The Earth²Its Motions and their Effects The earth has two motions, viz., (1) Rotation around its axis or the daily motion. The axis of the earth is an imaginary line inclined at 66.5° to the plane of the orbit of the earth. The earth rotates round its axis from west to east once in 24 hours. Effects: Days and nights are caused. The sun, moon and other heavenly bodies appear to revolve round the earth from east to west. Direction of winds and currents is changed. (2) Revolution round the sun on its orbit, or the annual motion: The earth revolves round the sun once in about 365.25 days. Effects: It causes seasons; days and nights are of unequal length at the same place. Important elements in the earth¶s crust The five most abundant elements in the earth¶s crust are: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminium, Iron and Calcium. (The other three are Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium.) Oceans²Their Importance Oceans are the source of all water on earth as the evaporated water from over their surface is brought to earth by the winds passing over them. They are the highways of the world and most of the world trade is carried through the sea. Innumerable fish and other animals living in the oceans are a great source of food to mankind. Minerals like salt, iodine etc. are derived from the ocean waters and sea-weeds. Ocean Currents: are rivers of warm or cold water flowing in an ocean. Their banks and beds also consist of water. Natural Regions A natural region is a large area in which the topography, climate and vegetation are largely similar, and therefore there is a certain uniformity in human activities. Natural Regions of the World (1) Equatorial Region (2) Hot-Grassland Region (3) Monsoon Region (4) Hot Deserts Region (5) Mediterranean Region (6) Steppe Region (7) Tundra Region (8) Warm Temperate Region (9) Cool Temperate Region. Natural Regions of India (1) The Himalayas and the adjacent mountains; (2) The Sutlej-Ganga plains; (3) The coastal plains of Western and Eastern ghats; (4) The Deccan plateau. Factors Determining Climate of a Place (1) Distance from the Equator (2) Height above sea-level (3) Distance from the sea (4) Winds (5) Direction of Mountains (6) Ocean currents (7) Slope of land (8) Nature of the soil (9) Forests. Factors Determining Temperature (i) sun rays, (ii) height above sea-level (iii) movements of atmospheric winds, (iv) ocean currents. Rainfall
Two important conditions must be satisfied in order to have rain: (1) There should be moisture-laden air, (2) There should be some means whereby air is cooled and condensation takes place. The air obtains water vapours by evaporation from the surface of large bodies of water, usually from the sea. Monsoons in India Monsoons are periodic winds which blow from sea to land for six months in summer and from land to sea for six months in winter. Monsoon winds prevail over India at different seasons. South-West Monsoons: These are rain-bearing winds which prevail from about the end of May to the end of September. During summer, the sun¶s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Cancer making the Indian plains intensely hot. But the rays of the sun fall obliquely over the Indian Ocean during this period. The land is hotter than the sea, there is, therefore, low pressure over the land and high pressure over the sea. The winds blow from high to low pressure i.e., from the sea to the land, and are therefore wet winds. Because of the rotation of the earth, the monsoon winds blowing over India deflect to the right after crossing the Equator and become south-west winds. These are, therefore, called south-west monsoons. India depends largely on these rain-bearing south-west winds. These winds give to India about 90% of the total rainfall. During their prevalence, the chief crops cultivated are rice, cotton, tobacco, tea, jawar and bajra. North-East Monsoons (or Winter Monsoons): During the months of November to January i.e., in winter, the sun¶s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Capricorn. The air over the Indian Ocean during this period thus becomes hot and light and there is low pressure. The sun¶s rays fall obliquely on the plains of India during these months with the result that the air over these plains is cold and heavy and there is high pressure. The winds, therefore, blow from plains to the Indian Ocean. While crossing the Equator, they deflect to the left and are known as northeast monsoons. The North-East Monsoons bring only about 10% of the total rain to India as they are chilly and dry land winds. But the moisture that they pick from the Bay of Bengal, little as it is, is very useful. Wheat, barley, oats, oilseeds and sugarcane are cultivated during this season. Thus these monsoon winds have much importance for India. Weather and Climate Weather means the atmospheric conditions e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, winds, sunshine and cloudiness of a particular place on a particular day. Climate, on the other hand, is the average condition of weather obtaining in a country or a place for a considerable period. India has a great diversity of climatic conditions. Lying largely within the tropics and in the great Asiatic Continent and the vast expanse of the Indian Ocean to the South, the climate of India is essentially the tropical monsoon type. The average annual rainfall in India is 42 inches. Types of Soil in India The main categories of soils in India are: (i) Alluvial soils (ii) Black soils (iii) Red soils (iv) Laterite soils (v) Mountain and hill soils (vi) Terai soils (vii) Desert (or Arid) soil and (viii)
Peat soils. Alluvial soil and Black soil Alluvial soil is that soil which is formed by deposition of silts brought down by the rivers. It is rich in hydrated oxides of iron and is very fertile. Black soil or the black cotton soil has a good water-holding capacity and is best suited for deep-rooted crops like cotton. The black soil in wet condition is compact and sticky. The most extensive soil cover of India comprises alluvial soils. Soil Erosion: The soils are usually six to twelve inches in depth. In course of time, the fertility level of the soil is depleted with the result that the soil no longer remains suitable for agriculture. Soil conservation is, therefore, necessary for continued agricultural prosperity. The agencies of erosion are winds, water and waves of which the water erosion is most common. Rain water removes soil from the surface of sloping lands. Winds remove top soil of lands. Laterite soils are formed by the weathering of laterite rocks. These can be distinguished from other soils by their acidity. Laterite soils are generally poor on the higher levels and cannot retain moisture. In the plains, however, they consist of heavy loams and clay and can retain moisture. Laterite soils occur in Madhya Pradesh, Assam and along the Eastern and Western Ghats. Tea plantation requires acidity which is there in the laterite soil. It is, therefore, common in these areas. Star and Planet Star is the name given to a fixed celestial body which has its own light whereas Planet is the name given to a celestial body which revolves round the sun in elliptical (regular oval shape) orbit. A planet has no light of its own but reflects the light of the sun. Rocks Three main groups of rocks: Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Classification of rocks Igneous rocks: granite. Sedimentary rocks: sandstone; limestone; shale; coal. Metamorphic rocks: marble. Phyllite: This rock is formed by deposits of animal shells and skeletons. Land Breeze and Sea Breeze Land Breeze: At night, land masses cool quicker than the sea. Therefore, in calm, cloudless weather, an air-stream passes from the land to the sea. This breeze carries no moisture, and is a little warm. Sea Breeze: In day-time, the land is hotter than the sea. The air over it rises, and is replaced by a cool breeze from the sea carrying some moisture. Tides
Alternate rise and fall of waters of the ocean twice in the course of nearly twenty four hours is termed as ³tides´. The tides are caused by the gravitational force exerted by the moon and to a lesser degree by the sun, on the earth. The tides do not always rise to the same height. At the time of the new and full moon, when the sun and moon are in a straight line with the earth, the tides rise higher and are known as Spring Tides. Midway between new and full moon when the sun and the moon are at right angles as to their direction from the earth, tides are at the lowest height and are called Neap Tides. Spring Tides and Neap Tides When a high tide is caused twice a month at new moon and again when the moon is full, spring tide is caused as a result of combined attraction of the sun and the moon. When the high tide is not so high, nor the low tide so low, neap tides are caused as a result of the difference of attraction of the sun and the moon. Seasons The change of seasons is due to (i) revolution of the earth round the sun (ii) inclination of earth¶s axis at 66.5° to the plane of its orbit and always pointing to the same direction. On the 21st June, the North Pole is inclined towards the sun and the South Pole is inclined away from it. The rays of the sun fall perpendicularly at the Tropic of Cancer (23.5° North) and fall comparatively slanting in the southern hemisphere. Hence the days are longer than nights in the northern hemisphere and it is summer there. Just opposite is the case in the southern hemisphere where the nights are longer at that time and it is winter there. Latitudes and Longitudes India lies entirely to the north of the Equator, between latitudes 8°-4´ and 37°-6´ north and longitude 68°-7´ and 97°-25´ east. The latitude of the South Pole is 90°. South Pole has no longitude. Longitude of a place is its distance east or west of a fixed meridian. The distance of any place north or south of the Equator is called the Latitude of that place. Parallels of latitude: are lines drawn on a map (or globe) showing the latitude of a place. Meridians (or lines) of longitude: These are lines drawn on a map (or globe) showing the longitude of a place. These lines join the north and south pole cutting the Equator at right angles. (Latitudes and Longitudes should be clearly distinguished from Parallels of Latitude and Meridians of Longitude respectively.) By knowing these lines, we can find out exact location of a place. By knowing the latitude of a place we can find out its average temperature, as also its distance from the Equator. By knowing the longitude of a place, we can calculate its local time. Longitude is the angular distance of a place east or west of the prime meridian. The earth rotates upon its axis once in 24 hours and covers 360° in 24 hours. Thus it takes 60 x 24/360 or 4 minutes to cover a degree of longitude or we may say that in four minutes, the earth moves through 1°. There is thus a difference of 4 minutes for each degree of longitude. This
fact is used for determining the longitude of a place. All longitudes are measured from the meridian of Greenwich. We can determine the latitude of a place in the northern hemisphere by measuring the altitude of the Pole Star. The altitude of the Pole Star is the latitude of that place. For example, if the altitude of Pole Star at Delhi is 28.5° North, its latitude will als o be 28.5°N. The altitude of Pole Star is measured by an instrument called Sextant. Solar Eclipse and Lunar Eclipse Solar Eclipse: is the partial or complete obscuration of the sun because of the passage of the moon in front of it i.e., when the moon comes in between the sun and the earth. The moon then appears as a dark object obscuring the sun. Over a small portion of the earth¶s surface, the moon is seen to blot out the sun completely and a total eclipse is seen by the people in that particular area. But over most of the earth¶s surface, the eclipse seen is partial because only a portion of the sun¶s face remains covered by the moon. Lunar Eclipse: is the partial or complete obscuration of the moon¶s surface when the earth comes in between the sun and the moon. The moon, when it moves through the shadow of the earth, loses its bright direct illumination by the sun, although its disc still remains faintly visible. An eclipse of the moon is visible and presents the same features at all places on the earth where the moon is above the horizon. The lunar eclipse can be seen with the naked eye, field glass or a small telescope. The lunar eclipse occurs at full moon only when the earth comes in between the sun and the moon which phenomenon does not occur at every full moon. Indian Standard Time The Indian Standard Time is a uniform time adopted by all palces in India without regard to their local time. It is usual for each country to have its standard time for use over the whole country as it would be very difficult if every town or village had its own local time and whenever we moved from one place to another, we should have to alter our watches. Indian Standard Time is the local time of a place near Allahabad situated at 82.5° East longitude. Winds Air moving from one direction to another horizontally is called wind. It is the air in motion. Cause of Wind: The chief cause of winds is difference in pressure. Air always moves from region of high pressure to a region of low pressure to equalize the pressure. For example, the low pressure belt round the Equator is a region of calm known as the doldrums. Although there are no regular winds there, violent squalls and thunderstorms are frequent which come from high pressure areas north and south of the Equator. Direction of Winds: As the earth is rotating daily on its axis from west to east, all winds are deflected. According to Ferrel¶s Law, winds are deflected to the right in Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
Characteristics of the important Wind Systems of the World: 1. Trade Winds: The rays of the sun fall almost vertically at the Equator and the air there becomes hot and the pressure is low. The air rises towards the Poles and descends near 30°N and 30°S. The pressure is high near 30°N and 30°S. Because winds blow from high-pressure to low-pressure areas, winds from over these altitudes blow towards the Equator and Trade Winds are caused. 2. Westerlies (or Anti-Trade Winds): are winds which blow from about 40 degrees N to the Arctic Circle and from about 35 degrees S to the Antarctic Circle throughout the year. They derive their name from the direction in which they blow. In the northern hemisphere they blow in the south-westerly direction and bring winter rain to the Mediterranean regions etc. In the southern hemisphere, they blow in a north-westerly direction. 3. Polar Winds: The winds which blow from the high pressure area around the poles towards the temperate regions are known as polar winds. They are extremely cold. They rise from the North West in the Northern Hemisphere and from the South East in the Southern Hemisphere. 4. Periodical Winds: These are (i) Land and Sea Breezes and (ii) Monsoons which blow in one direction at a particular time or during a particular season. In the hot season in India, the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer, i.e., roughly over the great plains of the Ganges and Brahmaputra so that the air over the plains becomes very hot by about the month of May. At this time, South West Monsoon commences to blow. They bring heavy rains. Monsoon winds prevail over India at different seasons. India depends on the rain-bearing south-west winds which prevail from about the end of May to the end of September. These winds bring to India about 90% of all the rain that falls there. 5. Variable Winds: are the irregular winds as Cyclones and Anti-Cyclones. Rainfall There is heavy rainfall on the West coast because the Western Ghat ranges receive the full force of the monsoons from the Arabian sea and there is heavy rainfall (about 100 inches). On the other hand, the Deccan Plateau gets very scanty rainfall because it falls within the rain-shadow area. Chennai gets winter rainfall as the north-east monsoons which blow in winter pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and bring rain to that city. The Bay of Bengal monsoons first bring rain to the eastern parts and then turn westwards. As Kolkata is in the east, it receives more rainfall. As the monsoons blow westwards they become drier and cause less rainfall. So Delhi does not get as much rainfall as Kolkata. In the northern region, the Bay of Bengal monsoons first bring rain to eastern parts and then turn westwards. As the monsoons blow westwards, they go on losing moisture and cause decreasing rainfall. In the southern region, the Arabian Sea monsoons first strike the western ghats and the moisture is drained on the western side whereas rainfall goes on decreasing towards eastern region.
Two important conditions must be satisfied in order to have rai n: (1) There should be moisture-laden air, (2) There should be some means whereby air is cooled and condensation takes place. The air obtains water vapours by evaporation from the surface of large bodies of water, usually from the sea. The moisture-laden air is cooled in two ways: (i) by rising upward into colder upper regions of the atmosphere, (ii) by blowing as wind to colder regions. Thus we see: (a) Moist air is lighter than dry air and so it readily rises, expands in a short time, cools and falls. (b) When warm winds blow towards cooler regions, it is condensed by cooling effect and rain falls. (c) The land masses or mountains also tend to condense water vapours. When moisture-laden wind is obstructed by mountains, it is forced to rise. As it rises, it becomes cool and rainfall results. Rivers The work of a river is three-fold: (i) The Mountain Stage: The mountain or upper course of a river is swift as the slope at this stage of a river is steep. The main work of a river at this stage is denudation (wearing away). In this swift upper course, the rivers carry big stones, pebbles etc. which go on eroding the sides and beds of the valleys. As time goes on, the river cuts away the spurs on both sides and the valleys become wider and deeper. The mountain stage of the Ganges in India extends from its source up to Hardwar. (ii) The Plain Stage: In this stage the river moves slowly as the slope is gradual and its main work is transportation (navigation) and irrigation. The plain stage of the Ganges extends from Hardwar to Bhagalpur. (iii) The Delta Stage: This is the last stage and the rivers are very slow at this stage. In this slow lower or deltaic course, the main work of the river is deposition. The level of the bed at this stage rises due to mud and silt brought by it and deposited into several channels before falling into the sea. The Ganges forms her delta from Bhagalpur up to the sea. The deltas are not formed at the mouths of rivers where tides carry away all the mud and silt deposited (at the mouth) e.g., the Narbada and the Tapti do not form any delta. Also rivers which deposit all their mud into the lakes through which they pass do not form delta e.g., the St Lawrence in Canada. Estuary is formed at the mouth of a river where tidal effects are evident and where fresh water and sea water mix. In most cases it is due to subsidence of coastal low-land. Delta is the triangular piece of land formed by the deposition of mud and silt near the mouth of a river. In the case of delta formation, more solid material is deposited which cannot be removed by tidal or other currents. The rivers of Northern India are more important than those of Southern India because they have a flow of water throughout the year. Even in summer these rivers receive water from the melting of Himalayan snow. Flowing through broad basins, they form large tracts or rich alluvial soil on either side. It is no wonder, therefore, that their fertile basin are the natural grannaries of the country. Further, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra are navigable and provide
excellent waterways for commerce. The Peninsular rivers, on the other hand, have water during the monsoons but shrivel into muddy pools in the dry season. These rivers are of little use for navigation on account of their torrential nature in the upper course, and the rapids that occur where they descend into deep gorges from the table land to the coastal plains. Climate and Vegetation The Equatorial type climate, in which the temperature remains high all the year round but does not vary much, produces hot, wet forests. The Tropical type climate produces grasslands which are found on either side of the equatorial belt where the rainfall usually occurs soon after the sun has been shining vertically while the dry season occurs in the colder part of the year. The lowlands along the Tropic of Cancer lie mainly in the high-pressure belt just outside the Tropics. The Trade Winds blow away from these lowlands towards the Equator and the Westerly winds blow away from them towards the Poles. There are, therefore, no winds to bring rain to this region. Some of these lowlands are dry because these are very very far from the sea, like centre of Asia. There are few clouds and very little rain with the result that the sun¶s rays strike straight on the ground and make the days very hot. The temperature of the ocean varies much less than that of land because (i) water has a higher specific heat than land with the result that it both absorbs and loses heat slowly as compared to land; and (ii) due to large surface of water at sea more evaporation occurs than on land. Evaporation causes cooling and this results in the sea having a lower temperature than that on land. We may divide India into two parts for the purpose of climatological studies: (1) peninsular India and (2) Northern India. Peninsular India has the characteristic of tropical climate where ³the temperature is uniformly high and seasonal variation relatively low´. The climatic conditions in Northern India have no general similarity. This region lies beyond the Tropic of Cancer. The Western part of it includes East Punjab and Rajasthan where air is devoid of moisture and it is hot in summer and very cold in winter. The eastern part of this region includes U.P., Bihar, Assam and West Bengal. Here winter is mild and summer is very hot with plenty of moisture in the air. These climatic conditions are however, disturbed by two Monsoon Currents²the South West Monsoon and the North-East Monsoon. The South-West Monsoon causes heavy rainfall in Assam, West Bengal and U.P. It begins to retreat from Northern India in early October and this retreat is completed by mid-December. During this retreat period the weather in Northern India becomes dry. The North-East monsoons begin in January and last till March. These winds cause light rain in Northern India, particularly in the Punjab plains. This scanty rainfall is very important for Rabi crops. Vegetation: Agriculture is the most important occupation of the people of India. In Northern India, typical monsoon land crops are grown such as rice in Bengal with its warm and humid climate; wheat and maize in Northern plains, Punjab and U.P.; jute in Bengal and Assam and tea in Assam.
In Peninsular India where regur or black cotton soil is found and sufficient moisture available, cotton is grown. It is the chief crop of the Deccan Peninsula²Mumbai and Berar being the chief producers. Coffee is grown on the Nilgiris in the South. Climatic Effect: India has on the whole monsoon-tropical climate: µMonsoon²lands are dominated by the winds from sea to land in summer²the wet season and by winds from land to sea in winter²the dry season.¶ This type of climate is not very conducive to health and vigour. Man¶s well-being in such a climate depends largely on rainfall. The agricultural products do not grow if the monsoon fails and famine conditions break out. This dependence on rain, however, is not absolute owing to development of irrigation by means of projects, canals, wells etc. The desert type climate is hot and dry. The rainfall is scanty, not more than 10 inches a year. The day and night temperatures vary to much extent. The evenings and afternoons are marked by hot dust storms. The regions lie mainly in the high-pressure belts just outside the Tropics. The Trade Winds blow away from them towards the Equator and the Westerly Winds blow away from them towards the Poles. There are no winds which bring rain to this region and the climate remains hot and dry. Mediterranean Climate It is the type of climate experienced by the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and also by other regions, in both hemispheres, situated in a similar geographical position. The characteristic features are warmth of the summer, mildness of the winter, and ample sunshine. The entire west coast of the United States has Mediterranean type of climate because this region gets winter rainfall from ³Westerlies´ winds. Irrigation Methods of Irrigation: The various systems of irrigation used in India are: (1) Canals; (2) Wells; (3) Tube-wells; and (4) Tanks. Canals: Canals are the most important of the systems of irrigation in India because: (i) the rivers are snow-fed and never run dry; (ii) the plain has a soft and alluvial soil, so canals can be easily dug; (iii) the rainfall is insufficient for irrigation and wells alone cannot satisfy the needs of agriculturists. Of the total irrigated land in India, 40 per cent is irrigated by canals. Wells: Wells are found all over India but these are largely used in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Bihar. They are also used in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The reason for irrigation by wells is that the soil is porous and after a rainfall, water is stored up below the soil, and wells can be easily sunk. Tube-wells: Irrigation by tube-wells has become very popular these days. Tube-wells are worked by electric power. These are much deeper than the ordinary wells. Due to shortage of power, the agriculturists do face the difficulty in running the tube-wells as and when they require but the prosperous ones are making use of the diesel engines for the purpose.
Tanks: Tanks are used in the Deccan plateau²especially in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and in some parts of Madhya Pradesh. They are made by filling natural hollows with water or by building dams across the river valleys. As the soil is rocky in these areas, it is not easy to sink wells. The soil is not porous and the rain water flows off; Canals cannot be constructed as the rivers are not snow-fed. So the tanks are the chief means of irrigation in the Deccan plateau. Volcanoes and Earthquakes Volcanoes: By the pressure of the earth¶s crust the hot matter or lava in the interior of the earth is pressed down. It gushes out through a crack or a hole when it finds a weak spot in the crust and begins to accumulate round it. By and by it cools down and solidifies and in the course of several years these accumulated layers of lava build up a conical mountain. Such lava mountains are called volcanoes. Volcanoes are also formed when rain or sea water percolates in the soil and sinks deep down into the earth where it is converted into steam by the internal heat and forces its way out of the crust bringing with it large quantity of lava etc. Earthquakes: (i) When an active volcano bursts with great force or when a dormant volcano erupts into activity, the surrounding areas feel tremors and earthquake is caused. (ii) When the interior part of the earth cools down and contracts, the outer crust cracks or a part of it actually drops down causing earthquake. (iii) Sometimes water percolates deep down into the earth and is converted into steam on account of internal heat. This steam forces its way out by expanding and thus causes earthquake shocks. Fold and Block Mountains Fold Mountains: These are formed as a result of series of earthquakes by which in course of a long time, rocks are folded up above the general level and the agents of denudation start to wear them away. The Himalayas, the Andes, the Alps are example of Fold Mountains. Block Mountains: the formation of mountains when a mass of land is pushed up between several cracks, is known as Block Mountains as shown in the figure below. The narrow piece of the crust led down between two parallel cracks forms what is called ³Rift Valley´. Mountain Ranges Himalayas: The Himalayan ranges stretch for about 2400 km from the eastern extremity of Assam to the western limit of Kashmir. Their width varies from 150 km to 450 km. These are fold mountains and consist of long lines of folded ranges. Arvalies: It stretches from Gujarat in the west to Delhi in the north. Indian Plateau: It is the table-land region of the Deccan lying south of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is bounded on the north by the ranges of Vindhyas and the Satpuras running east to west. Vindhyas and Satpura: The Vindhyas lie north of the Narbada Valley, whereas the Satpuras Range lies south. Satpura ranges are an example of Volcanic mountains. Western Ghats: In the west, the plateau is margined by the Western Ghats which rise abruptly from the Malabar and the Konkan coasts and run parallel to the sea coast with an average height of 1200 metres.
Eastern Ghats: Towards the east are broken Eastern Ghats which descend to the low-lands of the Coromandal coast and are broken by a number of rivers, the most important of which are the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Penner and Cauvery. These rivers flow south-east across the plateau to the Bay of Bengal.
Chief Crops and Producing States (The first mentioned is the chief producing State) Bajra (millets): Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. Barley: U.P., Bihar, Haryana. Its cultivation requires cool climate. Cardamom: Karnataka. India is the largest producer of cardamom in the world. Cashewnut: Kerala. Cinchona: Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills); West Bengal (Darjeeling). Coconut: Kerala is the leading producer of coconut in India. A coconut tree normally yield 60-70 nuts in a year. Coffee: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Kerala. It is a tropical shrub. Cotton: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Maharashtra. Cotton Seeds: Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Gram and Pulses: U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Groundnut: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Hemp: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and U.P. Jute: Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Linseed: Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, U.P., Maharashtra and West Bengal. Maize: U.P., Bihar and the Punjab. Mustard and Rape-seed (Sarson): U.P., West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Orissa. Poppy (opium plant): U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir. Rice: Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Rice is sown on the largest acreage in India. Rubber: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. Saffron: Jammu and Kashmir. It is obtained from the stigma of the saffron plant. Silk: Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal and Assam. Spices: Pepper in Kerala and West Bengal; Chillies in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra; Cardamom in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; Betelnuts in West Bengal and South India. Sugarcane: U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra. Tea: Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills), Uttarkhand (Dehradun) and Himachal Pradesh (Kangra Hills). Tobacco: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Wheat: U.P., Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. To some extent in Bihar, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. It is sown in October-November and reaped in April. Kharif and Rabi Crops Kharif Crops: are crops raised in autumn as a result of sowing done in June-July. These are cotton, rice, maize and millets.
Rabi Crops: are winter crops sown in October and November and reaped in April. These are wheat, gram, linseed and mustard. Favourable climate and soil conditions for the growth of certain crops Wheat: Its plant requires a cool climate in the beginning, warm and dry weather at the time of harvesting and rainfall at intervals²between 20¶¶ to 30¶¶. A clayey soil is very favourable. Barley: cool climate and a soil poorer than that required for wheat. Rice: hot and moist climate with rainfall from 40¶¶ to 80¶¶ or over and rich soil. The plant is required to remain under water for several days in the beginning. A marshy soil is very suitable. Sugarcane: an evenly high temperature with sufficient rainfall²about 40¶¶. It needs a fertile soil, having lime and salt in it. Tobacco: hot and moist climate; rich soil. Spices: (pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, nutmegs) hot, moist and even climate. Opium: It requires hot and moist climate with a rich soil. Maize: warm and moist (but not very moist) climate. Cotton: It requires warm, moist and even climate where summer is long and where the soil contains salt. Sea-breeze is beneficial for quality of the fibre. The ideal situation for plantation is lowlands near the sea coast or on islands in semi-tropical latitudes. Jute: It requires a high temperature with a minimum of about 80°F during the period of growth. It also needs rich sandy soil, sufficient rainfall well distributed over the period of growth, ample supply of water for soaking of plants and for washing the stripped fibre. It also needs suitable and sufficient labour to handle the crop at the proper time. Rubber: The plantation of rubber trees is better adapted to areas where the climate is warm and humid. Tea: (Tea is dried leaves of an evergreen shrub). It requires warm and moist climate. It is grown on mountain slopes. At least 60¶¶ annual rainfall in showers is needed for the new leaves to sprout. If water is allowed to stay, the roots are destroyed. So mountain slopes on which water does not accumulate are necessary. Soil containing iron is an additional advantage. Coffee: requires warm and moist climate and a height between 457 metres and 762 metres² rainfall above 60¶¶. The plant cannot stand extreme cold. When young, the plant is required to be protected from strong sunshine. Millets: (Jawar and Bajra) require a hot and sufficiently dry climate and poor soil. Groundnuts: require a hot climate and moderate rainfall 29¶¶ to 40¶¶. Soil should be light and sandy. Oilseeds: require hot and moist climate and a rich soil. Diseases of Crops Black heart: Potatoes Kernel bunt: Wheat Powdery Mildew: Peas Red Rot: Sugarcane Fertilizers Fertilizers normally contain three main ingredients namely nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen: imports a healthy green colour to the leaves. Phosphorus: hastens leaf development and promotes root growth. Potassium: plays an essential part in the formation of starch.
Mineral Resources of India India possesses huge mineral wealth but it is not much exploited. Coal, gold, mica, building materials, salt, petroleum, manganese ore, iron ore, copper ore and ilmenite are produced in quantities to be of real importance to industry and other sectors of economy. Out of these, mica, manganese ore and ilmenite are largely exported. India has, however, adequate resources of industrial clay, steatite, bauxite, chromite, titanium ore etc. Minerals²Where Found (The first-mentioned is the State in which the mineral is chiefly found) Aluminium: Kerala. It is extracted from Bauxite. Antimony: Antimony deposits are found in the Punjab and Karnataka. Asbestos: Karnataka and Rajasthan. Barytes: (Barium Sulphate) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manbhum and Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand. Bantonite: Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. Bauxite: Ranchi and Palamau districts of Jharkhand, Belgaum, Kharia and Thana districts of Maharashtra; Balaghat, Jabalpur, Mandia and Bilaspur districts of Madhya Pradesh. It is an ore of aluminium. Beryllium Sands: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kashmir and Bihar. Cement: Katni in M.P., Lakheri in Rajasthan, Jabalpur (M.P.), Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Jhinkapani (Singhbhum district of Jharkhand), Surajpur (Haryana). China Clay: Rajmahal Hills, Singhbhum district of Bihar, Kerala. Chromite: Singhbhum and Bhagalpur (Jharkhand); Ratnagiri, Salem (Tamil Nadu); Karnataka; Keonjhar (Orissa); Ladakh (Kashmir). Coal: Raniganj (West Bengal); Jharia, Giridih, Karanpur (Bihar); Bokaro, (Jharkhand) Panch Valley and Chanda (M.P.); Singareni (Andhra Pradesh) and Mukum (Assam). Cobalt: Rajasthan and Kerala. Copper: Jharkhand (Singhbhum and Barajamda); Rajasthan (Khetri). Corborundum: Khasi Hills (Assam); Rewa (M.P.); Salem (Tamil Nadu); Karnataka and Jammu & Kashmir. Diamond: Diamond mines are found in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh. Feldspar: Burdwan (West Bengal); Rewa (M.P.); Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu); Alwar and Ajmer (Rajasthan). Fuller¶s Earth: (soft clay used in soap-making) is found in Rajasthan, M.P. and Karnataka. Gold: Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka). Graphite: Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and Kerala. Gypsum: Bikaner and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu), Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh. Heavy Water: Talchar in Orissa; Kota in Rajasthan; Baroda in Gujarat; Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu; Nangal in Punjab. Ilmenite: Kerala. Occurs in the ³Bank Sands´ of the beaches near Quilon. Iron Ore: Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj (Orissa). Kaynite: largest deposits occur at Kharswan near Jamshedpur, Singhbhum (Bihar). Lac: W. Bengal. Lead: Zawar in Udaipur and at the Banjavi mines in Jaipur (Rajasthan). Lignite: Neyveli in South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu). Limestone: Singareni and Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Panchmahal (Gujarat), Balaghat, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Nagpur, Indore, Vishakhapatnam, Sandur (Tamil Nadu).
Manganese: Madhya Pradesh. Marble: Jaipur (Rajasthan). Mica: Koderma in Hazaribagh district, Monghyr (Bihar), Nellore in Andhra Pradesh. Monazite Sands: are found in abundance in Travancore coast (Kerala State). Thorium is processed from Monazite sands. Nitre: Bihar, U.P., Tamil Nadu and Punjab. Petroleum: Digboi, Badarpur, Musimpur and Patharia fields of Assam, Cambay basin near Baroda where oilfields have been discovered and production has started. Large-scale drilling for oil is in progress in India in Bombay and Gujarat. Pitchblende: Gaya (Bihar). Red Stone: Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Salt: Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), and is also obtained from ocean water of Ranns of Kutch, on the north-western and south-eastern littoral (sea-shore) of India. Saltpetre: Punjab, U.P. and Bihar. Silmanite: Khasi Hills (Assam); Rewa (M.P.). Silmanite is used in the manufacture of furnace-lining in iron and steel industry. It is also used in glass and ceramic industry. Silver: Karnataka; Singhbhum and Manbhum (Jharkhand); Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Steatite: Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, U.P., Karnataka and Rajasthan. Tin: (Bihar) Hazaribagh district. Thorium: (Processed from monazite sand) Travancore (Kerala). Tungsten: Bihar, Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Marwar. Uranium: Bihar. Zinc: from Zawar mines in Udaipur (Rajasthan). Zircon: occurs in the beach sands of Kerala and Cape Comorin. Bihar produces 40% of the mineral wealth of India. World¶s Largest Producers of Crops, Minerals, Industrial goods etc. (The first-mentioned country in each case shown in italics is the largest producer) Aluminium: U.S.A., Canada Norway, Switzerland, France and India. Asbestos: Canada leads in the world in production of Asbestos. Carpets: Iran, India. Cheese: U.S.A., England, Netherlands and Australia. Coal: U.S.A., England, Germany, Russia, Australia and India. Cocoa: Ghana, S. America and West Indies. Coffee: Brazil, Indonesia, India. Copper: Chile. Cotton: U.S.A., Russia, Egypt, India, Brazil, Argentina and Pakistan. Electric Bulbs: England, U.S.A., India. Gold: South Africa, Australia, Canada, S. America, India. Ilmenite: India. Iron ore: U.S.A., CIS, U.K., France, Germany, India and Spain. Jute: Bangladesh, India. Manganese: India is largest producer of Manganese in the world. Gabon Republic situated on the western coast of South Africa is known as having one of the richest deposits at Moanda. Mercury: Italy, Spain and U.S.A. Monazite: India, supplies 88% of the world¶s need. Petroleum: U.S.A., Venezuela, Russia, Middle East countries, Iran and Myanmar.
Plastic Goods: U.S.A., England. Rock Phosphate: Morocco is world¶s leading supplier. Rubber: Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. About 40% of the world¶s natural rubber is produced by Malaysia. Silk: China, U.S.A., France. Silver: Mexico, U.S.A., Peru and India. Steel: U.S.A., Germany, CIS and England. Sugar: Cuba. Tea: India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan and Indonesia. Tin: Malaysia, Indonesia. Wool: Australia, Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa.
Major Irrigation Projects in India
Nagarjunasagar (Andhra Pradesh): on the Krishna river near Nandikona village (about 44 km from Hyderabad.) Tungabhadra (Joint project of Andhra Pradesh and Karnatka): On the Tungabhadra river. Gandak (joint project of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh): Nepal also derives irrigation and power benefits from this project. Kosi(Bihar): A multipurpose project , which serves bihar and Nepal. Sone high level canal (Bihar) : an extention on sone barrage project. Kakrapara (Gujarat) : on the Tapti river near Kakrapara , in surat district. Ukal (Gujarat): A multiupurpose project, across Tapti river near Ukai village. Mahi (Gujarat ): A two ± phase project , one across the Mahi river near Wanakbori village and the other across Mahi river near Kadana. Sabarmati (Gujarat): A storage dam across Sabarmati river near Dhari village in Mehsana district and Wasna barrage near Ahmedabad. Panam (Gujarat): A masonry dam across Panam river near Keldezar village in Panchmahals district. Karjan(Gujarat):A masonry dam across Karjan river near Jiotgarh village in Nandoo Taluka of Bharuch district. Bhadra (Karnataka ):A multipurpose project across the river Bhadra . Upper Krishna (Karnataka) : A project consisting of Narayanpur dam across the Krishna river and a dam at Almatti. Ghataprabha (Karnataka): A project across Ghataprabha in Belgaum and Bijapur districts. Malaprabha (Karnataka) : A dam across ithe Malaprabha in Belguam district. Tawa (Madhya Pradesh ): A project the Tawa river , a tributary of the Narmada in Hoshangabad district. Chambal (joint project of Madhya Pradesh and rajasthan): The project comprises Gandhi Sagar dam , Rana Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar dam. Mahanadi Reservoir Project (Madhya pradesh): It has three phases : (1) Ravishankar sagar project and feeder canal system for supply of water to Bhilai Steel plant and Sandur dam across Sandur village, (2) extension of Mahanadi feeder canal (3) Pairi dam. Hasdeo Bango Project(Madhya Pradesh ): It the third phase of Hasdeo Bango Project complex and envisages construction of a masonry dam across Hasdeo river. The first and
second phases have been substantially completed . Bargi Project (Madhya pradesh): It is a multipurpose project consisting of a masonry dam across Bargi river in the Jabalpur district and a left bank a canal. Bhima (Maharashtra) : Comprises two dams , one on the Pawana river near Phange in Pune district and the other across the Krishna river near Ujjaini in Sholapur district. Jayakwadi(Maharashtra) : A masonry spillway across the river Godavari . Kukadi Project (Maharashtra) : Five independent storage dams ,i.e., Yodgaon, Manikdohi, Dimba, Wadaj and Pimpalgaon jog . The canal system comprises (1) Kukadi left bank canal, (2) Dhimba left bank canal, (3) Dhimba right bank canal (4)Meena feeder and (5) Meena branch . Krishna Project (Maharashtra ): Dhom dam near Dhom village on Krishna and Kanhar village on Varna river in Satna district. Upper Penganga (Mahrarhtra ) : Two reservoirs on Penganga river at Isapur in Yavatmal district and the other on Rayadhu river at Sapli in Parbhani district. Hirakud(Orrisa): World¶s longest dam, is located on the Mahanadi river. Mahandi Delta Scheme (Orissa): The irrigation scheme will utilize releases from the Hirakud reservoir. Bhakra Nangal (Joint project of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan): India¶s biggest multipurpose river valley project comprises a straight gravity dam across the Satlej at Bhakra, the Nangal dam, the Nangal hydal channel, two power houses at Bhakra dam at and two power station at Ganguwal and Kotla. Beas (Joint venture of Haryana , Punjab , and Rajasthan) : It consists of Beas-Sutlej link and Beas dam at Pong. Thein Dam (Punjab): The project envisages Constroction of a dam across river Ravi and a power plant on its left bank. Rajasthan Canal (Rajasthan ): The Project will use water released from Pong dam will provide irrigation facilities to the north western region of Rajasthan, i.e. a part of the thar desert . It consists of Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 167 km in Punjab and Haryana and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan ) and 445 km Rajasthan main canal entirely in Rajasthan. Paramblkulam Allyar (Joint venture of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) : The project envisages the integrated hamessing of eight rivers , six in the Annamalai hills and two in the plains. Sarda Sahayak (Uttar Praesh) : The Project envisages construction of a barrage across the river Ghagra, a link channel, a barrage across river Sarda and a feeder channel involving constructions of two major aqueducts over Gomti and Sai. Ramganga(Uttar Pradesh): A Dam across Ramganga, a tributary of the Ganga river located in Garhwal district. The Project has, besides reducing the intensity of Floods in central and western Uttar Pradesh, provided water for the Delhi Water supply scheme. Left Bank Ghagra Canal (Uttar Pradesh ): A link channel taking off from the left bank of Ghagra river of Girja barrage and joining with Sarju river . Also a barrage across Sarju. Tehri Dam (Uttar Pradesh): Earth and Rock- fill dam on Bhagirathi river in Tehri district. Madhya Ganga Canal (Uttar Pradesh): A barrage across ganga in Bijnor district. Farakka(West bengal) : The project was taken up for the preservation and maintenance of Calcutta Port and for improving the navigability of the Hooghly. It comprises a barrage across the Ganga at Farakka, a barrage at Jangipur across the Bhagirathi and a feeder channel taking off from the Ganga at Farakka and tailing at the Bhagirathi below the Jangipur barrage. Mayurakshi (West Bengal): An irrigation and hydro ± electric Project comprises the Canada Dam. Kangsabati (West bengal): The project envisages construction of dams on the Kangsabati and Kumari rivers.
Damodar Valley Project(West Bengal and Bihar): A multipurpose project for the unified development of irrigation, flood control and power Generation in west Bengal and Bihar. It comprises multipurpose dams at Konar, Tilaiya, Maithon and Panchet, hydel power stations at Tilaiya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet barrage at Durgapur; and thermal power houses at Bokaro, Chandrapura and Durgapur. The Project is administered by the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC)
Surname Bengal s Sorrow Blue Mountains City of Sky-scrapers City of Seven Hills City of Dreaming Spires City of palaces City of Golden Gate City of Magnificent Buildings City of Eternal Springs China s Sorrow Cockpit of Europe Dark Continent Emerald Isle Eternal City Empire City Forbidden City Name Damodar River Nilgiri Hills New York Rome Oxford Kolkata San Francisco Washington D.C. Quito(S.America) Hwang Ho Belgium Africa Ireland Rome New York Lhasa (Tibet)
Garden City Gate of Tears Gateway of India Gift of the Nile Granite City Hermit Kingdom Herring Pond Holy Land Island Continent Island of Cloves Isle of Pearls Key of the Mediterranean Land of Cakes Land of Golden Fleece Land of Maple Leaf Land of Midnight Sun Land of the Thousand Lakes Land of the Thunderbolt Land of white Elephant Land of Five Rivers Land of Thousand Elephants
Chicago Strait of Bab-el Mandeb Mumbai Eqypt Aberdeen (Scotland) Korea Atlantic Ocean Jerusalem Australia Zanzibar Bahrein (Peesian Gulf) Gibralter Scotland Australia Canada Norway Finland Bhutan Thailand Punjab Laos
Land of Rising Sun Loneliest Island Manchester of Japan Pillars of Hercules Pearl of the Antilles Playground of Europe Quaker City Queen of the Adriatic Roof of the World Rose Pink City Sugar bowl of the World Venice of the North Windy City Whirteman s grave Yellow River
Japan Tristan De Gunha (Mid-Atlantic) Osaka Strait of Gibraltar Cuba Switzerland Philadelphia Venice The Pamirs Jaipur Cuba Stockholm Chicago Guinea Coast of Africa Huang Ho (China)
Classical, Folk and Tribal Dances in India
Classical Dance of India Dance State
Bharat Natyam Tamil Nadu
Bihu Bhangra Chhau Garhwali Garba Hattari Kathak Kathakali Kutchipudi Khantumm Karma Laho Mohiniattam Mando Manipuri Nati Nat-Natin Odissi Rauf Yakshagan
Assam Punjab Bihar, Orissa, W. Bengal and Jharkhand Uttaranchal Gujarat Karnataka North India Kerala Andhra Pradesh Mizoram Madhya Pradesh Meghalaya Kerala Goa Manipur Himachal Pradesh Bihar Orissa Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka
Folk and Tribal Dances States Dances
Kathakeertan, Lezin, Dandaniya, Tamasha, Gafa, Dahikala, Lovani, Mauni, Dasavtar. Huttari, Suggi Kunitha, Yakashagana Kaikottikali, Kaliyattam, Tappatikkali Kolattam, Pinnal Kolattam, Kummi, Kavadi, Karagam
Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Orissa West Bengal Assam Punjab J&K Himachal Pradesh Haryana Gujarat Rajasthan
Ghanta Mardala, Veedhi Natakam, Burrakatha
Ghumara Sanchar, Chadya Dandanata, Chhau Kathi, Chhau, Baul, Kirtan, Jatra, Lama Bihu, Khel Gopal, Rash Lila, Tabal Chongli, Canoe Giddha (women), Bhangra (men) Rauf, Hikat
Jhora, Jhali, Dangli, Mahasu, Jadda, Jhainta, Chharhi
Jhumar, Ras Leela, Phag dance, Daph, Dhamal, Loor, Gugga, Khoria, Gagor Garba, Dandiya Rass, Tippani, Gomph Ginad, Chakri, Gangore, Terahtaal, Khayal, Jhulan Leela, Jhuma, Suisini Jata Jatin, Jadur, Chhau, Kathaputli, Bakho, Jhijhiya, Samochakwa, Karma, Jatra, Natna Nautanki, Thora, Chappeli, Raslila, Kajri.
Uttar Pradesh Famous Dancer
Bala Saraswati, C. V. Chandrasekhar, Leela Samson, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Padma Bharatnatyam Subramanyam, Rukmini Devi, Sanyukta Panigrahi, Sonal Mansingh, Yamini Krishnamurti Kathak Bharti Gupta, Birju Maharaj, Damayanti Joshi, Durga Das, Gopi Krishna, Kumudini
Lakhia, Sambhu Maharaj, Sitara Devi Kuchipudi Josyula Seetharamaiah, Vempathi Chinna Sthyam Guru Bipin Sinha, Jhaveri Sisters, Nayana Jhaveri, Nirmala Mehta, Savita Mehta Debaprasad Das, Dhirendra nath Pattnaik, Indrani Rahman, Kelucharan Mahapatra, Priyambaba Mohanty, Sonal Mansingh
Instrumentalists Ali Akbar Khan, Allaudin Khan, Amjad Ali Khan, Buddhadev Dasgupta, Bahadur Khan, Sharan Rani, Zarin S. Sharma Alla Rakha Khan, Kishan Maharaj, Nikhil Ghosh, Zakir Hussain Baluswamy Dikshitar, Gajanan Rao Joshi, Lalgudi G. Jayaraman, M. S. Gopala krishnan, Mysore T. Chowdiah, T. N. Krishnan Bismillah Khan Nikhil Banerjee, Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Hara Shankar Bhattacharya Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Pannalal Ghose, T. R. Mahalingam K. R. Kumaraswamy lyer, Doraiswami lyengar
Shehnal Sitar Flute Veena Vocalists
Shubha Mudgal, Bheemsen Joshi, Madhup Mudgal, Mukul Shivputra, Pandit Jasraj, Parveen Sultana, Naina Devi, Girija Devi, Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Gangubai Hangal, Krishna Hangal, V. Rajput, Kumar Gandharva, Faiyyaz Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur. M. S. Subbalakshmi, Balamuralikrishna, Bombay Jaishree, H. K. Raghavendra, H. K. Venkataram, Sitarajam, Mani Krishnaswamy, Akhil Krishnan, M. L. Vasanthakumari, M. D. Ramanathan, G. N. Balasubramaniam Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ustad Mazhar Ali Khan, Ustad Zawad Ali Khan, Rita Ganguli, Poornima Chaudhary, Shanti Heerananda, Naina Devi Ghulam Hasan Niyazi, Sultan Niyazi, Ghulam Farid Nizami, Chand Nizami, IqbalHussain Khan Bandanawaji, Aslam Sabari
Ustad Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar, Zahiruddin Dagar, Waslfuddin Dagar, Bundecha Bandhu, Uday Bhawalkar, Pt. Abhay Narayan Mallick, Pt. Ritwik Sanyal
Facts About India
1. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area. 2. Indian mainland extends between latitudes 8 degree 4' and 37 degree 6' north, longitudes 68 degree 7' and 97 degree 25' east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between th e extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. 3. India has land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km. 4. Countries having common border with India are: Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. 5. Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and Ajanta are prominent hill ranges that lie between the Peninsular India and the plains of Ganga. 6. The Eastern and Western Ghats meet at the southern part of the Indian Peninsula which is formed by the Nilgiri Hills. . 7. Ghagra, Gomti, Gandak, Kosi and Yamuna are the major Himalayan rivers that join the Ganga. Chambal, Betwa and Sone are major rivers flowing north from central India that join Yamuna/Ganga. 8. After Ganga, Godavari has the second largest basin covering 10 per cent of the area of India. Next to it is Krishna, followed by the Mahanadi basin. 9. The climate of India can be described as Tropical monsoon type. 10. India is in tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. 11. Botanical Survey of India, (BSI), Kolkata is the nodal agency that is studying the flora of the country. BSI brings out an inventory of the endangered plants in the form of a publication titled "Red Data Book".
12. The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata and its 16 regional stations are responsible for surveying the faunal resources of India. 13. India has a great variety of fauna, numbering 89,451 species. 14. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22,1947. 15. The State emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capitol of Ashoka. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capitol is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dizaram Chakra). There are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion, separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. 16. In the State emblem, adopted on January 26,1950, only three lions are visible. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words, Satyameva Jayate, from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning 'truth alone triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagiri script. 17. The song Jana-gana-mana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly, as the National Anthem of India, on January 24, 1950. It was first sung on December 27, 1911, at the Calcutta session of Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem. 18. The national calendar of India is based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month. A normal year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957, along with the Gregorian Calendar for the following purposes: (1) Gazette of India; (2) news broadcast by All India Radio; (3) calendars issued by Government of India; and (4) Government communications addressed to the members of the public. 19. Agriculture sector of India contributes 25 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and about 70 per cent of the population is dependent on it. 20. There are three main crop seasons in India, namely, kharif, rabi and summer.' 21. Major kharif crops are: rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, sugarcane, soyabean, and groundnut. 22. Major rabi crops are: wheat, barley, gram, linseed, rapeseed, and mustard. Rice, maize and groundnut are grown in summer season also. 23. In Indian agriculture, oilseeds are next to food grains in area coverage, production and value. India is,one of the largest oilseeds growing countries, contributing about 15 per cent to the acreage under oilseeds in the world. 24. The Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, set up a Technology Mission on Oilseeds in
May 1986 with the objective to increase the production of oilseeds, reduce the import of edible oils and to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils. 25. India is the third largest producer and consumer of fertilizers in the world, after China and USA. It contributes to 9.5 per cent of world production and 10.6 per cent of world consumption of NPK nutrients, but sustains one-sixth of the world population. 26. The National Biofertiliser Development Centre is located at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Its six regional centres are located at .labalpur, Nagpur, Bangalore, Bhubaneshwar, Hissar and Imphal. 27. The Central Fertiliser Quality Control and Training Institute is located in Faridabad, Haryana. Its three regional centres are located at Mumbai, Chennai and Kalyani. 28. India accounts for about 10 per cent of the production of fruits in the world. 29. Mango is the most important fruit produced in India, covering about 39 per cent of the total area used for fruit production and accounting for 23 per cent of total fruit production of India. 30. India occupies first position in the total production of banana in the world. 31. India is next only to China in the area and production of vegetables. India contributes about 13 per cent of the world vegetable production and occupies first position in production of cauliflowers, second in onion and third in cabbage in the world. 32. India is the largest producer, processor, consumer and exporter of cashew nut in the world. India produces 45 per cent of the global production of cashew. 33. The Centrally-sponsored scheme of soil conservation in the catchments of River Valley Project (RVP) was started in the third Five-year Plan. Another scheme of FloodProne Rivers (FPR) was started in the sixth Plan. Both the schemes were clubbed during the ninth Plan and further subsumed under Macro Management Mode in November 2000. 34. The Locust Warning Organisation (LWO) is located in Jodhpur. 35. Seed sector in India consists of two national level corporations: National Seed Corporation (NSC) and State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI). The Seeds Act, 1966 provides for the legislative framework for regulation of quality of seeds sold in India. 36. The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) launched a Central Sector Scheme during the ninth Plan to make available seeds for any contingent situation arising out of natural calamity. 37. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI) advises the Central and State governments on agricultural marketing policies and programmes. It is located in Faridabad, Haryana. 38. The National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM) is located in Jaipur.
39. Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institutes are located at Budni (Madhya Pradesh), Hissar (Haryana), Garladinne (Andhra Pradesh) and Biswanath Chariali (Assam). 40. India accounts for 57 per cent of the world's buffalo population and 15 per cent of the cattle population. India possesses 27 acknowledged indigenous breeds of cattle and 7 breeds of buffaloes. 41. The present availability of animal protein in an Indian diet is 10 gm per person per day, as against a world average of 25 gm. 42. India is the largest producer of milk in the world and ranks fifth in egg production. 43. Central Sheep Breeding Farm is located in Hissar. 44. Reishi or Ling Zhi is a medicinal mushroom which has been successfully grown in India. 45. For rehabilitation of calcareous soils Tamarix articulate, Acadia nilotica, Prosopis Juliflora, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Acacia tortills, Cassia siamea and Feronia limonia have been found promising for plantation with furrow planting methods in arid and semi-arid regions. Salvadora persica proved the ideal species for soil and water management in saline black soils. 46. Karzat 4, Indryani, Panvel 2, Palgarh 1 and 2 are names of various rice varieties sown in India. 47. Kankrej, Ponwar, Gangatiri and Kherigah are names of various cattle breeds in India. 48. Jalauni, Kheri, Mandya, Hassan and Mecheri are names of various sheep breeds of India. 49. C-ELISA is an indigenously developed kit for rinderpest which has been validated by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. 50. Feedbase-2001 is a data base that provides information on feed resources and feed balance sheet. 51. Okara is a by-product of soymilk. 52. Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan is located in Almora, Uttaranchal. 53. The Lalit Kala Academy (National Academy of Fine Arts) is located in New Delhi. It has regional centres, called Rashtriya Lalit Kala Kendras, located at Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai, Garhi(New Delhi) and Bhubaneswar. 54. Bharata Natyam is a dance form of Tamil Nadu. Kathakali is a dance form of Kerala. Kathak is a classical dance form revitalised as a result of Mughal influence on Indian culture. Manipuri is a dance form of Manipur, while Kuchipudi owes its origin to Andhra Pradesh. Odissi, once practised as temple dance, has its origins in Orissa.
55. Kathak Kendra, Delhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru Manipur Dance Academy, Imphal, are training institutes run by Sangeet Natak Academy, the National Academy of. Music, Dance and Drama. The Academy also supports training programmes in Chhau dance of Mayurbhanj and Seraikella, as also Koodiyattam of Kerala. 56. The National School of Drama (NSD) is one of the foremost theatre institutions in the world and the only one of its kind in India. It was set up by Sangeet Natak Academy in 1959 and in 1975 it became an autonomous organization. 57. The Theatre-in education Company (renamed as Sanskar Rang Toli was founded by NSD in 1989. Since 1998, NSD has organized National Theatre Festival for Children, christened Jashne Bachpan, every year. 58. The first-ever National Theatre Festival, christened Bharat Rang Mahotsav, was held in MarchApril, 1999 to commemorate the 50th year of India's Independence. 59. Sahitya Academy has its Head Office in New Delhi. Besides, it has four offices in Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai. It also has four translation centres at Bangalore, Delhi, Ahmedabad and Kolkata, besides a project office at Vadodra for promotion of oral and tribal literature and an Archives of Indian literature. It also maintains a multilingual library at New Delhi, Bangalore and Kolkata, stocking books in over 25 languages. 60. The highest honour conferred by Sahitya Academy on a writer is by electing him/her its Fellow. The honour is limited to 21 at any given moment. 61. The Sahitya Academy holds a 'Festival of Letters' every year, usually in February. 62. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) functions as an attached office of the Department of Culture, Ministry of Tourism and Culture. 63. The National Museum was established on August 15, 1949 in the Durbar Hall of the Rashtrapati Bhawan.It was formally inaugurated on December 18, 1960 on its present premises. 64. The National Council of Science Museums is located in Kolkata. 65. The Allahabad Museum is famous for its collection of Bharhut, Bhumara and Jamsot sculptors and for the terracotta from Kausumbi, Bhita, Jhusi, Patliputra, Sarnath, Rajghat and Ahichhatra. The Museum also has paraphernalia and family heirlooms of Nehrus, including manuscripts of' An Autobiography' by J.L. Nehru. 66. The National Research Laboratory for Conservation of Cultural Property (NRLC) is located in Lucknow. 67. The National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) was founded in 1954 to promote and develop
contemporary Indian Art. 68. The National Archives of India (NAI), New Delhi, known until independence as Imperial Record Department, was originally established in Kolkata in March 1891. It is the official custodian of all non-current records of permanent / value to the government of India and its predecessor bodies. It has a regional office at Bhopal and three record centres at Bhubaneswar, ]aipur and Pondicherry. 69. Marine Archeology Centre has been established in the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. Major exploration are being undertaken in the waters of ancient Dwarka, Poompuhar waters (Tamil Nadu) and around Lakshadweep. 70. National Library, Kolkata serves as a permanent repository of all reading and information material produced in India, as well.as printed material written by Indians and concerning India written by foreigners, wherever published and in whatever language. 71. Under the Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954, four libraries-National Library, Kolkata, Central Library, Mumbai, Connemara Public Library, Chennai, and Delhi Public Library, Delhi-are entitled to receive a copy of new books and magazines published in the counuy. 72. Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna has a rich collection of over 20,000 'Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish, Pali and Sanskrit manuscripts. 73. The Thanjavur Maharaja Serfoji's Saraswati Mahal (TMSSM) Library, Thanjavur is one of the few medieval libraries that exist in the world. 74. The Rampur Raza Library, housed in Hamid Manzil in the fort of Rampur, is a treasure house of Indo Islamic learning and art. 75. Asiatic Society in Kolkata was founded by Sir William Jones in 1784, with the objective of inquiring into the history, science, arts and literature of Asia. 76. The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies is located in Varanasi. It was established with the objective of preservation of Tibetan culture and tradition, restoration of ancient Indian literature preserved in Tibetan language and to provide higher education in Buddhist studies. 77. The Central Institute of Buddhist Studies is located, in Leh. 78. The Sikkim Research Institute of Tibetology is located in Sikkim. It has done significant work in promoting research in CHHO (Tibetan for Dharma). 79. Anthropological Survey of India is located in Kolkata. 80. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sanghrahalaya (National Museum of Mankind) is located in Bhopal. It is dedicated to the depiction of an integrated story of humankind in global perspective, with special focus on India.
81. The Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT) has its headquarters in New Delhi and two regional Centres at Udaipur and Hyderabad. 82. With the aim of projecting in India cultural kinships transcending territorial boundaries, seven zonal cultural centres have been established at Patiala, Kolkata, Thanjavur, Udaipur, Allahabad, Dimapur and Nagpur. 83. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) is a premier national institute engaged in the pursuit of knowledge on arts and culture. It is also the nodal agency for the setting up of a national data bank on arts, humanities and cultural heritage. 84. Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti has been set up primarily to maintain and look after the national memorial where Gandhiji was assassinated, now called Gandhi Smriti, and a permanent photo exhibition at Rajghat, called Gandhi Darshan. 85. The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) is responsible for formulation and maintenance of statistical standards, work pertaining to national accounts, industrial statistics, consumer price indices, conduct of economic census and surveys and liaising with international agencies in statistical matters. It is located in New Delhi. 86. National income is defined as the sum of incomes accruing to factors of production, supplied by normal residents of the country before deduction of direct taxes. It is equal to net national product at factor-cost. 87. The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) has been set up to conduct large scale surveys to meet the data needs of India as also for the estimation of national income and other aggregates. It has four divisions: (i) Survey Design and Research Division (SDRD), with headquarters in Kolkata; (ii) Field Operations Division (FOD) having its headquarters in Delhi; (iii) Data Processing Division (DPD) with headquarters in Kolkata; and (iv) Coordination and Publication Division (CPD), located in Delhi. 88. Summary results of NSSO surveys are published in the biannual technical journal Sarvekshana. 89. India has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 million sq km. The EEZ provides India with more than 60 per cent of its oil and gas production and fishing valued at $ 1.15 billion. 90. The Army War College, earlier known as College of Combat, is located in Mhow. 91. The Infantry School, Mhow is the largest and oldest military training centre of Indian Army. This institute also trains the National Shooting team, under the aegis of Army Marksmanship Unit (AMU). 92. The Institute of Defence Management is located in Secunderabad. 93. The Defence Services Staff College is located in Wellington. It imparts training to middle level
officers (Major and equivalent) of Army, Air Force and Navy. 94. The High Altitude Warfare School (HAWS) is located in Gulmarg. 95. The National Defence College is located in Delhi. It is the only institute of India that imparts knowledge on all aspects of national security and strategy. 96. Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited, located in Hyderabad, was incorporated with the primary objective of ushering in self-reliance in special metals and alloys for strategic sectors like Defence, Space and Atomic energy. 97. The 86th Constitution Amendment Act, 2002, makes elementary education a Fundamental Right for children in the age-group of 6-14 years. 98. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) scheme evolved I from the recommendations of the State Education Ministers' Conference held in October 1998. The main goals of SSA are: (a) All 6-14 age children complete five-year primary education by 2007; (b) Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010; (c) Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life; and (d) Universal retention by 2010. 99. The National programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education is commonly known as Mid Day Meal Scheme. It was launched in August 1995. 100. Operation Blackboard was launched in 1987 with the aim of improving human and physical resources available in primary schools of India. 101. Janshala Programme is a collaborative effort of the government of India, and five UN agenciesUNDP, UNESCO, ILO, UNICEF and UNFPA-to provide programme support to the ongoing efforts towards achieving Universal Elementary Education (UEE). 102. The National Council for Teacher Education was established by an Act of the Parliament in August 1995. 103. The University Grants Commission (UGC) serves as a coordinating body between the Union and State governments and the institutions of higher learning. 104. The National Literacy Mission (NLM) aims to attain a sustainable threshold level of 75 per cent literacy by 2007, by imparting functional literacy to non-literates in the age-group of 15-35 years. 105. The Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages is located in Hyderabad. 106. The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) system was introduced in India in 1985 by the Raja Ram Mohan Roy National Agency for ISBN. ISBN is a unique international publisher's identifier number.
107. Administering the Copyright Act, 1957 is the responsibility of the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Secondary and Higher Education. 108. The Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) was the first multipurpose river valley project to be undertaken after Independence. It was set up in July 1948. 109. The National Power Training Institute (NPTI) is located at Faridabad. 110. The Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) has its headquarters located at Bangalore. Other units are located at Bhopal, Hyderabad, Nagpur, Ghaziabad, Thiruvanthapuram and Raichur. 111. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is the nodal agency to promote efficient use of energy and its conservation in all sectors of economy of India. 112. Coal is the main source of energy in India and account for about 67 per cent of India's commercial requirement. 113. The coal reserves of India, as on January 1, 2003 were 2,40,748 million tonnes. 114. The Botanical Survey of India and the Zoological Survey of India both have their headquarters in Kolkata. 115. The Forest Survey of India has its headquarters in Dehradun and has four regional offices at Bangalore, Kolkata, Nagpur and Shimla. 116. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose protected areas to preserve the genetic diversity in representative ecosystem. 13 Biosphere reserves have been set up in India. These are: Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sundebans, Similipal, Dibru, Daikhowa, Dehong Deband, Pachmarhi, Kanchunjunga and Agasthyamalai. Out of these, Nilgiri, Sunderbans and Gulf of Mannar have been recognized on World Network of Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO. 117. India is one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries of the world. 118. The forest cover of India constitutes 20.55 per cent of its geographical area. Of this, dense forest constitutes 12.68 per cent and open forest 7.87 per cent. The mangrove cover occupies 0.14 per cent of geographical area. The total tree/forest cover is estimated as 81,472 sq km or about 2.48 per cent of the country. 119. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development is located at Kosi-Katarmal, Almora, Uttaranchal. 120. The Environmental Information System (ENVIS) network brings out a quarterly journal, Paryavaran Abstracts, which contains information about environmental research in the Indian context.
121. The ENVIS has been designated as National Focal Point (NFP) and Regional Service Centre (RSC) for South Asia sub-regional countries by INFOTERRA (a global information system on environment) of UN Environment Programme (UNEP). 122. The Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) consists of nine main divisions, namely, (i) Economic; (ii) Banking; (iii) Insurance; (iv) Budget; (v) Foreign Trade and Investment; (vi) External Finance; (vii) Capital market; (viii) Fund Bank; and (ix) Currency and Coinage. 123. All revenues received, loans raised and money received in repayment of loans by the Union government form the Consolidated Fund of India. No money can be withdrawn from this Fund except under the authority of an Act of Parliament. 124. The Indian Constitution provides for the establishment of a Consolidated Fund, a Public Account and a Contingency Fund for each State. 125. The first bank of limited liability, managed by Indians, was Oudh Commercial Bank. It was founded in 1881. Punjab National Bank was established in 1894. 126. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was established under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 on April 1, 1935 and nationalized on January 1,1949. 127. RBI is the sole authority for issue of currency notes in India, other than one-rupee coins and subsidiary coins and notes. 128. India ranks third in the world, after China and USA, in terms of production of coal. 129. The three important gold fields of India are: Kolar (Karnataka), Hutti in Raichur district (Karnataka) and Ramgiri in Anantapur district (Andhra Pradesh). 130. Mains reserves of Tungsten are located at Degana, Rajasthan. 131. The Mangampet deposits, occurring in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh is the single largest deposit of Barytes in the world. 132. The main diamond-bearing areas in India are Panna belt in Madhya Pradesh, MunimaduguBanganapalle conglomerate in Kurnool district, Wajrakarur Kimberlite pipe in Anantapur district and Krishna river basin in Andhra Pradesh. 133. Orissa is a major producer of Graphite in India. 134. Judges of the Supreme Court of India hold office until they attain the age of 65 years. Judges of the High Court hold office until they attain the age of 62 years. 135. The National Judicial Academy is located in Bhopal with its registered office in New Delhi.
136. V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, Noida, is an autonomous body under the Union Ministry of Labour. It is engaged in research pertaining to labour and training of labour administrators, trade unions, public sector managers and other government functionaries concerned with labour. 137. The first radio programme was broadcast in India in 1923 by the Radio Club of Bombay. 138. All India Radio (AIR) operates on motto Bahujana Hitaya; Bahujana Sukhya (to promote the happiness and welfare of the masses through information, education and entertainment. 139. Cyan Darshan is the educational channel run by Doordarshan. 140. Press Trust of India (PTI) is India's largest news agency. 141. United News of India (UNI) became the first agency in India to launch a full-fledged Hindi wire service Univarta in 1982. In early 1990s, it launched the first-ever wire service in Urdu. 142. The Press Council of India has been established under the Act of Parliament for the purpose of preserving the freedom of the press, and of maintaining and improving the standards of newspapers and news agencies in India. 143. India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 3.3 million kilometres. 144. Golden Quadrilateral comprises of National Highways connecting the four metro cities. 145. Shipping Corporation of India Limited (SCI) is the biggest shipping line of India. 146. Indian Institute of Maritime Studies (IIMS) is located in Mumbai. 147. India has 12 major ports and about 184 other ports. 148. Mumbai, Nhava Sheva, Kandla, Mormugao, New Mangalore and Cochin are the major ports on west coast. 149. Kolkata/Haldia, Para dip, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin are major ports on the east coast. 150. Command Area Development (CAD) Programme was launched in 1974-75 with main objective of improving the utilization of created irrigation potential and optimizing agriculture production and productivity from irrigated lands on sustainable bases.
FIRST IN INDIA (MEN)
First American President to visit India: Dwight David Eisenhower First Asian to be elected president of Britain's Liberal Democratic Party (LDP): Lord Navnit Dholakia First Asian to head a British university: Lord Swaraj Paul (when he was elected Chancellor of the Wolverhampton University on May 9, 2000) First British Prime Minister to visit India: Harold Macmillan First Chairman of the University Grants Commission: S.S.Bhatnagar First Chief Election Commissioner of India: Sukumar Sen (21.3.1950 to 19.12.1958) First Chief Justice of India: Harilal J.Kania (26.1.1950-6.11.1951) First Chief Minister of the tri-lingual Bombay Presidency: B.G.Kher First Chief of Air Staff: Air Marshall Sir Thomas Elmherst (1947-1950) First Woman President of India : Pratibha Patil Delhi s First Mayor: Aruna Asaf Ali (1958) Delhi's First woman chief secretary: Shailja Chandra Fastest Asian to swim across the English Channel: Anita Sood First all-women crew to fly an air Force Chetak Helicopter: Flight Cadets Cheryl Dutta and Simran Sodhi of IAF (December, 1995). First Asian woman magistrate appointed in United Kingdom: Kantha Talwar First Asian woman mayor in United Kingdom: Lata Patel First Indian woman President of Indian National Congress: Sarojini Naidu (1925)
FIRST IN INDIA (MISCELLANIOUS) Earliest school of medicine known to humans: Ayurveda First Air Force in Asia to fly jets: Indian Air Force (1948) First Book in any Indian Language: It was printed in 1578 in Tamil. First Census in India: 1901 First Cinema House in India: It was built by J.F.Madan in 1907 in Calcutta. First complete Technicolor film: Jhansi Ki Rani (1953) First Constitutional Amendment: 1950 First country-wide agricultural census: 1970-71 First English Newspaper in India: Bengal Gazette printed in 1790 by James Augustus in Calcutta. -------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------