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## Task 1 : Flow of a Pipe through an Orifice

### Bansal, Hemant

Esslingen 27.06.2011

Hemant Bansal

73953

Introduction

### Introduction

Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD has gained a very wide popularity in the recent times owing to its numerous applications and advantages.

In addition to knowing the fundamentals of CFD it is very important to have the know-how of the commercial softwares code for CFD, as for indsutrial applications these commercial codes are widely used.

The scope of the task here is to work with one of the CFD softwares – STAR CCM+ was used in this case for simulations. A pipe with an orifice was considered, and internal fow thorugh the pipe was considered.

The Scope of the task was to get familirized with various aspects of CFD commercial softwares, experiment with different setting conditions for models and analyse the simulation results.

Definition of problem

• ### 2. Problem Description

Internal Flow through a pipe with orifice has to be analyzed.

• 2.1. Production of raw material

A fluid passing though an orifice constriction will experience a drop in pressure across the orifice. This change can be used to measure the flowrate of the fluid. Orifice plates are most commonly used for continuous measurement of fluid flow in pipes.

The Present task involved setting up a CFD model for the given problem with different CFD parameters, Inlet and outlet conditions were already provided, flow was to be simulated at two different inlet conditions.

For familirizing with the software it was stated to test different meshes and med refinement techniques.

The following results should be analyzed Pressure, velocity and temperature contours in the pipe Streamlines at the mid section of pipe 2-D plots for axial velocity and static pressure along the pipe axis.

Definition of problem

Measuring the Reattachment length –

o In a sudden expansion an inlet pipe with small diameter, flow is unable to follow the sudden enlargement and will detach at the sudden expansion. After some length downstream, called the reattachment length, the flow attaches to the outlet pipe. This reattachment length is highly dependent on the inlet conditions of the flow and the expansion ratio.

• ### 3. CFD Modelling - Pre Processing

Pre processing of the model was using STAR CCM+

The CAD model of the pipe was available in STL format ‘orifice.x_t’. The model represented only quarter of the pipe as flow is symmetric inside the pipe. Hence the initial settings were made on the pipe to make detachg al its surfaces in order to assign them different properties and boundary conditions.

Periodic Boundary Conditions: As discussed, because only quarter of pipe is analyzed here periodic boundary conditions should be assigned to the opposite walls so as to indicate the flow across them takes place with similar conditions.

Periodic Boundary Conditions

General Settings and Boundary conditions:

Fluid : Air Density: 1,205 kg/m3 Dynamic Viscosity: 1,845 E-05 Pa-s 3D simulation, Steady-state Incompressible, with segregated flow. Turbulent (k-epsilon) and heat transfer included.

Boundary Conditions

 • Inlet temperature: 20 °C • Orifice wall Temperature: 300 °C • Static- Pressure outlet at down stream boundary: 0 Pa
• 3.1. Meshing models and Simulations Matrix

It was decided to conduct the Simualtions under various conditions listed in the table below, to familirize with the software and also to be able to analyze consequences of various paremeters of simulation.

 Volumetric Simulation No. Mesh Type Base Mesh Size Prism Layer Block around Orifice Inlet Velocity m/s Trimmed Yes, 3 6 10% of Base 1 mm Mesh size 3 Trimmed Yes, 3 6 40% of Base 2 mm Mesh size 15 Trimmed Yes, 3 6 20% of Base 3 mm Mesh size 15 Tetrahedral 4 mm Yes, 3 6 10% of Base size 3 Tetrahedral 5 mm Yes, 3 6 20% of Base size 6

.

• ### 4. Simulation and Post Processing

On the above mentioned conditions, simulation was carried out and the results are enclosed in this section.

Simulation 1

 Trimmed 10% of Base 1 Mesh 6 mm Yes, 3 size 3 m/s

Fig 4.1 Meshed Model of pipe

Fig 4.2 Velocity contour along the pipe

Fig 4.3 Static Pressure contours along the pipe

Fig 4.4 Temperature contour along the pipe

Fig 4.5 Stream Lines on the mid-section

Fig 4.6 Reattachment length using Wall shear stress

Reattacment Length measured from contour - 0,07m

Fig 4.7 2D plot of Static pressure along the axis

Fig 4.8 2D plot of Axial Velocity along the axis

Simulation 2

 Trimmed 40% of Base 2 Mesh 6 mm Yes, 3 size 15 m/s

Same simulation and post processing was done under the higher velocity of 15m/s. Here the volumetric Block was not meshed to a very fine , it was also kept coarse.

Fig 4.9 Mesh (trimmed) with different block

Fig: Contours of velocity and Pressure

Fig: Contours of temperature and streamlines at mid section

Fig: 2D plot for axial velociy and Static Pressure

Reattacment Length measured from contour - 0,115 m

Simulation 3

 Trimmed 20% of Base 3 Mesh 6 mm Yes, 3 size 15 m/s

Same simulation and post processing was done under the higher velocity of 15m/s. The volumetric Block was meshed to a very fine value of 20%, i.e. a mesh size of 1.2 mm.

Fig: Contours of velocity and Pressure

Fig: Contours of temperature and streamlines at mid section

Fig: 2D plot for axial velociy and Static Pressure

Reattacment Length measured from contour - 0,08m

Simulation 4

 4 Tetrahedral 6 mm Yes, 3 10% of Base size 3 m/s

Same simulation and post processing was done under the higher velocity of 15m/s. The volumetric Block was meshed to a very fine value of 20%, i.e. a mesh size of 1.2 mm.

Fig: Contours of velocity and Pressure

Fig: Contours of temperature and streamlines at mid section

Fig: 2D plot for axial velociy and Static Pressure

Simulation 5

 5 Tetrahedral 6 mm Yes, 3 20% of Base size 6 m/s

Same simulation and post processing was done under the higher velocity of 15m/s. Here the vaolumetric Block was not meshed to a very fine , it was also kept coarse.

Fig: Contours of velocity and Pressure

Fig: Contours of temperature and streamlines at mid section

Fig: 2D plot for axial velociy and Static Pressure

• ### 5. Conclusions & Discussions

 • Different Mesh types were compared, and their influence on simulation accuracy and simulation time was studied. • Pre processing was made to test different block mesh sizes to see their effect on the solution and how can the gradients be captured at critical sections. We can see from the contours as well as 2D plot their due to mesh refinement at the critical section, the velocity fluctuations were captured at fine spacing as well. • Stream lines on the mid plane compare very well to the physical behaviour of the flow through an orifice.

Effect of including heat transfer in the model also yielded interestif results as we can see from the temperature contours that temp effect should not be neglected. But further analysis is recommended here to include for thermal expansion as well as simulation correct convection behaviours.

Working with different meshes in this case we cannot see major differences as the problem is not complex, and computing memory and space were not critical.