I. PURPOSE a. Studying and understanding the using of turbidimeter. b. Determining concentration of sample solution by turbidimetry. i.THEORY Turbidimetry is a method for determining the concentration of a substance in a solution by measuring the loss in intensity of a light beam through a solution that contains suspended particulate matter. Turbidimetry is measurement of reduction in the intensity of the transmitted light at 180°. In analytical chemistry, turbidimetry is methods for determining the amount of cloudiness, or turbidity, in a solution based upon measurement of the effect of this turbidity upon the transmission and scattering of light. Turbidity in a liquid is caused by the presence of finely divided suspended particles. If a beam of light is passed through a turbid sample.

Kind of light scattering: 1. Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh scattering is the scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light. It can occur when light travels in transparent solids and liquids, but is most prominently seen in gases. Rayleigh scattering of sunlight in clear atmosphere is the main

so short wavelength can be more scattered than other. At sunset the path length of the light through the atmosphere is larger than at any other time of day. The light with shorter wavelengths scatters better. The amount of Rayleigh scattering that occurs to a beam of light is dependent upon the size of the particles and the wavelength of the light. Rayleigh scattering can be defined as scattering in small size parameter regime . such as suspensions or emulsions. namely solution. 2. the scattering coefficient. thus the color of scattered light has a bluish tint. and is sufficiently long that the blue components of the light have undergone multiple scattering events such that the intensity at such a great viewing distance is minimal. This is also the reason why the sky looks blue when viewed away from the sun: the blue light from the sun is scattered to a greater degree and is therefore visible far from its source. colloid. the red light shows obvious scattering effects as observed by the sky appearing . Longer wavelengths towards the red end of the spectrum are less affected by the particles and pass on through the earth's atmosphere. This effect occurs because short wavelengths of light towards the blue end of the spectrum hit the air molecules in the earth's atmosphere and are reflected down to the earth's surface. and hence the intensity of the scattered light. and suspension. For example. in particular. the Tyndall effect is noticeable when car headlamps are used in fog. Blue light scatters more readily than does red light.reason why the sky is blue. The Tyndall effect is used to tell the difference between the different types of mixtures. Tyndall scattering The Tyndall effect is the effect of light scattering on particles in colloid systems. varies for small size parameter inversely with the fourth power of the wavelength. Rayleigh and cloudmediated scattering contribute to diffuse light (direct light being sunrays). It caused by blue colour has short wavelength. Due to the prolonged path length.

. with the scattered photons having a frequency different from. • Filter or monochromator Filter that used should be convenient with color of solution. • Photodetector Photodetectors detect the light produced from the interaction of the incident light and the sample volume and produce an electronic signal that is then converted to a turbidity value. • • Molecule may undergo a vibration transition (not an electronic shift) at exactly the same time as scattering occurs This result in a photon emission of a photon differing in energy from the energy of the incident photon by the amount of the above energy Instruments of Turbidimetry • Light source Tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature between 2200 and 3000 degree K. The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and wavelength as the incident photons.different hues of red. However. but most designs use a flow-through chamber with the light source located outside the sample. Raman scattering When light is scattered from an atom or molecule. most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering). • Sample Volume Some on-line turbidimeters utilize the glass sample cell. a small fraction of the scattered light (approximately 1 in 1 million photons) is scattered by an excitation. the frequency of the incident photons. 3. The red light is visible only at such great distances through the atmosphere because it is less affected (scattered) by the particles of air than the blue light. which is no longer visible. and usually lower than.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 3. Relative refractive index between particle and its medium 4.• Cuvette Use a transparent cuvette to minimize absorbing by color of cuvette. Determination of extinction effect. Factors that influence the scatters of light 1. Form of particle III. 3. Size of particle 3. 3. The size/shape of particle Scattered light intensity will increase if the particle size is bigger. Comparing incident light intensity with emitted light intensity. Concentrations of ions Concentrations of ions has a linear relationship with light scattered 2. 2. Wavelength Coefficient of turbidity influence by wavelength Three kinds of method in determining turbidity in solution: 1. Comparing incident light intensity with scattered light intensity. Wavelength we used 5.1 Devices and Materials . Factors that influence determination of scattered light intensity: 1. Amount of particle in solution 2.

and 20 ppm in each volumetric flask 50 mL. 4. 8.A. 12. add 2 mL of HCl 4 M and 2 mL of Tween 80 + BaCl2. How to Use Turbidimeter Connect it to electric current source .2 Experiment Scheme A. Device • • • • • • • • • • • Volumetric flask Measuring pipette Burette Beaker glass Pipette Turbidimeter HCl 4 M Standard solution sulphate 1000 ppm Tween 80 Aquadest (distilled water) BaCl2 B. 0. Material 3. Making Standard Solution make standard solution of sulphate 100 ppm in volumetric flask 100 mL make the various concentration of standard solution. shake it and dilute it with aquadest Measure the turbidity from the lowest concentration of standard solution B.

it means they have no boundary line anymore Change the blank with standard solution.3 Scheme of Equipment . We have to make the perception mixed with set the scale left and right Measure the other standard solutions and also the sample 3. set this device When we are setting turbidimeter.Press button “ON” and let it be stable in minutes Fill the blank solution (aquadest) in cuvette. the perception we see in telescope must be mixed between dark and bright perception.

CALCULATION AND DISCUSSION 4.IV.1 Data and Calculation .

Making Standard Solution of Sulphate V1 . N1 V1 . N1 V1 . 100 ppm V1 = V2 . 100 ppm V1 • 12 ppm V1 . 100 ppm V1 • 4 ppm V1 . N2 = V2 . N2 = 50 mL . N2 = 100 mL . N1 V1 . N1 V1 . 1000 ppm V2 = V2 . 20 ppm = 10 mL . N2 = V2 . 100 ppm V1 • 8 ppm V1 . 8 ppm = 4 mL = 50 mL . Diluting Standard Solution to Make Various Concentration • 0 ppm V1 . N1 V1 . 0 ppm = 0 mL = 50 mL . N2 = V2 . 4 ppm = 2 mL = 50 mL .1. N1 V1 . 100 ppm V1 • 20 ppm V1 . N2 = V2 . 12 ppm = 6 mL = 50 mL . 100 ppm = 10 mL 2.

4 xy 0 90 256 516 1210 2072 16 64 144 400 624 x2 0 B = n .5 32 43 60.Data Concentratio n Blank (0) 4 8 12 20 Sample Left Scale 8 21 31 42 60 39 Right Scale 10 24 33 44 61 42 Average Scale 9 22. Σ xy .5439 A = y .(44)2 = 3012 1184 = 2.5 3. Σ x2 .Bx .5 40. Σ y n.8 y 9 22.Σ (x)2 B = 5 (2072) .5 32 43 60.Σ x .(44 x 167) 5 (624) . Regression Equation x = concentration (ppm) y = average scale No.5 167 33. 1 2 3 4 5 Ó Average x 0 4 8 12 20 44 8.

N2 = 50 mL . N2 = 14 ppm = conc. Graph .01367 So.01367 + 2. so the concentration: V1 .6 ppm x 100 % 14 ppm = 17.01367 + 2.5439 x 8. of experiment x 100 % conc. 100 ppm N2 % of mistake = V2 .01367 + 2.= 33. of theory = 14 ppm – 11. of theory – conc.6 ppm Volume of my sample is 7 mL. N1 7 mL .8) = 11. my sample has concentration 11.5439x 40. the regression equation is y = A + Bx y = 11.4 – (2.5439(x) x = 11.5439x My sample: Average scale is 40.6 So.14 % 4.5 = 11.5 y = 11.

Curve of Standard Solution vs Regression 70 60 Average Scale 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Concentration Standard Solution Regression Curve 4.2 Discussion .

while the truly sample is 14 ppm of concentration. Because we need the suspended solution which the suspensions are flying in solution. HCl and tween 80. To prevent this precipitation.5. not in precipitate form. we use HCl. We got the regression equation is y = 11.5439x. In this experiment we got that the turbidity of solution will increase if the concentration is higher. so the light will not pass through the solution. . turbidimeter is not working well anymore. we can use regression equation by comparing the standard solutions with its each turbidity. we want to know the turbidity in some standard solutions in various concentration.01367 + 2. The turbidity of my sample is 40. This value is average of right and left perception value. This turbidity is caused by colloid or suspended particle in the solution. So the percent of mistake is 17. If we get precipitate.6 ppm. we use blank solution (aquadest/distilled water). Here is the reaction: SO42. To know the concentration of our sample. The function of tween 80 is keeping the colloid suspension in solution stable. This mistake is probably caused by using eye to determine mixed perception of bright and dark light. The other possibility of mistake in experiment is the device we used. After calculate it. To set this device. Mixed perception we get if there is no boundary line between bright and dark light.+ BaCl2 à BaSO4 + 2ClThis reaction will make BaSO4 precipitate. Eye has limited sensitivity in seeing light. In this experiment. we got the concentration is 11. The main substance we used is sulphate 1000 ppm solution that we dilute it until 100 ppm.Turbidimetry is one of analysis method which based on measurement of turbidity in a solution.14%. The others are BaCl2.

6 ppm The percent of mistake is 17.14%. we give some suggestions to other person who will do this experiment. they are: • • • • • Turbidimetry is one of analysis method based on measurement turbidity in solution containing suspended particle. they are:   Be careful in diluting sulphate solution.2.1 Suggestion In order to get best result in this experiment. we can give some conclusion. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5. 5. Be careful in seeing mixed perception between dark and bright light in turbidimeter. . Sample solution can be determined by using regression equation. Limited sensitivity of eye can cause the mistake in seeing mixed perception between dark and bright light.1 Conclusion From the experiment about turbidimetry.V.  Understand the working steps. Concentration of my sample solution is 11.

com/turbidimetry http://en.REFERENCES Brink O.htm http://www.htm http:/www.lib. Fundamentals of Instrumental Chemistry. Pp: 183.nlm.nih.mcg. 1993.C.edu/edu/esimmuno/ch4/nephelom. Al.org/wiki/Turbidimetry .wikipedia.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003545. Bandung: Bina Cipta.thefreedictionary. et. 204 – 206 http://www.

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