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are made. These constituents are organic in nature and synthesized in plants by the activity of individual cells. The process by which these complex organic chemical constituents are formed, utilizing simple substances and enzymes are known as biosynthesis. As historically, plants and their products form the basis of medicines and also in present days. Several compounds, which are pharmaceutically and medicinally important, derived from plant sources. However, the medicinal value of plant depends on the nature of plant constituents present in it, which is known as active principal or active constituent. Active constituents are those chemical substances, which are solely responsible for therapeutic activity of plant. A large number of theories have been proposed as to why these compounds are formed in plants, it is likely that many of them are produced as part of chemical defense system to protect the producing organism. The chemical constituents present in plants that do not possess any definite therapeutic value are known as inactive constituents. As the formation of different active and inactive constituents of plants involves various metabolic pathways, hence in general the inactive plant constituents are termed as primary plant metabolites whereas active plant constituents are termed as secondary plant metabolites. Primary plant metabolites are simple molecules or polymers of simple molecules synthesized by plants, generally do not possess therapeutic as such but essential for the life of plants and contains high-energy bonds. These are usedup for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. e.g. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Secondary metabolites are complex organic molecules biosynthesized from primary plant metabolites in plant cells (Fig.1). Unique to plants or group of plants, generally possess therapeutic activity, neither essential for plants life nor contains high energy bonds. These are usually stored in vacules. Secondary metabolites are classified as: alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, volatile oils, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, resins and bitter principles. These are used as medicine, food, flavors, colours, dyes, poisons and perfumes etc. It is estimated that 1/4th of prescription drugs contains at least one chemical originally identified from plants. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic polyhydroxy carbonyl compounds with universal occurrence in living organisms. These are made up of C, H and O and are the first complex organic compounds formed in the plants as a result of photosynthesis. These provide means of storage and transport of energy and also building blocks of cell wall. These are the constituents of various metabolites as glycosides and required precursor for biosynthesis of all other metabolites as well as basis of all organic compounds of living world. These are classified in three main categories on the basis of their molecular size: 1. Monosacchrides (True sugars) 2. Oligosacchrides (True sugars) 3. Polysacchrides (Non sugars) 1. Monosacchrides: Monosacchrides are characterized by general formula Cn(H2O)n, presence of carbonyl group and (n-1) hydroxyl group. The number of carbon atoms most often five or six. These are simplest sugar molecules and hence cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler form. These are crystalline substances, soluble in water, practically insoluble in organic solvents like ether, chloroform and absolute alcohols. These are optically active and exist in more than one isomeric form. Further, these are sub-classified on the basis of no. of carbon atoms present. a. Trioses – 3 carbon atom e.g. glyceraldehydes b. Tetroses – 4 carbon atom e.g. threose, erythrose c. Pentoses – 5 carbon atom e.g. xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, ribose and ribulose. d. Hexoses – 6 carbon atom e.g. glucose, fructose, mannoseand galactose. e. Heptoses – 7 carbon atom e.g. cymarose These are also classified on the basis of presence of carbonyl group: 1. Aldoses- (containing aldehydic group) e.g. glucose, arabinose and galactose
These are optically active and dilute . Gums are insoluble in organic solvents but most of them are soluble in water and forms colloidal viscous solutions. It yields glucose and fructose on hydrolysis.g. 3. composed of 250. hence it adopts various conformations like chair. Sucrose is commonly obtained from sugar cane and hence known as cane sugar. 7 and 8 glucose units. it is insoluble in cold-water. ii. half chair etc. The α. it yields two molecules of glucose on hydrolysis. acts as osmotic laxative. Ketoses. On the basis of type of glycosidic linkage present the disaccharides are of two types: 1.300 α-D – glucose having 1-4 linkage. Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide. Although. It forms red to violet colour with iodine. These have ability to form non-covalent inclusion compounds which permits molecular encapsulation to increase: stability and solubility to improve bioavailability of drug molecules. but most of the natural monosachharides belongs to D series (except L-rhamnose. e. either pyrano (six membered ring) or furano (five membered ring) depending on nature of bridge (1-4 or1-5). The glycosidic linkage can easily be cleaved by chemical hydrolysis and specifically by enzymatic hydrolysis. amorphous substances. boat. exudates of plants and produced as the result of trauma.00.g. Cellulose is a linear polymer made up of β (1-4) linked D-glucose units. β and χ cyclodextrins are made-up of 6. Homoglycans (homogenous polysaccharides): formed by the condensation of larger number of same sugar molecules. mucilages and pectins.3). respectively. It is fibrous substance of cell wall and responsible for structural rigidity of plants in combination with lignin. Non reducing disaccharides (linkage involving reducing function of both sugar) e.g. Pharmaceutical products like dextrins and cyclo-dextrins are derivatives of starch. e.e. universal constituent of plant and derived from glucose.2a) while fructose occurs in furanose configuration (Fig. linear chain molecule.000 – 25. It forms blue color with iodine. fructose. These serve as skeletal material (cellulose) or reserve food material (starch.e. The sugar molecules are attached to each other by glycosidic linkage between the hemi-acetal hydroxyl group on C-1 of one sugar and any of the hydroxyl group on other sugar molecules. L-arabinose and L-fucose). starch. 2.g. cellulose. its molecular weight ranges from 50. Heteroglycans (heterogeneous polysaccharides) e. Maltose is obtained by hydrolysis of starch during germination of grains.2b). glucose occurs in pyranose configuration (Fig. Carbohydrates are found in plants in more than one isomeric form i. Amylopectin (70-90%). sucrose 2. whereas oxidized cellulose and methylcellulose are cellulose derivatives used in pharmacy. Reducing disaccharides (linkage involving reducing function of only one sugar) e. Amylose (20-30%) is a water soluble. do not have sweet taste. gums. Polysacchrides (Glycans): These are high molecular weight polymers of larger number of monosaccharide molecules. Glycans are further sub-divided in two categories: i. Monosachharides can exist in both cyclic structures i. Preffered conformation for aldohexopyranose is always chair conformation (most stable) (Fig.000. Gums are complex heterogeneous. Lactose is obtained from milk and known as milk sugar.(containing ketone group) e. branched and uronic acid containing polysaccharide macromolecules. composed of about 1000 α-D –glucose with 1-4 and 1-6 linkage. either insoluble in water (cellulose) or forms colloidal solution (starch). D or L. branched chain molecule. glycogen and inulin). It composed of two components: a. Cotton fibers are the purest form of cellulose (98%). b. The carbon atoms in ring are of sp3 hybridization and may not be in the planner form. Lactose. which has minimal interaction and lowest energy. yields galactose and fructose on hydrolysis. Cellulose is the most universal biological polymer. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides produced by enzymatic degradation of starch using different Bacillus species. These are translucent.g.2. it yields glucose and galactose on hydrolysis. maltose. cellobiose etc. Oligosaccharides: These are formed by condensation of 2-10 monosacchride molecules.g. glycogen etc. aldohexoses generally forms pyranose whereas ketohexoses forms furanose ring. These are non-sugar carbohydrates. which involves in vivo formation of glycosidic linkage. Starch is main reserve energy source.
cellulose (and sub-group hemicellulose) are all polysaccharides. Barford test v. CARBOHYDRATES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS Plant energy storage components are referred to as carbohydrates. mucilage. galactose. 46).(starch. gums. Mucilages are normal cell constituents of high molecular weight compounds. topical emollients and protectants. it is used in pharmaceutical and food technology. For the purposes of therapeutics. the psyllium. increasing its strength.(sucrose. Polysaccharides are known to exert a beneficial action on the body's immune system. lactose. ether and in absolute alcohols. toxin absorption. the polysaccharide hydrocolloidal carrageenan often finds its way in ice cream. Seliwanoff’’s test vi. powdered cellulose.e. whose derivatives. 44-45). Chemical Test for Carbohydrates: Mono-saccharides are the building blocks of carbohydrates. These are localized in middle lamella of vegetable cell wall but for industrial purpose it is obtained from inner portion of rind of citrus fruit or from apple. cotton. can reduce bowel irritation.. i. Mucilage can also increase expectoration (Cabrera. whose seed. Iodine test iv. microcrystalline cellulose. Presently. These neither dissolves in water to form clear colloidal solutions but swells nor precipitates by addition of alcohol. mannose and xylose) with sugar acids (glucoronic acid and galacto-uronic acid). water soluble or water nonsoluble. is another polysaccharide. Mucilages on hydrolysis yields sugar (galactose and arabinose) and sugar acids (uronic acids). bronchial and urinary spasm. It absorbs water and swells up because of its hydrophilic property forming stiff jelly. gut irritation. These are optically active compounds and respond to various color reactions and identification tests. Molish test iii. etc. some acids which are produced after cellular carbohydrate respiration.. and. as opthalmic solutions. As a gelating agent. and purified rayon. composed mainly of sulphuric acid esters of sugar. Bials test x. Charring test ii. inulin) saccharides. 45-56). i. can bulk itself up with the addition of water sufficiently to initiate peristalsis and evacuate the bowels (Tyler. They are produced through the linkage of simple or single sugars linked by ethers in various and complex ways. and are divided into two categories. Di. Cellulose. 35).). Hence. Tollens test ix. Pectins are defined as the group of polymers made-up of partially methylated 1-4 linked α galacturonic acid residues associated with arabinan and galactan units. Plant starch.. Osazone test . therapeutically. alcohols such as sorbitol and cellulose. Seaweed agar and carrageenan contains mucilage composed of salts of sulphate esters of polysaccharides. Mucilage. have been developed as bulking agents for the alleviation of constipation.solutions (<1%) precipitates upon addition of ethanol or lead sub acetate. that gums are pathologically formed while mucilages are physiological in origin (Tyler et al. usually the polysaccharide and gum/mucilage subgroups are most important. Fehling solution test vii. glucose. and gums and mucilages. mucilage will become a slimy mass. Gums on hydrolysis yields sugars (arabinose. cough. and as agents meant to reduce the appetite (Tyler et al. it is also used as a laxative ingredient. and poly. peristalsis. it is generally agreed that while gums are water solvent. Perhaps the most common bulking agent derived from a polysaccharide comes from Plantago major. Monosaccharides are soluble in water and practically insoluble in organic solvents like chloroform. It has been difficult for phytochemists to distinguish between gums and mucilage categorically. The group which the term carbohydrates represents includes mono. oligo and polysaccharides on hydrolysis in presence of mineral acid yield monosaccharide units. Benedict test viii.
which condenses with orcinol to produce blue-green product. known as an osazone. due to formation of cuprous oxide. Charring test: Carbohydrates on heating in testube or in presence of Conc. Equal volumes of Fehling A and Fehling B solutions were mixed (1 ml each) and 2 ml of aqueous solution of drug was added followed by boiling for 5-10 minutes on water bath. 5 ml of Seliwanoff’s reagent (resorcinol in 6M HCl) was added and boiled. Starch amylopectin. Lugol's iodine test: It is also known as iodine – KI reagent and composed of aqueous Iodine solution in presence of KI. yellow. 6. These sugars react with 2. it produces blue-green colour in presence of pentose sugar. To the 4 ml of aqueous solution of drug. Two ml of Barford reagent (Cupric acetate. H2SO4 was added from sidewall of testube. which disappears on heating and reappears on cooling. To 1 ml aqueous solution of drug. Aqueous solution of drug (2 ml) was mixed with 4 ml of Bial’s reagent and heat to boiling. disacchrides and cellulose do not produce any colour. 2. Formation of blue colour. Fehling solution test: It is generally used for reducing sugars and composed of two solutions. which are mixed in situ. orange. 5. which condensed with resorcinol to produce cherry red colour. 8. Formation of purple coloured ring at junction indicates presence of carbohydrates. Formation of translucent jelly indicates presence of starch. Bials test: It is used to distinguish between pentoses and hexoses. Osazone test: The osazone test was developed by Emil Fischer to identify aldose sugars differing in configuration only at the alpha-carbon.5 gm of starch in a testube add 5 ml of distilled water and boil on water bath. Barford test: This test is used to distinguish between monosacchride and disacchrides. which is itself reduced to silver metal in a clean glass reaction vessel and forms a "silver mirror". H2SO4. Add few drops of freshly prepared Tollens reagent to 2 ml of aqueous solution of drug in clean testube and heat gently. acetic acid and water) was added to 1 ml aqueous solution of drug and boil. This neutralized aqueous is used for testing. Formation of green. Fehling solution A composed of 0. Jelly test: To 0. Molish test: Aqueous solution of drug/carbohydrate mixed with few drops of Molish reagent (alpha naphthol) and Conc.5% of copper sulphate whereas Fehling solution B composed of Sodium Potassium Tartarate. 4-dinitro-phenyl hydrazine effecting only alpha-carbon with formation of pink-red coloured bis-phenylhydrazone. 1 ml of Benedicts solution was added and heated almost to boiling. indicates the presence of starch. 3. Formation of reddish brown coloured precipitate due to formation of Cuprous oxide indicates presence of reducing sugar. Few drops of Iodine solution was added to aqueous solution of drug/polysaccharide. 7. Few drops of iodine – KI reagent was added to the aqueous solution of starch. Di-. gives positive test for Molish reagent and some specific tests like Jelly test and Lugol’s iodine test. oligo and poly-sacchrides having reducing sugars can be tested by first boiling in dilute acid solution followed by neutralization with ammonia.1. 4. 9. an oxidizing agent. NaOH and Ammonia) is Ammonical Silver Nitrate (diaminesilver (I) complex). Formation of cherry red colour in presence of ketose (Fructose) due to formation of hydroxyl methyl furfural. Pentoses reacts with Bial’s reagent (Orcinol in Conc. Seliwanoff’s test: This test is used for identification of keto-hexoses or to distinguish between ketoses and aldoses. The colour developed disappears on warming and reappears on cooling. Chemical test for Starch: It is soluble in hot water. Iodine test: It is specific for polysacchrides. when raects with aldehydes to form carboxylic acids. Formation of brick red precipitate in 5 minutes indicates presence of monosacchride while in 7 minutes indicates disaccharide. produces charring with smell like burning sugar. Formation of black mirror on the sidewall of testube indicates the presence of aldehydic group. Application of the osazone reaction to D-glucose and D-mannose demonstrates that these compounds differ in configuration only at C-2. 10. Benedict’s test: It is used for reducing sugars and composed of mainly Copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide. red or brown colour in order of increasing concentration of simple sugar in the test solution. HCl and traces of FeCl3 as catalyst) to form furfural. . which produces deep blue to bluish black colour due to presence of amylase. Tollens test: Tollens reagent (Silver Nitrate.
The cylindrical tube that joins the objective lenses to the eyepiece. These microscopes produce three-dimensional images with high resolution and magnification. Transmission Electron Microscopes use electrons instead of light to create an image.The lens at the viewing end of a telescope. Revolving nosepiece-Piece on the microscope that revolves which holds the objective lenses. The material prepared must be very thin. These microscopes can view objects larger than what a compound microscope is able to handle. They will have multiple lenses for viewing. THEREBY INCERASING THE NUMERICAL APERTURE OF THE OBJECTIVE LENS. Compound Microscope ○ Compound microscopes can be found in most biology and science classrooms. A Scanning Electron Microscope uses electrons instead of light to create an image. They have low magnification and are also light powered. Dissecting Microscope ○ SEM ○ TEM ○ Parfocal microscope – a parfocal lens microscope stays approximately in focus when the magnification is changed . dissecting microscope. Body tube. The eyepiece is responsible for enlarging the image captured by the instrument. These give twodimensional images. in three dimensions. You use the lower power objective lens first to get your sample centered in the field of view. the lens or system of lenses in a telescope or microscope that is nearest the object being viewed Stage-A raised and usually movable plate on which a slide or object is placed for examination . They also have a larger depth of focus. IT IS ACHIEVED BY IMMERSING BOTH THE OBJECTIVE LENS AND THE SPECIMEN IN A TRANSPARENT OIL OF HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX. EYEPIECE. The beams of electrons that pass through it give the viewer high magnification and resolution. Also call the turret. There are a variety of microscopes including the compound microscope. for example if the focal point of a microscope is changed from a lower power objective to a higher power the object stays in focus. Scanning Election Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope 1. YOU CAN ENHANCE RESOLVING POWER BY: CHANGE THE WAVELENGTH CHANGE APERTURE VALUE OIL IMMERSION: OIL IMMERSION IS A TECHNIQUE USED TO INCREASE THE RESOLUTION OF A MICROSCOPE .MICRO Different Kinds of Microscopes & Their Uses The microscope is an instrument used to magnify small objects. Dissecting microscopes are also known as stereo microscopes. They are electrically operated and use light to enhance the image of a cell. It has led to important biological discoveries and has undergone many innovations and improvements. Objective.
A search engine is a website or type of software that searches files across the internet for specific keywords or phrases defined by the user. The diaphragm is most useful at the higher powers. Condenser lenses are not required on low power microscopes. Home > search engine search engine . (note. you can place one hand on the base and with the other grab the arm and rotate it back.): This is a number that expresses the ability of a lens to resolve fine detail in an object being observed. Numerical Aperture (N. On a high power binocular model there is still only one objective lens so no stereo vision. If so. This gives the 3-D effect.A. of the highest power objective lens on your microscope. Generally one uses the coarse focus first to get close then moves to the fine focus knob for fine tuning.Where the arm connects to the base. By using a condenser lens you will increase the Illumination and resolution. Nosepiece: The part of the microscope that holds the objective lenses also called a revolving nosepiece or turret. Base: The bottom support of the microscope Diaphragm: Generally a five hole disc placed under the stage on a high power microscope. N. Stage: The flat plate where the slides are placed for observation. you should have a condenser system that matches or exceeds the N. there may be a pin. is only important with high power microscopes). Condenser-A condenser is a lens that serves to concentrate light from the illumination source that is in turn focused through the object and magnified by the objective lens. Fine Focus: This is the knob used to fine tune the focus on the specimen. In a stereo (low power) microscope there are objective pairs. By turning it. Objective Lens: The lens closest to the object. It will tilt your microscope back for more comfortable viewing. one lens for each eyepiece lens. To get the best possible image. You use it to move the objective lenses toward or away from the specimen (see fine focus). It is also used to focus on various parts of the specimen. Condenser Lens: A lens mounted in or below the stage whose purpose is to focus or condense the light onto the specimen. The higher power objective lenses have very tiny diameters and require concentrated light to work properly. you can vary the amount of light passing through the stage opening. Mirror: Allows you to direct ambient light up through the hole in the stage and illuminate the specimen. It is derived by a complex mathematical formula and is related to the angular aperture of the lens and the index of refraction of the medium found between the lens and the specimen. Coarse Focus: This is the rough focus knob on the microscope. This will help to properly illuminate the specimen and increase contrast and resolution.A. Each hole is of a different diameter.A. INFO SEARCH ENGINES. Substage-An apparatus fixed beneath the ordinary stage of a compound microscope to support mirrors and other accessories Inclination joint.
pages linking to the site. then reads these documents and creates an index based on the words contained in each document. Each search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that. Blekko .com . Although search engine is really a general class of programs. xml documents and zip archives Google .S. only meaningful results are returned for each query . Google U. multimedia and other deep Web results are also displayed. government Web sites (.general search engine enhanced by a number of specialty searches including a dictionary.com.g. text documents. video. Alta Vista and Excite that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web and USENET newsgroups. software. maps. images.Microsoft engine that displays excerpts from sites retrieved by your search and offers related search suggestions. documents in academic repositories and the free Web. full sentence excerpts of sites in its results list FindFiles. news and more Bing . thumbnail images of retrieved sites. This link will allow you to access the full text of articles in journals to which the Libraries subscribe when you are off campus.searches for all MIME types found on the Web. for searching the Google version of the Open Directory Google Scholar. Typically. and customization options such as organization of results by file type.offers concept clustering of results.gov and .net . for searching blog entries Google Book Search.mil) ranked by link popularity Hakia .analyzes site traffic including ranking. Google offers a number of Services that are worth exploring. global users. Search Engines General Search Engines • • • Alexa Web Search . the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Google. abstracts. focuses on questions from mobile devices Exalead . currency converter. a Google-powered search engine with a black background display that saves energy. a searchable database of U. encyclopedia. geography or modification date Factbites . can sort results by relevance or date. Government Search. for searching the full text of books from most publishers in the U. ideally. cascading style sheets. a search engine works by sending out a spider to fetch as many documents as possible. thesaurus.. Also check out EcoSmartSearch. Another program.S. journal articles. e. allows searchers to integrate their Facebook newsfeed into search results ChaCha .S.offers live human guides to help answer queries. PDF files. global warming /climate.searches for full topic matches and returns meaningful. Also check out Bing Maps. Google Directory. offers the full text. and links to related pages of interest Ask.organizes results into types of information sources. including: • • • • Google Blog Search.retrieves results from trustworthy sites and offers filtered searching with the use of slash tags.A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. for example audio. called an indexer. and/or citations to scholarly materials including books. including "credible " sites recommended by librarians • • • • • • • • .Web's most popular search engine that retrieves results in real time as you type your search.
and retrive a collated results list with an option to view results from each engine separately Dogpile . etc.searches for data and statistics found in graphs.offers separate searches of Google. YouTube.offers advanced search options on Google. customize your Favitt page and add any search engine to your collection of searchable sites. also offers to search wellknown dictionaries. Yahoo!. government.offers searches of the Web and multimedia. results are viewed separately iBoogie . also serves as a personal home page for collecting bookmarks Browsys . also offers search suggestions related to your search Searchzooka . encyclopedias. organize the searches into folders.. Bing and Wikipedia with a one-click toggle between search results.portal with a general Web search and many other content services Zanran . Yahoo!.edu. domain. Ask. See also: SearchGov. and clone new searches from existing ones • • • • • • • • • .searches millions of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for answers to user queries Wolfram|Alpha . tables and charts. hover your mouse over the item icon for a preview • • • • • • • • • Meta Search Engines • 43 Marks . save and bookmark custom folders containing up to 12 favorite sites Cacti Search . and multimedia Quintura .retrieve results from Google.general search engine that also offers searches of a few deep Web content sources including people look-up. MSN and Ask. users can save searches for future use. Bing. Virtual Folders allow users to create. LastFM. Ebay.• iSEEK Education . organizes results into concept clusters.com . Digg and Technorati with a single mouse click.search Google. Bing and Ask.mil domain SnappyFingers .service that limits results to the .search Google. allows any type of search syntax and will translate and direct your search accordingly Mamma .offers Search Assistant for searching numerous sources including the social and the deep Web.. and supplies real-time concept clustering of results Ixquick . and Wolfram|Alpha uses its built-in algorithms and own collection of data to compute the answer Yahoo! .displays a type of tag cloud with keywords related to your search that can be selected to generate new results SearchEdu. and also allows users to recommend and rate sites Lycos .com . Yahoo. and established noncommercial providers.com . Hulu and more. also offers search suggestions related to your search MetaCrawler . Bing.retrieve results from numerous sources.offers authoritative resources from university. yellow pages. almanacs.search numerous search engines and presented collated results.enter a question or calculation.gov domain SearchMil.ranks results based on top ten rankings from the source sites. also presents concept clusters for viewing results organized by keywords or topics Favitt . Yahoo!.
searches several high quality directories. Pharmacy informatics is playing a vital role in the decision support systems needed to reduce errors and increase medication treatment outcomes.searches the Web. and use of information in health and biomedicine. public health. and allows users to comment on and vote on the results Virtual Learning Resources Center . medication orders are validated against formulary data and contracts to assure proper usage and payment. Pharmacy informatics is the scientific field that focuses on medication-related data and knowledge within the continuum of healthcare systems . and information and communication systems. dissemination and transfer of information in natural and engineered computational environments. They also advise their patients. use. It focuses on leveraging technology systems in medication selection. Through the electronic communication of medication data.conduct a search. With datbase interconnectivity to insurance companies. retrieval. PHARMACIST . also offers its own directory ZapMeta . creation. compliance. and (bio)medical research.in the delivery of optimal medication-related patient care and health outcomes. as well as monitor the health and progress of those patients to ensure that they are using their medications safely and effectively. while also providing computer based education to patients and tracking medical compliance. It is applied to the areas of nursing. physicians. and dispensed with higher quality. storage. and offers concept clusters for organizing search results Zuula . dentistry. Health informatics tools include not only computers but also clinical guidelines. management. and side effects of medications. . searches Google. and administration to ensure optimal patient safety. computer science. and retail pharmacies to use technology for prescription management and billing. Twitter and YouTube URL. pharmacy. images. clinicians send prescription orders to pharmacies through secure channels. storage. MEDICAL INFORMATICS is a discipline at the intersection of information science. and returns results from multiple search tools in configurable separate tabs PHARMACY Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον 'pharmakon' = drug) is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences. storage. also drag terms to remove them from your search or do a dictionary definition lookup. It has become commonplace for hospital. then drag suggested search terms into a box to add to your search.including its acquisition. analysis. PHARMACY INFORMATICS Pharmacy informatics is a sub-discipline of health informatics that deals with the integration of information technology and its applications into the pharmaceutical practice.. Bing and Bing Images.. retrieval. and other health practitioners on the selection. It deals with the resources. Medication orders are verified with other patient records. Compounding—the actual mixing of ingredients to form medications—is a small part of a • • • • • • • • • • • . prepared. clinical care. Yahoo! and MSN. dosages.• SortFix . thus avoiding undue risks and negative interactions.Pharmacists distribute prescription drugs to individuals. devices. long-term care.The practical study of the structure.returns the top ten results from Google. and health care. A field of study that focuses on the use of technology for improving access to and utilization of information. news. blogs and jobs postings. interactions. and health outcomes. formal medical terminologies. use and dissemination .com .searches a handful of sources. occupational therapy. and methods required to optimize the acquisition. and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. INFORMATICS.
storing. HOSPITAL. and profession of choosing. or in a healthcare facility. exercise. such as a hospital. such as diet. and stress management. Hospital pharmacy is the profession that strives to continuously maintain and improve the medication management and pharmaceutical care of patients to the highest standards in a hospital setting. like rehabilitation. such as a retail drugstore. DRUG INFORMATION Information on thousands of prescription and over-the-counter medications. various branches of surgery and psychiatry . Patients can stay overnight for care. and oversee the general operation of the pharmacy.• • pharmacist's practice. They can offer general or acute care. advising healthcare professionals and patients on their safe. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. counsel patients on the use of prescription and over-the-counter medications. preparing.S. such as durable medical equipment or home healthcare supplies. They also advise patients about general health topics. which comprises the art. including potential side effects and interactions with food and/or other drugs. effective and efficient use. CLINIC medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists meeting for diagnosis of problems and instruction or remedial work in a particular activity a healthcare facility for outpatient care Tertiary -major hospital that usually has a full complement of services including pediatrics. asthma. Most pharmacists work in a community setting. HOSPI HOSPITAL PHARMACY.This is a place that offers medical care. A service of the U. All hospitals must meet set standards of care. smoking cessation. they often complete third-party insurance forms and other paperwork. Hospital pharmacists provide services to patients and health care professionals in hospitals. Or they can be treated and leave the same day. Pharmacists in community pharmacies dispense medications. and provide information on products. because most medicines are produced by pharmaceutical companies in standard dosages and drug delivery forms. or high blood pressure. hire and supervise personnel.Hospital pharmacy is the health care service. practice. Some community pharmacists provide specialized services to help patients with conditions such as diabetes. In addition. and dispensing medicines and medical devices. They can also offer service in one area. Hospital pharmacy is a specialised field of pharmacy which forms an integrated part of patient health care in a health facility. general medicine. and advise physicians about medication therapy. compounding. Those who own or manage community pharmacies may sell non-health-related merchandise.
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