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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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25.1. What is Mechanical Damping? 25.1.1. Internal vs. External Damping . . . . . 25.1.2. Distributed vs. Localized Damping . . . . 25.2. Modeling Structural Damping 25.3. Matrix Equations of Motion 25.3.1. Equations of Motion Using Undamped Modes 25.3.2. Three Ways Out . . . . . . . . . . 25.4. Diagonalization by Modal Damping 25.4.1. Guessing Damping Factors . . . . . . 25.4.2. Energy Equivalent Damping Factor . . . 25.5. Diagonalization by Rayleigh Damping

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

253 253 253 254 254 254 256 256 257 257 257

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25.1

The present lecture introduces damping within the context oif modal analysis. To keep the exposition focused we will primarily restrict the kind of damping considered to be linearly viscous and light. Linearly viscous damping is proportional to the velocity. Light damping means a damping ratio that is small compared to unity. Accounting for damping effects brings good and bad news. All real dynamical systems experience damping because energy dissipation mechanisms are like death and taxes:* inevitable. Hence inclusion makes the dynamical model more physically realistic. The bad news is that it can seriously complicate the analysis process. Here is where the assumption of light viscous damping helps: it allows the reuse of key parts of the modal analysis techniques introduced in the previous 3 lectures. 25.1. What is Mechanical Damping? Damping is the (generally irreversible) conversion of mechanical energy into heat as a result of motion. For example, as we scratch a match against a rough surface, its motion generates heat and ignites the sulphur content. When shivering under cold, we rub palms against each other to warm up. Those are two classical examples of the thermodynamical effect of friction. In structural systems, damping is more complex, appearing in several forms. These may be broadly categorized into internal versus external, and distributed versus localized. 25.1.1. Internal vs. External Damping Internal damping is due to the structural material itself. Sources are varied: microstructural defects, crystal grain boundaries, eddy currents in ferromagnetic media, dislocations in metals, and chain motion in polymers. The key macroscopic effect is the production of a hysteresis loop in stress-strain plots. The hysteresis loop area represents the energy dissipated per unit volume of material and per stress cycle. This kind of damping is intimately related to cyclic motions such as vibration. External damping come from boundary effects. An important form is structural damping, which is produced by rubbing friction: stick-and-slip contact or impact. That may happen between structural components such as joints, or between a structural surface and non-structural solid media such as soil. This form is often modeled by Coulomb damping, which describes the energy dissipation of rubbing dry-friction. Another form of external damping is uid damping. When a material is immersed in a uid, such as air or water, and there is relative motion between the structure and the uid, a drag force appears. This force causes an energy dissipation thorugh internal uid mechanisms such as viscosity, convection or turbulence. This is collectively known as uid damping. One well known example is a vehicle shock absorber: a uid (liquid or air) is forced through a small opening by a piston. 25.1.2. Distributed vs. Localized Damping All damping ultimately comes from frictional effects, which may however take place at different scales. If the effects are distrbuted over volumes or surfaces at macro scales, we speak of distributed damping. But occasionally the engineer uses damping devices intended to produce benecal damping effects. For example: shock absorbers or airbags in cars, motion mitigators for buildings or bridges in seismic zones, or piezoelectric dampers for space structures. Those devices can be often treated in lumped form, modeled as point forces or moments, and said to produce localized damping. The distinction appears primarily at the modeling level, since all motion-damper devices ultimately work as a result of some kind

* One exception: tax-exempt vampires.

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of internal energy conversion. Localized damping devices are in turn classied into passive or active, but that would take us into control theory. 25.2. Modeling Structural Damping The foregoing summary should make clear that damping is a ubiquitous but complicated business. In structures containing joints, for example, Coulomb (dry friction) damping often dominates; this model is partly nonlinear because the damping force depends on the sign of the velocity. Fluid damping tends to be highly nonlinear if the interacting ow is turbulent, since if so the drag is nonlinear in the relative velocity. Another modeling complication is that friction may depend on fabrication or construction details that are not easy to predict. Balancing those complications is the fact that damping in most structures, especially metallic ones, is light in the sense that the damping factor introduced in Lecture 21 is much smaller than one. In addition, the presence of damping is usually benecial to safety in the sense that resonance effects are mitigated. This gives structural engineers leeway to simplify the dynamic analysis as follows. A simple damping model, such as linear viscous damping, can be assumed without much concern. Mode superposition is applicable because the EOM is linear. Moreover the frequencies and mode shapes for the undamped system can be reused if additional assumptions, such as Rayleigh damping, or modal damping, are made.

It should be stressed that such simplications are not recommended if precise modeling of damping effects is important to safety and performance. That occurs in the following scenarios: Damping is crucial to function or operation. Think, for instance, of a shock absorber. Fortunately damper devices can be modeled more accurately than, say, dry friction. Damping may destabilize the system by feeding energy instead of removing it. This is true in active control systems and aeroelasticity.

The last two scenarios are beyond the scope of this course. In this and the next lecture we shall focus on linear viscous damping, which will be usually assumed to be light. 25.3. Matrix Equations of Motion Consider again the two-DOF mass-spring-dashpot example system of Lecture 22. This is reproduced in Figure 25.1 for convenience. The physica-coordinate EOM in detailed matrix notation are m1 0 0 m2 u1 c + c2 + 1 u2 c2 c2 c2 u1 k + k2 + 1 u2 k2 k2 k2 u1 u2 = p1 . p2 (25.1)

where M, C and K are the mass, damping and stiffness matrix, respectively, p, u, u and u are the force, displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors, respectively. The latter four are function of time: u = u(t), etc, but the time argument will be often omitted for brevity. In the sequel it will be assumed that M, C and K are symmetric. Furthermore M is positive denite (PD) while K is nonnegative denite (NND). 254

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;;

(a) k1

Static equilibrium position

25.3

(b)

c1 Fs1 = k1 u1

Mass m1

. F = c1 u 1 d1

u 1 = u1(t) p1 (t)

Static equilibrium position

Mass m2

.. FI1 = m 1 u1 F2 d . . F 2 = c2 (u 2 u1) d

u 2 = u2(t) p2 (t)

p2 (t)

.. FI2 = m 2 u 2 x

Figure 25.1. Two-DOF, forced, damped spring-mass example system: (a) conguration, (b) DFBD.

25.3.1. Equations of Motion Using Undamped Modes This technique attempts to reuse the modal analysis methods introduced in Lectures 22-24. Suppose that damping is negligible whence C = 0. Get the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the unforced, undamped system governed by M u + K u = 0, by solving the eigenproblem K U = 2 M U. Orthonormalize the vibration mode shapes Ui i so that they are orthonormal with respect to the mass matrix: iT Mi = i j , where i j denotes the Kronecker delta: i j = 1 if i = j, else zero (the Kronecker delta). Let be the modal matrix constructed with the orthonormalized mode shapes i , and denote by the array of modal amplitudes i , also called generalized coordinates. As before, assume mode superposition: u = . Following the same scheme as in the previous two Lectures, the transformed EOM in generalized coordinates are T M + T C + T K = T p(t). Dene the generalized versions of mass, damping, stiffness and forces as Mg = T M , Cg = T C , Kg = T K , f = T p(t). (25.4) (25.3)

Of these, the generalized mass matrix Mg and the generalized stiffness matrix Kg were introduced in Lecture 23. If is built by stacking mass-orthonormalized vibration modes as columns, it was shown there that Mg = I, Kg = diag[i2 ]. (25.5) That is, Mg reduces to the identity matrix while Kg becomes a diagonal matrix with squared frequencies stacked along its diagonal. The modal forces f(t), also called generalized forces was introduced in 255

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Lecture 24. The new kid in (25.3) is the generalized damping matrix Cg = T C , Substituting (25.5) into (25.4) we arrive at the modal EOM for the damped system: (t) + Cg (t) + diag(i2 ) (t) = f(t). (25.6)

Here we ran into a major difculty: matrix Cg generally will not be diagonal. If that happens, the modal EOM (25.6) will not decouple. We seem to have gone through a promising path, but hit a dead end. 25.3.2. Three Ways Out There are three ways out of the dead end,* Diagonalization. Keep working with (25.6), but make Cg diagonal through some artice. Complex Eigensystem. Set up and solve a different eigenproblem that diagonalizes two matrices that comprise M, C and K as submatrices. The scheme name comes from the fact that it generally leads to frequencies and mode shapes that are complex. Direct Time Integration or DTI. Integrate numerically in time the EOM in physical coordinates.

Each approach has strengths and weaknesses. (Obviously, else we would mention only one.) Diagonalization allows straightforward reuse of undamped frequencies and mode shapes, which are fairly easy to obtain with standard eigensolution software. The uncoupled modal equations often have physical interpretation and mesh well with experiments. Only real arithmetic is necessary. The down side is that we dont solve (25.2) directly, so some form of approximation is inevitable. This is counteracted by the fact that structural damping is often difcult to quantify since it can come from so many sources. Thus the approximation in solving (25.2) may be tolerable in view of modeling uncertainties. This is particularly true if damping is light. There are problems, however, in which diagonalization cannot properly represent damping effects.Three of them are: (1) structures with localized damper devices (e.g., shock absorbers), (2) structure-media interaction (e.g., building foundations, tunnels, aeroelasticity, surface ships), (3) active control systems. In those situations one of the two remaining approaches must be taken. The complex eigensystem method is mathematically irreproachable and can solve (25.2) without additional approximations. No assumptions as to light versus heavy damping are needed. But it involves a substantial amount of preparatory work since the EOM must be transformed to the so-called state space form. For a large number of DOF, solving complex eigensystems is unwieldy. Physical interpretation of complex frequencies and modes is less immediate and require substantial expertise in math as well as engineering experience. But in the three scenarios listed above it shoud be preferred to diagonalization. Direct time integration (DTI) has the advantage of being completely general. Numerical time integration can in fact handle not only the linear EOM (25.2), but also nonlinear systems as well as non-viscous damping mechanisms. No transformations to mode coordinates is necessary, and no complex arithmetic emerges. The main disadvantage is that it requires substantial expertise in computational handling of ODE, which is a hairy topic onto itself. Since DTI can only handle fully numerically-specied models, the approach is not particularly useful during preliminary design stages when free parameters oat around. Because the last two approaches lie outside the scope of an introductory course (they are taught at the master or senior-elective levels), our choice is easy: diagonalization it is.

* In the textbook of Craig-Kurdila the rst two approaches listed above are called mode superposition through real modes of the undamped system, and mode superposition through complex modes of the damped system, respectively. See their Section 10.1.10 for details.

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25.5

25.4. Diagonalization by Modal Damping In this approach the generalized damping matrix Cg = C is assumed to be diagonal from the start, using modal damping factors Cg = diag[ 2i i ], i = 1, 2, . . . n. (25.7)

in which n is the number of DOF and i denotes the damping factor for the i th natural mode. As a result, the modal EOM (25.6) decouple, reducing to n canonical second-order equations in the modal amplitudes i + 2i i i + i2 = f i (t), i = 1, 2, . . . n. (25.8)

These equations can be solved using the methods described in Lecture 21. The solutions can be superposed via the mode decomposition assumption u(t) = (t) to get the physical response. The method is straightforward. Two technical difculties remain. First, how are modal damping factors picked? Second, what is the error incurred by the decoupling assumption? 25.4.1. Guessing Damping Factors One time honored approach is educated guessing. This is of course the only possibility if (a) little is known about the damping level and sources and (b) there are no experimental results; for example the structure exists only on paper. The structural engineer then makes recourse to experience with similar systems. With an air of authority she says: Ahem, let assign 1% to modes 1 through 5, 2% to modes 6 through 20, and 4% to all higher ones. Done. There is some method in this madness. First, damping factors of well constructed structures are typically small compared to unity: 1 to 5% is typical. Second damping generally increases with frequency, the reason being that more hysteresis cycles take place within a xed time interval. 25.4.2. Energy Equivalent Damping Factor This technique is applicable if C is available. It can be shown that the power dissipated by viscous damping in an unforced system governed by the physical-coordinates EOM (25.2) with p = 0 is D=

1 2

u C u.

(25.9)

1 2

u M u,

V =

1 2

u K u,

(25.10)

Now suppose that the structure is moving in one of the undamped modes, say i , The damping factor can be chosen so that the energy dissipated in that mode matches that of the full discrete system. This leads to the Rayleigh Quotient rule. (Topic to be developed further, since it is not in C-K.) 257

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25.5. Diagonalization by Rayleigh Damping This diagonalization procedure is widely used for civil structures, especially for seismic response calculations. The viscous damping matrix C is directly dened as a linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrix: C = a0 M + a1 K. (25.11) in which a0 and a1 are selected constants (with appropriate physical dimensions). The method is also called proportional damping in the literature. Applying the modal matrix congruential transformation to this C results in Cg = T C = diag[Cr ] = diag[a0 + a1 i2 ] = diag[2i i ], whence the effective modal damping factor is i = 1 2 a0 + a1 i . i (25.13) (25.12)

Choosing the damping factor for two modes of different frequencies and solving (25.13) for a0 and a1 yields C from (25.11). In practice the stiffness proportional term is more physically relevant (because, as previously noted, damping usually increases with frequency). Thus engineers tend to adjust the choice of those frequencies so that i is roughly minimized for the lowest frequency mode.

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