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A moment tends to turn a body, and equilibrium requires the body to have no rotation. 1) Moment of a Force The moment of a force about a point or axis measures of the tendency of the force to cause the body to rotate about the point or axis.

Figure 4.6

Magnitude of Moment

M o = Fd

Where d is the moment arm or perpendicular distance from the axis at point O to the line of action of the force

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

1

FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT

Direction of Moment The direction Mo is specified using the “right-hand rule”. To do this the fingers of the right hand are curled such that they follow the sense of rotation, which would occur if the force could rotate about point O. The thumb then point along the moment axis so that it gives the direction and sense of the moment vector, which is upward and perpendicular to the shaded plane containing F and d. 2) Resultant Moment of a System of Coplanar Force The resultant moment, MRo of a system can be determined by adding the moment of all forces action on the system.

M Ro = ∑ Fd

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

2

FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT

C. 0 N⋅m. 400 N⋅m) 2.Questions 1. 1200 N⋅m. and D (Ans: 2000 N⋅m. determine the moment of the force about point O. Determine the moment of the 800 N force acting on the frame in the figure below about points A. ENGINEERING MECHANICS 3 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . For each case illustrated in the figure below. B.

Method of Analysis 1) Breakdown the force into its x and y components. 3) Add the moments of the component forces. 2) Find the moment of each component force.3. Determine the resultant moment of the four forces acting n the rod shown in the figure below about point O (Ans: 334 N⋅m) Principle of Moments The concept of principle of moments state that the moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moment of the force’s component about the point. ENGINEERING MECHANICS 4 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .

Question 1. Determine the moment of the force about point A (Ans: 14. Determine the moment of the force about point O.1 N⋅m) 2.6 N⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 5 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . The force F acts at the end of the angle bracket shown in the figure below. A 200 N force acts on the bracket shown below. (Ans: 98.

Determine the moment of each force about the bolt’s axis passing through point O.5 N⋅m) 4.1 N⋅m. 14. 1.3. The wrench is used to loosen the bolt. 518 N⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 6 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . (Ans: 24.12 kN⋅m. Determine the moment about point A of each of the three forces (Ans: 600 N⋅m.

30 kN⋅m. Solve the problem first by using each force as a whole.5. 1. (Ans: 433 N⋅m. Determine the moment of each of the three forces about point A. and then by using the principle of moments. 800 N⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 7 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .

0 N⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 8 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . Compute the moment in each case. (Ans: 76. Determine the direction θ (0° ≤ θ ≤ 180°) of the force F = 200 N so that it produces (a) the maximum moment about point A and (b) the minimum moment about point A. determine the placement x of the hook at A so that the force creates a maximum moment about point O. 80 kN⋅m) 7. What is this moment? (Ans: 24.0°. 412 N⋅m.0 m. 16°.6. The towline exerts a force of P = 4 kN at the end of the 20 m long crane boom. If θ = 30º.

2 N⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 9 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . The tool at A is used to hold a power lawnmower blade stationary while the nut is being loosened with the wrench. 35. If a force of 50 N is applied to the wrench at B in the direction shown.8.0 N⋅m. What is the magnitude of force F at A so that it creates the opposite moment about C? (Ans: 13. determine the moment it creates about the nut at C.

Since the resultant force of the force composing the couple is zero. Magnitude of a Moment of a Couple The magnitude of a couple moment is given as M = Fd ENGINEERING MECHANICS 10 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . the only effect of a couple is to produce a rotation or tendency of rotation in a specified direction. Determine the direction θ (0° ≤ θ ≤ 180°) of the force F so that it produces (a) the maximum moment about point A and (b) the minimum moment about point A. 146°. and are separated by a perpendicular distance d. (Ans: 56. opposite directions.3°.9.0 N⋅m) Moment of a Couple A couple is defined as two parallel forces that have the same magnitude. Compute the moment in each case. 1442 N⋅m.

Where d is the perpendicular distance or moment arm between the two parallel forces. Direction of a Moment of a Couple The direction and sense of a couple moment is determined using the right hand rule. where the thumb indicates the direction when the finers are curled with the sense of rotation caused by the two forces. ENGINEERING MECHANICS 11 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . Equivalent Couples Two couples are said to be equivalent if they produce the same moment.

Questions 1. Determine the moment of the couple acting on the machine member shown below (Ans: 390 N⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 12 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . (Ans: 240 ) 2. Replace it by an equivalent couple having a pair of forces that act through (a) points A and B. A couple acts on the gear teeth as shown in the figure below.

(Ans: 18.3 kN⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 13 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . Determine the sense and magnitude of the couple moment.3. (Ans: 1299 N⋅mm) 4. Determine the couple moment acting on the pipe shown in the figure below. Segment AB is directed 30° below the x-y plane.

(Ans: 17.5.6 kN⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 14 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . If the couple moment has a magnitude of 220 N⋅m. (Ans: 100 N⋅m) 6. Each force has a magnitude of 8 kN. Determine the sense and magnitude of the couple moment. determine the magnitude F of the couple forces.

7.203⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 15 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . determine the distance d between the 80 N couple force. Two couple moment act on the frame. If the resultant couple moment is to be zero. (Ans: 0.

54⋅m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 16 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .8. The ends of the triangular plate are subjected to three couples. Two couple act on the beam as shown below. Determine the plate dimension d so that the resultant couple is 350 N⋅m clockwise. (Ans: 1. Where on the beam does the resultant couple act? (Ans: 176 N⋅m) 9. Determine the magnitude of F so that the resultant couple moment is 100 N⋅m counter clockwise.

10. Determine the magnitude of F so that the resultant couple moment is 450 N⋅m.Two couples act on the beam. Where on the beam does the couple moment act? (Ans: 762 N) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 17 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . clockwise.

Reduction of a Force and a Couple System Procedure for Analysis The technique used to reduce a coplanar or parallel force system to a single resultant force. 1) Force summation: the resultant force FR equals the sum of all the forces of the system FR = ∑ F 2) Moment summation: the distance d from the arbitrary point O to the line of action FR is determined by equating the moment of FR about O. M RO = ∑ M O ENGINEERING MECHANICS 18 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . M R O to the sum of the moments about point O of all the couple moments and forces in the system.

07 m) 2) Replace the three forces acting on the shaft beam by a single resultant force. Specify where the force acts.9°.7°. and location on the beam of a resultant force which is equivalent to the given system of forces. measured from end A.Questions 1) The beam AE in the figure below is subjected to a system of coplanar forces. 33. 3.72 m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 19 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . 5. (Ans: 420 N. direction. (Ans: 798 kN. 67. Determine the magnitude.

(Ans: 1302 N. 7. Specify where the force acts.1 N. 84. 18. 25.1°) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 20 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT . (Ans: 68.5°.9N. measured from end A.3) Replace the three forces acting on the shaft beam by a single resultant force.36 m) 4) Determine the magnitudes of F1 and F2 and the direction of F1 so that the loading creates a zero resultant force and couple moment on the wheel.

Reduction of a Simple Distributed Loading Magnitude of Resultant Force The magnitude of the resultant force of a distributed loading is given as FR = ∫ w( x )dx = ∫ dA = A L A The Location of Resultant Force The location of the resultant force is given as x= ∫ xw(x )dx ∫ xdA L ∫ w(x )dx L = A ∫ dA A ENGINEERING MECHANICS 21 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .

171 m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 22 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .525 N. 0. 0.Questions: (Ans: 70 N.107 m) (Ans: 0.

06 m) (Ans: 13 kN. 2.76 m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 23 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .10 kN.(Ans: 3. 3.

(Ans: 1.16 m) ENGINEERING MECHANICS 24 FORCE SYSTEM RESULTANT .5 m. 2.. 0.92 m) (Ans: 35.5 N.

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