This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
What is Biotechnology? Definition
Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals…. Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
Biotechnology in Brief
Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, health and safety Improvements by using science Science helps in production plants, animals and other organisms Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms. Includes many approaches and methods in science and technology
Why Biotechnology? Knowledge-based approach Offers unique solutions Integrates technology delivery Scale-neutral Does not displace traditional methods Environment-friendly Portable - across crops Versatile - impact on all facets of food chain from producers to consumers
Agricultural View All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and other products Milk production New horticultural and ornamental plants Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management Organismic Biotech
Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means Help the organism live better or be more productive Study and use natural genetic variations
Cloning is an example of organismic biotech
Cloning Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism. 1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland Molecular Biotech Changing the genetic make-up of an organism Altering the structure and parts of cells Complex! Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
Biotech fields Medicine Agriculture Environment Forestry Food and beverage processing
Medicine Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology Called designer drugs
Environment Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment. Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil. Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful.
Plant biotech Improve plants and the products produced from them Insect and disease resistance Engineered to have desired characteristics
Animal Biotech Improve animals or the products they produce
Since then many Centres of Excellence were set up by the DBT in India to generate skilled manpower and to support the R&D sector of several private companies. Vinegar. This set up was a true boost to the developmental phase of biotechnology in India. Several biosafety guidelines have been laid by the Government of India to help with the patent rules. the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) was set up under the Ministry of Science and Technology. a steady growth may be observed with the Agribiotech sector Biotechnology may be as old as human civilization but modern biotechnology is less than three decades old. A decent regulatory framework has been set for approval ofGM crops and all r-DNA products. India has proved itself as an ideal setting to manufacture and allow high-level research programmes in biotechnology. Traditional Biotechnology that led to the development of processes for producing products like yogurt. alcohol and cheese was entirely empirical and bereft of any . Several initiatives has been taken up by the Government of India. All ethical guidelines are also considered with all types of biotechnological research including the stem cell research. participate in the international collaborations. But have you ever given a thought as to what has made India so popular and eligible to be established as an ideal Biotechnological Center ? There are various reasons like• Skilled manpower • Trained knowledge base • Well-established network of research laboratories • Richness in Biodiversity (example availability of a variety of gene pools allowing better genomic study) • Well developed base industries (including seeds or pharmaceuticals industry) • Easy access to intellectual resources of Non-Resident Indians • Extensive clinical trials and research • Access to diverse diseases • Agriculture being the prime occupation in India. Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health Increase productivity Food and Beverages Use of technology in producing and processing Yeast in baking bread Genetically altered crops rBGH milk Biotechnology in India: Biotechnology In India has grown by manifolds. In the year 1986.
2)* 86040 (100)* 1789 35320 (37.understanding of the mechanisms that led to the product.9)* 7940 (3. Consumption of Biotechnological Products In India Biotech Products Human & Animal Healthcare Products Agricultural Products Industrial Products Other Biotechnology products Total In Million US Dollars Actual Consumption Estimated Future Consumption in 1999 Consumption for 2005 estimated for the year 2010 32240 (37.5)* 25670 (29.4)* 233790 (100)* 4270 (* contributions in percentage (%) of the total) Biotech Industry Exports of different sectors during FY 2009-10 Segment 2008-09 Exports Rs Crore (US$ Million) BioPharma 7883 Percentage Share (%) 62 2009-10 Exports Rs Crore (US$ Million) 8829 Percentage Share (%) 54 .4)* 94000 (100)* 2186 93540 (40.8)* 27090 (31.7)* 28500 (30.0)* 78720 (33.3)* 1300 (1.7)* 53590 (22. There was no possibility of a deliberate design to produce a desired new product.6)* 28880 (30.5)* 1040 (1.
58) 12137 (2.04 Source: Association of Biotechnology led Enterprises (Able) Indian Players in Biotechnology: MNCs Scripting Success in India .(1.75) 1413 (311.02) 14199 (3.56) 231 (51.61) 564 (124.78) BioServices BioAgri BioIndustrial Bioinformati cs Total 2062 (454.88) 1936 (427.94) 478 (105.680.949.58) 2639 (582.63) 95 4 11 23 59 (1.740.56) 220 (48.132.38) 95 3 22 32 53.
to produce a desired new or old product. infact.Indian Advantage In modern biotechnology. The term. Today’s biotechnology consists of at least twenty-five areas each area being characterized by the use of a different set of technologies. 9-10 billion over the next 5-7 years. Modern biotechnology has been. In the case of an established product. an historical imperative.depth understanding we have gained in the last five decades. This investment is expected to result in a turnover of Rs. the new biotechnological process is cheaper and better in many respects than the earlier processes. we use the in. there can be investments of Rs. The mechanisms that underlie the variety of functions performed by living organisms. genetic engineering. was coined independently in 1973 by the author of an article in The Guardian in the UK. Its emergence on the world scene was predicted at least four decades ago. 7-8 billion over the next five years in India in biotechnology. The expected growth of Biotechnology in India can be followed in the following industries – Industry Type Agribiotech Expected Growth in % 60 Diagnostic And therapeutics 25 . and in a syndicated article by the present author in India. At fresh.
Roundup. the appropriate DNA fragment coding for this protein). The total acreage under genetically engineered crops (for good or for bad) around the world exceeds 100 million acres today. Genetically engineered microbes are today widely used for producing drugs and vaccines in large scale at low costs that are of great importance (human insulin. Genetically engineering plants are also poised to produce vaccines. They will be available at a cost of three or more times lower than the current cost. Genetic engineering implies conferring new capabilities on an organism by Transferring into an organism the appropriate DNA (De oxyribo Nucleic Acid. Thus. human insulin. After integrating the insulin gene in yeast DNA. Then ensures that these capabilities are converted into abilities. over 60 percent of the acreage under soyabean in the United States have now genetically engineered soyabean that is resistant to the weedicides. but we can make it to do so by introducing in it the gene for human insulin (that is. the genetic material) of another having these capabilities does this. Sacchromyces cerevisciae cannot make the protein.Vaccines 15 Genetic engineering: Genetic Engineering of microbes. and hepatitis-B vaccine). plants and animals (including marine animals). A few hundred acres of genetically engineered banana plantation can provide enough vaccine to immunize 120 million children every year that need to be protected against four common diseases. would be genetically engineered animals who would secrete these drugs in abundance (1-15 mg/ml) in their milk. One of the future sources of cheap protein-drugs in the coming years.are already in the market. For example genetically engineered plants that make their own pesticides or are resistant to weedicides. creates condition for the insulin to express itself to produce insulin through the normal process of transfer of information from DNA to protein. erythropoietin. Thrust Areas For Biotechnology In India Area Of Investment Vaccines Diagnostics Bioactive Therapeutic Proteins Seeds (GM and hybrids) Biopesticides Biofertilizers Amino Acid Production Estimated Investment (in millions) 300-400 * 500 * 1000 * 1500 * 800 * 200 * 700 * Production of speciality biochemicals and peels 1000 * (* denotes the estimated investment over next 5 years) . Thus the common yeast.
Besides genetic diseases. In the case of plants. one can grow in the lab a whole plant from a single cell. (vi) assessment of risk-benefit states. special sets of proteins present in humans that enable them to fight incursion of their bodies by harmful chemicals or micro organisms. which would allow a person suffering from a disabling genetic disorder to lead a normal life. Nobel Prize was awarded for this in the 1980’s to Cesar Milstein and Georges Kashler. genetically engineered plants are likely to find wide application in the production of human MABs. and preparation in the laboratory of “natural” tissues such as arteries for arterial graft or skin for burn victims. (v) design of appropriate animal models. Stem cells can be either totipotent (have the capability to produce any desired cell type or organ of the body under specific conditions) or they could be pluripotent (able to develop into several though not all cell types or organs). the immediate emphasis in the area of stem cells is going to be first in the direction of establishing cell lines derived from early human embryos. (iv) the statutes of the introduced genes in vivo. (Modern tissue culture technologies allow the multiplication in the laboratory of cells isolated from plants and animals. As human MABs are difficult to produce in the laboratory. (iii) stability and duration of expression of gene introduced. To initiate gene therapy the functional studies should be focused on (i) design of newer vectors for gene delivery. for example. Monoclonal antibodies are single chemical species of antibodies produced in the laboratory by a special technique. production of useful compounds such as taxol (the widely used anti-cancer drug) and vanillin. cardiovascular and neurological disorders. As embryonic stem cells are more likely totipotency than stem cells from adult tissues. genetic engineering of humans. Mouse MAB’s can be used for the diagnosis of human diseases. gene therapy has tremendous scope for treatment of several disorders such as cancer. (ii) targeting to specific tissues and cells. Tissue culture: Tissue culture of both plant and animal cells. for transplantation. Antibodies. . These are used for Micro propagation of elite or exotic materials (Such as orchids).Gene Therapy: This is in a way. newer approaches to systemic delivery. and (vii) an understanding of molecular basis of cellular humoral immune response in case of DNA vaccines Immunotechnologies: Such as monoclonal antibodies (MABs) for diagnosis and therapy.) Stem cell techniques: Which would involve purification and isolation of stem cells from various tissues and develop into the desired tissue which could then be used.
such as salmon GnRH analogue (Ovaprim) to induce ovulation in fish. it becomes necessary to understand the mechanism of causation of the disease. New DNA technologies: These include DNA fingerprinting. generally containing less than 50 amino acid moieties. antisense technologies that are aimed at blockage of the function of a particular stretch of DNA and computing using DNA. (Peptides are small proteins. This approach of designing a drug on a rational basis cuts the cost of discovery of a new and reduces the time required (Now 12-15 years) by half. The presence of this organism has been correlated with the ability of the person to recover after major surgery or after chemotherapy of cancer. Nutraceuticals: That helps recovery after surgery or an episode of a major disease. irritable bowel syndrome . has isolated a strain of Lactobacillus planetarum. standardization and manufacture of indigenous plant-based drug formulations. which is apparently present in the digestive tract of Europeans and Amercians. the only way to discover a new drug was to synthesize a large number of compounds hoping that one of them will be effective against a particular disease. In rational drug design. which are used in chemical industry. As a result we have not added more than ten new drugs per year to the repertoire of medicines already available.a chemical bond called the peptide bond.based probes for diagnosis of inherited disorders.from which stem cells could be isolated. development and use of new molecular markers for plant identification and characterization. or helps protect one against certain medical and health problems. sequencing of genomes.) Rational drug design: Until a decade or so ago. Enzymes are biological catalysts (Generally proteins) poised to replace inorganic catalysts.) Photosynthetic efficiency: Increasing photosynthetic efficiency for biomass production in the plant with the same amount of light and other inputs. new classes of enzymes (ribozymes) or new enzymatic routes that produce important organic compounds. For example. Enzyme engineering and technology: Involves immobilized or stabilized enzymes. One protein differs from another in the total number of amino acids and their sequence in the chain. Probi. this organism also seems to protect people against a vast range of stomach disorders including stomach ulcerts. And it cost something between half a billion to a billion dollars for bringing a new drug to the market. we first identify the molecular target we wish to attack. which would hit the target. Once we understand this mechanism and identify the molecular target lead effective computerized programs to design a molecule. Peptide synthesis: Synthasis to make new drugs or other materials of industrial and commercial importance. Also the development of DNA. To do so. a Swedish company. (Proteins are abundant biological entities made up of twenty amino acids strung together like pearls in a necklace. Plant-based drugs: Use of modern biological techniques for validation. by a special type of thread. (Indians have not yet been tested for its presence).
therefore. polyunsaturated fatty acids or betacarotene. The major problem in xenotransplantation is the hyper-acute immunological rejection of the “ foreign organ” which occurs in a matter of minutes in enotrans plantation. than if taken at 6 AM and 6 PM. surrogate motherhood or embryo transfer. both of which are essential for normal vision) or new. marketing this organism in various forms. It appears that pig may be the most suitable for this biochemically. New drug-delivery systems: Such as lipsomes and electrical patches. Production of useful materials: Existing (for example. Production of biogas is value-added bioremediation! .and constipation. such as bacterial ropes or biodegradable polymers. Probi is. and the use of circadian rhythms to optimize the effectiveness of the drug.such as combination of MRI and Pet-SCAN for correlation of structure and function in normal and diseased individuals. Biosensor: For example.Cloning of genetically engineered animals that would produce useful products. anatomically and immunologically. A septic tank and an oxidation pond are simple examples of such bioremediation. using biological systems. intra cytoplasmic sperm injection and techniques involving egg donation. Production of new materials using new ideas: Observations or research findings. when impregnated with certain metal ions can be stronger than steel but much lighter and biodegradable.New cloning technologies: . for example in the field of steroids that are widely used as drugs. invitro fertilization. For example. But in the case of a kidney transplant from one human donor to another human recipient (homotransplantation) this does not occur. Bioremediadtion: For example of effluents or waste. optical sensors using special thin films for detection of bacteria. Thus the drug may depending on the circadian rhythm of the individual will be effective when taken at noon and midnight. from so far unutilized or under utilized but widely available resources such as marine organisms. including a delicious soft drink! Assisted reproductive technologies: Such as artificial insemination (Using husband’s or donor semen). New medical diagnostic technologies: . Use of microbes: Microbes selected or genetically engineered for effecting chemically difficult transformations. DNA vaccines: Which would be much cheaper than protein antigen-based vaccines that are generally used today. bacterial ropes that essentially consist of certain mutant bacteria that have the ability to grow into spagetti-like structures. Organ transplantation: Xenotransplantation that is transplantation into humans of organs from other animals. This problem has been recently overcome by identifying the molecular basis of the hyper-acute rejection and then genetically engineering a pig to avoid it.
say. Biotechnologies are less accident-prone. They make use of replenishable natural resources and help their conservation. Advantages of biotechnologies Biotechnologies are always non-polluting and. and mitigate the effects of a biological attack. it is easier to train people to handle biotechnologies than other technologies. including genomics and proteomics: This newly emerging area makes use of the enormous amount of data on biological systems that are becoming available. Biological warfare: This is defined as the ’employment of biological agents to produce casualties in man or animals or damage to plants. Above all. through a chemical synthetic route. . In spite of their high level of intellectual sophistication. Bioinformatics. There are several million species known. a nanometre (millionth of a millimeter). The sequence of the building blocks of DNA of just one human being alone will fill nearly 700 books (typed single space) of 500 pages each.Processing of low-grade ores using microorganisms: Commercially viable bio processes are available today for processing such ores of over a dozen metals. Nanobiotechnology: In which the operating or useful unit is of the scale of. in saving energy. they are interesting and exciting for all those involved with them. labour intensive. the classical principles of clinical medicine and epidemiology would apply. directly or indirectly. say. The cost of products produced through a biotechnological process is almost always less than that of the same product product produced. They help. While a biological attack could result in a made-made epidemic of unprecedented scale. often. Prompt diagnosis and early interventions could reduce morbidity and mortality.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.