

2nd, 3rd and 4th Conjugations:

If the active
tions) the -e is

form ends in -er (second and fourth conjugagenerally dropped before -s, except in literary

and formal

style.

155

Ex.: det
clet

hors

(liores) it is

{joins (go mines)

it is

heard; hidden;
spread.

det sitrids (strides')

it is

Infinitive

Present

att

hop as
bought

kdp(e)s
boj(e)s

pi.

kopas
bojas
tros

to be

att bojas to be bent att tros to be believed att bindatf


to be

tros

bind(e)s
bryt(e)s

bindas
brytas

bound

att brt/tas to be broken

Past

Supine

koptes boj ties troddes

k&pts
bojts
trotts
pi.

bands
brots

bundos
brotos

bundits
brutits
Yoice.
in colloquial

The Use of the Passive


230. It

The Passive Voice should be avoided

speech.

has, on the whole, a more restricted use than in

English.
231.

The Indirect Object


made the Subject
I

of an active sentence cannot,

as a rule, be

of a passive sentence.
told so.

\Man

Itar

sagt mig det.

I have been 11
(It
det.)

\Det har sayts mig. (But not: jag liar sagts


visade mig tvd tavlor.

has been told me.

jl

\Tva tavlor visades mig.

was shown two pictures. [Two pictures were shown me.

(But not: jag visades

tvcl

tavlor.)

156
232.

When

there are

two Direct

Objects, one denoting

a thing

and the other a person, only the thing-object can be


Best
is to

of a passive sentence. construction altogether. passive

made the Subject

avoid the

Jag
T Jan

fick lara
~
,

miq en mi dans.
o

(I
{
I

A
A

fick trc

frag or.

<*

[I
I

was taught a new dance. new dance was taught me. was asked three questions.

Ihree questions were asked me.

233. Verb followed by a Preposition cannot be turned into the Passive Voice, unless the Preposition forms part of a Separable Verb.

Man kommer

sakert

att

ta

He

is

sure to be taken care

of.

hand om lionom.

Man Man Man

skrattade at hennc.
far intc undra pa det. har inte sett efter licnne

It

She was laughed at. must not be wondered at. She has not been properly
looked after.

ordentligt.

But: motet
locket

sicotrt

upp

(or uppsko'ts) the

meeting was post-

poned;

sJtruvades
etc.

pd

(or pdskruvades) the lid

was

screwed on,
234.

An

'remain', 'leave',
in

English passive infinitive after the verbs 'be', corresponds to an active infinitive in Swedish

expressions like the following:

Vad dr att gora? Det var att vanta. Vad dterstdr att </6ra? Utstallningen Idmnade dtskillint dvrigt

What
It

is to
to

be done?

was

What
deal

be expected. remains to be done?


left

The exhibition
to

great

att onttka.
tttod

be desired.

Foljande

historia

att

The following
paper.

lasa

en StockJtolmtidni)t(/.

story was to be read in a Stockholm news-

157

Var kan man fd (kopa) den


/tar

Where

is

this book to be had?

bokcn?
Delta hus ar till salii.

(Note.
235.

This house

is to

be sold.)

'cause', 'command', 'order', 'direct', followed by an accusative and a passive infinitive are translated by Idta and an active infinitive in Swedish.

The verbs

Han

lat riva

liuset.

He had

Ordfdranden
mantrade.

lilt

upplasa pro-

The chairman caused

the house pulled down. the mi-

tokollet over

foregdende sam-

nutes of the preceding meeting to be read.

Other Uses of the s-form.


236.

The verb-forms

in

-8 are also used to express a

reciprocal action.

DC mottcs

pel bron.

They met on

Vi hjalptes at.

De foljdes at
Vi ses
Vill

till

stationen.

the bridge. helped each other. They went together to

We

the

station.

om

fredag.
-s!)

See you on Friday.

du ftldss? (double

Will you

fight?

237.

Some s-forms acquire an


The

active meaning.

Ndsslan branns.

Han

tycker om att retas. Hunden bits.

He
Do Do

is

nettle stings. fond of teasing.


bites.
tell stories!

The dog
not

Narras inte! Knuffas inte!

not push!

238.

Deponent Verbs.
#-ibrms.

Some Verbs have only


Verbs.

They

are called Deponent


but active meaning.

Deponent Verbs have passive form


I I

Jag Jean inte atidtts. Jag lioppas, aft lian kommer. Jag minus inte, vad lian sade.

I cannot breathe.

hope he will come. do not remember what he


said.

Other Deponent Verbs are:


wrestle,
father),

lyckas

succeed,
sick,

Iras

envisas be obstinate, brottas (pa sin far) take after (one's


etc.

krakas be

synas appear,

Periphrastic Forms.
239.

verbs
verb.

The Passive Voice is also formed by the auxiliary bliva or vara and the Past Participle of the main
colloquial

In

speech the .<?-forms are avoided as

much

as

possible.

{Han fir dlsltatl av alia. .... 77 (Han dfskaa av alia. liar IMvit void till riks'

He

is

loved by everybody.

(Han sman. dag


hur rft/ts IHan man.
till

He
riksdags-

has been elected a

Mem-

ber of Parliament.

It is difficult to give any simple rules as to the 240. use of the s-forms and the periphrastic forms. In order to know when to use the periphrastic forms it is

necessary
action

which

change
that

distinguish between (1.) Verbs that denote an is not continued indefinitely but implies a of a state or leads to a cessation, and (2.) Verbs
to

denote

continued

action without

reference

to

change

of state or to a cessation.

159

Verbs of the
tion,

first

category
of duration.

may

be called verbs

of transi-

the others verbs

Examples of verbs of transition: somna go to sleep, valma wake up, tanda light, Idgga lay, bliva become, flytta remove. Examples of verbs of duration: sova sleep, vaka keep awake,
brinna burn, ligga
lie,

vara

be,

dlska love, frulda fear.

241.
1.

A.

The Passive of Terbs of


is

Transition.

Present: x-form

the rule.

Ljusen

tiindas ocli jidldapparna utdelas.

The candles are


tributed.

lighted,

and

the Christmas gifts are dis-

(Compare: Ljusen tiro tanda. Julldapparna tiro

The candles are alight. The Christmas gifts have been


distributed.)

utdelade. Supinum bruJcas efter


verbet 'hava'.

lijdlp-

The Supine

is

used after the

Avlagda kldder uppJcopas.


2.

auxiliary verb 'to have'. Cast-off clothes bought.

Past: s-forms and periphrastic forms with bliva are used

without distinction.

(Han tof/ft till fdnga. [Han blev to gen till fdnga. lades at sidan. blevo lagda at siPapperen dan. {Papperen

He was

taken prisoner.
aside.

The papers were put

N.B. Periphrastic forms with vara in the Present and the Past indicate completed action, the result of which still
remains or remained.

Himlen ar (var)
moln.

tdcM

av

The sky
clouds.

is

(was) covered with


getting overcast.)

(Compare: Himlen tacTcet* av


moln.

The sky

is

100
Stolen

var

Iftt/trd.

The

chair

was

(or:

had been)

mended.
3.

Present

Perfect

and Past Perfect:

.s'-forms

and

peri-

phrastic forms with bliva denote


(Stolen liar (hade) la-f/attt.
|
I

completed action. The chair has (had) been mended.

Stolen har (lutdc) bliuit (not


varit!) la-gad.

Han

hade blivit

not varit!)

He had been

killed (shot).

skjuten.
fect

N.B. Periphrastic forms with vara and the Past denote:


a)

in the

Present Per-

completed action, the result of which no longer remains.

Koppen har varit lay ad en gang men tir nu sonder igen.


is

The cup has


but
is

been mended once


again.

now broken

b) someting that has been taking place for

some time and

(was)

still

taking place.

Han

7iar varit

forlovad

He

has been engaged for seven

sju dr.

years.

242.
1.

B.

The Passive of Verbs of Duration.

Present and Past: s-forms and periphrastic forms with vara denote proceeding action.

(Han fruktas av undersdJ

He

is

feared by his subjects.

tarna.

\Ilan tir
\

fruktad

av undcr-

sdtarna.

Han fraktades (var frnktad) av undersdtarna.

He was

feared

by

his subjects.

N.B. Jilir fruktad denotes beg inning action in the future ("will be feared"), itlrr fruktad denotes beginning action in the past ( 'came to be feared").
%

161
2.

Present Perfect and Past Perfect: s-forms and periphrastic forms with vara and bliva are interchangeable.

243.

C.

Passive Infinitive after Auxiliary Yerbs.


s-\ or

1.

Skall, followed by

denotes Pre-

arrangement,
is

Wish
Ett
till

or

Demand.
One regiment
to

regemente shall siindas


Sydafrika.

be sent to

South Africa.

2.

8kall, followed by a periphastic form with bliva denotes

Promise, Assurance.

Han
3.

shall

bli(va) val

mot-

He

shall be well received.

tagen.

Mdste, bor, torde, followed by cessity, Wish, Demand.


The
bottle

#-form denote

Ne-

Ndgot mdste yoras.


Flaskan bor skakas val fore
begagnandet.

Something must be done.


should
use.

be

well
sent

shaken before
torde

Anmdlningar
till

sdndas

undertecknad.

Applications should be to the undersigned.

4.

Mdste, bor, torde, followed by a periphrastic forn with bliva often denote Supposition or Probability.

Partiet

torde bli(va) avsdnt

The consignment
Kindly

inom en vecka.
(Compare: Partiet torde av-

will probably be sent within a week.

sdndas inom
vecka.

en

send the consignment within a week.)

11

222444.

Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar.

162

The Use of the Tenses.


244.

Present

The Present
in

the

is often used instead of the Future, especially case of Verbs of Motion and the verb bliva to be, to

become,

when a

sense of futurity

is

implied in the context.

He will come to-morrow. Han komtner i morgon. The boat will leave next week. Eaten gar nasta vecka. Will you be back by five? ni tillbaka till klocKo miner
kan o? Det blir morkt om en
stund.
liten

It

will

be

dark in a

little

while.
of Present instead of Past in the following

Note the use


examples
:

Ndr ar ni fodd? Jag ar fodd den 14

When
juni 1888.
I

were you born? was born on the 14th

of

June, 1888.

245.

Past.

Swedish Past corresponds


Det

to

English Present in expressions


I

of Feeling or Opinion like the following.

var
i

roligt,

att

du gick
du
inte

am

igenom Det var trdkigt,

examen.
att

glad you passed in the examination.

am

sorry you cannot come.

kan komma. Det var synd,


tankte

att

du

inte

It's

pa

dct,

medan han

of

a pity you didn't think it while he was here.

var har.

163

246.

Present Perfect.
often

Swedish
Past,

Present
in

Perfect
sentences

especially aldrig never.

corresponds to English containing ndgonsin ever, and

Vem liar Idrt


Hfir
ni

dig del?

Who

sovit gott i natt? Har ni ndgonsin sett ndgot sddant forut?

taught you that? Did you sleep well last night? Did you ever see such a thing
before?

Har

ndgon varit

har,

medan

Did anyone
out?

call

while I was

jag har varit ute?

Swedish Present Perfect


the following:

refers to the future in cases like

Jag har nog slutat, nar du


a'r

am
ed

sure I shall have finish-

fardig.

by the time you

are

ready.

247.

Future.

The usual way


iner att + the

of expressing simple futurity in


is to

Swedish

(without implying any Intention) Infinitive of the Verb.


er

use the phrase Jtom-

Ni tcommer att dngra


langre fram.

You

will be sorry for it lat-

er on.
inte

Dei hoininer
vdr
livstid.

att ske

It will not

happen

in our life-

time.

248.

Future in the past.

The Future in the past is used as in English. Sometimes the Past Subjunctive, or the Past Perfect Subjunctive, is used instead of the Future in the past.

164

Jag skulle inte yora det, om jag vore som du. Ni skulle gora mig mycket forbunden genom att gora mig denna tjd'nst. Jag vore tacksam for svar sd snart som mojligt.
Det hade varit battre, om hade stannat hemma.
vi

should
you.

not do

it

if I

were

You would
by
I

greatly oblige me doing me this favour.


be

should
reply
at

thankful for a
earliest con-

your

venience.
It

would have been better

if

we had stayed

at home.

N.B.

in the second

]n English should is used in the first person, would and third persons. In Swedish ftJculle is used

in all three persons.

249.

Continuous Form.

Swedish has no special Continuous Form. 'I am writing' rendered by jag skriver or jag hdller pd att skriva (lit. I keep on to write).
is

Jag har last hela dagen. En ny kyrka hdller pd att bygga*. Jag steall yd pa
teatern
i

A
I

have been reading all day. new church is being built.

kvall.

am

going to the theatre todoing when I

night.

Vad yjorde du du pd med),


in?

(or
na'r

vad

It

oil

What were you


came
in?

jag Icom

The Use of the Auxiliary Verbs.


1.

Skall, skulle.

250.

Shall

notion

of Intention

indicates Future, generally with an implied It is used or Will, Promise or Threat.

165
in
in

all

the

three persons and so corresponds to English "will" second and third persons. If no Intention is imthe

plied, shall.

Future

is

expressed by

hammer

att instead of

Skulle

indicates

Future in the
I

past.

Jag shall (kommer att) se till, ail han far tillbaka sina
pengar.

will

(shall)

see

to it that

he gets his money back.

Kungen shall oppna


ningen.

utstdll-

The King
att oppna
i

Kungen

hommer

will (is going to)

open the exhibition.

Han shall
kvall.

utstdllningen. inte resa for ran

Han reser inte forrein i kvall. Han hommer inte att resa
for ran
kvall.
i

He

will not leave

till

to-night.

kvall.

Han tanker
i

inte resa forran

Jag

sjalv,

shall nog hdlla utkik shall du fa se.

I will be on the look-out

myyour

Var snail och hdlsa sa mycket


till

you shall see. Please remember me


self,

to

dina fordldrar. -- Tack, det shall jag gora.


lovade, att
det.

-- I will. parents.

Han

han

inte

shulle
att

He promised
not repeat
I

that
it.

he would

gora om

Jag hade foresatt mig, shulle gora det. Jag shulle just ga
du kom.
251.

jag

ut,

ndr

had made up my mind that I would do it. I was just going out when

you came.

Skall

is

also

used
or

to indicate

dependence on

another
ment,

person's

Will

on

Previous Arrange-

166

Shall jag

Du shall

sta'nga fonstret? icke drdpa.


bli?

Shall I shut the

window?

Thou

shalt not
is

kill.

Vad shall pojkcn

What
be?

the boy (going) to

Vad shall jag gora? Vi shola traffas vid stationen. Kungen shulle vara ndrvarande.

What am

We

I (supposed) to do? are to meet at the station.

The King was

to be present.

lish

Shulle is used has "were to".


252.
vet inte,

in Conditional Clauses

where Eng-

Jag

vad som shulle om han skiille forhanda,


soka.
253.

do

not

know what would


if

happen

he were to try.

As

a rule skulle

is

not used like "should'' in Eng'I

lish,

after

verbs

expressing Feeling, Emotion or a personal


'I

is

Opinion, a pity',

such as
'it

am

glad',
'it

regret', 'I
etc.

am

surprised',

'it

is strange',

is possible',

Det dr synd (jag beklagar), att han shall vara sd dum. Det dr synd, att han har
f/jort
dct.

It is a pity (I regret) that he


It

Ar

del mojliyt, att

han

iir en

tjuv?
N.13.
to',
'I

should be such a fool. is a pity that he should have done it. Is it possible that he should be a thief?

'I

shall',

'I

will',

'I

am going

to',

'I

am about
to',

on the point of, 'I am to', 'I am supposed all correspond to jay shall in Swedish.

am

II.

Vill, ville.

Vill is not used to indicate Future as in EngHan lish; it is only used to express a Wish or a Desire. vill corresponds to English 'he will', 'he wants to', 'he
254.

167
is

willing

to',

'he

wishes

to',

'he desires

to',

'he likes',

'pleases', 'cares', 'chooses'.

Vill ni folja

med

till

statio,

Will you go with me


station.

to the

nen? Tror ni,

att

han

skulle

vilja

Do you
I

think he would like


to be

go'ra d<t?

to do it?
ingenjor.

Jug vill Vad vill

~bli

want

an engineer.
(pleases,

tii?

Han

far gora, som han vill.

What do you want? He can do as he likes


chooses).

Jag ville
255.

Me

besva'ra

honom.

I did not

want

to trouble him.

In English the verbs 'want' and 'like' are often by an Accusative with the Infinitive. This construction cannot be used in Swedish after vill. It must be
followed
translated

by a Subordinate Clause beginning with


inte,

att*

Han
Jag

ville

att jag skulle

He
I

did not

want me

to

know

veta det.
skulle inte vilja, att

it.

han

should not like him to do


it.

gjorde det.
256.

When

English

'will'

expresses Natural

Propensity

Habit, it is not translated by vill but by the Present of the main verb; 'would' is rendered by brukade (used to),
or

kunde (could), or no auxiliary.


Delta tyg krymper icke. Han kunde sitta timtals

och

He would

This material will not shrink. sit for hours doing


nothing.

gora ingenting. Pojkar aro nu en gang pojkar. Sedan brukade han ta av sig
rocken och borja. Han brukade skicka jungfrun efter
for

Boys will be boys. Then he would take

off his

50 ore

spik, etc.

coat and begin. He would send the girl out for sixpen'orth of nails, etc.

168

257.
1.

111.

The translation of "may", "might".

es a

Wish

'May' is translated by or Concession.


bli lycldig.

md

or

indtte when

it

express-

Md

(indtte) du

Huru ddrmed an
sig.
2.

md

May you
However

be happy.
that

forJidlla

may

be.

'May'

is

translated by

kan when

it

expresses a Polite

Demand.
Ni Uan gdrna gora det nu. Ni Jean gdrna saga at honom,
att

You may as well do You might tell him

it

now.
I

that

jag

vill trdffa

Jwnom.
is

should like to see him.

3.

'May', 'might'

translated by sltall, skulle

when

it

expresses an Intention.

Han

gjorde

det,
se,

for

att

de

He

did

it

that they might see

skulle fa han var.


4.

hur skicklig

how

clever he was.

the

help

'May', 'might' is translated of the adverb Imnske

by Jean, Tcunde or with when it expresses Possi-

bility.

Det Det

Uan Jidnda. Uunde Jidnda.


gor
det,

It
It

may

happen.

might happen.
do
it if

Han Ttanske
ber honom.

om

ni

He may

you ask him.

Ni Jtunde gora
Det dr
5.

er ilia.

kanske
'May'
is

inte sant.

You might It may not


by far when

hurt yourself. be true.


it

translated

expresses Per-

mission.

Far

jag lesvdra

om

senapen.

May

trouble

you

for

the

mustard.

169

Far
-

jag Idna den


Ja, det

Mr
du.

boken?

May

borrow

this

book?

far

Yes, you may.

Nej, det

far du

inte.

No, you mayn't.

258.

IV.

The translation of "must".

in

'Must' corresponds to mdste, which form is used not only the Present but also in the Past and the Future,
to',

where English has 'had

or 'shall

have

to'.

Han indste Han indste Han indste


Han
har

resa genast. resa i gar.


resa ncista vecka.

He must leave at once. He had to leave yesterday. He will have to leave next He
week. has been obliged to leave.

mast

resa.
is

N.B.

'Must not'

translated by

far

icJce,

when

it ex-

presses absolute Prohibition.

Ni far inte gora

det.

You must

not do that.

V.
259.

Ldta.
in

Ldta
(2.)

is

used

two

different

senses:

(1.)

"to

allow" and
1.

"to cause".

Allow me to help you. Ldt mig hjdlpa dig. Ldt Jionom inte komma in. Do not let him come in. Han later inte overtala sig. He will not be persuaded. He suffered (permitted, allowHan lat overtala sig.
ed) himself to be persuaded.

Ldt
2.

inte

mig stora

er.

Do

not

let

me

interrupt you.

Ordforanden
koll.

lat uppldsa foregdende motes proto-

The chairman caused the minutes of the preceding meeting to be read.

Han

lat dcm arbeta som

He made them work like slaves,

slavar.

170

Jag

shall

Idta gora en ny
roc-

am

kostym.

going to have a new suit made.


got
the tailor to

Jag lat skraddaren laga


ken.

mend my
de-

coat.

Generalen
toren.

Hit

skjuta

deser-

The general ordered the


serter to be shot.

Har jag

Idtit er vanta?

Have

I kept

you waiting?

The Use of the

Infinitive, Participle

and

Supine.
I.

The
is,

Infinitive.
as a rule, preceded

260.

The

Infinitive

by

att.

Han kom mig


Hellre
lian

att skratta. an att ge vika beslot


do',

He made me
to die.

laugh.

Rather than yield he resolved


is

att

261.

When
it is
till

the Infinitive

used to express Intention


att or till att.
to

or

Purpose,
reste
ha'lsa

preceded by
staden

for

Han
att

in

for

He went up

town

to see

pa

sin dotter.

Han

reste till

Paris
till

for att
att gora

his daughter. He went to Paris in order to

studera musik.

Tra anvandes
papper
av.
ett

Wood
He
I

(with a view to) study music. is used to make paper.

Han
Jag

skrev

brevkort

for att
sjuk.

wrote a post- card to say


ill.

tola om, att


lioll

han var
borta

that he was

mig

for att

kept

away

so

as

not

to

inte stora dem.

disturb them.

The Infinitive is used without att: after the Auxiliary Verbs (skall, vill, kan, bor, far, mdtfte, etc.).
262.
I.

Dct borde goras genast.

It

ought to be done at once.

171

after the following Verbs: tdnka think, hoppas hope, tyckas seem, synas seem, brnka be in the habit of, behova need, onska wish, and a few others.
2.

resa? Jag hoppas fa trdffa nom i morgon.


ni

Nar tanker

When
hoI

are

you leaving?

hope to see him to-morrow.

Han

Det tycks inte fo'rsokte


grinden.

vara

sant.

It does not

seem

to be true.

hoppa
simma.

over

He He He

tried

to

jump

over the

gate.

Han Idrde
Jag Idrde

sig

learnt (how) to swim.

honom

sitnma.
en prome-

I taught

him (how)
to

to

swim.

Han brukade ta

used

take a walk be-

nad fore frukosten. Vad vill ni veta? Skrivm askinen behover smorjas.

fore breakfast.

What

do you want to know? The typewriter requires oiling.

Han lyckades undkomma. He Han bad mig Jeomma och He


ha'lsa

succeeded in escaping. asked me to come and see

pa

dem.
i

them.
skriva

De,

som onska deltaga


ombedjas
liatan.

tavlingen,

sina

namn pa

Those who want to take part in the match are asked to put their names on the list.

3. In the constructions Accusative with the Infinitive and Nominative with the Infinitive.

Jag horde ndgon vissla.

Ndgon hordes

vissla.

somebody whistle. Somebody was heard to whistle.

I heard

is

263. In the following cases an English Infinitive rendered by a full Subordinate Clause in Swedish:
1.

After the expression 'had better'.


bast,

Det ar
genast.

att ni

gor

det

You had

better do

it

at once.

172
2. When English has an Accusative with the Infinitive after the verbs 'want', 'like', 'expect', 'wish', 'desire',

'require'.

Vad mil
t/or a?

ni,

att

han

shall

What do you want him to do? What would you like him to
do?

What
him

do

you wish

(desire)
to

to do?

England

gor

vantar, att sin plikt.

var man

England expects every man


do his duty.
'for'

When English has the preposition 3. an Accusative with the Infinitive.


Jag vdntade bara pa att skulle gd.

followed by

han

was only waiting


to go.

for

him

Jag Idngtar efter att shall komma.

han

am

longing for him to come.


not custoto

Pa den
liyt,

tiden var det inte

att

vandarner rokte

At that time it was mary for ladies


cigarettes.

smoke

cigar etter.

4. When English has a Superlative Number followed by an Infinitive.

or

an Ordinal

Han

var

sista)
5.

den forsta (tredje, soin forsohte det.

He was
to

the

first (third, last)


it.

attempt

In expressions like the following:

Jag var
honom.

dum, som hjdlpte

was a

fool to help him.

Ni

vore

dum,

oin ni trodde
vara sd

You would
lieve
it.

be

a fool to be-

dtt.

Hur knnde han


att

dum, How

could

he be so foolish

han trodde

det?

as to believe it? or

6. When English has an Interrogative Pronoun Adverb followed by an Infinitive.

173

Jag vet inte, gora.

vad jag
inte,

skull

I do not

know what
not

to do.

Han
Han

visste

hur han He
it.

did

know how

to do

skulle bdra
var osaker

sig at.

pa om
till,

lian

He was
do
it

uncertain whether to
or not.

skulle gora Jag shall saga shall stanna.


7.

det eller inte.

ndr ni

I will tell

you when

to stop.

In expressions like the following.


dr
inte troligt,
det.

Det

att

han He

is

not likely to do
sure to come.

it.

gb'r

Det ar

sakert,

att

han kom- He

is

mer.
264. The English Gerund Infinitive in Swedish.
is, as a rule,

rendered by an

The Swedish has no Gerund.

Det tjdnar ingenting

till

att

It is

no use trying.

forsoka.

Han

kunde skratta.

inte

Idta bli att

He
Has

could not help laughing.

liar det slutat


inte

regna?

att skriva! Uppskjut Jag har harmed nojet scinda


bifogade priskurant.

it stopped raining? Don't put otf writing! I have the pleasure of sending

enclosed price-list.
I

Jag foredrar att resa med dngbdt framfor att dka med
tag.

prefer going

by steamer
train.

to

travelling

by

Han
Det

dr sysselsatt
brev.

med
vdrt

att
att

He
It

is

busy writing

letters.

skriva
dr

knappast

is

hardly worth mentionis

namnas.
Det dr omojligt att veta, vad som skulle kunna handa.

ing.

There

no

knowing what

might happen.

174

Jag brukar stiga


265.

upp

tidigt.

am in the habit of rising early.


is

When

the English Gerund

sessive Adjective, a Genitive, or a


position, it is translated

Noun governed by
clause in Swedish.

preceded by a Posa Pre-

by a

full

English

contracted
in Swedish.

sentences

are

also best rendered

by a

full clause

Att jag
mig.

fir

svag, ger
att

er in-

My

gen rattighet

forolampa

being weak gives right to insult me.

you no

Han
att

tog

bort knappcn,

utan

He removed

the button with-

pojken sag
gillade
inte,

det.

Hon

att

unga

out the boy's seeing it. She did not approve of young
girls

flickor voro sysslolosa. Jag hoppas ni ursaktar, att

being

idle.

jag

Idtit er vdnta.

Kungen var beldten med stdleinedan det lag sd let,


avsides.

hope you will excuse my having kept you waiting. The King was pleased with
the place owing to so secluded.
its

being

Dd han
och mig

ftck syn pa Harris


.

On

catching sight of Harris


.

and me
fir ma bli-

Eftersom Eder
vi

vit oss reborn mender ad, sltulle

gdrna
266.

vilja veta, etc.

Your firm having been recommended to us, we should like to know etc.
often governed by a Prepo-

An

Infinitive

is

sition in Swedish.

Han
Jcet.

har

forstort

genom
Han
tdnka.
Lyckan
gott.

sina ogon att liisa for mycdet

He

spoilt his too much. reading

has

eyes

by

gjorde

utan
att

att

He

did

it

without thinking.
consists
in

bcstdr

gora

Happiness

doing

Hon

utan uppehall utom att byta hdstar. for


reste

good. She travelled without a halt, save for changing horses.

175

Efter att ha atit mid lag gick hon upp pa sitt rum.
267.

After having Lad her dinner, she went upstairs.


is

A
lita

Subordinate Clause
in Swedish.

often

governed by

Preposition

Kan
Ar
ar

jag

pa

att ni Jeomatt han inte

Can

I rely on your coming?


is

mer?
ni saber
ute.

pa
det.

Are you sure he

not out.

Han

gick

utnn
oss

att

jag

He went
it.

without

my knowing

visste om

Han pdminde
var tid
att

om

att det

He reminded

ga hem.

Jag gratulerade honom med


anledning

av

att han hade


i

us that it was time to go home. I congratulated him on the fact that he had got the first
prize in the competition.

fdtt forsta pris

tdvlingen.

Han

var overtygad

om

att

He was
rain.

convinced

it

would

det skulle bli regn.

268.

The Accusative with the

Infinitive.

The Accusative with the


verbs se

komma

Infinitive is often used after the hora hear, befall a command, Idta let, tillata allow, see, make, cause, anse consider, and a few others.
I

1 Jog sag honom komma. J Jag sag, att han kom. Jag har hdrt henne sjunga. Han befallde dem att stanna.

saw him come.


ordered them to stop. allowed me to continue.
is

I have heard her sing.

Han

lat

mig
det,

fortsdtta.

He He

Det var

som

kom mig

That
I

what made me laugh.

att skratta. Jag anser honom vara Competent.

consider
tent.

him

to

be compe-

(Passive

Voice:
rik.

Han anses He

is

considered to be rich.)

vara

176

N.B.
verbs

English Accusative with the Infinitive after expressing Will or Wish must be translated by an

An

aff-clause.

Jag

vill

Me,

att

han

skall
att vi

I do not

want him

to come.

komma.
Han simile gdrna vilja, stannade kvar.
He would
like us to stay on.

An English Accusative with the Infinitive after 269. verbs like "think", "know", "prove", "take", etc. must be translated

by an

aff-clause.

Jag

bevisade, att

han hade
var
ett

I proved

him
it

to

be wrong.

oratt.

Ron

trodde,

att det

She took

to be a joke.

skamt.
270.

The verbs

tro

think, tycka think,

mena

consider,

saga say, pdstd contend, fdrsdkra assure, and vanta wait, are often followed by a Reflexive Pronoun and an Infinitive.

Jag tyckte
sjunga.

mig

(Jag

tyckte, att

liora nay on jag

thought
singing.

heard somebody

horde ndgon sjunga.}

Han trodde sig forstd, rad


hon menade. (Han trodde, att han forstod, vad .) Han pdfttod sty veta, vad
.

He thought he understood what


she meant.

He

said he

knew what

it

was.

det

var.

(Han
.

pdstod,
.

att

han visste, vad .) Jag vdntade miy inte att trciffa honom ddr.

I did not expect to there.

meet him

177

II.

The Present

Participle.

English verb followed by a Present Participle corresponds to two coordinated verbs or a verb followed by an Infinitive or an Accusative with the Infinitive in Swedish.
271.

An

often

Han

brukar sitta
sent

uppe och He

is in

Idsa

om

ndtterna.

up

the habit of sitting late reading at night.


talking.

Han

fortsatte att tola (och


aft

He went on
I

talade).

Forldt,

jag

liar

latit er

am

sorry I have kept you

vanta.
Jag horde honom sjunga.
272.

waiting.
I heard

him

singing.

After the verb

komma
sno-

come, and sometimes after

bliva remain, the Present Participle is used as in English.

Han kom springande. Han blev ligyande i


drivan.

He came running. He remained lying in the


drift.

snow-

273. Contracted Sentences (Participial Constructions) should be avoided in Swedish and substituted by full sentences.

Han

slwev

ett

brevkort

och
sjuk.

He wrote
that he
Seeing that

post-card saying
ill.

Da

talade om,
omojligt,

att

han var
det

was
it
it

Jian sag, att gav han upp det. Sedan han hdllit detta tal, Idmnade han motet.
statio-

var

was impossible,
up.

he gave
Having

delivered

that

speech,

Nar han lamnade


honom.

nen, hurrade folkmassan for

meeting. When leaving the station he was cheered by the crowd.

he

left the

Om Gad
later.

vill och vddret

till-

God willing mitt ing.

and weather

per-

225444.

Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar.

178

III.

The Past

Participle.

In Swedish the Past Participle is not used after auxiliary verb liava to form compound tenses (Present Perfect and Past Perfect). For this purpose the Supine is used. The Past Participle is used as an Epithet or a Predicative Adjective, mostly after the verbs vara, bliva, and is declined as an Adjective.
274.

the

Jag blev presenterad


Itonom

for

was introduced
party.
is

to

him

at a

pa

en bj'udning.

Middagen iir server ad. En fallen kung. Jag vill inte fa min liatt och min kostym forstorda av
regnet.

Dinner

served.

fallen king.

I do not

want

to

have

my

hat

and
rain.

my

suit spoilt

by the

Pengarna

tiro

stulna.
liar

De

voro icke

vdntade.
blivit

Foreld'sningen

The money is stolen. They were not expected. The lecture has been postponed.

uppskjuten.
Jag kan go'ra mig forstddd. Ett brutet lofte.
Brevet dr skrivet. Fienderna blevo slagna.

I can

make myself understood. broken promise.

Den

s. k. (sd ballade) studentexamen.

The letter is written. The enemy were beaten. The so-called matriculation
examination.

Det overyivna

huset.

The abandoned house.

IV.
275.
to

The Supine.

only used after the auxiliary verb compound tenses (Present Perfect and Past It is indeclinable. After the auxiliary verbs vara Perfect). and bliva the Past Participle must be used instead of the
is

The Supine

hava

form

Supine.

Compare the following examples:

179

Supine.

Past Participle.
brev.

Jag liar skrivit

ett

Brevet

Or skrivet.

I have written a letter.

The

letter is written.

Han horde ha stdngt dorren. Dorren horde vara stdngd. He ought to have shut the door. The door ought to be shut.

Han har hallat manga men


utvalt
fa.

Manga aro kallade men


utvalda.

fa

He

has called many, but chos-

Many
en.

are called, but few chos-

en few.

Jag har inte sett till honom. I have seen nothing of him.

Han
De

He was
ner

blev sedd av manga. seen by many.

De ha lagat

sina maskiner.
their

Itunde inte

fa
not

sina

masMtheir

lagade.
could
get

They have mended


chines.

ma-

They

machines mended.

Vi

ha

inte

hart

talet.

Talaren Jcunde inte

gora siy

We

have not heard the speech.

hord. The speaker could not make


himself heard.

De ha brutit sitt They have broken


mise.

lofte.

De bruttia

loftena.

their pro-

The broken promises.

Floderna

ha

The

rivers

frusit. have frozen.

De frusna
The

floderna.

frozen rivers.
aldrig

Jag har
men.

aldrig

anvant kosty- Kostymcn har anvdnd.


suit.

varit

I have never

worn the

The

suit has never

been worn.

De ha overrasteat oss. They have taken us by


prise.

Vi ha blivit overrasJtade.
sur-

We

have been taken by sur-

prise.

Who

Vem har sytt din kla'dning? has made your frock?

The shoes

Skorna aro hanclsydda. are hand-sewn.

180
276. In Subordinate Clauses the Supine is sometimes used without an auxiliary verb to form Present Perfect and Past Perfect.

Han

svarade, innan han blivit

He answered
been asked.

before

he

had
suc-

ttllft'dgad.

De hade

kanske lyckats, om de
litet

They would perhaps have


ceeded
if

forsvkt

tidigare.

they had

tried

little earlier.

Transitive and Intransitive Terbs.


277.
vice versa.

Transitive Verbs cannot be used intransitively or

JBestiga (not kldttra) ett berg.

Hans ogon fy tides

(not fyllde)
sd.

Climb a mountain. His eyes filled with

tears.

av tdrar. Brevet lyder (not laser)

The
Fly

letter reads as follows.

Slappa iipp
pappersdrake.

(not

flygd) en

a kite.
in the stoves.

Man branner
ugnarna. Veden brinner.
278.

ved

kakel-

They burn wood


The wood
burns.

transitive

kdrnpa

verbs that are transitive in English are ine. g.: gd in i ett rum enter a room, emot ndgon fight somebody, gd in vid armen join the
in

Some

Swedish,

army, gd forbi ndgon pass somebody, inverka pa en person


influence a person,
etc.

Reflexive Verbs.
279.

Some

verbs
e.

that

are not reflexive in English are

g.: avhdlla siy abstain, visa sig appear turn out), ndrma sig approach, fordndra sig change, (prove, bekltif/d Nig complain, forestdlla sig fancy, imagine, lara sig

reflexive in Swedish,

181
learn,

gifta sig (med) marry,

kdnna

sig feel, rora sig


retire,

glddja sig rejoice, mistaken, etc.

draga sig tillbaka

move, misstaga sig be

Det visade sig,


ordtt.

att

han hade
rik-

It

appeared that he was wrong.


it

Om

det

visar sig vara


icltc

If

proves correct.

tigt.

De ha

fordndrat sig
over att

They have not changed much.


She complained that she could
not sleep.

mycket.

Hon beklagade sig


hon inte kunde
sova.

Ni

Jean

forestdlla er vdr

for-

You may imagine


prise.

our

sur-

vdnirtg.

Han Idrde
mdnader.

sig franska pa

tre

Hon gifte sig


bra.

ined en prdst.
inte riktigt

learnt French in three months. She married a clergyman.


I did not feel quite well.

He

Jag kdnde mig

De rorde sig

inte.

They

did not move.


to

En

framling, som visade sig

stranger,

vara kungen av Spanien.

.ed out)

who proved (turnbe the King of

Spain.

Har du
Jag kan
gora

tin drat
inte

dig?
att

Have you changed your mind?


I cannot undertake to do
it.

dtaga mig

det.

Compound
280.

Verbs.
of a

Compound Verbs (composed

Verb + a

Prefix,

a Noun, an Adjective, an Adverb or a Preposition) are divided into Separable and Inseparable Verbs.
281.

Verbs beginning with one of the following Pre-

fixes are inseparable:

an-, be-, M-, ent-, er-, for-, hdr-, miss-, sam-,

um-,

und-, van-,

a-.

182
Ex.:

ariklaga

accuse,

betala pay, bista assist, entlediya


confess,
'

dismiss, st-ammo, be

erkdnna

forklara explain, hurbe

descended,
cooperate,

mittstaga sig

mistaken,

samarbeta

umgds

associate,

undkomma

dtaga sig undertake. Note 1. Most of these verbs are borrowed from the German. Note 2. The prefixes be-, ent- and for- are unstressed and the Verb has Tone I.
Ex.: befalla command, forstd understand. Verbs compounded with the other prefixes have Tone II with principal stress on the prefix.

escape, vanstdlla disfigure,

Ex

Note

an falia attack, bispringa succour. A few verbs compounded with an- are separable. 3.
283.

Compare
282.

Compound Verbs

not

beginning with any of the

prefixes mentioned in

281 have, as a ruJe, one separable

and^one inseparable form.


In colloquial speech the separable forms are more common than the inseparable forms.
Ex.:
kd'nna igen
Jcaxtct

or.igenkdnna
or fiortka&ta

recognise

throw away under or understryka underline stryka


bort
folja

mcd
sonder

gd

till

slita

tola

om

183
Ex.:

frambringa produce, inverka (pa) influence, overgiva abandon, fortlygga prevent, emotse await, forbise
overlook,
etc.

In some Compound Verbs the inseparable form 283. has a different meaning from the separable form. Compare:

Vad star

pd?

What is up? Han brbt av happen. He broke the stick.


Det

Han pdstdr det. He says so. Han avbrb't samtalet.


He
broke
off

the conversaliar?

tion.

gdr

inte

for

sig.

Vad for si g gdr

It will not do.

Hur star

det till?

How
Det

do you do?

gdr an.

What is happening here? Han tillstdr sitt fel He admits his fault. Det angdr oss inte.
It does not concern us.

It will do.

De gingo under.
They
Note
separable
284.

Hon undergicU
dndring.

en stor for-

perished.
1.

She underwent a great change.


as a rule, in-

when used

Verbs belonging to this class are, in a figurative sense.

The Present and Past Participles of ComVerbs are inseparable. Compare: pound Han blev utltord. Jag Uorde ut Jionom. He was turned out. I turned him out. De valde om honom. Han liar blivit omvald. He has been re-elected. They re-elected him. Det omtalade dokumentet. Tola inte oin det! The above-mentioned docuDo not mention it!
Vilka ord ha ni strukit

over?
you

ment. Inga ord aro overstrultna.

Which

words

have

No words

are crossed out.

crossed out?

184

De kcinde genast igen mig. They recognised me at once.


Tio

De

blevo genast

igenkanda.
recognised
at

They
once.

were

ombud togo del

for-

De

handlingarna.

fdrhandlingarna deltaf/ande ombuden.


i

Ten delegates took part


the negotiations.

in

The delegates taking part


in the negotiations.

Vem har slagit ttonder fonstret?

Det sonderslagna

fonstrct.

Who has broken the window?

The broken window.

The Adverb.
are formed from the by adding - (the Adverb being corresponding Adjectives like the neuter form of the Adjective). Compare:
285.

great

many Adverbs

En

vacker

villa.

A
belagen

beautiful villa.
villa

Villan var

vackert

The

was beautifully

sit-

uated.

En
En
De

\ omsorgsfull mdnniska. Arbetet var omsorgsfullt\

careful person.

The work was

carefully done.

gjort.

trogen van.
foljde

faithful friend.
faith-

honom

trof/et.

They accompanied him


fully.

286.

Present Participles are sometimes used as Adverbs.

They undergo no change.

Hon

ar fortjiisande

sot.

She

is

awfully

(lit.

charming-

ly) pretty.

Det ar

rasande

svdrt.

It is frightfully difficult.

185
287.

be

divided into

Other Adverbs correspond to Pronouns and may Demonstrative, Relative, Interrogative

and Indefinite Adverbs.


1.

Demonstrative Adverbs are:


hit here

heir,

ddr, dit there overallt everywhere

nu now
da, sedan then sa so

hdrifrdn from here ddr ifran from there hdrav from this ddrav from that
hdruti, hdri in this

ddrfor therefore, therefor

ddrutij ddri in that hdrom of this

harmed herewith, hereby hdrigenom by this


da'rmed with that

ddrom

of that

hdremot against this ddremot on the other hand

ddrigenom by that
2.

Relative Adverbs are

ddr, dit, (varest) where vari wherein, in which varav whereof, of which

varifrdn from where

varom of which varuti in which


is

lated

N. B. English "where" as a Relative Adverb by ddr and dit.

trans-

Stanna dcir du dr!


3.

Stay where you


ndr? when?
hur(u)? var for?
vartill?

are!

Interrogative Adverbs are

var? where? vart? where to?


varifrdn? where from? vanned? wherewith?

how?

why?
whereto?
a Preposition, such as

and others composed


varigenom, varvid,
4.
etc.

of

var and

Indefinite

Adverbs are:

ndgonstddes somewhere
ingenstddes nowhere annorhinda otherwise

hur som var som


vart

heist

anyhow
anywhere anywhere

heist

som

heist to

ndr som heist at any time.

186
5.

Indefinite

Relative Adverbs are

e.

g.:

Kom ndr du Var han aV,


The

vill!

Come whenever you


i

like!
is in

dr han.

vtigen.

Whereever he

is,

he

the

Indefinite Relative

way. Adverbs are often emphasised by

the addition of tin or heist.

Hur
Hur

det

an

gar.

Vare harmed
rik

hum som han an dr.

heist.

However it goes. Be this as it may. However rich he is.


Whichever way he turned, he saw nothing but jetties.

Vart (heist) han vande sag han bar a bryggor.


288.

sig,

The adverb ja yes, answers to a question expressed affirmatively; Jo yes, answers to a question
expressed negatively,
Vill ni

or contradicts a negative statement.

ha

ett tipple?

Jatack.
apple?
-

Will you have an apple?


Yes, please.

Vill

ni

inte ha

ett

Won't you have an apple? I

Jo tack. Han kommer


289.

nog inte.
also

Jo,

am

Yes, please. afraid he will not come.

det gor han.

Yes, he will.
corresponds
det dr

Jo

to

English
is

"oh",

"why",
it is

"well", in expressions like the following:

Vad dr

det ddr?

Jo,

What

that?

Oh,

en skrivmaskin.

type-writer.

Comparison.
Adverbs derived from Adjectives form their Degrees of Comparison in the same way as the Adjectives.
290.

Ex.:

tidiyt early tidigast tidigare omxorysftillt carefully omsorgsfullare omsorgsfullast

snabbt quickly
lf/f/t

snabbare
lagre

snabbast
lagst

lowly

187
291.
ofta often
fort
veil,

few other Adverbs


oftare

may

also be

compared:

oftast

quickly bra well

fortare
bd'ttre

fortast

bast
vdrst

ilia

badly
willingly

varre

garna

hellre rather

heist preferably

ndra near
292.

narmare

narmast
one form when used in con-

Many Adverbs have

a Verb of Motion (indicating Direction) and a different form when used in connection with a Verb of Rest.
nection with

Compare the following examples.

Han Han Han Han Min

gick in. ar inne.


gick ut.

J 1

ar ute.
far reste

He went in. He is in. He went out. He is out.

bort i gar, och han har inte kommit hem


an.
liar

My
He

went away yesterand he has not come day,


father

yet.

Han
i

varit
a'r

borta sedan
inte

has been

away
is

since yes-

gar och an.


liar

hemma

terday
yet.

and

not
to?

home

Vart

Var

han ar han?
hit!
heir.

rest?

Kom
Han

Where is he gone Where is he? Come here!


I

Jag ar
Stanna

am

here.

dar du ar! gick inte dit han

skulle.

Stay where you are! He did not go where he ought


to

have gone.

Other Adverbs with a double form are:


Direction

Rest

upp up
ner (ned) dit there

uppe

down

nere dar

fram forward

framtne

188
293. in

Some Swedish Adverbs have no


e.

exact equivalents

nog, val, eller hur, gdrna, hellre, heist, ju, desto, visserligen, namligent kvar. ju The following examples show their use.

English,
.

g.:

Det

blir

nog

regn

morgon.

am

afraid

it

will rain to-

morrow.

Han

vet

Ni har
rest?

veil hort, att

not/ inte av det dnnu. han har


inte hjdlpa det,

I don't think he I suppose I suppose

knows

it yet.

you have heard that


it.

Han

kunde veil ban jag tro.


kva'll,

he has left? he couldn't help

Ni gdr

veil nied

pa

teatern

You

eller

hur?

the

will be going with us to theatre to-night, will

you not?
Jag stannar lika ma.

gdrna

hem-

I'd just as soon stay at

home.

stannar heist (hellre) hemma. Ju forr desto bdttre. Jag kan ju inte veta, vad han

Jag

I prefer to stay at home.

The sooner the better. I can't tell what he is


ing
of,

think-

tanker pa.

can I?

Jag har ju
forr.

aldrig sett karlen

have never seen the man before, you know.


is

Han

jag,

dr visserligen dldre an men han ser mycket


ut.

He

but
I

older than me, it is true, he looks very much


well.

yngre

younger.
val.

Jag kdnner honom mycket


Vi dro
rater.

know him very


went
see.

We
you

namligen
kvar
kvar

skolkam-

to school together,
all

Snon

ligger

hela som-

The snow remains


mer.

the sum-

maren.

Ar

det ndgot

flaskan?

Is there anything left in the bottle?

189
294.

The word forstds, (which


forstd,

form of the verb

understand)

is

is really the passive used as an Adverb in

the sense of "of course".

Det

visste

han forstds Me.

He

didn't

know

it,

of course.

also

The adverbs redan already, and forst first, are 295. used in the sense of "even" and "only" in expressions
som barn skrev han
i

like the following:

Hedan

Even
els.

as a child he wrote nov-

romaner.

Jag kom forst


296.

morse.

arrived only this morning.

Da

and sedan.

English "then" is translated by dd when it means "at that moment", or "in that case". English "then" is translated by sedan when it means
"after that", "subsequently".

Just

dd

fick

tjur.

Dd

han syn pa en borjade han springa.


geten go,
tit

Just then he caught sight of a bull. Then he started to


run.

En

dag

sJculle

balskogen efter mat. till sig alia killinglade hon arna och sade: 0m vargen

Dd

One day the goat was going out into the wood to get some food. Then she called
all the kids and said: "If the wolf comes, do not open the door, for then he will - "We will take eat you." answered the kids. -

kommer, sa oppna inte, for Vi dd ater han upp er. ska nog akta oss, svarade
killing arna.

Dd
i

brdkte

care",

geten och gick ut

skogen.

Vargen gick forst till en handelsman och kopte ett sty eke krita Sedan gick han en bag are och bad hotill
.
.

Then the goat bleated and went out into the wood. The wolf first went to a shopkeeper and bought a piece Then he went of chalk and asked him to a baker to put some dough on his
.

nom

stryka

lite

deg

pa

tas-

190
sen.
till

Sedan gick han en mjolnare och bad ho.

paw.

miller

nom
sen.

stro

lite

mjol

pa

tas-

gick han tillbaka och knarkade pa dorren.

Sedan

Then he went to a and asked him to sprinkle some flour on his paw. Then he went back and knocked at the door.
. .
.

Vad

skola vi gora,

om
vi

det reg-

What shall we do
Then we

if it

rains?

nar?

Da

stanna

hemma.
gick

Han drack en kopp te och sedan och lade sig. Och sedan dd?
N. B. Sedan and da See S 303 and 304.

He drank

will stop at home. a cup of tea and

then went to bed.

And
may

then?

also be temporal Conjunctions.

Conjunctions.
297.

The principal Conjunctions


forra'n,

are:

och and

innan before
. .

samt and och both bade


. .

(lika)
.
. .

som
.
.

and
.
. .

liksom

(as) ... as (sd) as ... (so)


.

som as well ... as eller neither nor varken utan (ocksd) not icke endast
saval
.

(icke sd)

som om as an than

som (not so) ... if, as though

as

only
icke

...
.

blott
.
.
.

only
dels
.
.

but (also) utan d'ven not but also


.
.

sd att that, so that

pa pa

det att that, in order that det att icke lest, so that -

dels partly

partly

not

an

...

an now

now
.
.
.

darfor
or

att\
>
J

eller or

emedan

because

anting en ... eller either

men but
utan but
ty for
att
c?a,

eftersom | alldenstund]

cnar

as, since

dd

that
nd'r

when
att

om, sd framt, sdvida om icke unless


. . .

if

ndrhelst whenever

om
while
r..

...

bara
...

medan, under det

>

for sa vitt som}

as long as

191

sedan after allt sedan since


tills,
till

forutsatt att provided

antaget att suppose

dess, till until


i

(just) som,

det ait as

om

ehuru, fasta'n though, although an, oaktat even though


...

sd la'nge som as long as sa snart som as soon as


liksom, allt
efter

vare sig att... eller whether... or

hur

som as

om, huruvida

an however if, whether

Examples illustrating the Use of Certain Conjunctions. 298. Men utan.


;

Han Han
bo

a'r

fatfig

men

hederlig.

liar

Met hem utan


ene,

mdste

He He

an hos den

an hos

poor but honest. has no home but is obliged to stay now with one
is

den andre av sina sldktingar.

now with
latives.

another of his

re-

Men
a

is

used after an affirmative,


or clause.
299.

utan

is

used after

negative phrase

For.

"Du kan
ten.

fa alia tre yxorna,

for

"You can have


for

du ar en bra

karl", sade torn-

you are
elf.

all three axes, a good fellow",

said the
is

In conversation for

used instead of ty.

300.

Min
ar

bror

ligger

dag.
inte

Ndmligen. Han My brother


because he

is in is

namligen

riktigt

bed to-day, not quite well.

bra.

Namligen, which
to "for" or

is

"because"

really an Adverb, often corresponds in English.


301.

Sd.

Vdnta

lite,

sd

far ni se!
i

Wait

little

and you will see!

Om

ni

gar

dit

morgon, sd

trdffar ni honom.

If you go there to-morrow, you will meet him.

192

Sd, corresponding

to

English "and",
etc.

is

used after a clause


corre-

expressing Command, Promise,


in

Sd without any

English, often introduces a Prinsponding Conjunction Clause following a Conditional Clause. In both cases cipal sd may be left out.
302.

The translation of

"as".
is

Hon

dr

lika

snail

som

be-

She
er.

is

as good as she
as soon as

clev-

gdvad.

Kom sd snart

(som) ni kan! Vi gingo iinda till slottet. Silver dr inte sd dyrt som
och dog

Come

We

you can!

walked
is

as far as the castle.

Silver

not so valuable as

guld. Han levde


testant.

som

pro-

gold. He lived
tant.

and died a Protes-

Som (medan,
ddr, sag jag
*

bast) jag stod en man hoppa

As

I stood there, I saw a jump into the river. I

man

floden.

(Efter)som

jag inte hade ndgra pengar, (sd) kunde jag inte kopa bdten.

As

had no money,

I could

not buy the boat.

As

= lika,

sd, bast,

som, eftersom.

303.

Distinguish between
the

(1)

Dd. the Adverb

da then, and

(2)

Conjunction word-order is Inverted, but not after the Conjunction.


1.

da when,

as.

After the Adverb

the

2.

Dd gor det ingenting. "Da flingo de hem. Dd de gingo hem, hdnde


det en ohjcka.

Then

it

doesn't matter.

Dd

inte hade ndgra pengar, kunde jag inte


jfff/

Then they went home. When they went home, an accident happened. As I had no money, I could
not go.

resa.

198

Compare the following sentences:

Da oppnade raven munnen,


ett

Then

och

tuppen flog npp

fox opened his and the cock flew mouth,

the

trad.

.Dd raven oppnade tnunHen, flo'cf tnppen ttpp i ett


triid.

up into a tree. When the fox opened his mouth,. the cock flew up into a
tree.

>?

H04.

Sedan.
a (2)

Xwlaii
(;>)

may

be an

(1)

Adverb,
en

Conjunction

or

Preposition.

1.

Sedan

f/ick

han

till

Then he went

to a miller.

nijolnare.
2.

Sedan han hade


voro de inte

adtt.

Sedan
lute

rddda law/re. han for, ha vi


ndgot
nr
ho-

/tort

After he had gone, they were not afraid any longer. Since he went away, we have had no news of him.

3.

I have known him since that 'leant honom sedan time. den tiden. Han reste till Amerika for He left for America three years

nom. Jag har

tre dr sedan*

ago.

N. B.

For the

distinction

between

dfi

and wcltm as tem-

poral Adverbs, see

296!
305.

Nar, dd.
r

Jay (jick ut, ndr (dd) hem I went out w hen he came in. kom in. Ndr and dd are interchangeable as temporal Conjunctions^ but ndr is more common in colloquial speech.
306.

Att.

The Conjunction

att

should not be omitted in Swedish.

Hur
13

visste

Aaw,

att jay var

How

did he

know

was here?

Mr?
222444.

Bjorkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar.

194
-Jag sadc at oar dnm. ho HOW, aft IK in
<ttt

1 told

him he was

a fool.

Han

svor
sett

j><(

him

aldr'tg

He swore

he had never seen

hade

home

fornt.

her before.

Tho translation of that.


"That" may be a (1) Demonstrative Pronoun, a lative Pronoun, or a (3) Conjunction.
1.

(2)

Re-

Vent

Just

fir den dcir den nattei/.

karleii?
}

Who
Was
I

is

that fellow?

Redan samitta
:2.

kviill.

That very night.


it

3.

knackade? honow, att han Jag mdste (/or a det. Nit dd han har rest, kan
ni,

Var det

som

sadc

told
to

you that knocked? him that he had got


it.

do

man
saken.
J)et var

int<'

</<"

nagot at

No\v that he is gone, nothing can be done in the matter.


It

det oyonblick,

dd

was at the moment when


the last hopes of the English had been Catholics
shattered, that Mary Stuart landed at Leith.

de

engelska

katolikernas

sista forhoppningar skingrats,

som
i

Maria Stuart
Leith.

landsteg

Prepositions.
308.

The

principal

Prepositions are:

av

of, by bakom behind

framfor, fore before

ran from frdn, if


for for
in
.
.

efter after
enlifjt

sedan ago
skull for
.

according mot, emot towards mellan, inellan between

sake

hos at
*

msr
ibland, bland

among

igenom, yenom through innan before

rorande concerning sedan since


till

to,

till

inom within med with


medelst by means of odktat in spite of

under under, during utan without


uti in

utom except
vid, bredvid beside

omkriny, kring about pd, ovanpd on

at to

over over

A few Prepositions are placed after the word they 309. govern in certain stereotyped phrases. Ex.: Oss emellan between ourselves, liela natten iyenom all
night.

When the word governed by the Preposition is at the beginning of the sentence, the Preposition should placed be placed at the end.
310.

Ex.:

Kor dr jay
is

Me

r add

for.

am

not afraid of cows.

This
Ex.:

always the case after the Relative Pronoun soni. Popper et, soin jay The paper on which I am

skrivcr
311.

pd.
is

writing.

The Preposition
tanker ni j)d?

very

often

placed

after an
of?

Interrogative Pronoun.
Ex.:

Vad

What

are

you thinking

The prepositions till and i are used with the of the Noun in a few common phrases. genitive Ex. Till lands by land, till sjoss to sea, till bord# at table, i till fots on foot, onsdays last Wednesday, last Christmas, i vintras last winter.
312.
:

13f

222444.

Bjiirkhayen, Modern Swedish Grammar.

196

313.

Examples of the translation of certain English


Prepositions.

About.

Frag ad'c

lian cr

out dct?
er?
>.

Har ni ndgra pentfar pa Omltriny (nnt/cfar) kl. Tank pa vad dn (/or!


Dtt finns intct hogmod
Jionom.

Did he ask you about it? Haveyouany money about you?

At about o o'clock. Mind what you are


There
is

about!

/to.s

no pride about him.

Ago.

For

fern fir

sedan

este

htm

Five years ago he

left

home.

hemifrdit.

At.

Klockan

fern.

At

five o'clock.

Mdncn

skiner out natten.


tit

The moon shines

at night.

Han
Han

sag
stod

f/enom fonstrct. vid fonstrct.

He He He He
She

looked out at the window.

was
is

standing

at

the

window.

Han Han Hon

iir

i skolan.

at school.

bor i Uppsala. bor hot* sin tant. dig

lives at Uppsala. is staying at her aunt's.

Jay sag

pa

teatcrn

(jar.

saw you at
yesterday.
is

the

theatre

Han
I

bor

pa
liar

Carlton.

He

staying at the Carlton.


arrived
at

ugaren
holm.

anlant till Stock-

The steamer has

Vid vilkcn

tid va'ntar ni

honom.

Stockholm. At what time do you expect

him?

Han

brnkar kotunm r/d julnt.

He

generally comes at Christmas.

197

Just i det byonblieket. Han sag pet miy och skrattade

At

He
1

at miy. Jay har inte wit honom alls.

that very moment. looked at me and laughed at me.


at all.

have not seen him

By.
h'ont

och

sitt

vid (framfor)

Come and

sit

by the

fire!

brasan!
liestc ni over Goteborg? Ni kommer dit vid den har
tic! en
i

You

overmoryon.
till kloc-

Jay kommer tiUbaka


kan
liescr
8.

Bid you go by Gothenburg? will be there by this time the day after to-morrow. I shall be back by 8 o'clock.

Jlan hatades
n't

av

folket.

ined

tdy eller bat?

He was hated by the people. Are you going by train or by


steamer?

Jay dker spdrvayn.

Man
i

kan intc yd eftet' rcylcr

am You
I

going by tram. cannot go by rules in


paid by the hour. an engineer by

delta fall.

this case.

11 an far bctalt

per

timmc.

llan dr

iitt/cnjor fill yrkct.

He He

is

is

pro-

fession.

Jlan yick for siy

sjdlv.

Lav

er det

Mr

stycket itta it-

He went by himself. Learn this paragraph

by heart

till!

For.
llan restc till Amerika
veckan.
i

forra

He
1

left for

America

last

week.

Jay har

inte
.

sett

honom
vara

pd

have not seen him for ever


so long. will be

myckct ldny<

Han kommer
(pa)
ett

att

borta

He

away

for a

day
for

par dayar.

or two.

Han

liar inte varit

hemma

(tin

He

tier) de sista dayarna.

has not been at home the last few days.

198

Av

brist

pa

pengar.
rtffl

Det var inycn finintn


fin att gc cftcr. Vad fa vi till m'uldag?

For want of money. There was nothing for

it

but

to give in. \\'hat are you going to give us for dinner?

Han

griit ttr yladjc.

He wept
intc

for joy.

Jag han hade

skullc

ha drunknat, om
hja'lpt miff.

should have been drowned but for him.


longed for day to break.

Han Idngtadc cfter

att

dag en

He

In.

Jag motte honom


Visby ligger

pd
till

yatan. Gottland.

pa

met him
is

in the street.

Visby

situated in the island


in

of Gotland.

De anlande
)"/'

London

gar.

They arrived
day.

London

yesterin

bo

pd

landct

om somrarna.

We

live

in

the

country

summer.

Pd
f

morgonen,

pa

cftermidre-

In the morning,
noon.

in the after-

dagen.

'nder drottning Viktor ia*


gering.
tillbaka

In the reign of Queen Victoria.


I

Jag kommer
fjorton dar.

om m

shall

be

back in about a

fortnight.

Till svar a Edcr shrivels? bcr


jag fa meddcla.

In reply to your letter I beg


to say.

Vad

heter det pit swtiska?

What
Into.

is

that in Swedish?

Han ramladc

*jon.

Hint gick in i en aftar. 'Oversdtt (let hiir till WHS/HI!

He fell into the He went into a

water.

shop. 'translate this into Swedi>li!

199

Of.

Ar du rddd for hunden?


Det skullc aldrig falla mig
in.\

Are you

afraid of the dog?

Jag
eu

sktille

inte
sal'.

dromma om>

I should not

dream

of such a

sadan
Itar

thing.

Han
Han

en hog tanke otn sin


berovat

He

thinks a lot of his colonel.

dverstc.
Jtar

mig

mina -He

has

robbed

me

of

my

pengar.

money.
stold.

Han

anklagades for

over England. Kommgariket Sverigc.


karta

En

A
A

He was accused of theft. map of England.

Staden Stockholm. Ett glas vatteu.


Bcrgets fot. Hordsbenen. Vi voro fyra stycken. Universitetct / Uppsala. Han dr en god vein till wiif/*

The kingdom of Sweden. The town of Stockholm.


glass
of

water.

The The

foot of the mountain.

legs of the table.


us.

There were four of

The University

He

is

an

of Uppsala. old friend of mine:


of

I norm
holm.

Sverige.

In the north

Sweden.
to

Uppsala ligger norr ont Stock-'

Uppsala

is

situated

the

north of Stockholm.

To.
Shall ni resa till Sveriyc niista

sommar?

Are you going summer?

to

Sweden next

Han

har alltid varit mycket

He

has always been very kind


I introduce
to Mr.
'

vdnlig

mot

mig.
er

to me.

Far jag present era Bergman.

for hwr
hcrr

May

you

to

Mr.

Bergman.

Kan

jag

fa

tola

med

May I speak

Andersson?
r
"

Andersson? Dei dr svdrt att

\'\

vet a.

It is difficult to

know.

'200

Tio

mot
tog

en

(ett).

Ten
hatten

to one.

Han
for

inte

av

He
to

did

not

take

off'

his hat

mi<i.

me.

Examples

illustrating the

se of certain

Swedish

Prepositions.

Over
liyyrr

over, above, past, beyond, across, by.


fot

300

over

The town
above

is

situated MOO

havsytan.

sea-level.

Klockan dr over eh a.

Han

yiclv

liver yatan.

Han
Det

yick tvdrs over par ken. Reste ni over Gotebory?


gfir

He crossed He walked

It is past eleven o'clock. the street.

across the park.

over win

horisont.

Did you go by Gothenburg? That is beyond me.

Under

under, below, beneath, during.

Katten dr under bordet. Det dr tio grader under noil. Levnadskostnaderna voro mycket hoc/ a under kri(/et.

The
Ft

cat is
is

under the

table.

The

ten degrees below zero. cost of Jiving was very

Under Under

tiden.

hans

regerint/.

high during the war. In the meantime. In (during) his reign.


for,
in,
etc.

Om

omkriny =

round, about,

Han say siy om(krinfj). De seylade om oss. Presidenten v aides om.


Las

He looked round. They sailed past

us.

The President was

re-elected,

om
och

den

liar versen!

Om Om
Han

Read this verse again! Over and over again.


In the morning. back

om

iy en.

morgnartnt.
tillbaka

Jag kommer
vecka.
rescr

om

en

I shall be

in a

week.

bort

en gdny out

He

goes

away

once a year.

m-et.

201

Komm-er ni

om

onsdag*
bit brod.

Are you coming next Wednesday?

Tiggaren bad out en

The beggar asked


of bread.

for a piece

Order of the Words.


I.

The Place of the


is
is

Subject.

315.
316.

The Subject
The Subject

generally placed be fore the Verb.


placed after the Verb
in

the following

cases
1.

In Interrogative

Sentences

where the Subject

is

not

an Interrogative Pronoun.
liar ni redan?

Heir hcin
2.

inte gait

anmi?

Are you going already? Has he not gone yet?

When
Noun
I/or
liar

the Sentence begins with the Object, a Predica-

tive

or a Predicative Adjective.

Vad
Den
i

ni om sondagarna?
boken

What

har jay kopt

do you do with youron Sundays? This book I have bought in


self

London.

London.

3. When the Sentence begins with an Adverb or with an Adverbial Phrase.

Nu
.

iir vdrett heir. Sedan gick varffen tillbaka


till

Now

spring

is

here.
to

Then the wolf 'went back


the wood.

skogen.
landct.

Om
1

somrarna bo vi pa

In

summer we
it

live

in

th'e

country.
c/dr

var det
iir

mycket

liallt.

/ dag

det varmt.

Yesterday To-day it

is

was very warm.

cold

202
I

'art tot/

kniven

viigen?

Nar

ffdr tdget'S

What became of the When does the train

knife?
start?

Ont en timme

kommer

brev-

Imraren.
4.

In an hour the postman will be here.

In a Principal Clause
tappat

when When
lost

it is

preceded by a
wood-cutter

Subordinate Clause.

Nar vedhuggaren hade


sin

the
his

had
not

yxa,

visste

han Me,
If
inte

vad han skulle ta sig till. Om du inte dr ddr senast kloc-Jean

know what

axe, to do.

he

did

you are not there by seven


o'clock at the latest, I shall not wait for you.

sju,

vantar jag

pa
5.

dig.

In the Principal Clause after a Direct Quotastar det till?*

tion.

:Hur
>

frdgacle

"How

are you?" he asked.


an-

han.
Tack bra,

svarade hon.

Quite well, thanks'", she


swered.

(5.

In Conditional Clauses where the Conjunction


du, sd svarade

is

omitted.

Vore jag som


jag
inte.

If I

Kommer han
jag tola
7.

hit,

sd shall

om

det for honom.

were you, I should not answer. If he comes here, I will tell him.

In Optative Clauses.
ditt rike!

Tillkomme

Leve konungen!

Thy kingdom come! Long live the king!

N.B.

The

Principal Clauses.

rules about inverted word- order refer chiefty to Subordinate Clauses have, as a rule,

normal (uninverted) word-order. Compare: Vadharhangjort? What


Jag
vet
inte,

has he done?

vad

don't
done.

know what he has

han har

gjort.

203

II.

The Place of the Object


any Pre-

The Indirect Object, when used without 317. position, precedes the Direct Object.
G-iv

honottt den!
lovadc
att
sl-icka

Give

it

him!
to

Han

miy

He promised

send

it

me.

den.

III.

The Place of the Adverb.


A.

In Principal Clauses.

318.
after

In Principal Clauses the Adverb is placed the Verb (in compound tenses immediately after the
att

Auxiliary Verb).

Han rayrade
9*

rixliiji'n

He
He

wisely refused

to go.

Nan konwner ofta


fildriy mi.

hit.

often comes here.

Jag trdffar honom nfistan

I hardly ever see

him now.

Han rcser
Frankrike

alltid

till

sodra

He always
of

goes to the south

Han kom
mcd
det.

om vintrarna. snart underfund


oldst!
ho-

He

France in winter. soon found it out.

Ldmna
nom.

aldrig dorren

Jag har aldriy

traffat

Never leave the door unlocked! I have never met him.

B.

In Subordinate Clauses.

In Subordinate Clauses the following Ad319. verbs are placed before the Verb (in compound tenses before the Auxiliary Verb): icke, inte,
rig,

alltid,

ofta,

xnart,

xallan,

ingalunda, bar a, aidantaf/liyen, formodlif/en, mojej,

ligen,

and a few

others.

./////

rissfr,

aft IKIII

hite Jtttdc

knew
there.
is

that he had not been

nirit d<h\
I hi

dr

rn

niclodi,

nom

tinni

It

a
.

tune

that

one often
in

oftti /for. 1>< sont intf f'h-o


,

hear.-2
f'drdit/ti
i

fid.

iiKistr

xtunim

licttnuo.

Those who are not ready time must stay at home.


landlord,
.
.
.

Varden* spm bttra


fy.s7.yf,
.

kunde tola The

who could only

Han sade^atthansnartsknlle
/coin HI t{

speak German, He said he would soon be


back.
It

tillbaktt.

Drt hade rarit hattrr.


(i/ffrif/
Dt't
'-fir

out

han

would have been better

if

Imdc

/commit.

uricjot,

som jag oinojaft lian


raft.

he had never come. It was something I could not


possibly know.
I admitted that he

lif/cn ktfittfc vet a.

medgar.
/i</<'it

ant at/-

was prob-

Jtfftft'

ably right.

Demonstrative Adverbs and Adverbs expressing 320. a (more or less) definite time are placed after the Verb.

Jay

cct.
/"(it

<iif

/tan hor hiir.


i

I
Icom-

know
he

that he lives here.

Om

rcxc)'

d<i(/.

.SY/

If

leaves

to-day
Kriday.
*.

he will

incr Itan

frit-in

om

frcda;/.
ickc,

be there on
intc, ej,

o21.

The Adverbs
att

Utid.

and

(tldrn/

are

and the Infinitive. Other Adverbs placed between may either be placed between ait and the Infinitive, or
after the Infinitive (not before
Jfi(/
ittt).

honfoll
<l('t.

honom

fftt

Jute

implored him not

to d<>

it.

f/OI'ff

Ha

it

lovadc aft <ifdri</


(lit.

if

or a

He promised never
again.

to

do

it

ont

fid,

order

att

f/enast

He was ordered
Always
to

to

leave the

Irtnnia laiuhL Att alltfd ftirldta dr battre


(in

country immediately.
forgive
is

better

fftt (ffflrif/ foi'/fftff.

than never

to forgive.

545883

sin

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H:\i;LOfK.

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and E

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(x\bbreviated) KditioFi. 7. r

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A.

K'.INT.

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dish'Eiigli^h

Synonym
AK/KLJCS.

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