FETAL CIRCULATION 1. Oxygenated blood enters the umbilical vein from the placenta 2. Enters ductus venosus 3.

Passes through inferior venacava 4. Enters the right atrium 5. Enters the foramen ovale 6. Goes to the left atrium 7. Passes through left ventricle 8. Flows to ascending aorta to supply nourishment to the brain and upper extremeties 9. Enters superior vena cava 10. Goes to right atrium 11. Enters the right ventricle 12. Enters pulmonary artery with some blood going to the lungs to supply oxygen and nourishment 13. Flows to ductus arteriosus 14. Enters descending aorta ( some blood going to the lower extremeties) 15. Enters hypogastric arteries 16. Goes back to the placenta

Special Structures in Fetal Circulation Placenta ² Where gas exchange takes place during fetal life Umbilical Arteries ² Carry unoxygenated blood from the fetus to placenta Umbilical Vein ² Brings oxygenated blood coming from the placenta to the fetus

Foramen Ovale ² Connects the left and right atrium. It pushes blood from the right atrium to the left atrium so that blood can be supplied to brain, heart and kidney Ductus Venosus - Carry oxygenated blood from umbilical vein to inferior venacava, bypassing fetal liver Ductus Arteriosus - Carry oxygenated blood from pulmonary artery to aorta, bypassing fetal lungs.

to the lungs. De-oxygenated blood leaves the heart. Blood is then pumped through the semilunar valve and into the pulmonary artery. an open passage between the two atria. and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. oxygen poor blood leaves through the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery. Course Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the heart. into the right ventricle. to the heart. In structure the capillaries are very thin walled. and back to the heart again. the only artery in the body that carries oxygen-poor blood. The blood is then distributed to the body through the systemic circulation before returning again to the pulmonary circulation. more specifically the right atrium through the superior (upper) vena cava and inferior (lower) vena cava. Blood leaves the capillaries to the pulmonary vein. where it releases carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen during respiration. to the capillaries where carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood cell into the alveoli. blood is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the left and right pulmonary arteries (one for each lung) and travels through the lungs. The term is contrasted with systemic circulation. . Veins The oxygenated blood then leaves the lungs through pulmonary veins. also called the mitral or left atrioventricular valve. A separate system known as the bronchial circulation supplies blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lung. which pumps it through the bicuspid valve. the foramen ovale closes. where it re-enters at the left atrium. the only vein in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood in the body. Arteries From the right ventricle. When the lungs expand at birth. leaving a shallow depression known as the fossa ovalis in the adult heart. and oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli into the blood. This blood then enters the left atrium. Arteries are further divided in to very fine branches called the capillaries. The fetal lungs are collapsed. the pulmonary pressure drops and blood is drawn from the right atrium into the right ventricle and through the pulmonary circuit. The blood is then pumped through the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve). Embryonic The pulmonary circulation loop is virtually bypassed in fetal circulation. into the left ventricle. Over the course of several months. and then re-enters the heart. Lungs The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs. and blood passes from the right atrium directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale. Their function is to carry blood to all cells of the body.PULMONARY CIRCULATION is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart. Right heart Oxygen-depleted blood from the body leaves the systemic circulation when it enters the right heart. completing the pulmonary cycle. goes to the lungs. which return it to the left heart. to the lungs.

Now laden with oxygen. in turn. the arteries branch into ever smaller tubes. These are referred to as the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins and the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins. and is sent back to the heart to be distributed to the rest of the body. allowing it to be exhaled. the blood into the then through a pulmonary pulmonary and carries the lungs. The average diameter of a capillary is about eight microns. The blood cells. The tiny capillaries segue into pulmonary veins. This oxygenated blood is then pumped from the Left Atrium (LA) of the heart to the Left Ventricle (LV) of the heart. The artery splits in two blood to both in the lungs. empty into the left atrium of the heart. SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION is the system of blood vessels and associated tissues that supplies blood. The aorta divides into other arteries that serve different parts of the body (as mentioned on the page about the structure of the heart). the circulatory system is the transport system of the body. Pulmonary circulation is a part of the larger circulatory system. These can be separated . to all parts of the body.Pulmonary circulation is the system through which blood is oxygenated. the blood is oxygenated in preparation for entering the systemic loop again. the blood will be forced into the left ventricle and out the left pulmonary artery and back into the systemic loop. With a contraction of the heart muscle. called alveoli. and then out of the heart to the body tissues via the aorta. the blood cells are sent back toward the heart. Blood travels through a vast system of blood vessels. From heart pushes the right ventricle and valve to the artery. eventually pushing the blood through tiny vessels called capillaries. Capillaries are spread over the walls of the minute air sacs in the lungs. Deoxygenated blood is sent from the heart to the lungs where it gathers oxygen. and hence oxygen. In the pulmonary circulation loop. All of them. which merge into ever larger ones until there are two from each lung. In a simpler sense. leaves carbon dioxide behind. drop the waste carbon dioxide they have been carrying into the lungs. A blood cell circulation when trip around the the right atrium the atrium. where oxygen diffuses through the walls of capillaries and is picked up by the blood cells. which is the major artery leaving the heart. Systemic circulation refers to the system through which oxygenated blood is sent out into the body and then returns to the heart after delivering its oxygen to distant cells. however. carrying everything from nutrients to hormones to water before cycling back through the heart. Basically. enters pulmonary it returns from its body and enters of the heart. Oxygenated Blood Oxygenated blood leaves the lungs and enters the Left Atrium (LA) of the heart via the pulmonary veins. or roughly the size of one blood cell. the circulatory system is composed of two loops: the pulmonary circulation loop and the systemic circulation loop.

Blood leaves through the left ventricle to the aorta. deoxygenated blood is pumped into the right ventricle of the heart and then out of the heart to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. and from the legs via the iliac veins. All of the blood in the major veins of the lower body flows into the inferior vena cava. blood then moves to venious capillaries. the mesenteric artery that carries blood to the small intestines. and also to the carotid artery that carries blood to the head. which returns the blood to the right ventricle of the heart. Blood returns from the liver via the hepatic vein. and so the cycle begins again. and blood supply to the lower-body. arterioles. Waste and carbon dioxide diffuse out of the cell into the blood and oxygen in the blood diffuses out of the blood and into the cell. Deoxygenated blood enters the lungs and is oxygenated before leaving the lungs (as oxygenated blood). and from the arms via the subclavian veins. and finally capillaries. Blood Supply to the Upper-Body: The aorta leads to the subclavian arteries that take blood to the arms (some of which eventually reaches the hands). through which the blood re-enters the heart at the right atrium.into two categories: blood supply to the upperbody. services the body's cells. Return of Blood from the Upper-Body: Blood returns from the head via the jugular veins. the body's largest artery. the renal arteries that carry blood to the kidneys. from the kidneys via the renal veins. After re-entering the (right atrium of the) heart via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. All of the blood in the major veins of the upper body flows into the superior vena cava. and then reenters the heart. Return of Blood from the Lower-Body: Blood returns from the small intestines by passing through the hepatic portal vein to the liver. and the iliac arteries that carry blood to the legs (some of which eventually reaches the feet. Deoxygenated Blood Blood is deoxygenated when it leaves the tissues and organs it has supplied with oxygen and other nutrients. This can also be summarized for the upperbody and lower-body separately: . The aorta leads to smaller arteries. Systemic circulation refers to the part of the circulatory system in which the blood leaves the heart. Blood Supply to the Lower-Body: The aorta also leads to the hepatic artery that carries blood to the liver. and then the vena cave: the lower inferior vena cave and the upper superior vena cave . to return back to the pulmonary circulatory system. which returns the blood to the right ventricle of the heart.).

It is then pumped to the aorta under greater pressure (as explained below). Left-Hand Side of the Heart The left-hand side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (via the pulmonary veins) into the left atrium. This higher pressure ensures that the oxygenated blood leaving the heart via the aorta is effectively delivered to other parts of the body via the vascular system areas below the heart). which collect into veins leading back to the heart. What are the Functions of the Heart ? of blood vessels (incl. This deoxygenated blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. Capillaries Veins After their passage through body tissues. through the aortic semilunar valve. where it branches further into arteries which supply the lower parts of the body. Portal veins are a slight exception to this. capillaries merge once again into venules. which continue to merge into veins. the hepatic portal vein branches into a second capillary system in the liver. a massive and thick-walled artery. the "systolic" and "diastolic" pressures may be measured and recorded separately when monitoring blood pressure. The aorta arches an branches into major arteries to the upper body before passing through the diaphragm. and capillaries). This process is directed by the nervous system.and lower-body via the Superior Vena Cava and the Inferior Vena Cava. The first part of the systemic circulation is the aorta. This blood is then pumped under higher pressure from the right ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. Hence.Arteries Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation when leaving the left ventricle. rather than leading directly back to the heart. arterioles. The whole series of actions that cause alternating contractions and relaxations may be summarized in five stages: . This oxygenated blood then passes through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. In this context the term "systole" refers to the contraction part of the sequence and the term "diastole" to the relaxation part of the sequence. nerve impulses initiating each sequence. Coronary vessels The heart itself is supplied with oxygen and nutrients through a small "loop" of the systemic circulation Portal veins The general rule is that arteries from the heart branch out into capillaries. How does the heart perform these functions ? The pump action performed by the heart is achieved by a sequence of alternating contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle (illustrated above). arteries. In humans the only significant example is the hepatic portal vein which combines from capillaries around the gut where the blood absorbs the various products of digestion. The venous system finally coalesces into two major veins: the superior vena cava (roughly speaking draining the areas above the heart) and the inferior vena cava (roughly speaking from Right-Hand Side of the Heart The right-hand side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body tissues (from the upper. respectively) into the right atrium. These two great vessels empty into the right atrium of the heart.

. and the aorta taking blood to the body). leading to . 3. The fibres of the SAN contract rhythmically approx... The action potential from the impulse transmitted down the Purkinje fibers 5. .. The vagus nerve stimulates the sinoatrial node (SAN). to the ventricles. simultaneous contraction of both the right and left atria... The contractions of the atria send impulses down the Purkinje fibers. . "Purkynje Fibres". This movement of the cardiac muscle pushes blood from the atria into the ventricles (via the tricuspid and bicuspid valves). which pushes blood upwards into the arteries that take the blood away from the heart (the pulmonary artery taking blood to the lungs. The Purkinje fibres are referred to by various names in different textbooks. 4. This/these are a bundle of modified cardiac muscle fibers that transmit impulses from the atra. The atrioventricular node is a mass of modified cardiac muscle located in the lower/central part of the right atrium of the heart. After each of these contractions. and as the "Bundle of His".1.as shown above. via the AVN. near the vena cava . 70 times each minute. The sinoatrial node (SAN) is a tiny area of specialized cardiac (meaning "heart") muscle in the upper wall of the right atrium. the impulse is dispersed across the atrial cardiac muscle. which in turn stimulate the atrioventricular node (AVN). the pacemaker of the heart. 2. ventricles to contract. so are also known as "Purkyne Fibres".

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