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Guideline for Parallel Grid Exit Point Connection

Rev no 2 3

Date 12/8/05 26/10/05

Detail of changes Rule 4.4.3 added to Appendix 2. Revisions to switching device and tie duration updated with Distributor feedback. Revised with Distributor comments.

Parallel GXP guideline_4.doc

16/11/05

Note: Connection Type 2 has the greatest potential to impact on operation of the power system and grid assets. parallel connection of GXP’s can compromise operation of the Grid Owners assets ie:protection systems. and can impact on the ability of the System Operator to maintain a secure Grid While this document it is not to be considered as expert technical advice.doc 16/11/05 . Type 1: Parallel Connection near one GXP bus The diagram below shows a parallel connection between two radial feeders (A & B) by bridging the two feeders at ‘Y’ close to the GXP.Page 2 of 11 Purpose Pupose of the document This document is a technical guideline which highlights the issues to be considered when paralleling Grid Exit Points (GXP’s). to facilitate restoration of supply to customers. Distributors can typically make two distinct types of parallel connection: 1. Distribution networks are connected in parallel with the grid for several reasons. X GXP Z Y B A Parallel GXP guideline_4. If not managed appropriately. A parallel connection between GXP supply buses where the system path between the two buses includes enough impedance to potentially cause voltage differences (angular and/or magnitude) between the two buses. This document is to be read in conjunction with the document titled: Process for Assessment of Parallel Grid Exit Point Applications. most frequently to enable equipment maintenance without disruption of supply. 2. Parallel connections can also be required. it does highlight the key issues that need to be considered at a technical level before a parallel connection is made. Assessing the implications of this type of connection is the primary focus of this document. Background to Parallel GXP Connections What is a Parallel Connection? Why do parallel connections occur? A parallel connection exists between two points when there is more than one path for electrical power flow between two points. A parallel connection between two radial feeders where both feeders are supplied from the same GXP. following a contingency in a local network.

and complying. Path 1 . Tech code A. and the operation of protection systems. a section of network normally supplied from GXP A can be switched over to receive supply from GXP B.The Grid Point 1 Point 2 GXP A Path 2 . C3. Before paralleling GXP’s the Distributors and the Grid Owner need to assess any risks involved. The document titled: “Process for Assessment of Parallel Grid Exit Point Applications” outlines the process that distributors and the Grid Owner can follow to assess these situations where necessary. 4). to ensure they are managed appropriately. with the principal performance obligations and must be designed. or form part of. Parallel GXP guideline_4. Each asset owner must also ensure that such protection systems will support the System Operator in planning to comply.Page 3 of 11 Type 2: Parallel Connection between two GXP’s . The Grid Owner and System Operator. and settings must be applied. commissioned and maintained. in conjunction with the distributor need to assess the impact of parallel connections to identify. The EGR requirements include: • ‘Distributors are obligated to agree the temporary or permanent connection of its’ assets with the System Operator when those assets become simultaneously connected to the grid at more than one point of connection (Rule ref. 6).g.doc 16/11/05 .The Local Network GXP B B This configuration enables the distributor to change its’ network configuration e.. and that assets are sufficiently protected.Network Tie In this figure. How are they of interest to the Grid Owner and System Operator? Parallel connections can impact on the achievement of the System Operators’ PPO’s. the grid. any risks that may be involved. parallel paths are formed when GXP ‘A’ and GXP ‘B’ are connected via a local distribution network in addition to the normal grid path. and plan to mitigate these as required. C3.’ ‘Each asset owner will ensure that it provides protection systems for its assets that are connected to. the Grid Owners’ AOPO’s. Health and Safety responsibilities The Distributors and the Grid Owner are responsible for ensuring the safe operation of their assets.’ What do the EGRs require? • Refer to the appendix of this document for more EGR rule references. Tech Code A. to achieve the following performance in a reliable manner (Rule ref.

HV faults are most likely to be detected and cleared by the Distributors protection at a point close to the tying CB. Clearing Multiphase faults All multiphase faults on the grid owners HV system must be detected and cleared. the grid owners’ feeder protection cannot be expected to operate.e. If the switching device switches phases one at a time then the asset owner should consider the impact this may have on the operation of sensitive earth fault protection equipment. the switching device must have the capability to make or break the resulting current flow that will occur. The tie duration should be less than 10 minutes. The agreed measures are then noted as conditions in the agreement. if the fault current is reduced too much. This allows sufficient time to manually operate a circuit breaker or disconnector. the further you move away from the grid owners’ site. Where large power angles.doc 16/11/05 . the Distributors and the Grid Owner are to agree any measures that may be necessary to mitigate the risk. Where there are sufficient protection systems in place. This also allows sufficient time to confirm equipment loading and protection systems are correct prior to the tie being broken and load transferred between GXP’s. Where two grid exit points are being tied at supply bus and feeder voltage levels. or voltage magnitude differences occur. especially if there are intermediate transformers such as 33/11 kV step down and 11/33 step up transformers included in the current path. This could be achieved by minimising switching times and/or the use of temporary protection settings. Such transformers are generally of high impedance so act as good fault current limiters. should be time graded away from the grid owners’ point of supply i. However. if discrimination/selectivity principles have been applied. Tie Duration The duration of any tie should be kept to a minimum.Page 4 of 11 1. The magnitude of the current may not be large. the switching time may be extended to a maximum of 30 minutes. if the switching device is not a circuit breaker then the respective asset owners should ensure that the switching device can safely make or break the expected current. the protection should work more quickly. This may require that additional parallel connections are made with suitably rated equipment. Protection installed in line with current practices. Supporting information Switching Device In all circumstances suitably rated devices that are safe to use are required. Parallel GXP guideline_4. For paralleling situations where protection operation may be uncertain or the tying time is longer than 10 minutes. The parallel connection must include a switching device which is capable of removing any source of back feed should a fault occur in the Distributors or Grid Owners network while the parallel takes place.

A tripping in the Distributors system would be expected. leaving the transformer back energised from the Distributors network. The sensitivity should be such. Parallel GXP guideline_4. The relevant Distributor infrastructure probably cannot support this type of load. Assurances should be sought in advance that adequate protection is installed and set. rather than trippings being observed in the grid owners’ equipment for other than normal strong infeeds from the grid to the actual fault. Power Company Tie Point Power System Impedance Fault Position 3 Bus B Bus C Bus E Fault Position 1 Bus A Fault Position 2 Bus D Power Company Assets Tying CB Load Load Figure 1: Earth Fault Example Clearing Earth Faults Substations on a spur with an HV star winding Refer to Figure 1 above. A fault on the grid owners’ HV system will draw current from the Distributor’s network in addition to some/all of the grid owners’ transformer energising current and station load. Earth fault current flows between the transformer HV star point and earth at Bus A. This sort of information should be recorded in the notes for each tying procedure. as to detect any reduced fault level due to step up/down transformers in their normal system configuration and during the periods of tying.doc 16/11/05 . An earth fault incident at fault position 1 will cause the transmission circuit protection at Bus B to operate in minimum time.Page 5 of 11 It is likely the protection will become more sensitive the further away the move from the grid owners’ point of supply.

Bus faults are rarer than transmission circuit faults but need to be considered. if the Bus C transmission circuit protection is seen to operate. Phase current would be expected to increase in the Distributor’s network and a tripping to occur close to the tying CB. ensure the bus has sufficient other circuits to develop fault current. This becomes a safety issue. While it is unusual for a Distributor to want to tie two geographically distant sites. The bus fault will continue to be fed via the tie. In any case. the fault will remain. the transformer LV CB will need to be opened manually. If the power system angle is large when tying. The switching device that will be tying the two GXP’s needs to be rated to make or break the expected currents that could flow. The Bus D transformer HV winding is a delta winding without an earth reference. Fault current would be delivered by the healthy circuit to allow the fault to be cleared. if Bus E faults and all of the incoming transmission circuits trip. Unless there is an intertrip from Bus C to Bus D or there is residual protection installed on Bus D. There may as a consequence be a tripping of the Distributor’s assets but this is a risk the Distributor would have to manage. There is another HV source of current infeed for faults. Normally. action should be taken to open the transformer LV CB in case the transformer Earth Fault protection is not sensitive enough to operate from the weak infeed or the Distributor’s protection does not clear the fault. the Bus D transformer LV CB is opened without delay. the electrical route between two points can still be great. but this cannot be guaranteed. Clearing Earth Faults cont’d Substations on a spur with an HV delta winding Refer to Figure 1.doc 16/11/05 . but will probably be set to a final time of 3 or 4 seconds. Substations in a mesh with an HV delta winding An earth fault incident at fault position 3 is less of a concern. This is where protection is most sensitive. Note. the system power angle and magnitude will need to be considered. so that during the period of the tie. System Power Angle and Magnitude When assessing the option of paralleling two GXP’s. the power system angle should be satisfactory. as long as the shortest electrical route is healthy. The CB opening will be prompted by the operation of Bus B transmission circuit protection. When the Distributor notifies they are going to tie feeders. Large reactive power flows can occur if the magnitudes of voltages are significantly different.Page 6 of 11 The transformers earth fault protection would be expected to detect the fault. or fall back to the fault position 1 scenario. The Distributor should be satisfied their internal Parallel GXP guideline_4. An earth fault incident at fault position 2 will be detected at Bus C by the transmission circuit protection and normal tripping will occur at Bus C. large active power flows will occur and a tripping is likely to occur in the Distributors network. The grid owner needs to be vigilant in situations like this. There is a chance that the back-energisation current requirements of the transformer at Bus D will cause the Distributor protection to operate near the tie.

There is also a possibility of reverse power flow where the Distributor has embedded generation in excess of the load. The loss of auto reclosing affects Grid system security. Larger than normal current flow through the distributors network may cause the protection in the distribution network to operate. If site metering is not programmed to be bi-directional. This along with any necessary supporting technical information will form the basis for assessing applications to parallel GXP’s which is detailed in the document: “Process for Assessment of Parallel Grid Exit Point Applications” EGR Obligations Appendices 1 & 2 provide a summary of EGR rule references highlighting the various parties responsibilities for managing parallel GXP situations. where synchronism check detects an uncleared out of synchronism back feed. Backfeeds into a Grid fault must be cleared by either having backfeed protection installed or as described above. The following three impacts must be considered: • • • The connected equipment must be able to withstand the possible fault current. when a circuit trips it is highly likely the tie will trip also. The step and touch potential within the substation must be at safe levels and the earth mat design is one way of achieving this. There is always a risk of a reverse power flow as a consequence of there being a tripping in the core grid during tying. power delivered to the national grid ie: from embedded generation. power is moved across the tie. The change in fault level may cause protection discrimination problems and protection operating times may be affected. and break this current if appropriate.Page 7 of 11 power system angle is within suitable tolerances.doc 16/11/05 . Normal operation of the Grid autoreclosing may be prevented. In some configuration cases. and at what voltage. Parallel Paths When tying two grid exit points a parallel link will be created. Another situation would be when one substation backfeeds another i. If the impedance of this link is low enough it will share current flow with the grid. It is important when considering the increased fault levels at a grid exit point that the public must be protected from injury at all times. Reverse Power Flow The connection of two Grid Exit Points must not defeat metering. Fault levels The fault levels at both the Grid exit point and the paralleling point must be considered before paralleling can take place. Assessment Template Parallel GXP guideline_4. The following template provides a method for Distributors to identify situations where GXP’s can be tied.e. This could be due to either a strong reactive current flow or some fault contribution being made. will not be recognised.

doc 16/11/05 .Page 8 of 11 Known Places of Tying (to be supplied by distributors) RWA 33 kV RWA 33 kV HEY 11kV NEL 11kV WTH 11kV CIL 33kV BUF 11kV DED 33kV ADP 11kV TIM 11kV BOB 33kV BEN 11kV DOD 11kV MAR 11kV No 11kV 400V No 33kV 400V 11kV 400V No No No No No 11kV 400V 11kV 400V No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No 11kV 400V 11kV 400V No 33kV 400V No No No No No No No No 11kV 400 V No No No No No No 11kV 400V HEY 11kV NEL 11kV WTH 11kV CIL 33kV BUF 11kV DED 33kV ADP 11kV TIM 11kV BOB 33kV BEN 11kV DOD 11kV MAR 11kV No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No 33kV 400V No No No No No No No No No Any other information that is pertinence to ties can be included as notes Parallel GXP guideline_4.

1 Exchange of information “Sufficient information must be exchanged between the system operator and the asset owner to ensure that both fully understand the implications of any changes to the asset capability statement or of any proposed connection of the relevant assets to the grid or to the local network. the system operator will have regard to the potential impact of the design or configuration of those assets or associated protection arrangements on its compliance with the principal performance obligations and achievement of the dispatch objective” Rule ref.System Operator This list is provided as a guide. It is not a complete list of applicable rule references Rule ref.” Rule ref.1 Other asset owner performance obligations and technical standards – grid owner configuration performance obligation “Each grid owner will ensure that the design and configuration of its assets (including the connection to other persons) and associated protection arrangements are consistent with the technical codes and.” Circumstances when revised bids or offers will be submitted “Prior to the beginning of the trading period to which the bid applies a purchaser will immediately submit revised bid quantities to the system operator whenever Bid quantities expected to change by more than 20MW or 10%…. with its principal performance obligations: 3. Tech code A. in the reasonable opinion of the system operator. and to comply.15. This information must be exchanged in accordance with a timetable agreed to by both the system operator and the asset owner. the asset owner will provide sufficient information to the system operator to demonstrate the compliance of its assets with the asset owner performance obligations and the technical codes. GII.1 Principal Performance Obligations – Avoid Cascade failure “Act as a reasonable and prudent system operator with the objective of dispatching assets made available in a manner which avoids the cascade failure of assets resulting in the loss of demand and arising from frequency or voltage excursions or supply and demand imbalances” Rule ref. with maintaining the system operators ability to comply with the principal performance obligations. 3 3. CIII. 6 Connection of local networks in parallel with the grid “Each distributor must agree with the System Operator any temporary or permanent connection of its assets when those assets become simultaneously connected to the grid at more than one point of connection.2.” 3. CII.doc 16/11/05 .2 For planning studies by the system operator “Where reasonably requested by the system operator. The ability of a purchaser to purchase the quantity bid for a trading period at a grid exit point is expected by that purchaser to change by more than 20MW or 10% of the quantity bid by that purchaser” Part C Schedule C3 Technical Code A.Page 9 of 11 Appendix 1: Relevant EGR references .1 Parallel GXP guideline_4.4. Requirements for assets information “In accordance with rule 4.4 of section III. the following information is required by the system operator to assist it to plan to comply.3. C3. In reaching this opinion.

Each asset owner must also ensure that. CIII. and complying. CIII. are coordinated so that a faulted asset is disconnected by the main protection system first and the other assets are not prematurely disconnected. which will include main and back-up protection systems.Voltage range AOPO’s “Each asset owner will ensure its assets are capable of being operated within the specified range of voltages” Rule ref.4 Protection of assets and the grid “Each asset owner will ensure that it provides protection systems for its assets that are connected to.” 4.3.3 Load shedding obligations to support voltage “Grid owners and distributors to shed load in accordance with the technical codes or as the system operator reasonably requires” Rule ref. such protection systems will support the system operator in planning to comply. the grid.3 Similar to existing design practice “Protection system design for a connection of assets to the grid at lower voltages must be similar to existing design practice in adjacent connections of assets to ensure co-ordination of protection systems. must be agreed between the relevant asset owner and the System Operator before being implemented.1 Grid Owner configuration performance obligation “Each grid owner will ensure that the design and configuration of its assets (including its connections to other persons) and associated protection arrangements are consistent with the technical codes and in the reasonable opinion of the system operator.4. and settings must be applied. C3.Page 10 of 11 Appendix 2: Relevant EGR references .” 4. commissioned and maintained. with maintaining the system operators ability to comply with the PPOs. the system operator will have regard to the potential impact of the design and configuration of those assets or associated protection arrangements on its compliance with the PPOs and achievement of the dispatch objective” Rule ref.3 Grid interface switchgear to be provided “Each asset owner must ensure that sufficient circuit-breakers are provided for its assets so that each of its assets are able to be disconnected totally from the grid whenever a fault occurs within the asset.1 Cooperation required between all parties about protection systems “All asset owners and grid owners must cooperate with the System Operator to ensure that protection systems on both sides of a grid interface. to achieve the following performance in a reliable manner. 4. It is not a complete list of applicable rule references Rule ref. 3. 4 Requirements for the grid and a grid interface 4. In reaching this opinion.” Parallel GXP guideline_4.” 4. or form part of..doc 16/11/05 . CIII. Tech Code A. with the principal performance obligations and must be designed.1 Asset Owner performance obligations and technical standards concerning voltage .” 4.2 Agreement required before implementation “Any proposed grid interface.Grid Owner and Distributors This list is provided as a guide. including the settings of any associated protection system.

Any information reasonably required by the system operator to evaluate the consequences and determine conditions that may apply (and the system operator will list on its website the type of information generally required) 86. Part C Schedule C4 86.doc 16/11/05 . a distributor requests agreement of the system operator to connection of local networks in parallel with the grid.Page 11 of 11 Rule ref.1.” Parallel GXP guideline_4. the system operator will require the distributor to provide the following: 86. pursuant to rule 6 of technical code A of schedule C3 of part C.2. “ Where. Written evidence of the grid owner’s agreement to the simultaneous connection of those assets.

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