This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods
**

Mike Renfro September 7, 2004

Mike Renfro

Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods

Outlines

Part I: Review of Previous Lecture Part II: Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods

Review of Previous Lecture

Mike Renfro

Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods

Outlines Part I: Review of Previous Lecture Part II: Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods Bisection Method Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Newton-Raphson Method Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Homework Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

Part I Review of Previous Lecture Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

Review of Previous Lecture Sample problems solved with numerical methods Natural frequencies of a vibrating bar Static analysis of a scaﬀolding Critical loads for buckling a column Realistic Design Properties of Materials Solution of nonlinear equations Introduction Example: ﬂuid mechanics Incremental search method Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Part II Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

. You may be unlucky and have to perform 11 evaluations.0). Calculate f (1. it will require between 1 and 10 loops through the method to bracket the root with 0. If a root is expected on the interval 0 < x < 1. Calculate f (0. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . you’ll probably have to perform 6-7 evaluations to ﬁnd the solution. .0) You may get lucky and only have to perform two function evaluations. There has to be a more eﬃcient way to ﬁnd a solution.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Bisection Method One problem with the incremental search method is its lack of eﬃciency in ﬁnding a root.1 uncertainty: Calculate f (0.1).. In general.

Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . These values of a and b may be the ﬁnal interval of an incremental search method with a relatively large step size.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Problem Setup Start with a function f (x) and two values of x (a and b) such that f (a) and f (b) have opposite signs.

then set a = xmid and repeat. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . 2 If f (xmid ) = 0. then set b = xmid and repeat. If f (xmid ) matches the sign of f (a). If f (xmid ) matches the sign of f (b). then the sign of f (xmid ) will match the sign of f (a) or the sign of f (b). at xmid = a+b .Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Bisection Method Procedure Evaluate f (x) at the midpoint of the interval.

this method will limit the root of f (x) to a suﬃciently small interval.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Bisection Method Procedure Eventually. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . or |f (xmid )| ≤ . where is the error tolerance for the problem.

625 to 25 = 0. it brackets the root much more quickly than the incremental search method does. To compare: On average.031 accuracy. it takes 6–7 function evaluations to estimate the root to within 0. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . assuming a root is somewhere on the interval between 0 and 1.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Bisection Method Advantages Since the bisection method discards 50% of the current interval at each step. Those same 6–7 function evaluations using bisection estimates 1 1 the root to within 24 = 0.1 accuracy.

Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . the bisection method cannot ﬁnd complex roots of polynomials.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Bisection Method Disadvantages Like incremental search. Like incremental search. the bisection method can be fooled by singularities in the function. Like incremental search. It cannot ﬁnd roots where the function is tangent to the x axis. the bisection method only ﬁnds roots where the function crosses the x axis.

01.1. the root must be between 1 and 1.5.5) = 1. f (1. f (2) = 23 − 2 = 6.5) = 1.53 − 2 = 1. we would have required 4 function evaluations using a step size of 0. and = 0. If we used incremental search to ﬁnd the same root.375. f (1) = −1.375. f (1.25) = −0.047| < . Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . Since 1.25. followed by 6 function evaluations using a step size of 0.05: f (1) = 13 − 2 = −1.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Bisection Method Procedure Bisection Method Advantages and Disadvantages Bisection Method Example Bisection Method Example Find the root of f (x) = x 3 − 2 on the interval where a = 1 and b = 2. f (1. the root is assumed to be at x = 1. Since | − 0.375 and 6 have the same sign.047.

and an error tolerance .Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Problem Setup Given: a function f (x). We assume that both the height of the function f (x) and its slope can help us make a more educated guess of the root x ∗ . Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . its derivative f (x). a starting point x1 .

Repeat until |f (x)| < . and draw a line tangent to the function at the point (x2 . Call that point x2 . Calculate f (x2 ). Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . f (x2 )). f (x1 )). The point where the new tangent line crosses the x axis should be a better estimate of the root than x2 . Call that point x3 .Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Draw a line tangent to the function at the point (x1 . The point where the tangent line crosses the x axis should be a better estimate of the root than x1 .

Also. the Newton-Raphson method isn’t fooled by singularities. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . It can ﬁnd complex roots of polynomials. since it does not look for changes in the sign of f (x) explicitly.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Newton-Raphson Method Advantages Unlike the incremental search and bisection methods. Newton-Raphson converges quicker than either bisection or incremental search. assuming you start out with a complex value for x1 . it can identify repeated roots. For many problems.

Some functions may be diﬃcult to impossible to diﬀerentiate.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Newton-Raphson Method Disadvantages The Newton-Raphson method only works if you have a functional representation of f (x). You may be able to work around this by approximating the derivative f (x) ≈ f (x+∆x)−f (x) . ∆x Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Newton-Raphson Method Disadvantages The Newton-Raphson method is not guaranteed to ﬁnd a root. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . For example. the function’s small slope tends to drive the x guesses further and further away from the root. if the starting point x1 is suﬃciently far away from the root for the function f (x) = tan−1 x.

the next point xi+1 will be very far away. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods . but you will be delayed.Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Newton-Raphson Method Disadvantages If the derivative of the function at any tested point xi is suﬃciently close to zero. You may still ﬁnd the root.

Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Problem Setup Newton-Raphson Method Procedure Newton-Raphson Method Advantages and Disadvantages Newton-Raphson Method Disadvantages If the derivative of the function changes sign near a tested point. the Newton-Raphson method may oscillate around a point nowhere near the nearest root. Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Homework Homework Find the solution of f (x) = x 2 − 10 = 0 using the following methods and starting points: Bisection method. with x0 = 0 and = 0.01. with a = 1. Will both of these problem statements yield a solution? If not. = 0. and Newton-Raphson method. b = 3.01. what can you do to change the problem setup to allow you to ﬁnd a solution? Mike Renfro Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods .

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- 2004-09-07_handouts.pdf
- Newton Raphson Method
- 1.4 Differentiation Using Limits
- aproximaciondefunciones.pdf
- c01_01
- Lesson 7 Four Step Rule Differentiation Formulas2
- Syllabus
- EDUC 270 Fall 2014 Week 5
- Schoology Manual 8-8-12
- Cubic Spiral JP
- Syllabus Booth
- Print Page - Fiesta 6 _ Fall 2009
- Course Syllabus for ENGL 351
- Parent Information Packet
- Seeing the Agenda of your Children
- 29655
- The Pitfalls of Homework
- BUAD 304 Fall 2014 Syllabus a(1) (2)
- 101_syllabus_Fall_08.pdf
- Email 39 Responsibility
- Gen Info Packet
- Fundamental Engineering Maths 2
- Use of Irony in “Homework”
- 2 SL Week 2 Lesson Plan
- Syllabus American Supernatural Ism 2011
- Jill Gough’s SCF – Algebra I – 2011
- Gatoraid 020912
- UDL Tessellations
- Untitled
- Procedures
- cnm1

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd