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Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

5.7 Design strength

Based on the studies of Ayrton & Perry (1886), the compressive strength of the column can be obtained from the following equation.

( f y − fc ) ( fe − fc ) = η.fe .fc

(5.10)

Where, fy = yield stress, fc = compressive strength, fe = Euler buckling stress, λ = Slenderness ratio (l/r) and η = a parameter allowing for the effects of lack of straightness and eccentricity of loading and can be expressed as aλ where α is a function of the shape of the cross section. Since Robertson evaluated the mean values of α for many sections, the design method is termed "Perry-Robertson method".

Equation (5.8) will result in column strength values lower than fy even in very low slenderness cases as indicated by the Robertson’s curve in Fig. 5.19. By modifying the slenderness, λ to (λ - λo), a plateau to the design curve can be introduced for low slenderness values. This has the effect of shifting the curve to the right by a value equal to λo. The value of λo may be taken as 0.2(π√E/fy). Thus, the elastic critical stress can be calculated as fe = π2E/(λ - λo)2. Note that calculations for fe is not needed when λ ≤ λe as the column would fail by squashing at fy.

Fig 5.19 Column strength curves

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

1 Design Strength as per the Code Common hot rolled and built-up steel members.11) fcd = = X f y / γ m0 ≤ f y / γ m0 (5. ratio of effective length Le.13) fcc = Euler buckling stress = π2E/(KL/r)2 Le/r = effective slenderness ratio. S.R.5[1+α (λ .5[1=a (1-0.1) Pd = A e f cd Where. The design compressive strength of a member is given by (Cl. strength of members subjected to axial compression are given by multiple design curves corresponding to buckling class a.7. Ae = effective sectional area and fcd = design stress in compression. to appropriate radius of gyration.2) + λ2] ≠ f = 0. usually fail by flexural buckling.R.Design of Steel Structures Prof. used for carrying axial compression. or d. To account for all these factors.12) Where φ = 0. r α = imperfection factor given in Table 5. initial bow and accidental eccentricities of load. c.Satish Kumar and Prof. The buckling strength of these members is affected by residual stresses.0. as given below.2 χ = stress reduction factor c = stress reduction factor lm0 ≠ ( γ m0 ) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .7.2) + 12] λ∗ = non-dimensional effective slenderness ratio L fy ⎛ e ⎞ ⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = f y / fu = 2 π2 E (5.3 (5. obtained as per the following equation: f y / γ m0 φ + ⎡ φ2 − λ 2 m ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 0.Santha Kumar 5. A. b.

34 c 0.R.76 The classifications of different sections under different buckling class a. The curves corresponding to different buckling class are presented in non-dimensional form.20.3 of the Code.3.49 d 0. The selection of an appropriate curve is based on cross section and suggested curves are listed in Table 5. Although both hot rolled sections and welded sections have lock-in residual stresses.Satish Kumar and Prof.2 Imperfection factor. in Fig 5. S. the distribution and magnitude differ significantly. Note that thicker sections and welded sections which are likely to have more residual stresses are assigned lower buckling classes. Fig.Santha Kumar λmo = partial safety factor for material strength = 1. b. c or d. 5. α Buckling Class α a 0.1 Table 5.R. A.20 Column Buckling Curves Indian Institute of Technology Madras . is given in Table 5.Design of Steel Structures Prof.21 b 0. Residual stresses due to welding are very high and can be of greater consequence in reducing the ultimate capacity of compression members.

2) Cross Section Rolled I-Sections Limits h/b > 1.R.3 Buckling class of cross sections (Section 7. T and Solid Sections b/tf z-z y-y Any c c c Indian Institute of Technology Madras .R. S.Satish Kumar and Prof.Santha Kumar Table5. A.2.2 : Buckling Buckling about axis Class tf < 40 mm z-z a y-y 40 mm< tf < 100 mm z-z b b c b c d d b c c d h/b < 1. Angle.Design of Steel Structures Prof.1.2 : y-y tf <100 mm z-z y-y tf >100 mm z-z y-y z-z y-y Welded I-Section tf <40 mm tf >40 mm z-z y-y Hollow Section Hot rolled Cold formed Any Any a b Welded Box Section Any b Generally (Except as below) Thick welds and < 30 h/tw < 30 Channel.

Santha Kumar Built-up Member Any c 5. they can be designed as per the procedure described above using curve c.7. angles are usually loaded eccentrically by connecting one of its legs either to a gusset or to an adjacent member.. In general. k2.1.2) λ eq = k1 + k 2 λ 2 w + k 3 λ 2φ (5.14) Where k1. Such twisting may be facilitated by the flexibility of the gusset plate and the other members connected to it.4. S. to account for the reduction in strength due to flexural-torsional mode. λeq. However.2 Design of angle compression members When angles are loaded in compression through their centroid. A. Thus. the code considers only two cases – gusset fixed and gusset hinged.5.R. Such angles will buckle in flexural-torsional mode in which there will be significant twisting of the member. 7. the code gives an equivalent slenderness ratio as a function of the overall slenderness ratio and the width-thickness ratio. k3 = constants depending upon the end condition.R. To simplify the design. The other parameter which will influence the strength of the angle strut is its width-thickness ratio of either leg.Satish Kumar and Prof. as given in Table 5. the equivalent slenderness ratio will be less than or equal to the slenderness ratio for flexural buckling λvv The flexural torsional buckling strength of single angle loaded in compression through one of its legs may be evaluated using the equivalent slenderness ratio. as given below (Cl.Design of Steel Structures Prof. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

35 0.R. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . depending on the degree of the restraint provided.70 0. in the plane of end gusset can be taken as between 0.4 Constants k1.50 k3 20 5 20 60 Stiffeness of in-plane rotational restraint provided to the gusset/connecting member.1.7 and 0. S.5 Table 5. The effective length. in the plane perpendicular to that of the end gusset. Le.20 0. connected back to back. b2 = width of the two legs of the angle t = thickness of the leg ε = yield stress ratio (250/fy) 0. Le. the λeq can be interpolated between the λeq results for fixed and hinged cases.75 1.15 a.35 0.b) Where l = centre to centre length of the supporting member rvv = radius of gyration about the minor axis b1. A. by not less than two bolts or rivets in line along the angles at each end.5. The effective length.Satish Kumar and Prof. k2 and k3 (Section 7. For partial restraint. 7. or by the equivalent in welding.5.25 k2 0.2). of bolts at the Gusset/Connecting each end connection member Fixity† Fixed >2 Hinged Fixed 1 Hinged k1 0.60 0.Santha Kumar λw ⎛ l ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ r ( b1 + b2 ) = ⎝ w ⎠ and λ φ = π2 E π2 E ε ε x 2t 250 250 (5. the load may be regarded as applied axially (Cl.85 times the distance between intersections.2) No. shall be taken as equal to the distance between centers of intersections. For double angle discontinuous struts.R. on opposite sides of the gusset or a section.Design of Steel Structures Prof.

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