APOLLO PROGRAM

FLIGHTUMMARY S REPORT

APOLLO MISSIONS AS-201 through APOLLO ]6

JUNE !972

OFFICE OFMANNEDPACELIGHT S F APOLLO PROGRAM OFFICE

i

!
APOLI.O FLIGHT PROGRAM REPORT SUMMARY APOLLO _ISS IONS THROUG}I APOLLO

AS-201

l_.,

SUBMITTED

:

Director,
J

Apollo

Operations

APPROVED:

i

Rocco A. Director,

Petr)ne Apollo

Program

?

NATIONAL

OFFICE AERONAUTICS MANNED OF AND APOLLO PROGRAM

SPACE

FLIGHT ADMINISTRATION

i i

OFFICE

{

Revision

11

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

Ti t l_____ee SUMMARY AS-201 AS-203 AS-202 APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO APOLLO - APOLLO/SATURN FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT 4 5 6 7 8 9 i0 ii 12 13 14 15 16 SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY FLIGHT SUMMARY FLIGHT SUMMARY FLIGHTS

Page 1 3 9 12 19
J

(AS-501)

(SA-204/LM-I) (AS-502) (AS-205) (AS-503) (AS-504) (AS-505) (AS-506) (AS-507) (AS-508) (AS-509) (AS-510) (AS-511) FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT

27 33 43 51 59 69 79 95 93 I01 109 121 ,,

SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY

FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT

i

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i C
_+__ [ Mission Launch Date

s0 RY
APOLLO/SATURN FLIGHTS Launch Payload Vehicle Description

i_I +" ;_

+

AS-201

2/26/66

SA-201

CSM-009

Launch vehicle and CSM subsystems of development. and Test the space of CSM vehicle. Demonstration of reentry adequacy at earth orbital of the CM conditions.

_, •

+

:

AS-203

7/5/66

SA-203

LH^ in SZIVB

Launch vehicle Demonstration

development. of cor trol of venting

LH 2 by continuous in orbit. AS-202 8/25/66 SA-202 CSM-011

Launch vehicle and CSM development. Test of CSM subsystems and of the structural integrity and compatibility of the space propulsion and entry vehicle. Demonstration con-of trol by G&N system. Demonstration oZ entry at 28,500 fps.

_

APOLLO

4

11/9/67

SA-501

CSM-017 LTA- 10R

Launch vehicle and craft development. stration of Saturn Vehicle performance CM entry at lunar velocity.

spaceDemonV Launch and of return

APOLLO •

5

1/22/68

SA-204

LM-I SLA-7

.

LM development. Verified operation of LM subsystems: ascent and descent propulsion systems (including restart) and structures. Evaluation of LM staging. Evaluation of S-IVB/IU orbital perform_ce. Launch vehicle and craft development. Iltrat:Lon of Saturn spaceDemonV Launch

APOLLO

6

4/4/68

SA-502

CN-020 SN-014 LTA-2R

8LA-9

Vehicle

pozfoz, Mmce.

IL
+_

APOLLO/SATURN Mission Launch Date 7 10/11/68 Launch Vehicle SA-205

FLIGHTS Descri_o_nn _ _ Dura-

Payload

APOLLO

CM-101 SM-101 SLA-5 CM-103 SM-103 LTA-B SLA-II

Manned CSM operations. tion i0 days 20 hours. Lunar lunar orbital orbits. mission. Mission

APOLLO

8

12/21/68

SA-503

Ten duraManned Manned

tion 6 days 3 hours. CSM operations. Earth orbital mission. CSM/LM operations. 10 days 1 hour.

APOLLO

9

3/3/69

SA-504

CM-104 SM-104 LM-3 SLA-12

Duration

APOLLO

i0

5/18/69

SA-505

CM-106 SM-106 LM-4 SLA-13

Lunar orbital mission. Manned CSM/LM operations. Evaluation of LM performance in cislunar and lunar environment, following lunar landing profile. Mission duration 8 days. First manned lunar landing mission. Lunar surface stay time 21.6 hours. Mission duration 8 days 3 hours.

APOLLO

ii

7/16/69

SA-506

CM-107 SM-107 LM-5 SLA-14 EASEP

APOLLO

12

11/14/69

SA-507

CM-108 SM-108 LM-6 SLA-15 ALSEP

Second manned lunar landing mission. Demonstration of point landing capability. Deployment of ALSEP I. Surveyor III investigation. Lunar surface stay time 31.5 hours. Two dual EVA's (15.5 manhours). 89 hours in lunar orbit (45 orbits). Mission duration i0 days 4.6 hours. Planned third lunar landing. • _ •

I

APOLLO ! '

13

4/11/70

SA-508

CM-109 SM-109 LM-7 SLA-16 ALSEP III

Mission aborted mately 56 hours _f SM cryogenic consequent to generate and water.

at approxidue to los_ oxygen and

lo88 of capability electrical power

APOLLO

14

1/31/71

SA-509

CM-110 SM-ll0 LM-8 SLA-17 ALSEP

14

Third successful lunar landing mission. Landing at Fra Mauro site. Deployment of ALSEP. Extensive geology traverse. Lunar stay time 34.5 hours. Two dual EVA'8 of 4 hr. 49 sin. and 4 hr. 28 mln. 9 days 2 sin.

:_?_ ,,:,:_; _

M_o|lon

duration

I

_

2

'

r

i

I

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Revision

ii

_

Mission

Launch Date

Launch Vehicle

Payload

Descriptio____nn

APOLLO

15

7/26/71

SA-510

CM-II2 SM-II2 LM-10 SLA-19 ALSEP LRV-I

15

Fourth successful lunar landing mission. Exploration at Hadley--Apennine site. Extensive geology tzaverses with first lunar roving vehicl_ (27.9 km) Deployment of ALSEP. Lunar stay time 66.9 hours. Three dual EVA's totaling 18.6 hours. 145.3 hours in lunar orbit (74 orbits). Mission duration 12 days 7,2 hours.

APOLLO

16

4/16/72

SA-511

CM-il3 SM-II3 LM-II SLA-20 LRV-2 ALSEP 16

Fifth successful lunar landln% mission. Exploration at Descartes site. Deployment of ALSEP and other experiments. traverses on Three extensiveLRV.geology Three dual EVA's totaling 20.3 hours, Lunar stay time 71 houzs. Second use of scientific instrument module for orbital science. 126.1 hours in lunar orbit (64 orbits). Mission duration ii days 1.8 hours.

I

2a | %
i

t

As-201

j
_ AS-201 FLIGHT SUMMARY .t

MISSION

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All Objectives

Accomplished)

_j ,

i. 2.

of the launchstrucLural and confirm and compatibility vehicle launch loads. Demonstrate integrity Test a) the separation S-IVB craft of: unit (IU), and space-

L
_ il stage, instrument from S-IB stage. b) Launch escape system (LES) and boost protective cover from command/service module (CSM) and launch vehicle. CSM from S-IVB stage, adapter (SLA) • Command module IU, and service module-LM

c)

d)

(CM) from

service

module

(SM).

3.

subsystems : Obtain flight a)

operation

information

on the following and control,

Launch vehicle: propulsion, and electrical systems.

guiuance

b)

from low earthCM orbit);shield (adequacy for entry service propulsion system Spacecraft: heat (SPS) (including restart); environmental control system (ECS) (pressure and temperature control)t communications; CM reaction control system (RCS); SM RCS; stabilisation control system (SCS); earth landing system (ELS); and electrical power system (EPS).

D

4.
e,

Evaluate performance of the space vehicle emergency detection system (EDS) in an open-loop configuration. Evaluate the CM heat shield at a heating rate of approximately 200 Btu/ft.'/|ec. during entry at apprcxImately 28,000 fps. Demonstrate the mission support facilities tlons required for launch, a£ssion conduct, re cove ry. and operaand CS

5.

6.

3
I

AS-201

I

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES

(All

Objectives

Accomplished>

i i

PRINCIPAL Launch i. ;.

Vehicle:

Demonstrate compatibility and structural integrity of the space _hicle (SV) during S-IB stage-p_wered flight and co?.firm structural loads and dynamic characteristics. Demonstrate structural integrity and compatibility of S-IVB and space vehic!e during powered phase and coast. Demonstrate a) b) S-IVB CSM separation from from S-IB. of:

"

2.

3. i

S-IVB/IU/SLA. S-IVB propulsion shift system and including system _m_

4.

Demonstrate

program mixture ratio performance parameters. 5.

determine

Demonstrate S-IB propulsion system subsystem performance parameters. Demonstrate launch vehicle guidance guidance cutoff, and evaluate system

and

evaluate

6.

system, achieve accuracy.

7.

Demonstrate LV control system during S-IVB-powered phase, S-IVB coast phase, and S-IB-powered phase, and evaluate performance characteristics, Demonstrate LV sequencing system. vehicle EDS

i• I i f_

8. 9.

Evaluate performance of the space in an open-loop configuration, Demonstrate for launch, the mission support mission operations

I0.

facilities required and CM recovery.

AS-201

i
e

f
Spacecraft: i. Determine performance of the SCS and determlne its adequacy for manned orbital flight. Verify SPS operation for a minimum after at least 2 minutes in space and verify restart capability. Determine performance of the CM to determine their adequacy for flight. D_termine long SPS performance Obtain data on of 20 seconds environment

_

2.

"=

3.

RCS and SM RCS manned orbital

%_

4.

duration (approximately 200 seconds) including shutdown characteristics. 5PS engine of its firing stability. and tempmanned


?

5. 6.

! : _' : _ _K_ _

Determine performance erature control) and _rbital flight.

ECS (pressure adequacy for

7.

Determine adequacy

performance of the EPS and for manned orbital flight.

determine

its

8.

Determine performance of the communication system and determine its adequacy for manned orbital flight. Demonstrate compatibility of CSM/Saturn IB. and structural integrity

9.

10.

Determine structural loadin@ of SLA to the Saturn IB launch envlronment.

when

subjected

ii. "

Demonstrate separation of the S-IVB from the S-IB, the LES and boost protective cover from t/_e CSM, the CSM from the S-IVB/IU/SLA, and the CM from

the
12.

SM.
CM adequacy for manned entry _rom low

Determine

\ 13.

earth

orbit. the CM heat Ihield ablator at a high heatof approxAmately 200 Btu/ft.2/sec. during 28,000 fps.

Evaluate ing rate entry at

I)

AS-201

14.

Demonstrate operation subsystem and recovery Evaluate sDace configuration. Demonstrate for launch, vehicle

of the parachute aids following EDS in the

recovery entry.

15.

open-loop

16.

the mission support mission operations,

facilities required and CM recovery.

SECONDARY Launch i.

OBJECTIVES Vehicle: LV-powered flight external environment.

Confirm

2. 3.

Evaluate Evaluate system. Demonstrate venting

LV

internal

environment. thermal conditioning

IU/S-IVB

inflight

4.

adequacy

of

S-IVB

residual

propellant

system. OF THE MISSION Saturn stage IB and Launch Vehicle with the S-IVB second

UNUSUAL 1.

FEATURES

First flight of the both the S-IB first stage.

2.

First non-orbital flight separation of the launch vehicle and spacecraft in the Saturn IB configuration. First First First CM SPS recovery. burn and restart. of of a Block the I Apollo Spacecraft. concept in

3. 4. 5. 6.

flight

test

First employment Apollo.

Mission

Director

7.

First employment of Mission (MCC-H) for Apollo mission

Control control.

Center

- Houston

AS-201

,
GENERAL INFORMATION CSM-009 SA-201 34 II:12 a.m. EST, February 26, 966 Spacecraft: Launch _ Launch Launch Launch Vehicle: Complex: Time: Azimuth : Flight 105 ° - Maximum 37 minutes Altitude: 19 seconds 266 NM Sub-orbital Mission Duration:

l
|

Time SPACE

of Landing: AND

11:49

a.m. DATA

EST

i

VEHICLE Spacecraft

PRE-LAUNCH

delivered

to Cape

Kennedy:

October

1965

{_

Launch

vehicle stage

delivered (S-IB):

to Cape September

Kennedy: 1965 1965 ]965 lb. 1,317,900 lb. Block I

First ; Second

staqe

(S-IVB) : (IU) :

September October 45,900

Instrument Spacecraft __ Space

unit

launch

weight:

vehicle

weight

at liftoff: from

,.

Spacecraft differences configuration: * A developmental The guidance and

"operational"

Block

I heat

shield system

was was

added. omitted.

* *

navigation the

An open-loop omitted.

EDS for

LES was

added.

• i *

Batteries the EPS. Couches,

were space

substituted suits, and

for crow

fuel

cells

in were

provisions

I

AS-201

I
* Biomedical instrt_mentation system•
|

was

omitted

in

the

instrumentation *

Certain displays and controls related astronaut operation were e_itted. A CM system control was programmer added, and development included. a standard and attitude

to

!

*

reference

_ i

*

Additional research instrumentation was

(R&D) • Saturn IB design

The SA-201 Launch with the following *
T

Vehicle was exceptions: was was

R&D An R&D

instrumentation open-loop structure EDS was

included•

* *

added. in the S-IB stage.

used

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Atlantic

Recovery Landing Recovery Spacecraft

Ocean
•#

Coordinates. Ship: USS

8"56'S Boxer Time:

10"43'W

Recovery

2:13

p.m.

EST,

February

27,

1966

O
8

I

AS-20]

(
i MISSION
i

AS-203 PRIMARY OBJECTIVES

FLIGHT

SUMMARY Accomplished)

(All Objectives

I. 2. 3. 4.

Evaluate Evaluate system. Determine

the S-IVB S-IVB

LH 2 continuous

venting

sy&tem.

engine

"_hilldown and

recirculation

S-I_

tank

fluid

dynamics.

Determine heat transfer into liquid hydrogen (LH2) thr¢ _h tank wall, and obtain data required for propellant thermodynamic model. Evaluate S-IVB and IU checkout in orbit.

t 1

5. 6.

Demonstrate orbital operation of the launch vehicle attitude control and thermal control systems. Demonstrate the ability of the launch vehicle guidance to insert a payload intn orbit. Demonstrate vehicle. Demonstrate operations operational structure of the launch

i ' _

7. 8.

9.

the mission required for

support facilities launch and mission

and control.

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVEB

(All Objectives

Accomplished)

PRINCIPAL

Launch Vehicle:
.. 1. Evaluate circulation sismlatod the J-2 engine amain, and e_.gine restart. LH_ chilldown and ullage requirements refor

Q

2. \ 3.

Det_rm£ne cryogenic liquid/vapor interface configuration and fluid dynamics of propellants in near mro-g envirommnt. _monstrato the 8-1_S oporatic_ and evaluato eur_tl4azy propulsion system pezfomsanco psrmmtors.

.%

!

I
!

0
AS-203

4.

Demonstrate the control system.

adequacy

of

the

S-IVB/IU

thermal

5.

Demonstrate the launch vehicle guidance operation, achieve guidance cutoff, and system accuracy. Demonstrate vehicle and the structural determine its

system determire

6.

integrity of the launch dynamic characteristics.

SECONDARY Launch i.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle: the launch environment. launch vehicle-powered flight

Evaluate external

:

2.

Verify the operation.

vehicle

sequencing

system

i

3.

Evaluate performance configuration. Evaluate separation

of

the

EDS

in

an

open-loop

4. 5.

of

S-IVB/IU/nosecone systems' parameters.

from

S-IB.

O

Verify launch vehicle propulsion and evaluate system performance Evaluate the MSC subcritical

operation

6.

cryogenic

experiment.

UNUSUAL i. 2.

FEATURES Simulated Use of

OF

THE S-IVB

M:SSION engine restart vents in orbit. to accelerate L_ 2.

hydrogen in orbit

continuous for

payload

settling

S-IVB

3. 4.

First Insert States

orbital

flight to

for

S-IVB

stage. by the United

most weight (28 tons). feedback

date

in orbit

5.

Television conditions. First flight

on

behavior

of

LH 2 under

orbital

6.

for

redesigned,

lighter

weight

S-IB

stage.

O

i,

I

AS-203

(
GENERA L INFORMATION Launch ' Launch Launch ;_ Launch Apogee Vehicle: Complex: Time: Azimuth: : 101.8 101.6 NM NM broke up during pressure test SA-203 37 9:53 a.m. EST, July 5, 1966

72 °

Pe].'igee :
k

_:

Revolutions: above design Vehicle

4 (Vehicle value.) was not

¢,

recovery

planned.

_, _ _. " / _

SPACE

'VEHICLE

AND

PRE-LAUNCh

DATA

No spacecraft was carried on this mission. An aerodynamic fairing (nosecone) weighing 3700 lb. was attached to the instrument unit and contained an MSC subcritical cryogenic experiment. Launch vehicle stage stage deliver-_d (S-IB): (S-IVB): unit liftoff in orbit: Vehicle z (IU): to Cape April March April Kennedy: 1966 1966 1966

First Second

Instrument Space " Total vehicle weight

weight: 58,500

1,187,000 ib
lb. from the SA-201

• \

The SA-203 vehicle as * • The

Launch follows S-IB

differed

stage

weight

was

de_reaied

by

28,500

lb.

The S-IB stage had a redesigned propellant contalner, bazzel assembly, outriggers ind ga_oua oxygen interconnect and vent system.

_

"1

!

0

*

The

S-IB

stage

outboard

engine

skJ.rt

was

removed.

AS-202

i

AS-202

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

HISSION
s

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Objectives

Accomplished) compatibility and confirm

i.

Demonstrate structural of the launch vehicle launch loads. Demonstrate a) b) separation

integrity and and spacecraft

2.

of: from S-IB. cover from I

S-IVB/IU/spacecraft LES and boost

protective

CSM/launch

vehicle.

i ! i 3.

c) d)

CSM CM

from from

S-IVB/IU/SLA. SM. of the following subsystems: and

Verify a)

operation

Launch vehicle: propulsion, guidance control, and electrical systems.

b)

Spacecraft: CM heat shield (adequacy for entry from low earth orbit); SPS (including multiple restart); guidance and navigation, environmental control system; communications; CM reaction control system; SM reaction control system; stab%lization control system; earth landing system; and electrical power system. spac_ vehicle EDS in
q

4.

Evaluate performance of the closed-loop configuration. Evaluate entry at

5.

the heat shield at high heat approximately 28,000 fps . support launch,

load

during
t

6. \

Demonstrate the mission operations required for and CM recovery.

facilities and mission conduct,

DETAILE

D TEST

OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES

(All

ObJectlves

Accomplished)

PRINCIPAL

- .._5

Launch

Vehicle

t

_._;,

I. Demonstrate structural Int_ri_

and ccapatlb111ty

__£.,-;

of

the space

vehicle

12during 8-Zn itago-po_red

,.

,_

AS-202

|
flight and confirm characteristics. 2. structural loads and dynamic Demonstrate structural integrity and compatibility of the space vehicle during S-IVB stage-powered flight and coast. Demonstrate S-IVB including program system performance propulsion system operation mixture ratio shift and evaluate parameters. system operation par_,eters. guidance cutoff, system an,_ and

3.

4.

Demonstrate S-IB propulsion evaluate system performance Demonstrate launch vehicle operation, achieve guidance evaluate system accuracy.

5.

6.

Demonstrate launch vehicle control system operation during S-IB-powered phase, S-IVB-powered phase, and S-IVB coast phase; and evaluate performance characteristics. De,_onstrate operation. lauhch vehicle sequencing system

7.

8.

Demonstrate the and S-IVB secure

inflight performance of range command systems.

the

5-IB

Spacecraft: I. Determine subsystem mission. performance of guidance and navigation and its adequacy for a manned orbital

2.

Evaluate guidance and boost and closed-loop

navigation entry.

performance

during

3.

Determine performance of the SCS and determine its adequacy for manned orbital flight. Demonstrate multiple SPS restart (at least burns of at least three-second duration at second intervals.) Evaluate performance to determine their flight. of the adequacy CM RCS and foz manned three ten-

4.

5.

the SM orbital

RCS

(-

"

AS-202

6.

Verify of SPS

SPS standpipe fix burn required.)

(minimum

of

l')8 s_,conds

7.
J

Determine long SPS performance Obt]in data on

duration _approximately 200 seconds) including shutdown characteristics. SPS engzne of firing ECS and st,'bil_ty. its adequacy fc_r

8. 9 _ 10

Determine performance manned orbital flight. Determine adeq,lacy

performance of the EPS aL,J determine, for manned orbital fliqht.

_ts

i]

Determine performance of the communication system and determine its adequacy for manned orbital flight. Verify around S-band ranging communications operations mode and downlink modes. and structural for turn-

12

13

Demonstrate compatibility of CSM/Saturn IB.

integrity

14

Determine separation of the S-IVB/IU from the S-IB, the LES and boost _rotective cover (BPC) from the CSM/SLA/LV (nominal mode), the CSM from the S-IVB/ IU/SLA, and the CM from the C'" Determine CM earth orbit. Verify adequacy for manned entry from low

15.

'

16. 17.

astrosextant

thermal

protection

subsystem.

Evaluate the heat shield at high heat load during entry at approximately 28,000 fps , including the thermal protection of the CM heat shield ablator during a high heat load (20,000 Btu/sq. ft.) entry. Demonstrate subsystem operation and recovery of the pazachute aids following EDS in recovery reentry.

18.

19.

Evaluate the space con figuration. Demonstrate for launch,

vehicle

closed-loop

'

20.

the mission support mission operations,

facilities required and CM recovery.

14

AS-202

I
,

SECONDARY Launch I.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle: vehicle-powered flight external

Confirm launch environment. Evaluate system.

2.

IU/S-IVB

inflight

thermal

conditioning

3.

Verify adequacy venting. Evaluate the

of

S-IVB

residual

propellant

4.

S-IVB

common

bulkhead

reversal

test.

UNUSUAL i. _ 2.

FEATURES

OF

THE

MISSION in the service module on

First use of fuel cells an Apollo/Saturn flight.

First flight of the e_ergency closed-loop configuration.

detection

system

in

(-

3. 4. 5.

First First

recovery test of

of

Apollo

spacecraft S-band

in

Pacific

area.

unified

communications. common bulkhead

Repeat of the second pressure test. "Black First Out" flight

stage

(S-IVB)

6. 7.

communication of Apollo

test. guidance and navigation system•

GENERAL •

INFORMATION CSM-011 SA-202 34 12:15 p.m. EST, Au_st 25, 1966

Spacecraft: Launch Launch Launch Launch Apogees

Vehicle: Complex: Time: Azimuths ! 617.1NM

105e

(

No

Ozbital

Inseztion

Planned.

AS-202

Mission Time of

Duration: Landing:

1 hour 1:48 p.m.

33

minutes EST

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft Launch

AND

PRE-LAUNCH to

DATA Cape Kennedy: April 1966

delivered

vehicle stage stage

delivered (S-IB): (S-IVB) unit

to Cape February : January

Kennedy: 1966 1966 1966 lb. 1,312,300 the lb. Block I

First Second

Instrument Spacecraft Space

(IU) :

February 56,900

launch

weight: at

vehicle

weight

liftoff: from

Spacecraft 011 differences con figuration : * * A developmental Couches, omitted. A tie-bar S-band space Block suits,

"operational"

I heat and

shield

was

added, were

q

_
#

crew

provisions

* * *

to in

replace the

a

lunar

module

was

added. was in omitted. the

_I

The

communication was

system omitted

Biomedical

{nstrumentation system.

instrumentation *

Certain displays and controls operation were omitted. A CM control programmer system was added. Additional R&D and

related

to

astronaut
i

*

altitude

reference
P

*

instrumentation

was from

included. st_._dard

The SA-202 Launch Vehicle differed Saturn IB design as follows: * R&u instrumentation was

the

incl,,ded.

i

--

16

I

AS-202

(
* * R&D TV structure camera was for S-IB stage zn the was [b included. to vie,_ C_LY :_,Q. lr.:_.t c _n. included

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Pacific Ocean 16°7'N Hornet Time: 10:10 p.m. EST, August 25, 19<_e
• e

Recovery Landing Recovery Spacecraft

Coordinates: Ship: USS

168°54'E

Recovery

(

I

APt >LLO

4

APOLLO

4

(AS-501)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION i.

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Objectives

Accomplished)

2.

Demonstrate the and compatibility craft. Confirm istics. Demonstrate a) b) S-II _-IVB

structural and thermal integrity of the launch vehlcle and spacelaunch loads and dynamic character-

separation from from S-IC S-II. of the

of: plane).

(dual

3.

Verify a)

operation

following

subsystems:

Launch vehicle: propulsxon (including S-IVB restart), guidance and control, and electrical system. Spacecraft: CM neat shield, (adequacy of Block II

b)

design for entry at lunar and selected subsystems. 4. Evaluate open-loop performance of configuration. the

return space

conditions); EDS in an

vehicle

5.

Demonstrate mission required for launch,

support mission

facilities conduct,

and operations and CM _ecovery.

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES : the S-IVB stage restart capability. continuous

PRINCIPAL La_unch I. 2. ' 3.

Vehicle

Demonstrate Demonstrate vent system

the adequacy of the S-IVB while in earth orbit.

Demonstrate the capability of the S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system during S-IVB-powered flight and orbital coast periods to maintain attitude control and perform required maneuvers.

(
19 p'KI_Ig)INO, p..4,.QI_ BLANK NOT Pll,gl_

APOLLO

4

4.

Demonstrate the S-IVB stage propulsion system, including the propellant management systems, and determine inflight system performance parame te rs. Demonstrate the S-II stage propulsion system, including programmed mixture ratio shift and the propellant management system, and determine inflight performance parameters. Demonstrate the S-IC stage propulsion system, and determine inflight system performance parameters. Demenstrate Demonstrate S-IC/S-II S-II/S-IVB dual plane separation.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

separation.

Demonstrate the mission support capability required for launch and mission operations to high post injection altitudes. Demonstrate structural of the launch vehicle coasting flight, tural loads and and thermal integrity throughout powered and struc"_ _

i0.

and determine infl_ght dynamic characteristics. launch vehicle

ii.

Determine environment

inflight

internal

12.

Demonstrate the launch vehicle guidance and control system during S-IC, S-II, and S-IVBpowered flight; achieve guidance cutoff; and evaluate system accuracy. Demonstrate Evaluate detection launch vehicle sequencing system.

|

1

13. 14.

the performance of the system An an open-loop of the

emergency configuration. launch vehicle

15.

Demonstrate compatibility and spacecraft.

16.

Verify prelaunch and launch support equipment compatibility with launch vehicle and spacecraft systems.

Spacecraft: i. Verify operation of the system after subjection environment. 20
_L

guidance and navigation to the Saturn V boost

%#

TM

i

AI'r_LI,O

4

2.

Verify operation of system in the space separation. Verify during operation entry and

the guidance environment

and navigat1._n after S-IVB

3. , 4.

of the guidance recovery. effects of stability. no-ullage of the

and

navigaclon/SCS

Gather data on the burn on spacecraft Demonstrate Determine duration an SPS

a long

duratlon

SPS

5. 6.

start. SPS during a ._rmu

performance burn.

7.

Verlfy operation of the throughout the mission. Verify operation of the throughout the mission. Verify to the operation Saturn V

CM

RCS

during

entry

and

8.

heat

rejection

system

9.

of the EPS after launch environment.

being

subjected

i0. ii.

Verify operation of the primary guidance system (PGS) after being subjected to the Saturn V launch environment. Verify operation ment after S-IVB Verify operation ment after S-IVB Verify operation of the EPS separation. of the PGS separation. of the EPS in the space environ-

12.

in

the

space

environ-

13. 14.

during of

entry

and S-band

recovery.

Demonstrate the communications.

performance

CSM/MSFN

15.

Demonstrate satisfactory cation subsystem using directional antennas. Obtain data via CSM-ARIA

operation of CSM communithe Block II-type VHF omni-

16. 17.

communications. V structural compatiloads in a Saturn V

Demonstrate CSM/SLA/LTA/Saturn bility and determine spacecraft launch environment. D.-termine SLA/CSM the dynamic An and

18. i &_'\

thermal V

responses launch

of

the

structure

t/_e Saturn

environment.

k

APOLLO

4

19.

Evaluate the thermal and structural performance, of the Rlock II thermal protection system, includlnq effects of cold soak and maximum thermal gradient when subjected to the combination of a high heat load and a high heating rate representative" of lunar return entry. Verify the performance subsystem and engine space environment. of the SM RCS thermal response thermal in the c_>ntr_ ,_ d_,_p

20.

21.

Verify the thermal design adequacy of the thrusters and extensions during simulated return entry. Evaluate the thermal performance of a gap configuration simulating the unified crew design, for heating conditions anticipated lunar return entry. Perform flight test of low density ablator

CM RC_; lunar

22.

and se_11 hatch during

23. 24.

panels. from in a

Determine the force inputs to the simulated LM the SLA at the spacecraft attachment structure Saturn V launch environment. Obtain data on the of the SLA/simulated launch. Obtain data skin during on tWe launch.

25.

acoustic _nd thermal environment LM interface during a Saturn

V

26.

temperature

of

th_

simulated

LM

27.

Determine vibration response engine and propellant tanks envi ronmen t. Evalsate detection Verify Measure within the performance system in the of the

of LM descent in a Saturn V

stage launch

28.

of the spacecraft emergency open-loop configuration. ELS during entry and recovery.

29. 30.

operation

the integrated the CM up to an

skin and depth altitude of at shieldin_

radiation dose least 2000 NM. of

31.

Determine the radiation the command module. Determine radiation and dose display, data at 22

effectiveness

32.

in the

real

t_me,

Van Control

Allen

Belt

Mission

Center.

-i

|,

APOLLO

4

i

33.

Obtain motion pictures for study of c,ltry horlzon reference, boost protective cover jettison, and orbit insertion; obtain photographs for earth land mark identification.

SECONDARY Launch I.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle: vehicle-powered fllght external

Determine launch envlronment.

2.

Determine attenuation effects of exhaust fldme_ on RF radiating and receiving systems during maln engine, retro and ullage motor firings.

UNUSUAL i. 2.

FEATURES First First

OF space

THE

MISSION launch from LC-39. Vehicle.

vehicle of

flight

Saturn

V Space

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I0. ii.

First First First First First First First First

flight flight flight orbital SPS

of o_ of

S-IC S-II

launch launch

vehicle vehicle test stage.

stage. stage. article (LTA).

a lunar of

module S-IVB

i . tart

no-ullage Block

start. :I heat CM shield. reentry. system flight test.

simulated lunar command of

return and Apollo

velocity

communication Range

First use (ARIA), First use

Instrumentation

Aircraft

12.

of

Apollo-configured

ships.

GENERAL
®

INFORMATION CSM-10?, LTA-10R

,

Spacecraftz

_ 1

C

Launch

Vehlclez

SA-501

-1

APOLLO

4

Launch Launch Launch Apogee: Perigee:

Complex: Time: Azimuth: 9767 100 : NM NM 3

39A 7:00:00 72 ° a.m. EST, November 9, 1967

Revolutions Mission Time of

Duration: Landing:

8 hours 3:38:09

37 p.m.

minutes EST,

08

seconds 9, [967

November

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH

DATA to KSC:

delivered

Command/service Lunar Launch module

module: test article: to

'December

1966 1966

September

vehicle stage

delivered (S-IC) : (S-If) : (S-IVB) unit at :

KSC: 1966 1967 1966 1966 lb,. lb. I flight3: configuration. and manushield ablator

First Second Third

September January August August

stage stage

Instrument Spacecraft Space

(IU) :

weight

liftoff: at iiftoff: from

93,700

vehicle

weight

6,121_466 Block

Spacecraft * * The

differences EDS system

previous

operated

in open-loop coating, CM heat

Block IX facturing was used.

thickness, Cechnlgue

thermal for the

*

A simulated in addition

Block II to active

umbilical Block I

was added umbilical.

on

CM

* : J

An Apollo Mission Control Progrmr with s_cial interface equipment for opezatlon with CSM subsystems was installed in CM in place of crow couches.

__) '

AP()LLO

4

,4

*

All S-band transmissions and receptions were performed by four S-band omnidirectio_,a] antennas modified to reflect Block II configuration. Flight qualification tape recorder and assoclated equipment for R&D measurements w_,r, ad' ,!. Couches, c_-ew restraints, crew provisions, ]nstrumelt panel (partial) , SCS (partial) , and ECS (partial) were deleted fro_ Block I configuration. CM hatch window was replaced with instrumentatl, "" test panel containing simulations of flexible thermal seals designed for the developmental _-< operating hatches. Celected ECS water-glycol to evaluate their behavior launch. joints _ere armor-plated during a space vehicle

*

*

*

*

*

The CM cabin was filled with gaseous at liftoff to preclude the possibility fire. CM under;:cnh _xtensive its wiring to provide

nitrogen (GN 2) of cabin 1 _

*

inspection and rework of better wiring protection.

The lunar module test article (LTA-10P)w_s a "boilerplate" LM test article instrumented to measure vibration, acoustics, and structural integrity at 36 points iD the spacecraft-LM adapter (SLA). Data was telemetered to the ground stations during the first 12 minutes of flight. The LTA-10R used a flight-type descent stage without landing gear. Its propellant tanks were filled with water/ glycol and freon to simulate fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The ascent stage was a ballasted aluminum structure containing no flight systems. Launch * vehicle The differences stage from (S-II) to be lunar did used were not for not mission have the configuration: the lunar light mission. versions.

i,

second

weigh_ * * * / The The The was F-I EDS

structure and J-2

engines was in

uprated

system

open-loop as helium

configuration. heater on S-IVB,

O^H burner, used n_t2ins talled.

25

APOLLO

-_

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Pacific Ocean 30°N., Bennington Time: 5:52 p.m. EST, November 9, 1967 172°W.

Recovery Landing Recovery Spacecraft

Coordinates: Ship: USS

Recovery

C
26

APOLLO

5

t

APOLLO

5

(SA-204/LM-i)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Primary

Objectives

Accomplished)

i. -

Verify Ascent system

operation propulsion (including LM the

of

the

following

LM

subsystems:

system and descent propulsion restart), and structure. !
4

2. 3.

Evaluate Evaluate

staging. S-IVB/IU orbital performance.

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES

PRINCIPAL Spacecraft: ( I. Verify

AND

MANDATORY

OBJECTIVES

descent

engine

gimballing

response

to

control ,_

signals. 2.

(Accomplished)

Demonstrate PGNCS thrust vector control and attitude control capability and evaluate the performance of the DAP and IMU in a flight environment. (Partially Accomplished ) Determine DPS characteristics and APS start, restart and in a space environment. shutdown (Accomplished) control

3.

4.

Verify DPS thrust response to throttling signals. (Partially Accomplished ) Determine that no adverse propellant slosh, vehicle and APS/DPS performance. interactions stability, (Partially

5.

exist between engine vibration Accomplished ) exists which depletion. would

6.

Determine that no vehicle degradation affect crew safety during APS burn to (Partially Accomplished. ) Verify the operation of pzessurization sections.

7.

the DPS propellant feed (Partially Accomplished

and )

(
27

APOLLO

5

SECONDARY Launch i.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle: Evaluate operation the launch vehicle attitude and maneuvering capability. LH 2 and LOX tank control system (Accomplished) rise rates.

2.

Verify the S-IVB (Accomplished)

pressure

3.

Demonstrate nosecone (Accomplished)

separation

from

the

S-IVB/IU/SLA.

4.

Evaluate the operational adequacy of the launch vehicle systems, including guidance and control, electrical, mechanical, and instrumentation. (Accomplished)

Spacecraft: i. Verify satisfactory operation ECS equipment. (Accomplished) of portions of the LM

2.

Evaluate the performance of the spacecraft jettison controller (SJC) and pyrotechnical devices in the execution of nose cap separations, SLA panel deployment and LM/SLA separation functions. (Accomplished) Verify pel-formance of portions of the LM S-band communications subsystem and its compatibility with MSFN. (Accomplished) Evaluate the performance system during boost and (Accomplished) Demonstrate the (Accomplished) operation of the instrumentation LM propulsion subsystem suboperations.

3.

4.

5.

of

the

explosive

devices.

UNUSUAL 1. 2. 3.

FEATURES First First First

OF flight firing firing

THE to in in

MISSION verify space space oI:_ra'-ion of of LM LM of LM subsystems. engine. engine.

descent ascent

4.

First test capability,

of

LM

fire-in-the-hole

(FITH)

staging

O i_

28

!

APOLLO

5
,/

t

GENERAL Lunar

INFORMATION Module: Vehicle: Complex: Time: Azimuth: : 519 NM i 7 hours 50 minutes LM 1 SA-204
9

_

Launch Launch Launch Launch Apogee

37B 5:48:08 72 ° p.m. EST, January 22, 196_ !:

Pe_'igee" Mission

88 NM Duration.

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH to

DATA KSC:

delivered

Lunar module Spacecraft-LM Launch vehicle First Second

(LM) : June 1967 Adapter (SLA) : to KSC: July 1966

October

1966

delivered (S-IB) :

stage stage

(S-IVB): (IU) :

August August

1966 1966 !b. 1,285,400 LM's: lb.

Instrument Spacecraft Space Lunar * launch

unit

weight: at

31,700 liftoff: from

vehicle module

weight

differences

future

An LM mission programmeer (LMP) was added to perform control functions normally accomplished by the flight cz_w. The LMP received commands from the LM guidance c_mputer (LGC), ground controller or its component program reader assembly (PRA). The _RA contained 64 taped contingency programs to be used in event of LGC failure. provided The an digital uplink command capability assembly fe_

<

_t_

(DCA)

29

I

APOLLO

5

routing of ground PRA. The program provided coupling to the subsystems. *

signals coupler 9f the

to the LGC for the assembly {PCA) LGC and PKA commands

Developmental flight instrumentation (DFI) was within the LM-I to supply operational data for flight conditioning electronics, modulation packages, VHF transmitters, and C-band beacons. The not lunar used. mission erectable S-band antenna was

*

*

The mission did either systems,

not employ a tape data, or voice. were the

recorder

for

*

Cable and reel assemblies and evaluate (_Dst-flight) stage separation. No EVA equipment was used

used to verify ascent/descent

* *

or

tested.

LM guidance was active this is crew-initiated Because this equipment the cooling system was

at liftoff. Normally, in a later flight phase. was active at liftoff, also active adapter closed

_ _J

_

*

This mission employed a spacecraft-LM (SLA) umbilical. The LM and SLA were out several hours before launch.

{ J

*

Because LM guidance was activated at liftoff, a guidance reference release signal (GRRS) was transmitted from MCC at approximately T-3 minutes (before automatic countdown sequencing). Landing No crew gear was not attached. included. made in the environmental

* * *

provisions deletions system

were were

Partial control

(ECS). radar was inoperative. and the by overhead aluminum

* *

The The

rendezvous two LM cabin

windows

docking panels. The SA-204 Launch

window

were

replaced

Vehicle

was

similar

to

the

previous

_ _)

Saturn

IB vehicles.

t

3o
.._;2 '._

APOLLO

5

&
RECOVERY No DATA recovery was planned.

REMARKS An unscheduled the countdown by two ground DDAS. hold of 3 hours 48 minutes occurred during at T-2 hours 30 minutes. The hold was caused

problems: a failure in the freon supply in the ECS support equipment, and a power supply failure in the

_

_

The flight of the SA-204 Launch Vehicle was according to plan. The LM-I spacecraft also performed according to plan until the time of the first descent propulsion engine burn. The engine started as planned but was shut down after slightly more than four seconds by the LM guidance subsystem when the velocity did not build up at the predicted rate. The problem was analyzed and was determined to involve guidance software only, and the decision was made to go to an alternate mission plan that provided for accomplishing the minimum requirements necessary to meet the primary objectives of the mission. The major difference between the planned and alternate missions was the deletion of a long (12-minute) DPS burn and the substitution of program reader assembly (PRA) control for primary guidance control during the propulsion burns. During all burns conducted under PRA control, there was no attitude control; only rate damping was provided. The alternate plan was successfully executed by the flight operations team. test ob_ectlves were were obtained to proceed

:

,_

Although not all spacecraft detailed fully accomplished, sufficient data with the mission schedule.

2

31

t
APOLLO 6

i z
APOLLO 6 (AS-502) FLIGHT SUMMARY MISSION PRIMARY OBJECTIVES i , : i. Demonstrate the and and compatibility structural launch thermal of the vehicle integrity and spacecraft. Confirm launch loads and dynamic characteristics. (Partially Accomplished ) Demonstrate a. b. 3. S-II S-IVB separation from from S-IC S-II. of: plane). (Accomplished) 2.
i

I | _!i

(dual

(Accomplished) vehicle restart), and )

Verify operation of the following launch subsystems: propulsion (including S-IVB guidance _nd control (optimum injection), electrical system. (Partially Accomplished

.

4. 5.

a closed-loop configuration. Evaluate performance of the Demonstrate mission required for launch, (Accomplished) support mission

(Accomplished) EDS space vehicle facilities conduct,

in i
t

and operations and CM recovery.

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES AND MANDATORY OBJECTIVES

PRINCIPAL Launch 1.

Vehicle:

Demonstrate structural and thermal integrity of launch vehicle throughout powered and coastinq flight, and determine inflight structural loads and dynamic characteristics. (Partially Accomplished Determine inflight launch vehicle environment. (Accomplished) internal

)

! i

2.

3.

Verify pre-launch and launch support equipment compatibility with launch vehicle and spacecraft systems. (Accomplished)

(
33 pKECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FLLMED

APOLLO

6

4.

Demonstrate the S-IC stage propulsion system and determine ±nflight system performance parameters. (Accomplished) Demonstrate the S-II stage propulsion system, including programmed mixture ratio shift and the propellant management systems, and determine inflight system performance parameters. (Partlal]y Accomplished ) Demonstrate the launch vehicle guidance and system during S-IC, S-II, and S-IVB-powered Achieve guidance cutoff and evaluate system (Partially Accomplished.) Demonstrate S-IC/S-II (Accomplished) Demonstrate S-II/S-IVB dual plane separation. control flight. accuracy.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

separation. sequencing

(Accomplished system.

Demonstrate launch (Accomplished)

vehicle

i0.

Demonstrate compatibility of the launch and spacecraft. (Partially Accomplished

vehicle )

"_ -_

ii.

Evaluate performance of the emergency detection system (EDS) in a closed-loop configuration. (Accomplished) Demonstrate the capability of the S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system during S-IVB-powered flight and orbital coast periods to maintain attitude control and perform required maneuvers. (Accomplished) Demonstrate vent system the adequacy of the S-IVB continuous while in earth orbit. (Accomplished) S-IVB ) stage restart capability.

12.

13.

14.

Demonstrate the (Not Accomplished

15.

Demonstrate the mission suppozt capability required for launch and mission operations to high postinjection altitudes. (Partially Accomplished ) Demonstlate the S-IVB stage propulsion system including the pzopellant management system, and determine inflight system performance parameters. (Partially Accomplished 34 )

16.

APOLLO

6

Spacecraft: i. Evaluate the thermal and structural performance of the Block II thermal protection system, including effects of cold soak and maximum thermal gradient when subjected to the combination of a high heat load and a high heating rate representative of lunar return entry. (Accomplished) Evaluate the thermal performance of a gap configuration simulating the unified crew design for heating conditions anticipated lunar return entry. (Accomplished) and seal hatch during

-

2.

3.

Demonstrate CSM/SLA/LTA/Saturn V structural compatibility and determine spacecraft loads a Saturn V launch environment. (Partially Accomplished ) Determine the dynamic SLA/CSM structure in (Accomplished) and thermal the Saturn V

in

4. . 5.

responses of the launch environment.

Determine the force inputs to the simulated LM the SLA at the spacecraft attachment structure Saturn V launch environment. (Accomplished) Evaluate the performance of the spacecraft detection subsystem (EDS) in the open-loop (Accomplished)

from in a

6.

emergency configuration.

7.

Obtain data on the acoustic and thermal environment of the SLA/simulated LM interface during a Saturn V launch. (Accomplish ed ) Determine vibration response engine and propellant tanks environment. (Accomplished) Demonstrate an SPS no-ullage of LM descent stage in a Saturn V launch

8.

• i

9. i0.

start.

(Accomplished) thermal in the control deep

Verify the performance of the SM RCS subsystem and engine thermal response space environment. (Accomplished)

11.

Verify the thermal design adequacy of the thrusters and extensions during simulated return entry. (Accomplished)

CM RCS lunar

C

_

35

%
i

APOLLO

6

12.

Verify opezation of the throughout the mission. Measure the dose within of at least Determine duration

heat rejection (Accomplished)

system

13.

integrated skin and depth radiatlon the command module up to an altitude 2000 nautical miles. (Accomplished) SPS during a long

14.

performance of the burn. (Accomplished) performance (Partially

15.

DemoDstrate the con_unications.

of CSM/MSFN Accomplished

S-band )

SECONDARY Launch 1.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle: flight external

Determine la_n-.ch vehicle-powered environment. (Accomplished) Determine attenuation effects of

2.

exhaust

flames "_ _

on RF radiating engine, retro, Sp ace cra f t: ].

and receiving system_ during main and ullage motor firings. (Accomplished)

Determine and display, in real time, Van Allen belt _'adiation dose rate and integrated dose data at the Misslon Control Center, Houston, Texas. (Accomplished) Verify operation of the after S-IVE separation. Demonstrate satisfactory cation subsystem using directional antennas. Verify operation of the recovery. (Accomplished) Verify operation of the Saturn V launch Gather data on the burn on spacecraft Verify operation (Accomplished) of PGS in the space (Accomplished) environment

i

2.

3.

operation of CSM communithe Block If-type VHF omni(Accomplished) G&N/SCS during entry and

4.

5.

PGS after being subjected to environment. (Accomplished) effects of stability. the CM RCS a long duration (Accomplished) during entry SPS

6.

7. ,

and

recovery.

_-_ -.

{

36

i

APOLI,_J

6

8.

Verify operation of the recovery. (Accomplished) _rify operation of the in the space environment (Accomplished) Verify to the Verify during

ELS

during

entry

and

,

9.

electrical power system after S-IVB se_aration.

-

i0.

operation of the G&N system Saturn V boost environment. operation entry and

after s_K_jection (Accomplished) system

ii.

of the electrical power recovery. (Accomplished G&N in the space (Accomplished

12.

Verify operation of the after S-IVB separation. Verify to the operation Saturn V

environment

13.

of the EPS after launch environment.

being subjected (Accomplished) effectiveness

14.

Determine the radiation shielding of the CM. (Accomplished)

15. 16.

Obtain data on LM skin during Obtain data via

the temperature of the launch. (Accomplished) CSM-ARIA commu._ications.

simulated %

(Accomplished)

UNUSUAL i.

FEATURES

OF

THE

MISSION the emergency configuration. flight sites. unified detection system (EDS)

First flight of in a closed-loup

2.

First mission where deployed to remote First flight of CM

controllers

were

not

3. " GENERAL

hatch.

INFORMATION CM-020, SM-@14, LTA-2R

S- acecraft: i Launch Launch

Vehlcle: Complex:

SA-502 39A

!(

APOLLO

6

Launch Launch Apogee:

Time: Azimuth: 12,010

7:00:00 72 ° NM 3

a.m.

EST,

April

4,

1968

(highest)

Revolutions: Mission Time of

Duration: Landing:

9 hours 4:57

57 minutes April 4, 196B

p.nl. EST,

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-I_UNCH to

DATA KSC: (CSM): November 1967 1967

delivered

Command/service Lunar Launch module

module test

article to KSC:

(LTA):

February

vehicle First Second Third stage

delivered (S-IC): (S-II): (S-IVB): unit at

)
March May 1967 1967 1967 1967 lb. lb. stage stage

February March

Instrument Spacecraft Space weight

(IU): liftoff: at

93,885

vehicle

weight

llftoff: Apollo 4:

6,108,128

Spacecraft *

changes

fran

The emergency detection its normal or "closed-loop" automatic abort capability.

system (EDS) configuration

was

flown with

in

*

The command mo4ule contained operating crew hatch. Entry batteries dant battery a single-point A and added in failure B in the parallel mode.

the

new

unified,

quick

*

CM each in order

had to

a reduneliminate

0
i 38 ....

A_'OLLO

6

* On the CM, the thermal coating used on Apollo 4 was replaced with a high emissivity paint in order to simulate the structural temperatures that will be encountered on a lunar mission. * The micrometeoroid from the CM. p.r_tection windows were • noved

* Five of the seven operational Block were installed on the CM. Only two nstalled on Apollo 4.

II EVA handrails handrails were

* Five test samples of low-density ablative heat shleld materials were flown to test materials which may result in weight savlngs on future Block II CM's. Three samples were mounted in place of the left slde window and two samples _ere mounted in the simulated Block II umbilical cavity. * A 16mm movie camera was added to the CM, positioned to sight out the left rendezvou_ window to record LES jettison, and to determine vlsibility of the horizon, window degradatio,l,and plasma brilliance during entry. The 70mm sequence camera used on Apollo window 4 was relocated to for earth landmark sight out the photography, crew hatch i I

* Dosimeters were added in the CM to provide evaluation of t,_e operational system for determ.lning crew radia-tion dose rate and displaying this data in real tim._ at the Mission Control Cen'3r. * A microphone level in the unified crew was installed to CM during Saturn hatch installed. vent valve determine V launch the with noise the

, The CM postla_ding Block II valve.
a

was

replaced

with

the

* The ECS 2.40 controller was replaced with an improved unit having reduced EMI susc_otibility, improved potting, and circuitry changes for increasea reliability. * The instrumentation signal mechanical used on Apollo 4 were replaced with tarots having a higher reliakility. commutators so)id state

comm%l-

(
39

APOLLO

6

*

Electrical bonding straps were installed across the CM/SM and LTA/SLA interfaces to provide electrical bonding without spuclal prtparation mating structural surfaces. The SM safety The SPS thened. aft bulkhead was factor of 1.5 at propellant tank strengthened 4.58 g. skirt in th6 to havu a

cf

*

*

SM

was

streng-

* '

The titanium lines connected to the cryogenic hydrogen tanks in the SM were replaced with stainless steel line and bi-metalliu adapters. The Block I SM RCS engines with Block II engines. The SM had the Apollo aluminized in Quad B were replaced

*

*

the standard Block I white paint whereas 4 SM was painted with the Block II paint. landing gear position. from the installed permanently

*

The LTA had the in the retracted %ehicle differences

Launch *

lunar

configura2ion:

The second stage (S-II) structure which will be figuration. Neither version. the F-I nor the

did not have the lightweight used with the lunar con-

*

J-2

engine

was

the

uprated

*

The O2H 2 S-IVB was R&D The

burner used as not installed. was TV

a helium

heater

on

the

* *

instrumentation S-IC had two

installed looking

on

ai] at

stages, F-I

i

cameras

the

engines. * Recoverable S-II stages. cameras were mounted on the S-IC and

O
4O
I

APOLLO

6

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Pacific Ocean 27°40'N., Okinawa Time: 5:55 p.m. EST, Aprll 4, 1968 157°59'W.

Recovery Landing Recovery Spacecraft

Coordinates: Ship: USS

Recovery

REMARKS During the first stage burn a propulsion structural longztudinal coupling (POGO effect) was noted. At approxlmately 134 seconds GET all LTA instrumentation showed a sudden unexpected change in dynamic characteristics and airborne lightweight optical tracking system (ALOTS) photos showed debris coming from the SLA area. The S-IC/ S-II dual plane separation occurred normally. Approximately 260 seconds after S-II ignition, engines #2 and #3 cut off prematurely. The remaining engines maintained vehicle control through the subsequent portion of the S-II burn. This malfunction caused the S-II stage to burn approximately 58 seconds longer than the nominal time. The S-IVB/S-II separation therefore occurred approximately 59 seconds later than nominal. The first S-IVB burn was approximately 29 seconds longer than nominal due to the S-II malfunction and the subsequent automatic attempt to achieve the proper orbit conditions. Despite the unplanned usage of propellants during the first S-IVB burn, the vehicle loading had sufficient margin that the planned full duration translunar injection burn was still possible. The S-IVB restart sequence was initiated at the end of the second revolution, but the stage failed to complete the ignition sequence. Due to the failure of the S-IVB to reignite, an alternate mission was selected. This mission consisted of firing the service propulsion system (SPS) to attain the planned apogee of approximately 12,000 NM. To achieve this altitude a burn duration of 445 seconds was required,leaving residuals of sufficient for a second burn only 23 seconds. Because this low propellant quantity, of the planned second burn was not performed. The command module landed within 5C miles of the onboard targeted landing point and was recovered in good condition 41 by USS Okinawa.

(

.

" _

APOLLO

'7

APOLLO

7

(AS-205)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION i. 2.

PRIMARY

OBJI .fIVES CSM/crew

(All

Primal,

Objectives

Accomplished)

Demonstrate Demonstrate facilities Demonstrate

performance. vehicle/mission during a manned capability. support CSM mission.

crew/space performance CSM

3.

rendezvous

DETAILED i I '

TEST

OBJECTIVES AND MANDATORY OBJECTIVES

PRINCIPAL Launch i.

Vehicle: safing of the S-IVB.

Demonstrate orbital (Accomplished) Demonstrate launch (Accomplished) Qualify J-2 engine line modification.

(

2.

vehicle

attitude

control.

3.

augmented spark (Accomplished)

ignition

(ASI)

Spacecraft: i. Obtain data on the environmental primary radiator thermal coating (Accomplished) Obtain thermal 3. • data on the Block system. II control system degradation.

2. •

forward

heat

shield

protection

(Accomplished) unit orientation daylight

Perform an inertial measurement determination and a star pattern visibility check. (Accomplished) Perform inertial measurement the sextant. (Accomplished)

4.

unit

alignments

using

5. ; 6.

Perform guidance navigation control systemcontrolled SPS and RCS velocity maneuvers. (Accomplished) Demonstrate maneuvers. automatic guidance navigation control system

(Accomplished) and manual attitude-controlled

RCS

]

43

pRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED

APOLLO

7

7.

Evaluate control orbit.

the ability of system to guide (Accomplished)

the the

guidance navigation entry from earth

8.

Demonstrate automatic maneuvers.

the stabilization control and manual attitude-controlled (Accomplished) stabilization capability.

_ystem RCS

9.

Demonstrate CSM velocity control

control system (Accomplished) of the the environmission.

i0.

Verify the life support functions mental control system throughout (Accomplished) Demonstrate operation Monitor velocity Perform establish

I]. : 12.

in

the water management subsystems the flight environment. (Accomplished) system during (Accomplished) sightinqs to SPS

the entry monitoring changes and entry. star an and earth on earth horizon

13.

horizon

model.

(Accomplished) module

14.

Obtain data consumables.

all command/service (Accomplished)

15.

Demonstrate fuel cell water operations zero- g environment. (Accomplished) Perform burn in a service the space propulsion environment.

in

a

16.

system performance (Accomplished

17.

Demonstrate the performance of the command/service module - Manned Space Flight Network S-band communlcatlon system. (Accomplished) Verify thermal the adequacy of control system. the propellant (Accomplished) feed line

18.

19.

Obtain inertial measurement unit data in the flight environment.

performance (Accomplished)

20. !

Demonstrate the service propulsion system minimum impulse burns in a space environment. (Accomplished)

i
__ _ 44

o
I

_0_0

7

21.

Perform onboard of the scanning (Accomplished)

navigation telescope

using the technique landmark tracking.

I

22.

Obtain data on the stabilization control capability to provide a suitable inertial in a flight environment. (Accomplished) _erify automatic tank systems in Obtain the data on pressure a zero-g thermal fans of control of environment.

systems reference

23. • 24.

the cryogenic (Accomplished) with gas and without system. _
[

stratification the cryogenic

cryogenic

storage

(Accomplished) 25.
+

:_ updata link capability.

Demonstrate S-band (Accomplished) Obtain in crew

26.

evaluation

of

intravehicular

activity

.4

general•

(Accomplished)

_

27. 28. 29 •

Obtain system Operate

datathe flight on operation of the in environment. the secondary coolant

waste management (Accomplished) (Accomplished)

i i

loop.

Perform a command/service module-active rendezvous with the S-IVB. (Accomplished) Accomplish the backup mode of the gyro display coupler-flight director attitude indicator &lignment using the scanning telescope in preparation for an incremental velocity maneuver. (Accomplished) Demonstrate operation. the postlanding (Accomplished) ventilation circuit

30.

31. " 32. • , ,, i' 33.

Perform optical tracking of a target using the sextant. (Accomplished)

vehicle

Perform a command/service module - S-IVB separation, transposition and simulated docking. (Accomplished) Perform a manual (Accomplished) thrust vector control takeover. i

34.

i<
t

I

APOLLO

7

35.

Monitor the primary (Accomplished)

and

auxiliary

gauging

system.

36.

Demonstrate a simulated commandservice overpass of the lunar module rendezvous during the lunar stay. (Accomplished)

module radar

SECONDARY Launch i.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle: vehicle orbital lifetime.

Evaluate launch (Accomplished)

2.

Demonstrate CSM manual launch vehicle attitude control. (Accomplished)

orbital

Spacecraft: i. Obtain data on initial the spin mode as used (Accomplished) coning angles when in during transearth flight. _

2.

Demonstrate command/service module VHF voice communications with the Manned Space Flight Network. (Accomplished) Obtain data on the and service steady module state reaction performance. control

3.

subsystem pulse (Accomplished) 4.

Obtain data on propellant SPS cutoff and following burns. (Accomplished)

slosh damping following reaction control subsystem

5.

Verify that the launch vehicle displays are adequate to waTn reversal. (Accomplished)

propellant of a common

pressure bulkhead

6.

Obtain photographs of the command windows during discrete phases of _Accomplished )

module rendezvous the flight.

7.

Evaluate the crew optical alignment sight for _ocking, rendezvous and proper attitude verification. (Accomplished) Perform attitude manual out-of-window command/service module orientation for retro fire• (Accomplished) 46 O

\

8.

i )Q+ f ° + ........._ ..

%

APOLLO

7

9.

Monitor the and displays

guidance during

navigation control systems launch. (Accomplished)

,

i0.

Obtain data via the con_nand/service module Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft communications systems. (Accomplished) Perform maneuvers crew-controlled in three axes. manual S-IVB attitude

:-_

ii.

(Accomplished)

12.

Obtain data on the spacecraft-LM adapter deployment system operation. (Accomplished Obtain com_nand/service (Accomplished) Obtain color and selective, high and panchromatic areas. module vibratiop data.

_._

_ _
&

14.

quality film of

photographs with selected land

ocean

(Accomplished)

:

15.

Obtain selective, high quality, color cloud photographs to study the fine structure of the earth's weather OF manned flight flight flight THE system. MISSION flight. II Apollo space Spacecraft. suits. equipment. during a manned (Accomplished)

UNUSUAL I. 2. 3. 4. 5. " GENERAL
e

FEATURES First First First First First space

Apollo of of with Block the

Apollo crew from

full TV

support space

live national flight.

INFORMATION CM-101, SM-101 i

Spacecraft: Launch Launch

Vehicle: Complex:

SA-205 34

_

47

APOLLO

7

Flight

Crew_

O
Launch Launch Apogee: Perigee: Revolutions: Mission Time of Time: Azimuth: 245 90

Commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) 11:02:45 72 ° a.m. EDT, October

Walter M. Schirra, Donn F. Eisele Walter Cunningha_ ii, 1968

Jr.

NM NM 163 i0 7:11 days a.m. 20 hours October 22, 1968

Duration: Landing:

EDT,

SPACE

VEHICLE

AND

PRE-LAUNCH

DATA

Spacecraft Launch

delivered

to

KSC: to

May Cape

1968 Kennedy:

_%

t
vehicle stage stage delivered (S-IB) : (S-IVB) First Second March : April April 1968 1968 1968 45,374 lb. lb. I: • I

Instrument Spacecraft Space

Unit at

(IU) :

weight

liftoff: at liftoff: changes assembly was

vehicle

weight spacecraft

1,277,742 from was Block

Significant • • ' * •

A unified S-band Unitized

hatch

incorporated.

equipment crew

added. were incorporated. instru-

couches

Flight qualification and mentation were increased. Full crew support systems

operational

• •

were

incorporated. wu modified ()

Usage of non-metallic and docreased.

materials

i

Af'( _LLO

7

(
* A 60% oxygen/40% nitrogen was used during pre-launch phases of the mission. There was tubing in Armoring Fire were An cabln environment and early boost

'

*

an increased use of place of aluminum. of solder tubing

stalnless

steel

* *

joints

was oxygen

increased. ma_;k_

• * *

extinguisher incorporated TV

and emergency in the CM. was added.

onboard

camera

The capabilities of landing system were Com_nunication in corporated. A redesigned system

components _mproved.

of

the

earth

:

_ ;

*

modifications

were

*

cobra

cable

was

incorporated.

RECOVERY

DATA Area: West Atlantic 27°33'N., Essex 8:08 Time: a.m. 9:03 EDT, a.m. October EDT, 22, October 1968 22, 1968 Ocean 64°04'W. (Stable If) 1

Recovery Landing Recovery Crew

Coordinates: Ship: USS Time:

Recovery

Spacecraft

Recovery


f

REMARKS All primary accomplished. Apollo In 7 Mission addition, objectives all pl_ned not were successfully detailed test scheduled

;

objectives plus three _at were w_re satisfactorily accomplished. i i As pert of the effort to

originally

alleviate

fire

hazard

prior

to

c_in of and module 40% liftoff atmosphere and during was composed initial flight, 60% oxygen the command

I(

APOLLO

7

nitrogen. During this period the crew was isolated from the cabin by the suit circuit, which contained 100% oxygen. Sho "tly after liftoff, the cabin atmosphere was gradually enriched to pure oxygen at a pressure of 5 psi.
i

Hot the and .

meals a_d relatively complete freedom of motion in spacecraft enhanced crew comfort over previous Mercur Gemini flights. The service module SPS main engine

Z

:

_

proved itself by accomplishing the longest and shortest manned SPS burns and the largest number of inflight restarts. The SPS engine is the largest thrust engine to be manually thrust vector-controlled. Manual tracking, navigation, and control achievements included full optic-_i rendezvous, daylight platform realignment, optical platform alignments, pilot attitude control of launch vehicle, and orbital determination by sextant tracking of another vehicle by the spacecraft. The Apollo 7 Mission also accomplished the first digital auto pilot-controlled engine burn and the first manned S-band communications. All launch throughout vehicle systems their expected performed lifetime. satisfactorily All spacecraft "_

systems continued to function throughout the mission with some minor anomalies. Each anomaly was countered by a backup subsystem, a change in procedures, isolation, or careful monitoring such that no loss of system support resulted. Temperatures and consumables usages remained within specified limits throughout the mission.

i (%
50

i

t

APOLLO

8

APOLLO

8

(AS-503)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION i. , 2. {

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Primary

Objectives

Accomp]ished) support Saturn

Demonstrate crew/space facilities performance mission with CSM.

vehicle/mlssion during a manned

V

Demonstrate performance of nominal and selected backup lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) mission activities, including: a. b. Trans lunar injection; communications, and midcourse

CSM navigation, corrections; CSM consumables control.

,

c.

assessment

and

passive

thermal

(

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES AND MANDATORY OBJECTIVES

PRINCIPAL Launch i.

Vehicle: of the launch vehicle translunar injection to (TLI).

Verify the capability perform a free-return (Accomplished) Demonstrate the in earth orbit. Verify the the Apollo

2.

capability of (Accomplished)

the

S-IVB

to

restart

3.

modifications made to the 6 Flight. (Accomplished) in

J-2

engine

since

4.
4

Confirm the J-2 engine environment S-IVB stages. (Accomplished) Confirm the environment launch during

the

S-II

and

5.

vehicle lo_gitudinal the S-IC stage burn.

oscillation (Accompl_shed) the low

6. *

Verify that the modifications incorporated in S-IC stage since the Apollo 6 flight suppress frequency longitudinal oscillations (POGO). (Accomplished)

(
51

AI, OLLO

8

7.

Demonstrate the repressurization

operation system.

of the S-IVB (Accomplished) inject the trajectory. to safe

helium

heater

8.

Verify the capability to into _ lunar "slingshot" Demonstrate in orbit. the capability (Accomplished)

S-IVB/IU/LTA-B (Accomplished) the S-IVB stage

9.

i0.

Verify the onboard command and communication system (CCS) and ground system interface and the opezation of the CCS in a deep space environment. (Accomplished) J

Spacecraft: I. Perform a guidance, navigation, and control (GNCS)-controlled entry from a lunar return. Perform star-lunar horizon translunar and transearth sightings phases. system (Accomplished) '_

2.

during the (Accomplished) during trarslunar

3.

Perform star-earth horizon sightings and transearth phases. (Accomplished)

4.

Perform manual and automatic acquisition, tracking, and communication with MSFN using the high-gain CSMS-band antenna during a lunar mission. (Accomplished) Obtain data on the passive thermal control a lunar orbit mission. (Accomplished) Obtain data on (Accomplished) Demonstrate SLA (Accomplished) the spacecraft dynamic system during

"_."

5.

6.

response.

7.

panel

jettison

in

a zeco-g

environment.

8.

Perform lunar orbit insertion SPS GNCS-controlled burns with a fully loaded CSM. (Accomplished) Perform burn. a transearth (Accomplished) insertion GNCS-controlled SPS

9.

I0.

Obtain data on the CM crew procedures for lunar orbit mission activities.

and timmline (Accomplished)

ii.

Demonstrate CSM passiv, control (PTC)a modes and related communication thermal procedurea during lunar orbit mission. (Accomplished)

_

0
52 II

AP'_LLO

8

4 12. Demonstrate lunar orbit ground operational support mission. (Accomplished) for a CSM

13.

,

Perform lunar landmark tracking from the CSM in lunar orbit. (The intent of this objective was to establish that an onboard capability exi._ted to compute relative position data for the lunar landing mission. This mode will be used in conjunction with the MSFC state-vector update., (Partially Accomp!i qhed ) Prepare monitor during for translunar injection (TLI), and the GNCS and LV tank pressure display_ the TLI burn. (Accomplished) mldcourse

14.

15.

Perform translunar and transearth corrections. (Accomplishea)

SECONDARY Spacecraft: 4 i. Monitor

OBJECTIVES

the

GNCS

and

displays

during

launch.

(Accomplished) 2. Obtaln IMU environment. performance data (Accomplished) in the flight

3.

Perform star-earth landmark sighting navigation during translunar and transearth phases. (The intent of this objective was to demonstrate onboard star-earth landmark optical navigation.) (Partially Accomplished ) Perform an visibility IMU alignment and check in daylight. a star pattern (Accomplished)

4.

5.

Perform spa lunar orbit insertion and transearth injection burn_ an_ monitor the primary and auxiliary gauging systems. (Accomplished Obtain maimed data _n the Block II ECS p_.rformance during lunar return entry condlt_ons. (Accomplzshed) with MSFC using lunar distance. the performance (Ae_li|hed) the CSM S-band (Accomplished) of the Block II omni-

q

6.

7. ' I 8.

Communicate antennas at Dc_onstrate return entry.

}
|

f
_

thermal protectlon eyst_ 53

during a manned lunar

t

'

APOLLO

8

9.

Perform position plished Obtain orbit

a CSM/S-IVB on a lunar ) d_ta on CSM

separation and a CSM trans_issioD timplinp. (Accom o,

.

i0.

consumables

for

a CSM

lunar

mission.

(Accomplished)

ii.

Obtain photographs during the transearth, translunar and lunar orbit phases fo _ operational and scientific purposes. (Accomplished) Obtain data to determine the effect of RCS on the tower

12.

jettison motor, S-II retro and SM and other sources of contamination windows. (Accomplished)

exhausts the CM _
c

UNUSUAL I.

FEATURES First

OF manned

THE

MISSION V flight.

Saturn

2. 3. 4. 5.

First Highest First Deepest craft.

manned

flight yet

to

the

lunar by

vicinity. man - 36,228 surface. spaceiJ fps.

4

velocity live TV

attained of the

coverage of

lunar by

penetration

space

a manned

6.

First space gravity.

flight

on

which

man

escaped

earth's

GENERAL

INFORMATION CM-103, SA-503 39A commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) 7:51:00 72" _ocee 103.3 NM, Perigee 98.0 _J4 a.m. ::ST, December Frank Borman James A. Lovell, William A. And_;s 21, 1968 SM-103, LTA-B

Spacecraft: Launch Launch Flight Vehicle: Complex: Crew:

Jr.

I

Launch | Launch Earth

Time: Azimuth: Orbits

5,

0

I

APOLLO

8

I
[ }

"
Lunar Orbit: Initial Apocynthion thion 59.7 NM Circularized Perit_ynthion Mission ' Time of Duration: Landing: 146 hours 168.5 NM, Pericyn-

Apocynthion 59.7 NM 59 a.m. minutes EST,

60.7

NM,

49

seconds 27, 1968

10:50:49

December

A

SPACE

\q_HICLE Spacecraft

_ND

PRE-LAUNCH to module test

DATA KSC: (CSM) : August 1968 1968

delivered

Command/service , •i Lunar Launch module

I
i i

article to

(LTA) : KSC: 1967

January

vehicle stage stage

delivered (S-IC) : (S-II, :

First Second

Dece._er June

1968

?

Third

stage

(S-lVB):
unit weight in in earth lunar (IU) : at

December
Jm_uary liftoff: orbit: orbit:

1967
1968 6,133,880 lb.

Instrument Space Weight Weight vehicle placed placed

282,237 46,743

lb. lb.

Significant * Forward forward _,e to * SM

spacecraft

differences to

from

Apollo

7:

hatch was modified crew hatch. aft bulkhead a 1.4 tension

a combined

,

*

structure of

was

modified

assure

factor tie

safety. was

The CM-SM increased.

thickness

*

The SM/SLA interface was redesigned install bolts from outside.

to

i

APOLLO

8

* Couch strut and lockouts * A change orated. to

load/stroke added. foldable

criteria

were

reduced

crew

couches

was

incorp-

* The spacecraft from _ twn-wire * An S-band

ground intercom to a four-wire antenna automatic was

was converted syster'. included.

high-gain antenna added.

* A high-gain system was

reacqui_ition

* The ECS radiator redesigned. * Aluminum * The

flow

proportioning

valve

was

CO 2 absorber onboard jettisonable

elements software SLA

were was panels

a_ded. installed. was incorp-

Collossus to

* A change orated. * The * POGO Van

AII_

Belt

dosimeter was

was

added.

instrumentation particle

added. system was arm added. rest

* A nuclear * The was

detection

right-hand deleted. nt

crewman's

right-hand

* A redund, play

launch

vehicle

attitude

error

dis-

w_!, added.

Significant * The

launch ASI's in

vehicle the J-2

changes engine

from were

Apollo

6: i , _ I

modified, low

* The S-IC frequency

stage was longitudinal

modified to oscillations.

suppress

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Pacific Ocean

_,

Recovery

Landing

Coordinates:

165°I'W.

8°8'N.

(Stable

II)

O

i

s6

APOLLO

8

.

Recovery Crew

Ship:

USS Time:

Yorktown 12:20 Time; p.m. EST, December 27, 1968

Recovery

Spacecraft

Recovery

13:20 p.m. EST, December 27, 1968

REMARKS • All primary Apollo 8 mission objectives were completely accomplished. Every detailed test objective was accomplished as well as four which were not originally planned. The AS-503 Space Vehicle featured several configuration details for the first time, including: a Block II Apello Spacecraft on a Saturn V Launch Vehicle, a manned spacecraft on a Saturn V Launch Vehicle, an 02H 2 gas burner on the S-IVB for propellant tank repressurlzation prior to engine restart, open-loop propellant utilization systems on the S-II and S-IVB stages, and jettisonable SLA panels.

For this Operations
and launch

first Apollo successfully
window

flight to the Iunar vicinity, Mission coped with lunar launch opportunity
and injected the S-IVB into

;
_ i

constraints

a lunar "slingshot" trajectory to prevent recontact with the spacecraft or impact on the moon or earth. Apollo 8 provided man his first opportunity to personally view the backside of the moon, view the moon from as little as 60 NM away, view the earth from and reenter the earth's atmosphere corridor at lunar return velocity. over 200,000 NM away, through a lunar return

All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily throughout their expected lifetimes. All spacecraft systems continued to function satisfactorily throughout the mission. No major anomalies occurred. Those minor discrepancies which did occur were primarily procedural and were corrected in flight with no mission impact. All temperatures and consumables usage rates remained within normal limits throughout the mission.

57

m

APOLLO

9

APOLLO

9

(AS-504)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION i. _ 2.

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

{All

Primary

Objectives

Accompl_s_ed)

Demonstrate crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities performance during a manned Saturn V mission with CSM and LM. Demonstrate Demonstrate LOR mission a. b. c. d. LM/crew performance. of nominal including: LM and selected backup,

!
3. performance activities,

Transposition, Intervehicular Extravehicular SPS and DPS

docking, crew

withdrawal;

transfer;

capability; burns;

_ 4.

e.

LM-active

rendezvous

and

docking. r

CSM/LM

consumables

assessment,

DETAILED

TEST

OBJECTIVES AND MANDATORY OBJECTIVES I

PRINCIPAL Launch i.

Vehicle:

Demonstrate S-IVB/IU attitude control capab; ,ty during transposition, docking, and LM ejection (TD_E) maneuver. (Accomplished)

I

Spacecraft: , i. 2. _ 3. Perform LM-active rendezvous. (Accomplished) pzopulsion/

Determine DPS duration vehicle interactions. Verify system,

effects and primary (Accomplished.) of passive

satisfactory performance t%ccomplished )

thermal

sub-

.

pR_ING 59

PAGE BLAN_ ND_ _ W_D

t

APOLLO

9

4. 5.

Demonstrate

LM

structural

integrity.

(Accomplished)

Perform DPS burn including throttling, docked; and a short duration DPS burn, undocked. (Accomplished 1 Perform long d r tion APS burns. (Accomplished) system (ECS) per(Accomplished) gear re|

6. 7.

Demonstrate environmental control formance during all LM activities. Obtain sulting temperature data on from DPS operation.

8.

deployed landing (Accomplished) (EPS)

9.

Determine electrical primary and backup. Operate Perform system landing radar

power system (Accomplished) during DPS

performance,

i0.
1

burns.

(Accomplished

ii.

abort guidance (CES)-controlled

system (AGS)/control electronics DPS burn. (Accomplished)

12.

Perform primary guidance, navigation, and control system (PGNCS)/digital auto pilot (DAP)-controlled long duration APS burn. (Accomplished) Demonstrate RCS control of matic PGNCS. (Accomplished) Demonstrate (Partially Demonstrate AGS/CES. S-band and Accomplished RCS control (Accomplished) VHF ) of LM using manual and auto-

i

13.

14.

communication

compatibility.

15.

LM

using

manual

and

automatic

16.

Demonstrate CSM attitude burn. (Accomplished) Demonstrate Demonstrate Demonstrate Demonstrate LM-active LM ejection

control,

docked,

during

SPS

17. 18. 19.
\

docking. from SLA

(Accomplished) with CSM. (Accomplished)

CSM-active CSM-active

docking. undocking. unit

(Accomplished) (Accomplished) (IMU) performance.

20. 21.

Verify inertial (Accomplished)

measurement

22.

Demonstrate guidance, (GNCS)/manual thrust

navigation, and control system vector control (MTVC) takeover.

f'_

APOLLO

9

23.

Demonstrate LM (Accomplished)

rendezvous

radar

performance.

24.

Demonstrate LM/Manned S-band communications Accomplished ) Demonstrate

Space Flight capability.

Network (MSFN) (Partially

25. 26. 4 27. 28. 29.

intervehicular

transfer

(IVT).

(Accomplished)

Demonstrate AGS data in flight. Perform Perform LM LM IMU

calibration and (Accomplished) alignment.

obtain

performance

_Accomplished

)

jettison.

(Accomplished)

Obtain data impingement performance.

on reacticn control system (RCS) plume and corona effect on rendezvous radar (Accomplished) during

30.

Demonstrate support facilities performance earth orbital missions. (Accomplished) Perform check, Prepare plished IMU aligr_ent and daylight docked. (Accomplished) for ) CSM-active rendezvous star

( -

31•

visibility

32.

with

LM.

(Accom-

i

33.

Perform IMU alignment (Accomplished) Perform Perform landing radar

with

sextant

(SXT),

docked•

34. 35. •

self-test. activity.

(Accomplished) (Accomplished)

extravehicular OBJECTIVES

SECONDARY Launch

Vehicle: Verify Verify S-IVB J-2 restart capability. (Accomplished) (Accomplzshed) in S-II stage.

B

1. 2. 3.

engine

modification. environment

Confirm J-2 engine (Accomplished) Confirm vlronment launch during

4.

vehicle S-IC

longitudinal stage burn

oscillation period.

en-

(Accomplished)

APOLLO

9

5.

Demonstrate O2H 2 burner tion. (Accomplished) Demonstrate Accomplished S-IVB )

repressurization

system

opera-

6.

propellant

dump

and

safing.

(Not

7.

Verify that modifications incorporated in stage suppress low-frequency longitudinal (Accomplished) Demonstrate 80-minute restart capability.

the S-IC oscillations

8. 9.

(Accomplisht,

d

i

!

Demonstrate dual (Accomplished) Demonstrate O2H2

repressurization

capability.

10. ii.

burner

restart

capability.

(Accomplished) system the

Verify the onboard command and communications (CCS)/ground system interface and operation space environment. (Accomplished)

in

Spacecraft: i. Obtain (LET), 2. Evaluate

exhaust effects S-II retro, and crew performance

data from SM RCS on of all

launch CSM. tasks.

escape tower (Accomplished) (Accomplished)

_"_ _"

_i

3. 4. 5.

Perform Perform

navigation unman,-ed

by APS

landmark

tracking.

(Accomplished) (Accomplished)

}

burn-to-depletion. effects on

Obtain data on (Accomplished) Perform CSM/LM (Accomplished) FEATURES Largest OF THE

DPS

plume

visibility.

J

6.

electromagnetic

compatibility

test.

UNUSUAL i. 2.

MISSION yet placed in orbit. Spacecraft in lunar

payload

First launch of Saturn mission configuration. First demonstration of

V/Apollo

3.

S-IVB

second

orbital

restart

capability. 4. First CSM-active docking. ()

62

i %

_;i

APOLLO

9

(
5. 6. First First of LM First manned inflight and CM. Apollo LM systems performance and demonstration. hatch opening

depressurization

i
i

7. 8.

extravehicular transfer in shirt

activity. between sleeve docked interenvironment. and docked

! i 9.

First intervehicular face of two vehicles

First docked SPS burns with DPS burns with LM guidance. First demonstration (black and white). F_rst First First another LM TV. rendezvous spacecraft for an of lunar

CSM

guidance

I0.

module

TV

camera

iI. 12. 13.

LM-active time one

and was

docking. configured burn. from

,
GENERAL Launch Launch Flight

spacecraft

unmanned

!
i

INFORMATION CM-104, SM-104, LM-3

Spacecraft:

Vehicle: Complex: Crew:

SA-504 39A Commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) Ii:00:00 72" NM NM (Highest) (Lowest) I0 days 01 hour EST, 53 seconds 13, 1969 a.m. EST, March 3, James A. McDivitt David R. Scott Russell L. Schweickart 1969

Launch Launch Apogee: Perigee: Mission Time of

Time: Azimuth: 271.8 97.8

Duration: Landing:

12:00:53

p.m.

March

(
"63

i

APOLLO

9

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH to module (LM) : delivered (S-IC) : (S-II) : (S-IVB) unit weight in earth :

DATA KSC: (CSM) : 1968 KSC: 1968 October 1968

delivered

Command/service Lunar . Launch module

June to

vehicle stage stage stage

First Second Third

September May 1968

September September liftoff:

1968 1968 6,397,055 lb.

Instrument Space : Weight vehicle placed

(IU): at

orbit:

292,091

lb.

Significant is compared Command * " * * * * * *

spacecraft with LM-I Module hatch

differences from Apollo which was flown on Apollo

8

(LM-3 5):

Forward A general

emergency timer added

closing was to

link

was

added.

purpose RTV camera probe, was

added. side and hatch was windows. added.

A precured _he S-065

experiment ring, and

equipment latches were added. RCS

Docking An RCS

added.

propulsion valve

burst was

disc to

was the

A solenoid system. The S-band changed to The fllght

added

propellant

'

*

power amplifier configuration 0006 configuration. quallfication recorder wes

was

*

deleted.

64

APOLLO

9

Lunar * ' * * * I * *

Mod;,le operational operational flight flight flight of to to flight flight VHF use use of of oxygen water supply control and tracking engine of the module. module.

First First First First First

transceiver exterior ascent

dlplexer. light. assembl?.

arming abort

First operational section. First operational

flight

guidance

• i

* *

flight

of

the radar

rendezvous electronic

radar. and

First flight of the antenna assembly. First flight assembly. First flight using

landing

*

thrust

translation

controller

* *

to

use

orbital

rate

drive.

The CO 2 partial pressure correct EMI, vibration, A high-reliability with the S-band A pressure switch

sensor was modified to and outgassing problems. added for use

* , * *

transformer was steerable antenna. was added to the in

RCS. the rendezvous

Thermal insulation was radar antenna assembly. Landing gear was

modified

.

* *

installed. coated cabin and docking

High-efficiency windows were A split AC

reflective added. was added.

*
\

bus

* *

A more Manual control

reliable

signal

processor was added to

assembly descent

was

added.

trim shutdown assembly.

engine

(-+,
--+.,,_
-+

65

APOLLO

9

*

StabiLization and fied to eliminate Fire A TV preventive camera was

control single

assembly No. failure point. materials

[ was

modi-

* *

and

resistive

were

_dde i.

added.

Spacecraft-LM * * * * The SLA

Adapter panel charges for were LM redesigned. was added. were added. i

A spring The The LM

ejector separation

separation

sequence

controllers was deleted. from Apollo

POGO

instrumentation vehicle

Significant
:

launch Stage film R&D

chaDges

8:

S-IC * * * * * *

The The

camera

system

was was

deleted. reduced. was installed. °A ! _

instrumentation F-I cameras engine were

A redesigned Television Propulsion

injector removed. was

performance

increased.

Weight was reduced bv removal of forward skirt insulation and revising "Y" rings and skin taper in propellant tanks. Stage flight of lightweight tension were structure. plates were redesigned.

S-II * * * . * *

First

Separation The The J-2

planes

engines

uprated. was reinforced. (PU) system was changed

thrus%

structure

The propellant utilization to closed loop.

0

APOLLO

9

S-[VB * * *

Stage battery kit was was capacity deleted. was reduced.

Instrumentation The The anti-flutter J-2 engine Unit

uprated.

Instrument j * * The

methanol

accumulator

was

enlarged. control of launch

Networks to disable spacecraft ",e],icle were changed. One The instrume;-_t S-band battery was was

* * RECOVERY DATA

removed.

telemetry

deleted.

Recovery Landing Recovery Crew

Area:

Atlantic

Ocean 23°13'_ (Stable I)

Coordinates: Ship: USS Time:

67e56'_, Guadalcanal 12:50 Time: p.m. 2:13

Recovery

EST, p.m.

March EST,

13, March

1969 13, 1969

Spacecraft RE}_%RKS

Recovery

A mild virus respiratory illness which infected all of the Apollo 9 crew members was the primary factor in the decision to reschedule the launch from February 28 to II:00 EST, March 3, 1969. This decision to reschedu!e was made February 27, 1969 in order to assure the full recovery and good health of the astronauts. The countdown was accomplished without any unscheduled holds and was the fourth Saturn V on-tAme launch. The Apollo 9 launch was the first Saturn V/Apollo Spacecraft in full lunar mission configuration and carried the largest payload ever placed in orbit. Since Apollo 9 was the first manned demonstration of lunar module systems performance, many firsts were achieved. These were hlghlAghtad by CSMand LM-active rendezvous and docking, the first Apollo EVA, This intervehicular contained and flight also transfer the in second orbital restart capabAlity. first shir% demonstJration sleeve environment. of S-IVB

67

APOLI,O

9

In

tnc

thlrO

day

ot

the

I]IISSIOll

,

LM[

_

_5¢?tt_'t'ick_tl

[

_'tl-%

struck

by nausea

and

this

illness

ca,ast,_:

_ _m,_l

dela_ from the normal timelir_c _n the donning c.,t pressure suits and in the transfer to the LM. It also cau:_ed shortening of the propos<,d f_VA [.,la_,. Later ti:c next mornlng, CDR McD_vitt asst,ss_,d I,NI Schweickart's condltion as excellent and wl'_ ,jrou_: control concurrence decided to extend h_s k' ,_ct_viti_s. Tl,c Apollo 9 crew had remarkable success i;: : ]ghtlr,g objects uslng the cre_nan optical alignment sight (COAS). Their success seems to conflrm the tnesls that _i_, visual e acuity of the human eye is Jncreaseu In ::pace. ane example is their sighting of the l'cgasus I, Satellite at a range of approximately 1,000 miles. All primary objectives were successfully accomplished ti_e Apollo 9 flight. All mandatory and princlpal detailed test objectives were accomplished, except two, and these two were partially accompllshed. One secondary dump and _etailed test objective, the safing, was not accomplished. 5-1VB propellant o_

All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily throughout their expected lifetimes with the , ception of inability to dump propellants following th_ thirc S-IVB burn. All spacecraft systems continued to function satisfactorily throughout the mission. NO ma3or anomalies occurred. Those minor discrepancies which did occur were primarily procedural and were corrected in flight with no mission impact, or involved instrumentation errors on quantities which could be checked by other means. Temperatures and consumables _sage rates remained generally throughout the mission. within normal limits

)

_ ! !

J

1

i

i
68 _
t

APOLLO

iU

APOLLO

i0

(AS-5051

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Primary

Objectives

Accompl1._hed)

i.

Demonstrate crew/space facilities performance wlth CSM and LM. Evaluate LM environment. performance

vehlcle/mission during a manned

supporL lunar mlssiun

,

2.

in

the

cislunar

and

lunar

DETAILED

TEST

<gBJECTI_ES

PRINCIPAL Spacecraft: i.

AND

MANDATORY

OBJECTIVES

(
2. 3.

Demonstrate CSM/LM landing mission.

rendezvous capability (Accomplished)

for

a lunar

Perform manual and automatic acquisition, tracking, add communications with MSFN using the steerable S-band antenna at lunar distance. (Accomplished) Perform lunar landmark tracking in lunar orbit. (Accomplished) Perform the CSM lunar landmark tracking with the LM attached. from the CSM while

4.

in lunar orbit (Accomplished)

from

5.

Operate the landing the moon and during

_adar at the closest approach DPS burns. (Accomplished) procedures and a lunar landing

to

6.

Obtain data on the CM and LM crew line for the lunar orbit phase of mission. (Accomplished) Perform P_NCS/DP$ (DOI) and a high undocked descent thrust maneuver.

time-

7.

orbit insertion (AccoLplished)

SECDNDA1R¥ Launch C I.

OBJECTIVES

Vehicle= O-2 engine _iftaations. (Ac_lished

Veri_y

69

i

APOLLO

] _'

2.

Confirm stages.

J-2 engine environment (Accomplished)

in

S-It

and

_-IVB

3. ,

Confirm launch vehicle longitudinal environ_nt during S-IC stage burn (Accomplished)

oscillation perxod.

4.

Verify that modifications incorporated in stage suppre_ low freq,'ency longitudinal oscillations. (Accomplished) Confirm launch vehicle longitudinal envzronment during S-II stage burn (Accomplished) Demonstrate that early center stage suppresses low frequency tions. (Accomplished)

the

:_-]C

5.

oscillation period.

6.

engine cutoff longitudinal

for S-If oscilla-

Spacecraft: i. Demonst.ate distance. Communicate antennas at LM/CSN/MSFN communications (Partially Accomplished ) with MSFN using lunar distance. at lunar

2.

the LM S-band (Accomplished)

omni-

3.

Obtain data on the rendezvous radar performance capability near maximum range. (Accomplished) Obtain supercritical helium system pressure while in standby conditions and during all engine firings. (Accomplished) Perform an umnanned (Accomplished) Obtain data on ranging during (Accomplished) AG$-controlled APS burn. data DPS

and

4.

*

5.

6.

the operational capability an LM-active rendezvous.

of

VHF

7. Obtain data on the effects of lunar illumination and contrast conditions on crew visual perception while in lunar orbit. (Accomplished) Obtain during data on a lunar the passive thermal control mode orbit mission. (Partially Accomplished thermal control (Accomplished) modes dur-

3 i

i
) i-_

8.

9.

Demonstrate ing a lunar

CSM/LM passive orbit mission.

i) !
! L

70
•L
....... ° I

APOLLO

I0

I
i0. Demonstrate the staged control. RCS translation and attitude LM using automatic and manual (Accomplished) of the AGS to (Accomplished) during perform _ontroi AGS/CES of

ii.
Z

Evaluate the ability active rendezvous.

ax_ LM-

12.

Monitor PGNCS/AGS performance operaLzons. (Accomplished) Demonstrate operational support orbit mission. (Accomplished) Pezform a long (Accomplished) Perform trolled lunar burns to duration

lunar

orbit

13. ' 14.

for

a CSM/_I

l_r,ar

unmanned

APS

burr_.

_ i

15.

orbit with

insertion a docked

using CSM/LM.

SPS

GNCS-con-

(Accomplished) in the flight

16.

Obtain data environment.

verify IMU performance (Accomplished) test using docked.

17. i 18.

Perform a reflectivity high-gain antenna while Perform ejectio_ Perform

the CSM S-band (Accomplished)

CSM transposition, after S-IVB TLI translunar

_ocking, and CSM/LM burn. Q_ccomplished corrections.

)

19.

midcourse

(Accomplished) 20. Obtain ment. AGS performance (Accomplished) data in the flight environ-

21.

Perform st_r-lunar transearth phase. Obtain landing landing FEATURES

landmark sightings (Accomplished)

during

the

22.

data on LM consumables for a simulated mission, in lunar orbit, to determine mission consumables. (Accomplished) OF THE MISSION inflight opportunities:

lunar lunar

UNUSUAL

Provided i. 2. Lunar Docked

these orbit

first-time rendezvous. landmark

L

lunar

tracking.

t

t:

I

APOLLO

i0

3.

L_nar module steerable antenna operation at d_sta1_c,_s greater than those of low earth orbit enabling its evaluation under conditions for wi_ich it was designed. Descent propulsion system (DPS) engine burn ±I; t]_e lunar landing mission conf _...... +{_ _nd environment Lunar landing mission profile powered descent, lunar surface Low level (47,000 feet) simulation activity, of (except f,_r and ascent l . lunar visibility. of earth

4.

_.

6. 7.

evaluation

Docked albedo Lunar lunar

CSM/LM thermal control and during long periods module omni-directional distance.

in the absence of sunlight. antenna

8.

operation

at

9.

Abort guidance burn o_'er the VHF ranging

system (AGS) operation during an APS range of inertias for a lunar mission. a rendezvous. {

i0. ii.

during

Landing radar the reflected detected.

operation near lunar environment where energy from the lunar surface is

12.

Transposition, docking, and LM after the S-IVB burn where the hold from attitude and the earth. while the

ejection S-IVB is

in in is

daylight inertial movxng away

spacecraft

13. 14.

Translunar

midcourse

correction

with

a docked

CSM/LM.

Lunar module digital uplink assembly first (replaces digital command assembly used on First Largest Largest launch from Pad B of launch in in e_rth lunar complex orbit. orbit.

flight LM-3) . 39.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

payload payload of

yet yet

placed placed TV

Demonstration

color

camera. and photographic 2 and 3. evalua-

Manned navigational, tion of lunar landing

visual, sites

©

APOLLO

lO

p

20.

Manned visual and photographic evaluation of possible landing sites in Apollo belt areas. Acquisition of major quantities training materials for Apollo lunar landing missions. Acquisition photographs INFORMATION CM-106, SM-106, LM-4 of of

of range l_ighi_nd_

21.

ii

of pnotographic and subsequent

22.

numero,_s visual observations scientific significance.

and

GENERAL

Spacecraft: Launch Launch Flight

Vehicle: Complex: Crew:

SA-505 39B Commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) 12:49 72 ° p.m. EDT, May 18, 1969 Thomas P. Stafford John W. Young Eugene A. Cernan

Launch Launch Earth

Time: Azimuth: Orbit: Apogee Perigee: :

102.6 99.6

NM NM

Lunar

Orbits: Initial 59.6 NM Apocynthion/Pericynthion (LOI-I) : 170.4 NM x

Circularized Apocynthion/Pericynthion 61.5 NM x 58.9 NM LM LM LM Descent Phasing Insertion Orbit Insertion: 190 NM 61._

(LOI-2)

:

4 8.4 NM NM NM

Maneuver: Maneuver:

x 11.2 NM

45.3

x 11.2

Final Mission Time of

LM/CSM :

Separation: 192 hours

63.2 3 minutes May

MM

x 55 23

NM

Duration Landing:

seconds

\
_

12_52:23

EDT,

26,

1969

73

APOLLO

i0

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH to

DATA KSC: (CSM) : November 1968

delivered

Command/servlce Lunar Launch module

module (LM) :

October to KSC: November

1968

vehicle sta_e stage stage

delivered (S-IC): (S-iI) : (S-IVB) : unit weight in in earth lunar (IU): at

Filst Second Third

1968 1968 1965 1968 6,412,250 lb.

December December December

Instzument _pace Weight Weight
"|

vehicle placed placed

liftoff: orbit: orbit:

294,947 69,429

lb.
Z_

lb. Apollo 9_ (

_ignlficant ComJnand *

spacecraft Module

differences

from

The VHF ranglng capability to CSM/LM rendezvous radar Module ranging capability

was added (RR).

as

a backup

t

Lunar *

The VHF backup.

was

added

as

an

RR

*

The CM to LM power transfer capability after LM stage separation was incorporated to extend hold capability between docking and final LM/CSM separation. The CM/LM power transfer redundancy as a power transf.er backup. The EVA EVA antenna planned for was deleted Apollo i0. because was provided

*

*

there

was

no

*

Digital uplink voice output (up to 20 increased because it was required for distance communication. Landing gear was added to p 1%U_

db) was lunar

*

deployment mechanism protective shield prevent possible malfunction due to DPS

_)

impingement.

,

74

;

APOLLO

i0

*

Ascent added

stage plume heat to improve thermal

blanket and control.

venting

was

* '

A separate was added lights. An APS

power source for utility/floodlight to prevent simultaneous loss of both

*

muffler

was

added

to

prevent

APS

regulatur

"
. *

loss.
RR and VHF simultaneous The TV bus isolation RR and VHF was was provided loss. to prevent

* *

camera

deleted. was used for the

Luminary 1 first time launch Stage

(LM onboard program) (Sundance for LM-3). vehicle changes from

Significant S-II * (

Apollo

9:

Center of

engine

early

cutoff

was

planned

as

a means

eliminating Stage

longitudinal

oscillations.

S-IVB *

A redesigned helium regulator valve to correct an SA-504 malfunction. Unit

was

substituted

Instrument *

Instrument incorporated the launch

unit network change (software) was to enable SC control of LV during phase and translunar injection.

* •

Insulation and damping compound were added to improve vibration damping and IU load-carrying capability.

"

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Southwest Pacific 165°W. Ocean (Stable I)

Recovery Landing

Coordinates:

15"S.,

.

--

75

APOLLO

I0

Recow_ry Crew

Ship:

USS Time:

Princeton 1:31 Time: p.m. 2:22 EDT, p.m. May 26, i969 26, 1969

Recovery

Spacecraft

Recovery

ED'£, May

PlUM.ARKS The most complex mission yet flown in the Apollo Program was performed in tJ_e full lunar landing configuration, paralleling as closely as possible the lunar landing mission profile and timeline. Extensive photographic coverage of candidate lunar landing sites provided excellent data and crew training material for subsequent missions. This was the fifth on-time Saturn V launch. Nineteen color television transmissions (totaling 5 hours 52 mh_.utes) of remarkable quality provided a world audlence the best exposure yet to spacecraft activities and spectacular views of the earth and the moon. The LM pericynthion of 47,000 feet was the closest man had come to the moon, and the crew perception of the proposed The and mission was nominal in transearth navigational reported landing all major accuracy excellent areas. visual . ! _ ' { {

respects. Translunar was so precise that

only two of seven allocated midcourse corrections were required, one each during translunar and transearth coast weriods. Significant perturbations in lunar orbit, resulting from differences in gravitational potential, were noted. Subsequent mission LOI burns can be biased to compensate for these effects. All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily during their expected lifetimes. Spacecraft systems generally performed satisfactorily throughout the mission. One exception was the No. 1 fuel cell which had to be isolated from the main bus, but work-around procedures made it available for load sharing, if required. Another problem was the occasional difficulty with direct LM-earth communications. Two incidents of unexpected motion occurred prior to and during LM staging. Data indicates unscheduled transfer of the abort guidance system mode from "Attitude Hold" to "Automatic." A number of minor discrepancies occurred which were either primarily procedural and were corrected in flight with no mission impact, or which involved instrumentation errors

0
76 --_- _

APOLLO

i0

on quantities cameras that

that could malfunctioned

be

checked by other means. Two were returned to earth for

'

failure analysis. All detailed test objectives were met, except for two secondary spacecraft objectives that were Dartia!ly accomplished• Five other major activities not defined as detailed test objectives were fully accomplished. Flight crew performance was outstanding. Their health and spirits remained excellent throughout the mission. Unexpected bonuses from the mission were several sightings of individual SLA panels long after TD&E, three sightings of the jettisoned descent stage as it orbited the moon at low altitude, and a few sightings of the receding S-IVB stage with the naked eye, once from nearly 4000 miles as it tumbled and flashed in the sunlight•

" •

77

,

%

APOLLO

11

(
APOLLO II (AS-506) FLIGHT SUMMARY
+'

MISSION

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVE lunar

(Accomplished) landing and return.

Perform

a manned

DETAILED i. 2.

OBJECTIVES Collect

AND

EXPERIMENTS sample. (Accomplished) perform into the

a contingency

Egress 7rom the LM to the lunar 3urface, lunar surface EVA operations, and ingress LM from the lunar surface. (Accomplished) Perform lunar (Accomplished) Obtain data ment on the on LM surface operations with the

3.
l

EMU.

!

4.

effects of and obtain

DPS and data on

RCS the

plume impingeperformance skirt

of the LM landing after touchdown. 5.

gear and descent (Accomplished)

engine

Obtain data on the lunar surface characteristics from the effects of the LM landing. (Accomplished) Collect Determine surface. Obtain lunar Bulk Samples. of the (Accomplished) LM on the lunar ! !

6. 7.

the position (Accomplished) on the

8.

data

effects on crew

of

ill_mlnation

and

contrast conditions (Accomplished) 9. • i0. i

vlsual

perception.

Demonstrate procedures back contamination of plished ) Deploy Package a. b. the Early Apollo whioh

and hardware used to the earth's biosphere•

prevent (Accom-

Scientific included the

Experiments followingz (Accompllshad) (Accom-

(EASEP)

S-031, 5-078, plished

Passive Laser )

Seismic Ranging

Experiment. P_tzo-Reflector.

t

7#

I

AbOT,LO

iI

11.

bepl<,y and retrieve E:<i,©r!ment, S-080.

the Solar Win-_ Composition (Accomplished) (helmet

12.

Ourf{_r_ Cosmic Lay Detector Experiment _:ortlon) , S-151. (Accomplished) Perform Lunar Field Accomp ] ished ) o].taJn period. Obtain period. Geology, S-059.

]3.

(Partially

]4.

television coverage (Accomplished) photographic coverage (Accomp lish_=d )

during

the

lunar

stay

15.

during

the

lunar

stay

U'$L£UAL i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

FEATURES First First First First First First Largest

OF manned lunar

THE

MISSION landing EVA. deployed on moon. on moon. on moon. and return.

lunar surface

seismometer laser solar lunar

reflector wind soil

deployed

experiment samples yet placed test in

deployed brought in to

earth. orbit.

payload

lunar

First lunar module envi ronme nt. Acquisition graphs, and significance. First (MQF)

total

operational

9.

of numerous television

visual observations, photoof scientific and engineering

i0.

operational use of the and the lunar receiving

mobile quarantine facility laboratory (LRL).

GENERAL

INFORMATION CM-107, SM-107, LM-5

Spacecraft: Launch Launch

Vehicle: Complex:

SA-506 39A N

I

8O

E

APOLLO

Ii

Flight

Crew:

Commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) 9:32 a.m. EDT, July 16, 1969

Neii A. Armstrong Michael ColliNs Edwin E. Aldrin,

Jr.

Launch
I

Time: Azimuth: Orbit: Orbits

Flight Earth Lunar

72° 102.9 x 103.7 NM

and

Events: (LOI-I) : 168.6 NM x

Initial 61.2 NM

Apocynthion/Pericynthion

Circularized Apocynthion/Pericynthion 65.7 NM x 53.8 NM LM Descent Orbit: 57.2 NM x 8.5 NM

(LOI-2)

:

Landing Site Coordinates: 0.647°N. latitude, 23.505 ° E. longitude (Tranquility Base) Lunar Landing Time: Lunar 4:17:40 Surface: p.m. EDT, July p.m. 20, EDT, 1969

First Step on July 20, 1969

10:56:19

LM Liftoff from July 21, 1969 Luna Final Mission Time of insertion LM/CSM Duration: Landing:

Lunar

Surface:

1:54:00

p.m.

EDT,

i i I

Orbit:

45.2 Orbit: 18 p.m.

NM

x 9.0 62.6

NM NM x 54.8 seconds 24, 1969 NM

Separation 195 hours

i J

minutes EDT,

35

12:50:35

July

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH to

DATA KSC: January 1969 to KSC: 1969

delivered

{

Command/service Lunar module:

module: January

I

Launch

vehicle

delivered

!

(

First

stage

(S-It),

February

1969

81

APOLLO

11

5]econc! st,_le Thlr_! stage Instrument Space Weiqht Weiaht vehlcle F]acec_

(S-If) : _g-IVB) :

Februar/ January February

1969 1969 1969 6,398,325 ]_ .

imit welght

(IU): at

liftoff: orbit: orbit:

in earth

297,848 72,038 from

lb. lb. Apol]o !0:

p]ac,'(! [_, lunar s_cecraft

Signlflr:_nt

differences Module

Com10and/Se_v__ce * The, b]anket the forward Modu],, antenna

type insulation hatch.

was

removed

from

Lunar *

A _IF

was

added

for

extravehicular

activity *

(EVA)

coverage. (LCG) heat removal

A liquid cooling garment _'=ubsystem was added. The ascent engine weight engine. The base modified was

*

replaced

with

a

lighter

*

heat shield on by the removal

the descent of H-film.

stage

was

*

Reaction control system were added for each of thrusters. The landing gear thermal

(RCS) plun_ deflectors the lower four RCS

* *

protection

was

increased.

The descent propulsion system (DPS) engine gimbal drive actuators were modified f the removal of the polarizer and armature and by tn _ installation of new ",rake material. An erectable stage. _pollo Scientific in the Experiments descent stage. Package S-band antenna was carried on the

*

descent * The Early

(EASEP)

was

carried

APOI,LO

11

Slgnitlcant S-IC *

launch Staqe

vehicle

chanqes

from

Apollo

i0:

Research and development deleted. Only operational was retained.

in?trumentation instrumen[ati_n

was

._

*

The accumulator bottles were pneumatic control system.

deleted

from

the

S-I T Staqe * The insulation improved. on the engine start tank was

*

Cork insulation was added in hot-spot ramp areas.

over

the

spray

foam

= '
|

*

An automatic checkout system was for the infliaht helium injection Stage for the

incorporated system.

I (

S-IVB *

Additional instrumentation was installed and wired to

the IU.

O2H 2 burner

!

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Mid-Pacific Ocean ' N., 169o09.4 ' W. (Stable If)

1

Recovery Landing Recovery Crew •

Ccordinates: Ship: USS Time:

13o15.25 Hornet 1:57 Time: p.m.

Recover_

EDT, p.m.

July EDT,

24, July

1969 24, 1969

Spacecraft

Recovery

3:57

REMARKS The first manned lunar planned and all primary fully accomplished

landing mission
mission

_ t

was objectives

conducted as were success-

such that only one midcouree correction durln,_ tranblunar The accuracy maneuvers ast _retrajectories was coast and one of injection during transaarth cc, and requlre_.. As


,|

83

APOLLO

11

a result cf Apollo 10 lunar orbit experience, the 50[-2 burn wa:_ biased to achieve a slightly eccentric _rbit (65.7 x 53.8 NM). It was anticipated that this would compensate for variations in lunar gravity eftoct and that tho CSM orbit would becomc circular by the tlme of LM _endezvous. Subsequent measurements showed that this effect did not occur as rapidly as expected and that the CSM orbit did not become circular. The LM powered descent initiation maneuver was performed on tirol at rericynthion on the descent orbit, however, this position was about 4 NM downrange from the planned poinf app.ar_n_]y due to an accumulation of uncoupled aatitude _,aneuvers during the last two revo]ution,_ prior to PDI. This resulted in the landing point b:l*A9 shifted downrange about 4 NM. During the final approach phase, the crew noted that ti_e LM was headed fc _ the general area of a large, rugged crater, filled with boulders of 5 to 10 feet in diameter. The CDR took manual attitude control and translated the LM to a landing point approximately 1000 feet farther (_

downrange. _he crew adapted quickly to the lunar environment and conducted the lunar surface activities as planned, including the collectien of two lunar core samples and a considerable amount of discretely selected _urface material. The LMP had to exert a considerable force to drive the core tubes an estimated 6 to 8 inches uc_p. The crew spent a total of 5 manhours of EVA on the lunar surface. The total lunar stay time was 21 hours 36 minutes. Approximately 46 pounds of l/nat samples were returned to earth. All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily th_'oughout their expected lifetime_nd all spacecraft systems continued to function sat. Zactorily throughout tha mission. No major anomalies occurred. New biological isolatlcn procedures and poEt-recovery operations were executed successfully. Flight crew crew members performance remained w_s outstanding and excellent health. all three

in

-

84

I

APOLLO

12

4

l

_nO ....

{AS-

_}

_T

SUMMARY

MISSION i.

PRIMARY Perform sampling

OBJECTIVES

(All

Primary

Objectives survey,

Accomplished) and

selenologJcal inspection, in a mare area. Apollo

2.

Deploy and activate the ments Package (ALSEP). Develop techniques for

Lunar

Surface

Expezz-

3. 4.

a point to wor_

landing in the

capability. lunar

Develop man's en vi ronme n t. Obtain

capability

5.

photographs

of

candidate

exploration

sites.

DETAILED

OBJECTIVES (All

/hND EXPERIMENTS Principal Detailed sample. EVA opexations. the following: Objectives Accomplished)

PRINCIPAL i. 2. 3.

Co]lee, _ a co**tinq_ncy Perform Deploy a. b. c. d. e. f. lunar ALSEP surface i,which Passive Lunar Solar

included Seismic

S-031, S-034, S-035, S-036, S-058, M-515,

Experiment. Magnetometer Experiment. Experiment. Experiment. Gauge E_:periment.

Surface Wind

Spectrometer !cn Detector

Supratherma! Cold Lunar Cad,ode Dust

Ionization Detector.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Collect Recharge Perform

selected the Lunar

samples. life Geology, coverage support S-059. of candidate exploration systems.

por%able Field

Obtain photographic sit£s •

.L

APOI,LO

12

8.

Obtaln 0!ta on the lunar surface characteristics from the effects of the LM landino. C. c n Jst data on the effects on crew of of illumination and

9.

conditions the

vlsual LM on

perception. the lunar

!0.

Determine surface. Ferform

position

the

]i. _2.

selenodetic retrieve S-080.

reference the Solar

point Wind

update. Composition

Deploy and Experiment,

13.

Perform Lunar ment, S-]58.

Multispectral

Photography

Experi-

LE CONDARY i. Investigate and obtain from the Surveyor III samples for spacecraft. during earth return (Accomplished) the lunar ., the ) lunar stay -o_

2.

Obtain photot_-aphic coverage stay period. (Accomplished) Obtain period.

3.

television coverage during (Partially Accomplished

UNUSUAL I.

FEATURES

OF

TIIE MISSION of the S-IVB stage to perform an evasive

First use man_ uver. First Largest First use

L. 3. 4. 5.

of

a hybrid yet

trajectory. placed of in lunar orbit. capability. (about

payload

demonstration

a point surface

landing EVA

First use of two 4 hours each). First First First ALSEP

lunar

periods

6. 7. 8.

dep]oyed of of

on the

the

moon. S-band life antenna. system.

deployment recharge

erectable

the

portable

support

9.

First

documented

samples

returned

to earth.

(

]

i T

I

APOLLO

12

i0.

First use cf geologists traverse in real time. First double core--tube

to

plan

a

lunar

surface

Ii. 12.

sample from

taken. a prior lunar landed

First return of samples vehicle (Surveyor III). Longest First distance multispectral lunar surface yet

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

traversed photography stay to to

on

the

lunar lunar

surface. orbit.

from date.

",ongest Z )ngest Largest

lul,ar mission payload yet

date. from the lunar surface.

returned

GENERAL

INFORMATION CM-i08, SM-108, LM-6

Spacecraft:

(

Launch Launch Flight

Vehicle: Complex: Crew:

SA-507 39A Commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) 11:22 : 72 o x 99.9 NM a.m. EST, November 14, Charles Richard Alan L. 1969 Conrad, Jr. F. Gordon, Jr. Bean ! i

Launch Launch Earth Lunar

Time: Azimu_1 Orbit: Orbit

102.5 and

Events:
i

i

Initial x 62.6

Apocynthion/Pericynthion NM

(LOI-I):

16_.8

NM

!
(LOI-2):

Circularized Apocynthion/Pericynthion 66.1 NM x 54.3 NM LM Descent Orbit: 60.6 NM x 8.1 NM

Landing Site Coordinates: 23.418"W. longitude

3.036 ° S.

latitude,

(
87 ,

APOLLO

12

Lunar

Landing

Time:

01:54:35 Surface:

a.m.

EST,

November a.m. EST,

19,

1969

LM Liftoff from Lunar November 20, 1969 Lunar Insertion Orbit: on

09:25:47

46.3 Lunar

NM

x 8.8

NM 5:17:!.6 p.m. EST,

Ascent Stage November 20,

Impact 1969

Surface:

Ascent Stage Impact 21.17°W. longitude Ascent Ascent Mission Time of Stage Stage Impact Impact 244 ]:58

Coordinates:

3.95°S.

latitude,

Velocity: Weight: hours p.m. 36 EST,

5502 5254 minutes November

fps

pounds 24 seconds 24, 1969

Duration: Landing:

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH

DATA to KSC_

delivered

Command/service Lunar Launch module:

module March

: 1969 to May May May

March

1969

_

'

vehicle stage stage stage

delivered (S-IC) : (S-II) : (S-IVB):

KSC: 1969 1969 1969

First Second Third

Instrument Space Weight Weight vehicle placed placed

unit weight in in

(IU) : at

May

1969 6,484,780 300.056 72,212 lb. lb. Apollo II: lb.

liftoff: orbit: orbit:

I

earth lunar

Significant

spacecraft

differences

from

Command/Service •

Module and the side lunar multif_& %2

\

Experiment S-158 was incorporated hatch window pane was changed for spectral photography.

APOLLO

12

(
* The was reaction control suppressed. system (RCS) engine arc * An inertial measurement guard was added. Stowage Surveyor samples. Module The display and support and release position. and keyboard assembly (DSKY) table were modified to enhance actuation from the stowed to the operatlng was modified III samples unit (IMU) power switch

*

to provide for return of and increased lunar surface

Lunar *

*

The ascent stage to an all-welded Stowable sleeping hammocks comfort.

propellant tanks configuration. were added for

were

redesigned

*

increased

crew

*

The

bacteria hatch

filter valve.

was

deleted

from

the

forward *

Stowage was modified Surveyor III samples s ar,_pes. l

to provide for return of and incre,_sed lunar surface

*

Landing gear and p1_,_me deflector insulation was reduced. Extravehicular activity stowage was modified. (EVA)

thermal

*

equipment

* •

Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package was installed to replace the Early Apollc Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP). launch Stage vehicle changes from Apollo

(ALSEP)

Significant S-IVB *

ii:

The telemetry system for the S-I_ star was changes by adding one SSB/FM llnk to provide increased acoustic and vibration measurements.

"

I:i

APOLLO

12

]

RECOVL RY

DATA Area: Mid-Pacific Ocean 165°ii'W. (Stable [[)

Recovery Landing
J

Coordinates: ShipUSS Time:

15°47'S., Hornet 4:58 Time: p.m. 5:49

Recovery Crew

Recovery

EST, p.m.

November EST,

24,

]969 24, 1969

Spacecraft

Recovery

November

_)_ARK S Launch vehicle performance was satisfactory throughout its expected lifetime except for the S-I\r% slingshot maneuver. The spacecraft systems functioned satisfactorily during the entire mission except for the perturbations caused by an electrical anomaly which occurred shortly after liftoff. Communications were very good except for occasional problems with the high gain antenna (HGA). The spacecraft and launch vehicle were involved in two electrical potential discharges during the first minute of the flight. The first, at 36.5 seccnds after liftoff, was from the clouds to earth through the vehicle and was visible to launch site observers. The second occurred at 52 seconds witJ, the vehicle in the clouds. The discharge at 36.5 seconds disconnected the fuel cells from the spacecraft buses and damaged nine instrumentation measur,_ments. The discharge at 52 seconds caused tumbling of the spacecraft inertial platform. Both discharges caused a temporary interruption of spacecraft communications. Many other effects were noted on instrumentation data from the launch vehicle, which malfunctions from the The due not apparently discharges. sustained no permanent "_

: :

S-IVB slingshot maneuver was initiaeed on schedule to IU state vector errors, the slingshot maneuver achieve the desired heliocentric orbit but r_ther eccentric geocentric orbit.

but, did a

highly

Lunar orbit insertion (LOI) was performed in two separate maneuvers, LOI-I and LOI-2, using the service propulsion system (SPS). The LOI maneuver resulted in a CSM/LM position some 4 to 5 NM north of the expected gro_Id track prior to descent orbit insertion (DOI). This crossrange error was known prior to DOI and was corrected during the powered descent maneuver.

%2

"

90

APOLLO

12

o

,

4

The guidance comput was updated during powered descerLt to compensate for indications that the trajectory was coming in 4200 feet short of the target point. The initial crossrange distance was continuously reduced throdghout the brakina phase. At entry into the approach phase _spacecraft's trajectory was very close to nominal. Redesignations were incorporated during the approach phase. The crew took over manual control at about 370 feet, passed over the right side of the target crater, then flew to the left for landing. The commander reported extensive dust obscuring his view during final descent. The actual landing point is determined to be about 600 feet from the Surveyor Ill spacecraft. The ascent stage deorbit retrograde burp was initiated and burned slightly longer than planned. This resulted in lunar impact about 36 NM short of the target point. Impact occurred about 39 NM southeast of Surveyor III. On several occasions during the mission, communications with the CSM experienced some degradation due to inability of the HGA to hold lock. Two special HGA tests were conducted during the transearth coast to attempt to identify the cause of the anomaly. Results indicate that the problem appears to be ( associated with probably in the the Apollo 12 mission. All the dynamic thermal microwave circuitry operation of in the narrow the antenna, beam mode.

crew performance scheduled lunar

was outstanding throughout the surface scientific activities

were performed as planned within the allotted time periods, During the first EVA the ALSEP uxperiments were deployed and began twansmitting scientific data. Real-time planning for the geological traverse of the second EVA was accomplished jointly by the crew and earth-based scientlsts. All planned Surveyor activities were performed and, in addition, retrieval of the Surveyor scoop containing a surface sample was accomplished. Approximately 75 pounds of samples were collected during the two 2-man EVA's which totaled 7 hr. 45 min. The traverse d_stance was approximately 2 km.

7 i

|

1

.

91

J

APOLLO

13

APOLI.O

13

(AS-508)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

,_

MISSION i.

PRIMARY Perform sampling of the

OBJECTIVES

(None

Accomplished)

:_
z

selenological of materials Fra Mauro

inspection, survey, and in a preselected region
,>

Formation. an Apollo (ALSEP). Lunar Surface _ in the i_ candidate exploration

2.

Deploy and Experiments

activate Package

3.

Develol, man's capability lunar environment, Obtain sites. photographs of

to work

4.

DETAILED

OBJECTIVES VEHICLE Secondary Objectives - Both Accomplished

LAUNCH

O

I

lunar Impact of the expended S-IVB/IU on the surface within 350 km of the targeted impact point of 3°S., 30°W. under nominal flight profile conditions to excite ALSEP I. Post-flight determination of actual S-IVB/IU point of impact within 5 kin, and time of impact within 1 second.

o

SPACECRAFT i. ' 2.

AND

LUNAR Sample

SURFACE

(None

Accomplished)

Contingency

Collection,

Deployment of the _ollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP I_,', which included the following: a. b. c. d. S-031 S-037 S-038 S-058 Lunar Lunar Charged Cold Pa.siv, Heat Seismology.

Flow. L_nar Environment. Gauge.

Particle

Cathode

Ionization

e.

M-515

Lunar

Dust

De11:ecrtor.

BLANK NOT

93

pAGE
I

APOLLO

13

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ii. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Selected Lunar

Sumple

Collection. (S-059). Exploration Sites.

Field

Geology of of

Photographs Evaluation Television EVA

Candidate Lnnding

Accuracy

Techniques.

Coverage. System Performance.

Communication Soil

Lunar

Mechanics. Reference Closeup Point Update. (S-184).

Selenodetic Lunar Thermal CSM Surface

Photography

Coating

Degradation. Photography (Includes S-182).

Orbital

Science Lunar

Transearth Solar EMU Wind

Photography. (S-080). Measurement. (S-178). .. _

Composition Consumption From

Water

Gegenschein Dim Light

LL'nar Orbit

Photography. Transponder Radar Experiment Experiment (S-164). (%q4F Portion Only)

CSM/LM Downlink (S-lT0)

S-Band

Bistatic

UNUSUAL i. 2. 3. 4.

FEATURES Use of

OF

THE

MISSION
0

backup _ ort_d impact

CM

pilot. Mission. S-_VB/IU on the lunar surface.

First First

Apollo of _he

First use of l_mar module to provi_A emergency propulsion and life support after 1088 of service module systems.

94

APOL],O

I

CENERAL

k{4 [()EMATI O_4 CM-_09, SM-'99, LM-7

:]pacecr:_ftLaunch Launch Flight

Vehicle: complex: Crew:

SA-50 B 39A Commander (CDR) '<ommand Module Pilot (CMP) Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) 2:13 p.m. /2 ° I00.2 to x 98.0 the NM Surface: 142.8 NM EST, April ii, James A. Lov_ll, Jr. John L. Swigert, Jr. Fred W. Haise, Jr.

Launch Launch Earth

T_me: Azlmuth: Orbit:

1970

Closest. S-IVh/IU

Approach Lunar

Lunar

Impact: p.m. EST, 8465 Approx. 2.4°S., 11.5 hours Apr_l fps 80 ° to 27.9°W. tons 54 of TNT 41 seconds 17, 1970 .
%

Time: Velocity Angle Lunar Energy Mission Time of

8:09:40 of

14,

1970

Impact:

of

Impact:

the

horizontal

Location: Equivalent:

Duration: Landing:

142

minutes EST, April

1:07:41

p.m,

SPACE

VEHICLE Spacecraft

AND

PRE-LAUNCH

DATA to KSC:

I

delivered

i
June 196g

'

Command/serviue Lunar Launch module.

module; June 1969 to

vehicle stage

delivered (S-It) _

KSC, 1969

First

June

Second

stage

(S-IX):

Jtw_e I%6t

L

APOLLO

13

Third

stage

(S-IVB) unit

:

June July

1969 1969 6,421,259 296,463 from flown from Apollo 12: lb. Apollo 12: lb.

Instrument Space Weight vehicle placed

(IU) : at

weight in earth

liftoff: orbit:

Significant None Significant

spacecraft significant launch to

differences mission

vehicle

differences

A fourth battery was added to uhe instrument unlt to extend command communications systems tracking to assist S-IVB/IU lunar impact trajectory and corrections.

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Mid-Pacific Ocean '' S., 165o21'42 '' W. (Stable I) -_ .w EST, p.m. April EST, 17; April 1970 17, 1970

Recovery Landing Recovery Crew

Coordinates: Ship: USS Time:

21°38'24 Iwo Jiu.a p.m.

Recovery

1:53 Time:

Spacecraft

Recovery

2:36

REMARKS The Apollo 13 Mission was plan.-ed as a lunar landing mission but was aborted enroute to the moon after about 56 hours of flight due to loss of service module cryogenic oxygen and consequent loss of capability to generate electrical power, to provide oxygen and to produce water in the conmmnd/service module. Shortly after the anomaly, the command/service module was powered down and the remaining flight, except for entry, was made with the lunar module providing all necessar_ power, environmental control, guld_ ce and propulsion. Launch stag_ until vehicle performance was satisfactory through first (S-IC) boost and into second stag_ (S-II} boost the S-II center engine shut down approximately

,

_j

,.

)

AI'_ _I,I.,,' IJ

J

,

,

132 seconds early. Low frequen('y _,'_ci]l,_ttc;ns (14 to 16 hertz; were experienced on the S-i[ staue and resulted in the early. shutdown . . To compensate f(_r the early center• . engine c,Itoff the remaining four enqines burned approximately 34 seconds longer than init_.al]y planned. Resultant S-IT stage cutoff vel(JcJt'/ was 223 fe_:_ ;,_,_ second Ifps) lower than planned. As a result, the 5-[Vh (rb:ta] insertion burn was Jpproxlmately 9 seronds Icnqer than predicted with cutoff velocity within about 1.2 fzs of planned. Total launch vehicle burn time was appr_)xlmately 44 secc_nds longer than predicted. At termin_ti_m <f the orbltal _n._,ertion burn, a greater than _-slgma prc)h,d-lllty of meeting translunar injection cutoff conditicms ,:xlsted wlth remaining S-IVB propellants. The TLi buln w_ l_,,I_l_dl. Tht' planned S-]VB evasive maneuver and the subsequc_,t LOX dump" told Auxiliary i_ropuis_on System (APS) burn were accomplished as planned. The S-IVB/IU impacted the lun_-r surfac_ • at 77:56:40 GET (08:09:40 p.m, EST, April 14) at 2.4°S., 27.9°W. and the seismometer deployed during the Apollo 1Z miFsion successfully detected the impact as a sulsmic sigr_l 20 to 30 times larger and four times longer than that caused by the impact of the Apollo 12 LM ascent stag,_.. The target impact point was ii0 NM from the seisThe mometer, actual impact point was approximately 35 _M from the target point and about 85 NM from the seismometer. Spacecraft systems performance was nominal until the fans in cryogenic oxygen tank 2 were turned on at 55:53:18. About 2 seconds after energizing the fan circuit, a short was indicated in t_he current from fuel cell 3, which was supplying power to cryogenic oxygen tank 2 fans. Within several additional seconds, t% other shorted conditions occurred. Electrical shorts in t_e _rcuit ignited the wir_ insulation, causing t_mpe., ai:d pressure increases within cryogenic oxygen t ",-: 9_er. the pressure reached the cryogenic oxygen kamk _i--• ._Ive fu11-flow conditions of 1008 psia, the pressure wegan : "_easi:,g for about 9 seconds, at which time the re _' , ire probably reseated, causing tl,e pressure to rise _.' _oment_rily. Abo_t 1/4 second la er, a vibration dis ' r" .rice was noted on the command module acceleromete_. The next series of second between the loss. A tank line jacket pressurizing events occurred within a fraction of a accelerometer disturbances and the data burst, because of heat, in the vacuum the annulus and., in turn, caused the

'

'

0
... 97

APOLLO

13

.

blow-out plug on the vacuum jacket to rapture. Some mechanism in bay 4 combined with the oxygen buildup in that bay to cause a rapid p_ ssure rise which resulted in separation of the .ter panel. The _.a;_el struck one of the dishes of the high-gain antenna. The panel separation shock closed the fuel cell 1 and 3 oxygen reactant shut-o_f valves and several propellant and hellum isolation valves in the reaction control system. Data were lost for about 1.8 seconds as the high-gain antenna switched from narrow beam to wide bean,, because of _o antennd being hit and damaged. Following recovery of the data, t_be vehicle had ex_er1_'nced _i translatior change of about 0.4 fps, primarily in a plane _ormal to bay 4. Cryogenic oxygen tank 2 pressure indication was at the lower limit readout value. The cryogenic pressure oxygen tank was de :aying 1 heaters rapidly. were on, and the tank 1

Fuel cells 1 and 3 operated for about 2-1/2 minutes after the reactant valves closed. During this period, these fuel cells consumed the oxygen trapped in the plumbing, thereby reducing the pressure below minimum requirements and causing total loss of fuel cell culrent and voltage output from these two fuel cells. Fuel cell 2 was turnea off about 2 hours later because of the _oss of pressure from cryogenic oxygen tank i. As a result of these occurrences, the C_" was powered down and the L' was configured to supply the necessary power and other consumables. The CSM was powered down at approximately 58:40 GET. The surge tank and repressurization package were isolated with approximately 860 psi residual pressure (approximately 6.5 pounds of oxygen total). The primary water glyzol system was left with radiators bypassed. The first mane,lver _ollowing the incident was made with the descent p_opulsion syst¢, at approximately 61:30 GET and placed the spacecraft once again on a free-return trajectory, with the altitude of =lo_est lunar approac_ raised to 143 miles. A maneuver that was performed with the descent engine 2 hourd after Fassing pericynthion reduced the transearth transit time from about 76 hours to 64 hours and moved the Indian Ocean to the South earth landln_ Pacific. TWo point small from the transearth

_ _ _-

miduourse corrections were required first occurring at about 105:18 GET propulsion s)'stem and the second at

prior ,'o enid.,; _e using the descent approximately 137:40

GET u_ing the lun_r module reaction uontrol system.

E_ %/

--

!

-

i

98

APOI,L() 1 3

i
All LM systems performed satisfacBo_-11y in providinq uhe necessary power nnd enviro,_mental cont_-cl to the spacecraft. The requlrement for lithium i . rox_de to remove carbon dioxide from the spacecraft atmosphere was met by a combination of CM and LM cartridges slnce the LM cartridges alone would not satisfy the total requirement. The crewmen, with direction fz'om Mission Control, built an adapter for the CM cartridges to accept the _M hoses. The _rvice module was jettisoned at dpproximat_;iy 138 hours GET, and the crew observed and photographed the bay-4 area where the cryogenic tank anomaly h_d occurred. At this time, the crew remarked that the outer skin coverlnq for bay-4 had been severely damaged, with a Jarge portlon missing. The lunar module was jettisoned about 1 hour _efore entr_, which was Derforr,ed ne_Hinall_' using the primary guidance and navigation _l:ste_. The performance of the flzght crew was e_cellent throughout hhe mission. The_.r ability to implement the new procedures developed and tested by the fl_ght operat .ons team was exceptional. Simllarly, performance -f ground based personnel, beth NASA and contr._ctor, in analyzing the problem, developing new procedu1"el and in r_h_ning the extensive test_ was outstanding. and simulations required to verify them

_" _ ,

-•

APOLLO

14

(
APOLLO 14 (AS-509) FLIGHT SUMMARY MISSION , i. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES (All Accomplished) Perform selenologlcal inspection, survey, and sampling of materials in a preselected region of the Fra Mauro Formation. Deploy and activate ALSEP. to work in the lunar

i

- _
J

2. 3.

Develop man's environment. Obtain sites.

capability

4.

photographs

of

candidate

exploration

DETAILED _
i

OBJECTIVES VEHICLE

AND

EXPERIMENTS Accomplished) on the lunar conditions. surface

LAUNCH o

(Both

_ _

Impact the expended S-IVB/IU under nominal flight profile

(-

o

Post-flight determination of actual S-IVB/IU point of impact within 5 km, and time of impact within 1 second. AND LUNAR Sample SURFACE Collection (Accomplished)

SPACECRAFT i. i 2.

Contingency Apollo ALSEP) Lunar which

Surface included

Experiment Package (Apollo 14 the following: (Accomplished)

i
t

. b. c. ' d. e. f.

Lunar Lunar

Passive Active

Seismology Seismology Ion Detector Wind

(S-031) (S-033) (S-036)

Suprathermal Low Cold Lunar Energy Cathode Dust

Solar

(S-038) Gauge (S-058)

Ionisation Detector

(M-515)

_

O
FRC DmG PAGEBLANKNOr

APOLLO

14

!

3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. i0. ii. 12. 13. 14.

Lunar

Geology of

Investigation Candidate

(S-059) Exploration

(Accomplished) Sites (Accomplished)

"_ { _'

Photographs Laser Soil Ranging

Retro-Reflector (S-200)

(S-078)(Accomplished)

Mechanics

(Accomplished) (S-198) (Accomplished) (Accomplished) Evaluation Update (Accomplished) 4 .

Portable Visibility Mobile

Magnetometer at High Sun

Angles

Equipment

Transporter Point

Selenodetic Bistatic CSM

Reference Radar (S-170)

(Accomplished)

(Accomplished) Tasks (Accomplished) (Accomplished)

Orbital

Photographic of EVA

Assessment CSM Oxygen

Operation

Limits

Flow

Rate

(Accomplished)

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. IN-FLIGHT

Solar Thermal EVA

Wind

Composition

(S-080)

(Accomplished)

(_

Coating

Degradation System Lunar

(Accomplished) Performance (Not Accomplished)

Communication From

Gegenschein S-Band

Orbit

(S-178)(Accomplished)

Transponder

(Accomplished) (All Accomplished)

DEMONSTRATIONS

Heat Liquid

Flow

and

Convection

Transfer • I

UNUSUAL i. 2. 3. 4.

Composite Casting Electrophoretic Separation FEATURES OF THE MISSION First First Longest Longest SPS use DOI of maneuver. the EVA mobile time yet equil_ent to date. on the lunar surface. transporter.

total

distance

traveled

2

_ _ ..... ,_-._o2,1 Nad,

:

• ,• '

,

..

APOLLO 5. 6. 7. GENERAL Largest First First weight use use of of of short the lunar samples

14 to date.

i

returned

!
I

rendezvous. In-flight Demonstrations

j

INFORMATION CM-II0, SA-509 39A Commander (CDR) Command Module Pilot (CMP) Luna_ Module Pilot (LM) 4:03 p.m. EST, January 31, Alan B. Shepard, Stuart A. Roosa Edgar D. Mitchell 1971 Jr. SM-II0, LM-8

Spacecraft: Launch
I

Vehicle: Complex: Crzw:

Launch Flight

Launch Launch Earth

Time: Azimuth: Orbit: Lunar

75.56 ° 100.2 x 99.2 NM

S-IVB/IU

Impact:

r

ime: Velocity Lunar Impact Lunar Orbit Initial Descent

of

i:01 Impact:

a.m. EST, 8,350 fps latitude lb.,

February

4,

1971

Location: Weight: and

7.81°S. 30,836

26.00°W.

longitude

Events: (LOI): NM NM latitude 17.48"W. , Time: 4:18 a.m. EST, 1:49 February p.m. EST, 5, 1971 169 x 58.4

Apocynthian/Pericynthian Orbit (DOI) 58.8 63.9 x 9.6

,

CSM

Circularlzation:

x 56.0 3.66"S.

Landing Site longitude Lunar Landing

Coordinates:

LM Liftoff from Lunar February 6, 1971 Ascent February Stage Zmpact 6, 1971 on

Suzfaoes

Lunar

Surface:

7t46

p.m.

F_T,

19. 660W.

longitll4e

103

+

APOLLO

14

Ascent Ascent Mission Time SPACE of

Stage Stage

Impact Impact 216 4:05

Velocity: Weight: hours p.m. DATA 01 EST,

5500 5067 minutes February

fps lb. 57 seconds 9, 1971

_

)

Duration: Landing: AND

VEHICLE Spacecraft

PRELAUNCH to

delivered

KSC: November 1969 KSC: 1970 1970 1970 1970 6,420,491 302,626 71,702 from lb. lb. Apollu 13: lb. O 1969

°

Command/Service Lunar Launch Module:

Module: November to

i
|

Vehicle Stage Stage Stage

delivered (S-IC) (S-II) (S-IVB) Unit Weight in in Earth Lunar (IU) at

First Second Third

January January January May

Instrument Space Weight Weight Vehicle Placed Placed

Liftoff: Orbit: Orbit:

_

Significant

spacecraft

differences Module

Command/Service *

The SM cryogenic oxygen tanks were redesigned to remove the fans; to eliminate, as far as possible, flammable materials; to improve the design for fabrication and assembly; and to replace teflon insulated conductors with stainless steel sheathed conductors. A third cryogenic oxygen tank with its piping was added in SM bay 1 to provide to existing two tanks. associated backup

*

_

104

APOLLO

14

£ !

_ *

A solenoid isolation valve was added to isolate the third oxygen tank from the other two. An auxiliary battery was added in SM bay 4 to provide electrical power backup if fuel cell power should become unavailable. Water bags having a 40# capacity enhancement were added

r_

*
I

}

* .

to provide return water system. , Lunar * M_dule

for the CSM

Anti-slosh baffles were added to the descent stage propellant tanks to improve PQGS flight performance and decrease propellant level uncertainty. Wiring was capability added to enhance power transfer from LM ascent stage to CSM. to the LM batteries from causing short

i

*

*

Modifications were made to prevent any free KOH

_ *

:_

circuits. Modifications were made to descent stage Quads I and II structure to provide for stowage of laser ranging retro reflector and the lunar portable magnetometer. launch vehicle (POGO). from Apollo 13:

Significant _ S-II *

Stage A center engine LOX feedline accumulator was

i"

added to alleviate potential 16 p_'opulsion oscillatlons (POGO). Hz structural/ * A backup center engine cutoff system was provided to eliminate possibility of high g loads developing t_ destructive levels. Two position mixture ratio _ntzol the valves inte-fa_e were

*

control system by eliminating with the IU ooq)uter.

C'
\ inoorporated to simplify propellant mixtuze

lOS

APOLLO

14

S-IVB *

Stage

Two position mixture control valves were incorporated to simplify the propellant mixture control system. significant configuration changes from Apollo 13:

Other

Crew *

Systems The buddy secondary life support system (BSLSS) was incorporated to provide capability to supply cooling water to an astronaut with a failed portable life support system (PLSS) from a working PLSS •

,

i

RECOVERY

DATA Area: Mid-Pacific Ocean 172°39'30"W. (Stable I)

Recovery Landing Recovery Crew

Coordinates: Ship: USS Time:

27°0'S., New Orleans p.m. 5:55

Recovery

4:53 Time:

EST, p.m.

February EST,

9,

1971 9,

(O

Spacecraft 1971 REMARKS

Recovery

February

Apollo 14 was 1971 after an T-8 and minutes rain.

launched at unscheduled 2 seconds,

4:03 p.m. 40 minute due to

EST on January hold occurred overcast

31, at

and

high

clouds

All launch vehicle systems performed satisfactorily throughout the expected lifetime. Following orbital insertion, all major systems were verified, preparations were completed and the S-IVB second burn was carried out as planned to insert the 8paceoraft into a translunar trajectory. Difflculties were encountered in the docking of the CSM and LM and a successful "hard dock" was not accemplished until the sixth attempt. Other aspects of the tranllunar journey were nominal and only one mldcourse correction was made. The S-IVB stage impacted the moon's surface, 88 planned.

,

.

....

The Apollo 12 passive seismomotez west of the impact point re_rded later.

located 169 kn norththe event 37 seoonds

,.._:

k2

106

APOLLO

14

(

!

, • ° " '

LM separation and descent were as pla**ned and it was reported that the LM landed on an 8 degree slope about 30 to 50 feet short of the planned target in the Fra Mauro area. Minor communications difficulties delayed the start of the first extra vehicular activity (EVA) period 49 minutes. During EVA-I, the Apollo lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP) was deployed approximately 500 feet west of the LM and the laser ranging retrorefl_ctor an additional 100 feet west of the ALSEP. The laser ranging team at the MacDonald Observatory in Texas reported high quality "returns" from the retroreflector shortly after deployment. All ALSEP experiments are now functioning as expected. EVA-/ was terminated after 4 hours and 49 minutes. Following hours and a rest period, the second EVA 27 minutes ahead of schedule. was started 2 The LM crew set equipment and the lunar also collected.

£

out on a geology traverse, using the mobile transporter (MET), to carry tools, cameras, portable magnetometer. Lunar samples were : _ i (
\

During the geology traverse, various samples, photographs and terrain descriptions were obtained. Two measurements were made with the portable magnetometer to determine variations in the moon's magnetic field. Difficulty encountered in traversing the rough terrain resulted in the furthermost point of the traverse being established short of the rim of Cone Crater in order to allow sufficient time for completing all mandatory scientific tasks in EVA-2. EVA-2 was terlslnated after a total of 4 hours 28 minutes. Approximately 169 pounds of samples were collected, and the total traverse distance for the two EVA's was 3.3 km. During the LM lunar surface stay various astronomic and lunar photographic tasks were performed from the CSM in lunar orbit. Ascent of the LM from the lunar surface, rendezvous and docking with the CSM were performed as planned. No docking problems were encountered but the docking probe was brought back to earth for post flight analysis. The LM ascent stage was impacted on the moon and signals were recorded by both the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 ALSEP_. During the return fllght from the moon four Infllght technical demonstrations of equlpment and processes designed to illustrate the use of the unique condition of zero-gravlty in space were performed.

"

!

,

107

APOLLO

14

i i

Only one midcourse correction was required during the transearth flight. The CM and SM separation, reentry and splashdown were carried out according to plan. The CM landed in the Pacific Ocean approximately 675 miles south of Samoa and about 4 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship USS New Orleans.

:

i

t

O

O
10|
h
I

APOLLO

15

i

!

APOLLO

15

(AS-510)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION I.

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Accomplished) and in region.

I

Perform selenological sampling of materials a preselected area of Emplace and activate

inspection, survey, and surface features the Hadley-Apennine surface experiments.

_•

2. , 3.

Evaluate the capability of the Apollo equipment to provide extended lunar surface stay time, increased EVA operations, and surface mobility. Conduct in-flight tasks from lunar OBJECTIVES VEHICLE AND experiments orbit. EXPERIMENTS Accomplished) on the lunar conditions. surface i_ and photographic i
4

4.

_ ,

DETAILED LAUNCH o

(Both

Impac_ the expended S-IVB/IU under nominal flight profile

(

o

Post-flight determination of actual of impact within 5 km, and the time one second. SURFACE (All Accomplished) Collection Collection Experiment the

S-IVB/IU point of impact within

LUNAR i. 2. 3. ' "

Contingency Documented Apollo ALSEP), a. b. c. d.

Sample Sample

(Apennine Package

Front)* (Apollo 15

Lunar which

Surface included

following"

Lunar Passive Seismology ($-031) Lunar Tri-Axie Magnetometez (8-034) Medium Energy Solar Wind (S-035) Suprathermal Ion Deteotor (8-036)

e. f. g.

Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge Lunar Heat Flow (S-037) Lunar Dust Detector (S-51S) * Part of I_nar Goolo_t

(S-0S8)

InvostLgstLoa

(8-059)

O
i09

APOLLO

15

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. i0. ii. 12. * IN-FLIGHT i. _' 2. 3.

Drill Laser Lunar LRV EVA EMU LM

Core

Sample

C_llection* (S-078) (S-059)

Ranging Geology

Retro-Reflector Investigation

Evaluation Communications Assessment Landing Wind of with Lunar LCRU/GCTA Surface

Effects

Evaluation (S-080)

Solar Soil Part

Composition (S-200) Geology

Mechanics of Lunar

Investigation

(S-059)

Gamma-Ray X-Ray SM a. b. c.

Spectrometer

(S-160)

(Accomplished)

Flourescence

(S-161) Tasks

(Accomplished)

Orbital

Photographic

0

24" Panoramic Camera (Accomplished) 3" Mapping Camera (Accomplished) Laser Altimeter (Partially Accomplished) (Accomplished)

4.

Subsatellite a. b. c.

S-Band Transponder (S-164) Particle Shadows/Boundary Layer Magnetometer (S-174) Radar (S-170) (Accomplished) (S-164) (S-162)

(S-173)

5. 6. ;. 8. 9. I0.

Bistatic S-Band

Transponder

(CSM/LM)

(Accomplished) (Accomplished) '

AI_ ,a-Particle Mass UV Spectrometer

Spectrometer (S-165) - Earth and Orbit

(Accomplished) Moon ($-177) (Accomplished) •

Photography

Gegenscheln Accomplished)

from

Lunar

($-175)

(Partially

I
I

ii. 12.

CM Photographic SZM Thermal

Tasks

(Accomplished)

Data (Accmmpllsh_l)

I

!ll
!

APOLLO

15

13. 14. 15.

SIM SIM

Bay Door

Inspection Jettison

During Evaluation from

EVA

(Accomp]isned) (Accomplished) Orbit (Acco,_ (Accomplished) ,d)

Visual

Observation Llght Flash

Lunar

16. Visual OTHER o o ° ° o UNUSUAL ( [. 2. (All LM

Phenomenon

Accomplished) Descent T_me Mineral Body Enqine and Performance Motion Study (M-078) (M-079)

Apollo Bone Total Apollo FEATURES First

Measurement Gamma

Spectrometry (S-176)

Window OF

Meteoroid THE use MISSION of 90-NM

Apollo of

earth

parking

orbit. to

First use the moon. First Largest (74,522 Highest manned First First use

direct,

minimum

energy

trajectory

3. 4.

of

scientific

instrument yet put

module in lunar

(SIM). orbit.

spacecraft lb.) lunar orbit mission. LM use landing of

payload

5.

inclination

(28.9 ° ) during

a

6. 7. • 8.

using

25" EVA

descent on the

trajectory. lunar surfaoe. of third laser

stand-up

Establishment of sensor networks by deployment station for the lunar passive seismometer and reflector experiments. First use of and PLSS ' s • First surface First use of extended capability CSM, LM, space

9.

suits,

10.

manned

]unar

roving

vehicle

and

lunar

11.

use

navigat$on of lunar

devices. (_lmm_lmat_

relay

unit

and

_ _

ground

_mmnndod

TV assembly. 111

_

J

.,',[:0 LLO

15

12. 13.

Longest

total

EVA

time yet

to

date

(18.6 9n the

hr.). lunar surface

Longest distance (27.9 km).

craveled

[4. Largest weight of date (Approx. 169 15. Deepest (7 ft. [6. First rifle 17.

lunar lb.) of

sample

material

returned

to,

core sample 6 in.). scientific areas.

lunar

material

yet

obtaln,,d

exploration

of

lunar

mountain

and

First TV sdrface. First Longest First First

observation

of

LM

ascent

from

the

lunar

18. 19. 20. 21.

launch manned EVA

of

a su: 3atellite duration CH TV in lunar space.

in

lunar orbit

orbit. (74 orbits), -i i

from

in deep and

in-flight

photo_

of

moon

during

solar

I

22.

eclipse. First lunar landing mission quarantine requirements. INFORMATION CM-112, SA-510 39A Ccmmandex Command Lunar (CDR) Module Module a.m. SM-II2,

with

no

post-mission

GENERAL

Spacecraft: Launch Launch Flight Vehicle: Complex: Crew:

LM-10

David Pilot (CMP) (LMP) 26, 1971 Alfred James

R. M. B.

Scot Wooden,Jr. Irwin

Pilot July

Launch

Time:

9s34

EDT,

O
112

!

APOLLO

15

Launch Earth

AzimuthOrbit: Lunar 4:59 of

80.088 ° 91.5 Impact: p.m. EDT, July 8455 29, fps. ii.87"W, longitude 1971 x 92.5 NF

S-IVB/IU Time:

Velocity Lunar Impact Lunar Orbits

Impact: loS. 30,786 events:

Location: Weight: and

latitude, lb.

Initial Descent DOI CSM

Apocynthian/Pericynthian Orbit 59.9 (DOI): _ 9.6 58.5 NM 64.7 x 53 NM x 9.2

(LOI) : 170x58 NM

NM

Trim:

Circuiarization:

• latitude, 3°39'E.

Landing Site longitude Lunar LM Landing

Coordinates:

26°05'N.

Time: Lunar

6:16

p.m.

EDT, I:ii

July p.m.

30, EDT,

1971 August EDT0 2, 1971

I,iftoff

from

Surface: on Lunar

Ascent August Ascent 0°IS'E. Ascent Ascent

Stage Impact 2, 1971 Stage Impact Iongltude Stage Stage Impact Impact

Surface: 26.22'

11:04 N.

p.m.

Coordinates:

latltude,

Velocity: Weight:

5562 5259

fp8

lb. EDT, _3 7, August seconds ]971 4, 1971;

Subsatellite 76.3 x 55.1 Mission Time SPACE of Duration: Landing: AND

Launch: 4:13 p.m., NM, 28.7 ° inclination 295 4:46 ho_rs p.m. DATA KSC: January 1970 March to : J_ly KSC: 1970 _971

Ii minutes EDT, August

VEHICLE

PRELAUNCH to

Spacecraft

delivered

Command/_ervice Lunar Lunar Launch Modules Roving

Module: November Vehicle:

19'71

Vehicle St_,_

DelIver_ (8-It)

First

E

Second St_Je (S-IX),
Third Stage (S-XVB) Unit Weight s Instrument Sp_e Vehlcle payload) (TU), st

May 1970
June June 1970 1970 6,407,758 lb. (107,142 lb.

k

| \

Llf£of£t

_

113
-

__._ __
,_'_ _.
I

f

/

APOLLO

15

Welght Weight

Pla_ed Placed

in Earth

Orbit:

309,330 _1,522

lb. lb.

J
i4:

,

in L_inar Orbit: spacecraft

Slgnific_nt

differences _

from

Apollo

Co_nand/Service *

Modu]

A third SM cryogenic ;I tank and associated 2 _ lumb±ng were adde¢_ for increased electrical power capability. A Scientific Instrument Module with a jettisonable door was added to bay IV of the SM, with ass(_cJated controls in the CM, to increase the in-flight science capability by thr operation of on-board sensors and a long-durat_on subsatelllte in ]unar orbit. A scientific data system was adde_ to collect and transmit SIM experiment and camera data, with the capability for real-time data transmission simultaneously with tape recorder playback of lunar farside data. environmental for in-flight control EVA by system was the CMD to modified retrieve to _ _J 1 _

*

*

*

THE CM provide

film from the SIM bay cameras, and a foot restraint were also Lunar * Module

and external handholds added for the EVA.

The descent stage propellant tanks were enlarged to provide for increased LM landing weight and landing point _election through longer powered descent burns. The descent the addition extension. engine specific impulse of a quartz liner and was increased by a ten-inch nozzle

*

*

A GOX tank, a water tank, and a new waste container the lunar stay time to 68 Stowage provisions quad I and for the quad III.

a descent stage battery, were added to increase hours. the LRV in pallet in

*

were incorporated for LRV-carried equipment

# .

114

;,,a_,
I

APOLLO

15

Crew *

Systems Provided

and A7L-B

Lunar

Mobility wlth improved mobllity

spacesuiu

and durability to increase the iun_r surface EVA efficiency and staytime, including increased drinking water and fruit bar provisions in the CDR and LMP suits and in-flight EVA capability for the CMP suit. * Modified _he life support system (PLSS) to increase 02 , H20, and LiOH quantities and battery power to increase the range and efficiency of lunar surface operations by extending the maximum EVA time to seven hours. Added the lunar roving vehicle and scientific return of lunar Added carried enhance TV * a lunar either uplink communications to increase the range surface traverses relay unit (LCRU), to and

<

**

*

*

on the LRV or by an astronaut, and downlink telemetry, voice, during lunar surface

i I

communications

traverses.

Added a ground commanded TV assembly (GCTA) to provide earth-controlled color TV monitoring of lunar surface activities through the LCRU, including LM ascent and post-liftoff lunar surveys. launch Stage Increased payload by increasing the Increased payload by removing four capability approximately 500 outboard engine LOX depletion capability approximate!y 100 of eight retro-rocket motors. lb. time. lb. vehicle changes from Apollo 14:

Significant S-IC *

*

*

Increased payload capability 600 lb. by reorficing the F-1 engines to provide greater thrust.
o i

S-II *

Stage Eliminated single engine failure payload capability approximately four ullage motors. Improved imately pressure reliability 210 lb. by regulators points 90 lb. and increased by removing

L

* " ,

and payload capability approxreplacing LH_ and LOX ullage with fixed 8rifices.

,

' ,

I

APOLLO

15

Instrument *

Unit power supply reliability + 28 volt power for the system. by adding ST-124 stabilized

Improved redundant platform

*

Modified the launch tower avoidance yaw maneuver which increased tower clearance assurance and reduced launch wind restrictions. Increased evert of computer DATA Area_ Mid-Pacific Ocean 158°09'W. (Stable I) 1 the accuracl, of TLI burn cutoff in the IU platform failure by modifying the CM to provide backup burn cutoff capability.

*

RECOVERY

Recovery Landing Recovery Crew

Coordinates: Ship: USS Time:

26°07'N., Okinawa 5:26 p.m.

Recovery

EDT,

August

7,

1971

Spacecraft REMARKS

Recovery

Time:

6:20

p.m.

EDT,

August

7,

1971

(_)

Apollo 15 was launched on time after an exceptionally smooth countdown. All launch vehicle systems performed nominally, except that the S-IVB J-2 engine delivered greater than predicted thrust, which had no adverse effects on the mission. TLI was performed as predicted and CSM separation, turnaroun_ and docking accomplished without problems. Spacecraft separation from the S-IVB/IU/SLA was accomplished shortly thereafter. Two S-IVB APS burns were performed to accomplish the targeted S-IVB/IU lunar impact. The actual impact was 188 km northeast of the Apollo 14 site and 355 km northeast of the Apollo 12 site. The impact provided seismic data to depths of 50-100 km vs. 30 km from previous impacts.

APOLLO

]. 5

t
Shortly after docking, during translunar coast, both telemetry and cabin indications identified an electrical short in service propulsion system (SPS) control circuitry and troubleshooting isolated the problem to the delta V thrust A switch or adjacent wiring. Special SPS burn procedures dev_loped and conducted for the MCC-2 maneuver indicated that SPS bank A could be operated satisfactorily in the manual mode for subsequent firings, all of which were performed successfully. The SIM bay heliocentric and cmueras door was successfully jettisoned into a orbit 4.5 hours before LOI. The SIM experiment were initiated successfully after LOI.

'

_

;

}

Because the high orbital inclination established a flight path over the major lunar mascons, the orbl_al decay rate was greater than anticipated. ADOI trim burn was performed with the SM RCS to change the orbit from 59 x 7.1 NM to 59.9 x 9 6 NM. CSM/LM undocking and separation were delayed 25 minutes because of a loose umbilical connector, after which the CSM "circularized" its orbit to 64.7 x 53 NM. After the LM landed at the Hadley-Apennine site, sightings performed by the Commander during his 35 minute stand-up EVA in the top hatch and sightings from the CSM fixed the landing site about 600 meters north-northwest of the target point. The first EVA traverse was conducted to the Apennine mountain front immediately after deploying the lunar roving vehicle (LRV). After the ]0.3-km LRV traverse on EVA-I the ALSEP was deployed and activated. One 150-cm probe of the Heat Flow Experlment was emplaced; however, the second probe was not completed until EVA-2 because of drilling difficulties with the batterypowered Apollo Lunar Surface Drill (ALSD). All ALSEP units operated normally and good data was received. The 300-cube Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector was deployed and has been acquired with greater ease than was possible with the previous smaller (100 cube) units. EV&-I was terminated at 6 hr. 33 man. due to higher than normal O. usage by the Commander, whose usage rate was normal on'subsequent EVA's. of

_ _,

.

The LRV traverse on EVA-2 was 12.5 km, during which ipeeds 12-13 kph were achieved and excellent _RV controllability and slope-climbing capability were demonstrated. Lunar samples were collected at the Apennine front and the secondary crater complex to the 0outh, and final station tasks were performed back at the ALSEP aite. The EVA-2 duration was 7 hr. 12 mln.

0
:'_ 117
I

APOLLO

15

EVA-3

featured

a

5.1

km

LRV

traverse

to

the

terrace

area

of

Hadley Rille, and samples, photography, and geologic descriptions were obtained. The 2.4-meter core tube drilling was completed, which produced a core sample of 58 distinct layers of various sized soil and rock materials. The 4 hr. 50 min. EVA was completed after positioning the LRV to monitor LM ascent with the LCRU/GCTA. The ascent stage lift-off was observed on TV; however, the LCRU unexpectedly stopped responding to signals on August 3rd, before the lunar sunset and solar eclipse could be observed. The new and improved lunar surface equipment, cc -_ined wlth the geologic training of the crew, produced outstanding scientific: achievements. The LRV averaged 9.2 kph during its 3 hr. 2 min. riding time with good navigational accuracy, yet consumed only half the expected battery power. The enhanced mobility of the spacesuits was quite evident on TV as the crew performed difficult tasks with increased dexterity. Linear patterns in the mountain slopes and the Hadley Rille wall structure were reported by the crew and extensively photographed, including 500 mm Hasselblad photographic surveys. Seventy documented samples, core tubes, trench samples, and comprehensive samples amounted to about 169 pounds of lunar material returned to earth. Of equal scientific significance was the performance of the in-flight geochemical experiments and CMP tasks during the six-day period in lunar orbit. The gamma-ray-spectrometer detected higher levels of radioactivity on the lunar farside, and lower average levels than that measured in the Fra Mauro samples. X-ray spectrometer data indicates richer abundance of aluminum in the highlands, especially on the farside, yet greater concentrations of magnesium in the maria. The alpha-particle spectrometer data indicates that radon diffusion on the moon is three orders of magnitude less than on earth. The mass spectrometer detected an unexpected population of molecules in lunar orbit. Although the velocity/height sensor was erratic, almost all

f_

of the panoramic camera's 6500 feet of film resolution stereo photography. The mapping excellent results with all 4700 feet of its

is usable as high camera achieved film. Laser 26

eltimeter performance star_ed to degrade during revolution _nd was inoperative after revolution 38; however, initial results were very significant in that the moon's center of mass was found to be offset.

O
118 ' _;_

APOLLO

15

,

The subsatellite particles and fields sensors returned excellent initial data, including detection of a new mascon near the east limb and indications that mascons vary in their intensity. The 76.3 x 55.1 NM lunar orbit is designed to give the subsatellite a lifetime of at least one year. All CM photographic tasks were successfully accomplished except for the Gegenschein experiment. Visual observations by the CMP achieved important sightings, such as a rille within another rille, potential worthwhile landing sites, volcanic cone structures, and previously undetected details of major crater structures. During transeart]coast, the CMP performed a 38-min. in-flighz EVA to retrieve the panoramic and mapping film cassettes. He made a third excursion to inspect the SIM bay and to investigate the V/H malfunction, the mapping camera extend/retract mechanism failure, and the mass _pectrometer boom that no midcourse CM separation one of three (%

" i

!

{_ + +!
• % f

position. correction atmospheric parachutes

TEI was

burn accuracy was such required until MCC-7. however, during

_+

and main

entry were normal; partially collapsed

descent and a slightly harder than planned landing occurred about one NM from the planned point (285 NM north of Hawaii) and 5.5 NM from the prime recovery ship. The astronauts were flown to Hickman AFB, to Ellington AFB, Texas. Spacecraft throughout and either procedures The flight mission. Hawaii the next day, and thence

_ | _ +

and crew systems performance were near nominal the mission. All anomalies were rapidly analyzed resolved or safely dispositioned by workaround developed with effective ground/flight coordination. crew perfomaance was outstanding throughout the

'I

119
i

APOLLO

16

f

APOLLO

16

(AS-511)

FLIGHT

SUMMARY

MISSION i. ,

PRIMARY

OBJECTIVES

(All

Accomplished)

Perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of material and surface features in a preselected area of the Descartes region. Emplace Conduct tasks. and activate surface experiments. and photographic

2. 3.

in-flight

experiments

DETAILED LAUNCH _ _ _ _ _ o o

OBJECTIVES VEHICLE

AND

EXPERIMENTS Accomplished)

(Partially

Impact on the

the expended lunar surface to

S-IVB/IU in a preselected zone under nominal flight profile the ALSEP passive seismometers.

conditions

simulate

Post-flight determination of actual of impact within 5 km, and the time one second SURFACE Sample Collection* Experiment the

S-IVB/IU point of impact within

LUNAR I. _

Documented

(Accomplished) Package

Apollo Lunar
ALSEP), which Heat

Surface included Flow

(Apollo 16

following: (Not Accompilshed) (S-034) (S-031) (S-033) (Accomplished)

i

2. 3.

Lunar Lunar Lunar Lunar Drill Lunar Far UV

(S-037) Magnetometer

Tri-Axis Passive Active Sample

_ "

4. 5. 6. 7.

Seismology Seismoloqy Collection*

(Accomplished) (Accomplished)

Core

(Accomplished) (S-059) (S-201) (Acc_llshed) (Accomplished)

Geology

Investigation

\ 8. 9. Cameza/Spectzosmope Wind of Composition Lunar Geolc_

Solar * Part

(8-080)

(Acc_lished) (S-059)

Investigation

0
i

APOLLO

16

i0. Soil Mechanics ii. Portable 12.
0

(S-200)

(Accomplished) (S-198) (Accomplished) (S-152) (Accomplished)

Magnetometer Ray Detector Vehicle

Cosmic Lunar

(Sheets) Evaluation

13.

Roving

(Accomplished)
g

_

IN-FLIGHT

I. 2. 3.
!

Gamma-Ray X-Ray

Spectrometer

(S-160)

(Accomplished)

Fluorescence

(S-161)

(Accomplished)

SM Orbital

Photographic Camera

Tasks (Accomplished)

a. 24" Panoramic b. 3" Mapping

Camera

(Accomplished) (Accomplished) Accomplished)* (S-164) Layer (S-173) (3

c. Laser 4.

Altimeter

Subsatellite a. S-Band b. Particle

(Partially

Transponder

Shadows/Boundary (S-174)

c. Magnetometer 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ii.

S-Bs/%d Transponder Alpha-Particle Mass

(CSM/[_)(S-164) (S-162)

(Accomplished) (Accomplished)

Spectrometer (S-165)

Spectrometer

(Accomplished) (S-177) (Accomplished)

UV Photography Gegenschein Visual Light

- Earth

and Moon Orbit

from Lunar Flash

(S-178}

(Accomplished)

Phenomenon in Space

(Accomplished) Enviroz_e-t (M-191)

Microbial Response (Accomplished) CM Photographic Visual

12. 13. *

Tasks

(Accomplished) Lunar Orbit (Accomplished)

Observation|

from

The CSM shaping burn prior to subsatallite e_actlon was not porfozs_d, am described under RomJrks. As a consIKluenco, the subsatell£te's orbit was suQh _at it impacted the lunar

d_%

8uzfame on Kay 30 after _

a nlmbez of low elUtude the vehiole's life. z22 plashed and significant

passes.

All

_ _i:l •

data was aoqulred during eaperlmenU pozfoxmed .

lw

altitude
I

APOLLO

16

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. i 19. 20. OTHER o o o "

Bistatic Skylab Improved Body

Radar

(S-170)

(Accomplished) Study (Partially Accomplished) _ i

Contamination Gas/Water Balance

Separator Analysis for

(Accomplished) (Accomplished)

Fluid

Subsatellite Tracking (Not Accomplished) Improved Skylab Fecal Food

Autonomous

Navigation

Collection

Bag

(Accomplished)
%

Package

(Accomplished)

(All

Accomplished) and Data and Relay

Voice Apollo Bone Apollo

J
Time Mineral Window Motion Study (M-078) (S-176)
r

Measurement Meteoroid

1

o Biostack (M-211) IN-FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION o UNUSUAL 1. 2. Electrophoretic FEATURES Largest OF THE Separation :41SSION payload yet of put in lunar orbit. (Accomplished)

spacecraft

First scientific exploration and Cayley formation. First Longest use of the moon lunar as an

lunar

highlands

3. 4. • 5.

astronomical EVA time to

observatory. date (20.3 to hr.). ',

total

surface

Largest weight of lunar date (Approx. 213 lb.) Longest lunar stay time

sample

material

returned

6.

to date

(71 hr.

2 mln.).

123

I

APOLLO

16

GENERAL •

INFORMATION s CM-II3, SA-511 39A
I

Spacecraft: ' Launch Launch _ Flight VehicLe: Complex: Crew:

SM-113,

LM-II

Commander Command Lunar

(CDR) Module Pilot

John

W. Young K. Mattingly, M. Duke, Jr. Ii

(CMP) Thomas (LMP) Charles

Module

Pilot

Launch Launch Earth
i

Time: Azimuth: Orbit:

12:54 72°

pm EST, April

16, 1972

95 x 90 NM

i i

S-IVB/IU Lunar Impact: Time: 4:02 p.m. EST., Velocity Lunar Impact Lunar of Impact:

April fps.

19,

1972

8711

(Est.) 24.3°W. longitude (Est.)

Location: Weight:

2.1°N. latitude, 30,805 lb.(Est.)

Orbits

and events: Apocynthian/Pericynthian Orbit (DOI): (LOI): 170.3 X 58.1 NM

0 ,

Initial Descent Initial

58.5 x 10.9 NM 59.2 x 10.4 NM

CSM Separation:

CSM Circularization:

68 X 53.1 NM 9"N. p.m. latitude, EST, April 8:26 p.m. EST, EST, 15"31'E. 20, 1972 23,

Landing Site Coordinates: longitude Lunar Landing Time: 9:24

LM Liftoff 1972 Ascent

from

Lunar

Surface:

EST, Aprll 24, 1972

Stage

Jettlson:

3:54 p.m. 4s56 p.m.

April April

Subsatellite Launch: 66.6 X 52.8 NM Mission Time SPA_ Durations

24, 1972

265 hours 2s45 p.m. DATA KSCs

51 minutes EST, April

05 8econ_s 27, 1972

of Landings

VEHICLE_AND Spa_czaft

PRELAUNCH to

delivered

CGmmand/Serwiuo

Modules

July

1971

d_

%2
_ 124

APOLLO

16

Lunar Lunar Launch

Module: Roving

May

1971 September to KSC: 1971 1971

Vehicle: Delivered (S-IC):

Vehicle Stage

First Second Third

September 1971 1971

Stage Stage

(S-II) : July (S-IVB) : July

Instrument Space Vehicle

Unit Weight

(IU) : September at Liftoff:

1971 lb. (107,158 lb.

6,439,605

payload) Weight Weight Placed Placed in in Earth Lunar Orbit: Orbit: 308,734 76,109 lb. lb. from Apollo 15:

Significant ,_ Command/Service * The time increased mode IA landing
!

spacecraft Module delay from aborts hazards in 42

differences

the RCS seconds

control box was to 61 seconds for land propellant i

to reduce possible with pressurized

( *

tanks, Installed strengthen particles transparent Teflon shields meter glass and to retain in case of breakage. to glass

i i

* :

Installed Inconel parachute links in place of nickel plated links to reduce probability of parachute riser link failures due to flaws. Replaced selected early series switches with 400 series switches to reduce the possibility of switch failure. Module batteries were and to increase improved to electrical prevent capacity.

* _

Lunar *

. *

Descent stage came cracking Added glycol temperature, capacity.

shutoff valve to Increame if requized, to maximize

battery electrical

*

0

Added an exterior glass doubler nwter window to reduce stress. particle shield as roqu4rod to

to the range/range Added tape and other motors.

rate

125

I

APOLLO SLA *

16

Changed a lead Systems New LRV

ordnance adhesive acetate reaction. and seat Lunar belts Mobility were

in pyro

train

to

avoid

Crew *

installed problems.

to

eliminate

adjustment *

and

latching

Swage fittings in the pressure garment assembly were modified to provide greater mobility and reliability, and gloves were reinforced for greater wearability. Surface Equipment

Lunar *

The ground commanded TV assembly incorporated new clutch assemblies, a new elevation drive motor, and temperature control modifications to preclude previous flight problems. launch Stage Four retro-rocket S-IC/S-II motors were added (8 total) to vehicle changes from Apollo 15:

Significant S-IC *

improve S-If * Stage

separation

characteristics.

".2
factors

Structure was and to improve

modified to increase POGO stability.

safety

*

Several single-point eliminated in t_e Stage

relay failure modes were engine start/cutoff circuitry.

S-IVB *

Fuel and stainless

LOX feedline bellows were changed steel to 2-ply solar duct.

from

Instrument *

Unit modified to distinguish between lower engines for proper _bort failures guidance

Q

The LVDC was of upper and programming.

'by adding solder joint solder Joint cracks
I

,

Redesigned connand decoder stress rellef to eliminate for improved reliability. DATA Areas Coord:Lnatos: Mid-Pa¢Ific 0e43'S.,

RECOVERY

Re**very Landing

Ocean 156013W. (Stable II)

Reoovery Ship, U88 Tiaondex'oga Crew Recovery Tines 3,20 p.m. BST, April SIMicecraftaeeovezMT_e, 4,45 p.1. _o

27, 1972 April 27, 1973

i;:_*;_ _

AP'

L(.) 16

REMARKS

Apollo 16 was launched on time after a countdown with no unscheduled holds. All launch vehicle systems performed nominally in achieving an earth parking orbit of 95 x 90 NM. A nominal translunar injection (TLI) burn was performed after one and a half orbits. , During CSM/LM docking, particles were noticed comino from the area of a LM close-out panel. The crew entered the LM early, at 8:17 GET, to determine system status. All systems were normal, and it was later determined that the particles were flakes of thermal protection paint, the loss of which would have no adverse effect on LM operations. The first S-IVB APS burn for lunar impact was nominal. Because of APS module No. 1 helium depletion due to external leakage, the APS-2 maneuver was not performed. Tracking of the S-IVB/IU was lost at 27:10 GET due to signal loss from the IU co_,and and communications system. Lunar impact was detected by the 12, 14,and 15 seicmometers and was apDroximated at 75:08 260 km NE of the targeted impact point. Spacecraft {, ( operations were close to nominal until the CSM Apollo GET and ,

' :

prepared i _

for the SPS circularization burn on the lunar farside. A problem was detected in the secondary yaw actuator servo loop which drives the SPS gimbal in backup mode. The burn was not performed as sched_lec and the LM PDI burn on Rev. 13 was delayed. The CSM maneuvered to station-keeping position with the LM while trouble shooting was pezfomned. Analysis concluded that the secondary system was operable and the landing coul )roceed. To minimize the remaining SPS engine firings, lunar ori.t plane change 2 and the subsatellite shaping burn were deleted. Subsequently, it was decided to shorten the mission one day. Circularization was performed on Rev. 15, and LM PDI was accomplished on Rev. 16. The landing in planned target the Descartes area point. Because of was the only 230 meters NW of the almost 6-hour delay in landing

i i i

• "

caused by the SPS control problem, EVA-I was rescheduled to follow a full crew zest period. Before performing the traverse to Flag crew deployed Crater, &polio the and activated the lunar surface experiments package (ALSEP) and other experiments. During ALSEP deployment, the Commander inadvertently pull_1 the heat flow experiment cable loose at its central station connector and that experiment was abandoned. Approx_umatoly 42 pounds of samples were collected during the 7-hr. ll-m/n. EVA and total distance travelled by the LRV was 4.2 ks. The , second ll.4-Mm traverse took the crew 8_ut half way up 500-

roving vehicle provided meter high Stone _taln,

exoollent mobility and stability, 4.l-kJe south of the _. The

achieving Auma%

127

APOLLO

16

eleven to fourteen kilometers per hour (}:ph) over rocky, pockmarked surfaces and easily climbing to 15- to 20-degree slopes at about 7 to 8 kph. Extensive sampling was accomplished, and about 71 pounds were collected during the 7-hr. 23-mJn. EVA. The extension of the 7-hr. EVA was possible because PLSS consumables usage was lower than predicted. The EVA-3 duration of 5 hr. 40 min. was judged adequate to meet objectives while holding the ascent and rendezvous work day to an acceptable length. The LRV traverse was 4.5 km to North Ray Crater, the biggest yet explored on an Apollo mlssion. Very interesting rocks were sampled, one about house-size, another with permanent shadowed area in the lee of the sun line and interesting "drill-holes" normal to its surface. Polarimetri photography was accomplished and additional portable magnetometer readings were obtained. At one point during the downslope return to the LM the LRV recorded about 18 kph. Approximately I00 pounds of samples were collected during the ll.4-km traverse The film cassette from the far UV camera was retrieved after 51 hours recording ii planned celestial targets. The 71-hour stay in the Descarte_ area featured excellent expertment, LRV, TV, and crew systems oper ion; revised theories of Cayley formation; less evidence of volcanism than expected, and the highest recordings of local magnetic field of any Apollo landing site. 1809 frames o _ 70 nun film and 4 1/2 magazines of 16 mm film were exposed during the 20-hour 15-minute total EVA time. One hundred eleven documented samples totaled approximately 213 pounds. LM ascent, rendezvous, and docking were normal. However, after jettison from the CSM the LM ascent stage lost attitude control and bega,, tumbling at about 3" per second, probably because of an open circuit breaker in the primary guidance and navigation system, and it could not be deorbited as planned. The ascent stage is expected to stay in lunar orbit approximately a year before impacting the surface. Lunar orbital science and photographic task_ were successfully conducted throughout most of the 64 CSM orbits. The subsatellite was launched 4 hr. 20 min. before transeartb InJection_ however, because of the decision not to perform the orbit shaping burn its lifetime was much shorter than the planned one year. To maintain the orbital time llne after the delayed CSM circul_rlzatlon event, a GET clock update of II mln. 48 sec. was m_de at I18806z31. To minimize checklist _hanges during transear, h coast, another GET adjustment of 24 hE. 34 mln. I_ sec. was made at 202z25, after the trano_arth Injection maneuver.

:

! _ _

_-_ %row

O

7.

I

APOLLO

16

The spacecraft was depressurized for 1 hr. 23 min. dur ng transearth coast for the CMP's EVA to retrieve mapping and panoramic camera film cassettes. He also inspected the SIM bay to report on experiment conditions, and the microbial response in space environment was conducted for 10 minutes outside the open hatch. Two small midcourse corrections were made during transearth coast. Final detailed objective_ were completed, and an 18-min. TV press conference was conducted. CM separation, entry, and descent were normal, with water landing 0.0 from the target point and 3.5 NM from the primary recovery ship (PRS). The CM was righted from the stable II position, and the crew was greeted aboard the PRS 35 minutes later. The crew's health of the in-flight was excellent throughout the flight. Because arrhythmias experienced by the Apollo 15 crew, special pre-flight procedures, in-flight dietary supplements, and icnger scheduled rest periods were instituted for the Apollo crew. The post-flight adaptation periods were less than those experienced after Apollo 15. were rapidly analyzed and were effectively by

£

[

, .

J _ " 16

{

Numerous "glitches" and system anomalies the support/flight controller/crew team resolved to minimize the mission impact.

(

0
129