Gas Turbine Protection Systems
By R S V Nageswara Rao BHEL,Hyderabad.
If the failure is of serious nature.
Protection system responds to:
Simple trip signals like
low lube oil pressure high gas compressor discharge pressure etc…. protection system will trip the turbine.Protection Systems
Turbine protection system consists of number of subsystems
which operate during each normal start-up and shutdown Few operate strictly during emergency and abnormal operating conditions.
Protection systems are set up to
Detect and alarm the failure.
. Combustion monitor Loss of flame etc….Protection Systems
More Complex parameters like
– – – – –
Over speed Over temperature High Vibration.
To ensure the safety and safe operation of turbine Speedtronic system is equipped with master control and protection circuit
Turbine Protection systems includes:
– – –
Inlet orifice. Check Valves & Orifice network Pressure switches Dump valves
Over speed Protection
Primary Electronic Over speed trip Secondary Electronic Over speed trip
Over Temperature Protection
Over temperature alarm (L30TXA) Over temperature Trip (L86TXT)
Flame Detection and Protection System
High Vibration Alarm & Trip Vibration transducer fault Alarm
Primary OS Over temp Vibra tion Comb Monitor
Relay Voting Module Master Prot. Circuit <XYZ>
Bypass Valve Servo valve
Relay Voting Module
Liquid Fuel Stop Valve
. Circuit <RST>
Gas Fuel Control Valve
Gas Fuel Speed Ra Stop Valv
Spread calculations Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm Combustion Trouble Alarm High Exhaust Temperature Spread Trip Spread monitor enable
Sec OS Loss Of Flame
Fire Detection Trip Loss of Flame Trip Generator Differential Trip Manual Trip Customer Trip
Primary Over speed Detected Emergency Over speed Detected Loss Of Speed Signal Vibration Trip Exhaust Over temp Trip High Lube Oil Temp Trip Low Lube Oil Pressure Trip Inlet/Exhaust duct pressure Trip Compt.
fuel. System devices are electrically operated by Speedtronic control system as well as some totally mechanical devices.Trip Oil protection
It is a primary protection interface between the turbine control and protection system and the components of the turbine which admit or shut-off.
Protective Signals Master Protection L4 Circuits Orifice And Check Valve Network
Manual Trip When Provided)
Liquid Fu Stop Val
INLET ORIFICE OVERSPEED TRIP 12HA 63HG RESET Manual Trip
Gas Fuel Speed Ratio/ Stop Value
Gas Fuel Dump Relay Valve
“ELECTRICAL OVERSPEED TRIP” is displayed in CRT.
L12H T Ma Set P And A Latch Al M
OLT 12HP Manual Reset Manual Trip OD Overspeed Bolt
Mechanical Over speed system Consists of
Over speed bolt assembly in accessory gear box.Over Speed Protection
TNH TNKHOS TNKHOST LK3HOST L86MR1 <RST> <XYZ> High Pressure Over Speed Trip HP Speed A Trip Setpoint Test Test Premissive Master Reset
Electronic Over speed function is performed in <RST> and <XYZ>.
TNH is compared with TNKHOS. When TNH>TNKHOS. turbine is tripped and latched till Reset. Acts as a back-up control Trip setting > Electronic Setting
. Over speed trip mechanism in the accessory gear. Position limit switch 12 HA.
TRIP & ALARM.
ISO TRIP 40ºF 40ºF
To Ala Messa And Spee Setpo Lowe
A A>B B A A>B B
O R Set And Latch Reset
To Maste Prot.
. And Alarm Msg
TRIP ALARM CONTROL
It is a backup protection system. operates only after the failure of other control systems. TTXM TTXOT3 ALARM A A>B B L30TXA ALARM
Protects GT against possible damages against Over firing.Over Temperature Protection
Typically 300 pulses/sec when strong UV signal is present. Speedtronic counts the no.
.Flame Detection & Protection
Speedtronic Mark-V flame detectors perform two functions
One in the Sequencing system other in Protective system
Flame detected by UV radiation.of current pulses/sec through UV sensor. the gas in the detector tube ionizes and conducts current. In the presence of UV radiation. Speedtronic control furnish +350VDC to drive the UV detector tube.
Flame Detection & Protection
Speedtronic MK-V Flame Detection 28FD UV SCANNER TUEBINE PROTECTION LOGIC
ANALOG I/O (Flame Detection Channels)
28FD UV SCANNER
28FD UV SCANNER
FLAME DETECTION LOGIC
28FD UV SCANNER
TURBINE CONTROL LOGIC
NOTE: Excitation for the sensor and signal processing is performed by SPEEDTRONIC MK V circuits
Vibration protection system trips the turbine when vibration level exceeds predetermined level.
L30TEST OR FAULT L39VF
A VF A<B B A VA A>B B A VT A>B B AND TRIP
SET AND L39VT LATCH RESET
Auto Or Manual Reset
Speedtronic control generates
High Vibration Trip Vibration Transducer Fault
. Vibration detectors generate a relatively low voltage by the relative motion of a permanent magnet suspended in a coil and therefore no excitation is required.Vibration Protection
Gas Turbine unit comprises
Several independent vibration channels Each channel detects excessive vibration by a seismic pickup Each channel includes one vibration pickup (velocity type) and a Speedtronic Mark-V amplifier circuit.
to reduce the likelihood of extensive damage to the gas turbine if the combustion system deteriorates. Continuously examines the exhaust temperature and compressor discharge temperature thermocouples. Several software programs are written to achieve this. Reliability of combustion monitor depends on condition of exhaust thermocouples.
TTKSPL1 TTKSPL2 Median Select
Combustion Monitor Algorithm
Calculate Allowable Spread Median Select
TTKSPL5 TTKSPL7 Constants
Calculate Actual Spreads
A A>B B A A>B B A A>B B A A>B B