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ONTARIO HIGH SCHOOL
ALGEBRA
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HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBBA
HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA^''
BY
T. CRAWFORD, B.A. chief instructor ix mathematics, university schools, professor of mathematics, ontario college of education t:niversity of Toronto
J.
REVISED EDITION
TORONTO
The macmillan company of Canada, limited
Copyright. Canada, ini«
By
THE iL\CMILLAX COMPANY OF CANADA LIMITED
PRINTED IX CANADA
PREFACE
This text covers the work prescribed
Universities
for entrance to the
and Normal Schools. The book is written from the standpoint of the pupil, and in such a form that he will be able to understand it with a
minimum
method
is
of
assistance
from
the
teacher.
frequently used in developing the theory.
is
The question The
is
purpose of this
to lead the pupil to think for himself.
The
close
connection between algebra and arithmetic
constantly kept in view, and in
manv
cases the arithmetical
and algebraic processes are shown
trating the theory,
of the
in parallel columns.
of
illus
There are numerous diagrams for the purpose
and algebraic methods are applied to many
is
theorems which the pupil meets in elementary geometry.
placed upon the verification of results.
Special emphasis
In the past, sufficient attention has not been given to this
important part of mathematical work.
Provision
is
made
for oral work,
many
of
the exercises
being introduced by a
class.
number
of oral
examples for use in
simple problems are
The equation and the
'jitroduced
in
solution
of
is hoped that the become interested much earlier in the work. Long multiplications and divisions are not included in the work of the first year. They are difficult for the beginner and of little interest, as there is not much to offer in the
the second Chapter.
It
pupil will thus
way
of practical illustrations.
VI
PREFACE
Chapter X., with which the pupil would begin the second
year's work, contains a thorough review of the simple rules.
Here the more complicated processes are dealt with. The graphical work is introduced naturally in illustrating
the negative quantity and
in
the
solution
of
equations.
ruler
Only
graphs
which
can
be
drawn
with
the
and
compasses are included
in the book.
More attention
extraction
of
is
given to methods of inspection in the
roots.
eUminated, as cube root
The long process for cube root is not now required in arithmetic.
is
is
The work on
ratio
and proportion
is
presented in as simple
a form as possible, and
intended
onl}' as
an introduction to
illustrations
the senior work in this subject.
which are given should make
it
The geometrical more interesting.
The
division
method
it
of finding highest
common
factor has
been discarded, as
is
usually performed mechanically and
not understood by pupils.
is
The elimination method which
Finding
the
highest
used will be found easy to apply with expressions which
not
too
are
comphcated.
common
is
factor of expressions of
little
the fourth or higher degrees
of
of
algebraic
value,
and few examples
such problems
will
be found in the book.
exercises at the end of each Chapter will be
The review
work
found useful, particularly for the purpose of reviewing the
of a previous term.
On
the recommendation of experienced teachers the answers
are not given to simple examples, or to such examples as the
pupil can verify without difficulty.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Algebraic Notation
I
PABV
1
Arithmetical and Algebraic Signs and Symbols (1). Fundamental Laws (3). Factor and Pro
duct
like
Coefficient
Power and Index (7). Terms (8). Addition and Subtraction of (9). Terms (9). Use of Brackets (11). Review
(6).
Exercise (13).
Simple Equations
....:....
II
CHAPTER
16
Meaning of Equation, Solving an Equation, Root of an Equation (16). Axioms used (18). Verifying Results Problems solved by (19). Equations (21). Review Exercise (25).
CHAPTER
Positive
III
and Negative Numbers Graphical Representation of Positive and Negative Numbers (28). Concrete Examples of Negative Numbers (30). Signs of Operation and Signs
of
28
Quahty
(32).
Absolute Value
(32).
Review
Exercise
(34).
CHAPTER
Addition and Subtraction
IV
36
Addition of Quantities with like Signs (36). Compound Addition (37). Addition with unlike Signs (39). Indicated Additions (41). Subtraction the Inverse of Addition (42). Rule for Subtraction (43). Removal of Brackets (45).
Review Exercise
(47).
CONTENTS
CHAPTER V
Multiplication
and Division
49
Multiplication of Simple Positive Quantities (49). Index Law for Multiplication (49). Rule of
Signs
(50).
Compound
(55).
Multiplication
(53).
Verifications
Division
Quantity
(57).
Index
(60).
Law
a Simple for Division (58).
by
Review Exercise
CHAPTER
Simple Equations {continued)
VI
62
Equation and Identity' (62). Transposing Terms Simple Fractional Equations (67). Steps (63). in the Solution of an Equation (67). Problems
(69).
Algebraic
(74).
statements
of
Arithmetical
(75).
Theorems
Review Exercise
CHAPTER
Simultaneous Equations
VII
78
(78).
Equations with two Unknowns
Solution (79).
Method
of
Ehmination
(85).
(80).
Fractional
(83).
Simultaneous Equations
(82).
Problems
Review Exercise
CHAPTER Vin
Type Products and Simple Factoring
88
of
Monomial Factors
(89).
(88).
Product
two Binomials
Factors of Trinomials (90). Radical Square of a Binomial (94). Square Root of a Trinomial (95). Difference of two Squares (97). Numerical Applications (99). Review Exercise (101).
Sign
(92).
CONTENTa
ti
CHAPTER IX
Simple Applications of Factoring
Highest
Common
.....
Algebraic Fractions
Multiplication and
10?
Factor (103).
(105).
(104).
Lowest Terms
Division of Fractions (106). Multiple (107)
Lowest
Common
Fractions (108). Review Exercise (111).
Addition and Subtraction of Mixed Expressions (110).
CHAPTER X
Review of the Simple Rules Collecting Coefficients Brackets (114). Multiplication with Detached Coefficients Division by a Compound Quantity (121). fying Division (122) Inexact Division
114
(117). (118).
Veri(124).
Review Exercise
(125).
CHAPTER XI
Factoring (continued)
128
Factors by Grouping (128).
Complete Squares (130). Incomplete DifEerence of Squares (132). Sum. and Trinomials (137), Squares (135). Differenc«» of Cubes (140). The Factor Theorem Easy Quadratic Equations 1144). (141).
Review Exercise
(146).
CHAPTER Xn
Simultaneous Equations {continued)
Elimination by Substitution and by Comparison
(149).
...
(161).
149
Special
Forms
Equations with three Unknowns (152). Solution of of Equations (154).
Problerj>» '156).
Review Exercise
X
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Geometrical Representation of
Xm
Number Function of x (165). Variables and Constants (165). Arithmetical Graphs (166). The Axes (169). Graph of an Equation (170). Coordinates (170). Plotting Points (171). Linear Equation (173). Graphical Solution of Simultaneous Equations Special Forms of Equations (176). (175). Review Exercise (177).
....
PAOX
165
CHAPTER XIV
Highest
Common
of
Factor and Lowest
(180).
Common
(185).
Multiple
180
By Factoring
the
By Elimination
(183).
Product
H.C.F. and L.C.M.
Review
Exercise (187).
CHAPTER XV
Fractions
....
in the
188
Changes
Form
of a Fraction (188).
Lowest
Terms
Special
(190).
Types
Addition and Subtraction (191). Cyclic Order (194). (193).
Multiplication and Division (197).
Complex
(201).
Fractions (199).
Review Exercise
CHAPTER XVI
Fractional Equations
...
(204).
204
Cross
Multiplication
Special
Forms
of
Fractional Equations (206). Literal Equations with one Unknown (209), with two Unknowns
(212).
Review Exercise
(214).
COlfTENTS
Jd
CHAPTER XVn
PAGE
Extraction of Roots
216
(216),
Square Root by Inspection
by the Formal Cube of a Binomial (222). Cube Root (223). Higher Roots (224). Review Exercise (226).
Method
(217).
Verifying Results (218).
CHAPTER XVIII
Quadratic Surds
228
Surd and Rational Quantities (228). Mixed and Entire Surds (229). Like Surds (23D. Addition and Subtraction (231). Square Root Table (232). Conjugate Surds (233). Rationalizing a Denominator (235). Surd Equations (237). Review Exercise (238).
CHAPTER XIX
Quadratic Equations
240
Standard Form (241). Solution by Factoring (242), Irrational by Completing the Square (244). Roots (247). Inadmissible Solutions (248).
Review Exercise
(250).
CHAPTER XX
Ratio and Proportion
253
(253).
Methods
of
Comparing Magnitudes
Com
parison of Ratios (254). Proportion (256). Finding a Ratio by Solving an Equation (257).
Mean
Proportional (261). Ratio Theorems (263).
(266).
Review Exercise
:m
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XXT
PAOI
The General Quadratic Equation Solution of Literal Quadratics (268).
268
Solution by
(271).
Formula
tions
(270).
Imaginary Roots
Quadratics
Solved like Exercise (276).
(273).
EquaReview
CHAPTER XXII
Simultaneous Quadratics
279
Three Types
f288).
Simultaneous Quadratics (279/. Graphical Solutions Special Methods (284).
of
Review Exercise
(290).
CHAPTER XXIII
Indices
293
The
Index Laws (294). Fractional, Zero and Operations with Negative Indices (297). Fractional and Negative Indices (301). Contracted Methods (303). Review Exercise (305).
CHAPTER XXIV
Surds and Surd Equations
308
Varying Forms of Surds of different Orders (308). Surds (309). Surd Equations (312). Extraneous Roots (313). Square Root of a Binomial Surd Impossible Imaginary Surds (320). (317).
Problems
(323).
Review Exercise
(324).
CHAPTER XXV
Theory
of
Quadratic Equations
327
Sum and
Reciprocal Product of the Roots (327). Functions of the Roots (331). Roots (328). Character of the Roots (335). The Discriminant Factors of the Quadratic Expression (337).
(338).
Review Exercise
(341).
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XXVI
Supplementary Chapter
344
Factors of the Product of two Trinomials (344). Sum and Difference of Cubes (346). Factors The Factor Theorem by Grouping (349).
(351),
Symmetry
(355).
(354).
metry
f362).
Identities (359).
Factoring by SymReview Exercise
Answers
365
HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA
HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
Use of Arithmetical Signs. In arithmetic, signs are I. used to abbreviate the work. In algebra the same signs are used, with the same meanings and for the same purpose.
BZSRCISB
Write
tiie
1
following statements in the shortest
way you
can, using
the signs and symbols with which you are familiar in arithmetic.
1. 2.
3.
Two and two make
four.
The sum of five, ten and Six and four is the same
Seven times eight
is
twentj'
as four
is
thirtyfive.
six.
and
4.
5.
6.
the same as eight times seven.
five is seven.
The
difference
between twelve and
7.
Ten exceeds six by four. The excess of twenty over
fifteen is five.
is
8.
9.
The
defect of thirty from a hundred
seventy.
Thirtysix divided
by four
is
is
nine.
10. II. 12.
Three score and ten
seventy.
One half The sum
of the
sum
of seven
and
five is six.
or the product of three, five
and seven
is
the
same
in
whatever order they are written.
13.
Three multipUed by four
is
is
twelve, therefore twelve divided
by three
14.
four.
The square
is
of
four
is
sixteen, therefore
the square root of
sixteen
four.
B
In the preceding exercise you have Algebraic Symbols. 2. used symbols to represent the numbers stated and signs tc show the operations performed on those numbers. In algebra, sjmbols are used more extensively than ic
Arithmetic.
A
I
B
H
it
If
the length of this line be measured
inches.
will
be found tc
But without measuring it, we may say that be two the measure of its length is some definite number which might be represented by the letter a. The measure of the length of another line might be represented by h. The cost of an article might be c cents, or the cost of a farm might be x dollars, or the weight of a stone
might be m pounds. Here a, b, c, x, m are algebraic numbersymbols, or briefly algebraic numbers. The symbols 1, 2, 3, etc., used to represent numbers in
arithmetic are called
arithmetical
numbersymbols
or
arith
metical numbers. In algebra the number symbols of arithmetic are also used. For the present, when letters are used to represent numbers,
t
will
be understood that each letter represents some integral
or fractional
3.
number.
D
In this square the measure of Signs of Multiplication. What is the is a. the length of the side C
AB
measure
;
of
the
length
of
BC
;
of
CD
;
of
In algebra, ' multipUcati a being understood. dot repreijnting multipHcation.
Thus, Thus,
AB}BC of AB{BC\CD 1 The measure of the perimeter (sum of all the a+aja+a or 4 times a or 4xa. sides) is xa or a X 4 is usually written 4a, the sign oi
It
is
also written 4
.
a, the
4xa=4.a=4a, and
if
as in arithmetic,
of
is
a short way of writing
ie
a+a+a+a.
a =6, the measurf
the perimeter cf the squar?
»+66+6=4xt = M,
ALOBBRAIC NOTATION
ft will
S
and 4
it
is
may
The
be observed that in algebra the multiplication of a only indicated in the form 4a, while in arithmetic be actually performed as in the result 24.
pupil
{twentyfour)
must recognize the difference between 24 and the product of 2 and 4 or 2 x 4 or 2 4. When
.
two numerical quantities are to be multiplied, the sign of multiplication must be used, so that as stated, 24 may be When both factors are not numerical distinguished from 2x4. as 4xa or axb, the sign is omitted and these are written in the form 4a, ah.
4.
Signs of Division.
tained
As in arithmetic, the quotient obby dividing one number by another may be TVTitten
in the fractional form.
In arithmetic the division may be actualty performed, as which may be written  or 2, but it is frequently only indicated as in 6^7, which is written 5. So in algebra, the quotient obtained on dividing a by h,
in 6T3,
or ai6,
is
written
r,
and
here, as in multipUcation, the division
can only be indicated unless the numerical values of a and
h are
5.
known. Some
Fundamental
Laws.
Since the letters
used in
laws
of
algebra
represent
arithmetical
numbers,
all
the
arithmetic must be true also in algebra.
In
arithmetic.
\
;
:
6
ALGEBRA
From
(3)
and
(4)
it
follows that a series of additions and
subtractions, or of multiplications
and
divisions,
may
be
made
in
any
order.
3a446— 2c
In finding the numerical value of an expression hke for given values of a, b and c, the operations are performed in the same order as in arithmetic, the multiphcations being performed first and then the additions and
subtractions in any order
Thus, when a = 2, 6 = 3, c=l,
3a+462c=3x 2+4x32x1 = 6+122=16.
Similarly, for the
same values of a, ab+bc _ 2x3 + 3x
b, c,
1
a+b "
2
+3
_ 6+3 _ 9 — 5 ~5*
Note. Many of the examples in the following exercise may be taken orally. The pupil, however, is advised to write the algebraic forms so that he may thereby become familiar with themi.
—
EXSROISB
1.
2
When a = 6, what
_
are the numerical value? of:
1
o
,
5
—a,
6a, a,
12 —
2
, ,
5a.,
—7
3
2
2.
3
6
a
a
When x=5 and When
j/=3,
what
are the values of
x+y, x—y,
3.
xy, 3x+2i/,
2x—3y, Ixy
of
?
m—4i, n=6, r=2, find the values
m\n\r, m{rn, mn{mr,
4. of a
mr—n, 4n— 3to— 6r.
and
Express algebraically the sum, the difference and the product What are their values when a=8 and fc=3 ? h.
5.
The
quantities a, b
and
c are to
is
be added together.
Express
!
the
sum
6.
algebraically.
is
What
its
value
when a=6, 6=4, c=12
is
When a
divided by 6 the quotient
expressed in the form
is
.
When c is added to the quotient of x by y, how What is its value when z=12, ?/=4, c=10 '
7.
the result expressed
t
A boy has p marbles
has he
;
he wins q marbles and then loses
if
r marbl***.
How many
now
?
How many
p=5, q—\\, r=4
?
ALOBBRAIC NOTATION
8,
6
When o=4 and 6=5,
The
find the numerical value of
12a56 + 6o76i10,
9.
sides of a triangle are a, b
tlie
and
c
;
express algebraically the
perimeter and
semiperimeter.
What do
they become
if
a=13,
6=14, c=15?
10.
Find the cost of 8
;
articles at 5 cents
cents each
of x yards of cloth at b cents a
each of 7 articles at k yard of m tons of coal at
; ;
n dollars a ton.
11.
dollars
How many
and y cents
;
cents are there in 4 dollars
in a quarters
;
in
x
?
dollars
;
in x
and
b
tencent pieces
;
12.
in
Find the number
;
of inches in 2 yards
in 3 feet
;
and
7 inches
;
a yards
inches.
13.
in 6 feet
;
in z feet
and y inches
in
m
yards n feet and
V
What What
operations are to be performed to find the numerical
ealue of ma\nb,
14.
when
a =2, 5=5,
m=3, n=6
?
What
is
the value
?
operations are to be performed to find the value of ^^^
a\b
?
when a =5, 6=6, x=15, t/=7
15.
What
is
the value
in
?
By
In
varying the order of the
?
letters,
how many ways can
f
you write a+b^c
16. 17.
how many
figure,
different
ways can you write zyz
In the
I
BC
is
twice as long as
is
^5.
If
1
A
B
'
C
'
AB \& of AC
18.
units in length,
what
the length of
BC
?
In the
figure,
BC
is is
three times as long as
AB
and
CD
C
1
is
twice
as long as
length,
AB. what are
If
AB
x units in
/\
'
b
^
D
'
the lengths of
BC
?
CDt BDl AD1
19.
s
In the following statements
:
c represents
the cost of an article,
the selling price, and g the gain
(1)
sc=g,
(2)
c\g=s, (3)
s—g=c.
Read them and explain
20.
their meanings.
What
is
is
the next integer above 27
?
What
the next integer above n
The next below 27 ? The next below n 1
is
7
21. If n is an even integer, what and the next even inteser below it ?
the next even integer above
it
«
22.
If
ALGEBRA
I
is
any number,, what
?
is
the
number which
is
5 greater than
z
?
5
less
than x
23.
A
?
boy
is
10 years old.
old
How
old will he be in 6 years
?
?
In
m years
24.
How
is
was he
4 years ago
n years ago
?
A man
x years
? ?
old.
How
old will he be in
n years
?
How
old
was he
m
is
years ago
In
how many
years will he be three times
as old as he
now
25.
A boy wae p years
?
old 3 years ago.
How old will
he be 15 years
from now
26.
Explain the difference between
c
,
a+c
and a..
c
What
are their values
27.
when a=6, 6—9, c=3
is
?
The
side of one square
the difference in their perimeters.
a and of a smaller one is 6. What Is the difference if
Indicate
a=10 and
6=6?
28.
The
is
sides of
one rectangle are a and
b,
and
of another are c
first rect
and
d.
angle
29.
Indicate the difference in their areas, (1) when the the larger, (2) when the second is the larger.
What
?
arithmetical
number does
10x4?/ represent
when x=5
V=3
30.
When x^l, y=^ ? When a=3, 6=4, c=5, d=0,
(1)
find the values of
(2)
:
10a+465c+3d.
5ab+2cd3ac.
2ot6— c+a
(3)
\ac+^clad.
Product.
is
(4)
r.
6.
Factor
and
together the result
called
WTien numbers are multiplied the product, and the numbers
factors of the product.
which were multipUed are called the
Thus,
3x5=15,
therefore the feictors of 15 are 3
and
5,
so a
xb = ab,
therefore the factors of ab are a
and
b.
The
factor
factors of 3z are 3
and
x.
The
3
is
called a numerical
and the
x,
a
literal factor.
2
X 2 X 3,
Just as 12 may have different sets of factors as 3x4, 2x6, so 3xy has the factors Sxxy,3xxy, xxZy or Sxxxy.
The prime
factors of 12 are
3.
2,
2
and
3.
and the
simplest
factors of 3ry are
x and
y.
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
the same, but
9
In whatever order the factors are written the product is it is usual to write the numerical factor first and the literal factors in alphabetical order.
7.
Power and Index.
is
What
?
is
the area of a square whose
of the area of thesquare in art. 3 is axa, which is written a^, and is read " a square," or " a to the second power." The product when 2 a's are multiphed together is called the power, and the 2 is called the index or exponent of the
side
7 inches in length
The measure
power. If the edge of a cube is 6 inches, what is the sum of all the edges ? What is the area of each face of the cube ? What is the area of all the faces ? What is the volume of the cube ? If the edge of a cube is a, the sum of all the edges is 12a. The area of each face is a^, and of all the faces is Ga^. The volume is axaxa or a^, which is read "a cube," or " a to the third power."
The pupil must distinguish between 3a and means 3xa, and the latter axaxa. Thu8,ifa = 5, 3o=3x5=15,
but
0^
a^.
The former
= 5x5x5= 125,
3 (114, Oral)
? ?
BXERCISE
1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6.
2,
What What
are the prime factors of 35, of 42, of 75 are the simplest factors of 5xy, of
6mn
Express 3a6c as the product of two factors in four different ways.
Give two
common
factors of 15a6
and
2*
256c.
Find the values
of 3^
x
2^,
10^
x 5\
x5,3^x2^x 5.
10, 16 as
27 as a power of
7.
Using an index, express 100 as a power of 3, 625 as a power of 5.
a power
oJ
What What
is
a short
way
of writing
a+al a+a+al axal axaxat
8.
is
7
aaaa
is
1
the area of a square whose side
6 inches
?
whose
side
is
x inches
;
B
9.
AW)SBRA
What
is
is
the volume of a cube whose edge
?
is
3 inches
?
whose
edge
10.
m
inches
When a=4, what
?
is
the value of a^
?
of 2a
?
What
is
theii
difference
11.
12.
When x=2, what
is
is
the difference b^iween x^ and 3x
?
What when x=ll ?
13.
If
the difference between
"x
square' and "twice
x"
Tn=\0, what
is
the difference between the square of
3m and
three times the square of
14.
m?
is
The
is
side of a square
x inches and of a smaller one
?
is
y inches.
What
15.*
the
sum
of their areas
What
is ?
the difference
?
What do
these results
If
become when
and y=2,
3x2,
x— 10 and y=6
x=6
find the numerical values of
x^+y, x+y, x^y\ 2x^3y^.
16.
Find the values of x'+x^fx for the following values of x
2, 3, 0.
x=l,
17.
18.
If
j/=4x— 7,
unit of
find the value of
is
y
if
x=2,
'
if
x=3,
is,
if
x=2^.
The
work
" a day's work,
that
the work which
one
in 5
man can do in one daj. How many units of work can 3 men do days ? 6 men in x days ? m men in n days ? a men in a days T
If
19.
a=3, 6=2, c=l,
that
find the quotient
when
a^\b^}c^ is divided
by 2a+b — c.
20.
Show
If If
x^+26x has
the
same value
greater
is
as 9x^124
when x=2
?
or 3 or 4.
21.
x=10 and y=5, how much
x^+i/ than 2xy
22.
we know
23.
If
d represents the diameter of a circle and c the circumference, Find d when c = 22. that c=S}d. Find c when d=14.
^
represents the area of a circle and r the radius,
;
A = 3]r^.
Find
A when r— 7
when r=14.
24. By arranging the factors in the most suitable order, find th( values of 2*. 53. 252.43, 125.25.
The parts of an algebraic Terms of an Expression. which are connectec' by the signs of addition or expression
8.
subtraction are called the terms of the exuression
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
ix*
9
Thus, the expression 2a+36 has two terms, and the expression — 3xy—y* has three terms.
Quantities which are connected by the signs of multipUcation
or division are not different terms.
Thus,
9.
4oa; is
only one term, so
a*
is r
CoefiBcient.
x.
or cofactor, of
In the product 4a;, 4 is called the coefficient, In ah, a is the coefficient of b and b is
is
the coefficient of
a.
The 4
is
a numerical coefficient, and the a or 6
is
a
literal
coefficient.
In any product, any factor
rest of the product.
called the coefficient of the
and 5ax
Thus, in 5abx, 5 is the coefficient of abx, 5a is the coefficient of b.
is
the coefficient of bx,
the coefficient
In any term where the numerical coefficient 1 is understood.
is
is
not stated,
Thus, in xy the numerical coefficient
L
Addition and Subtraction of Like Terms. 10. When terms do not differ or differ only in their numerical coefficients, they
are called like terms.
Thus, 2ab, 5ab, ^ab are like terms, but 3a, 46, Gab are unlike terms.
may
In arithmetic, quantities which have the same denominations be added or subtracted.
3ft. f 4ft.
Thus,
 2ft. = 5ft.
denomina
$12$10+$8$3 = $7.
We cannot add or subtract quantities of different
tions, unless
we can first reduce them to the same denomination.
Similarly, in algebra, like terms
may
be added or subtracted.
Thus,
5a+ 2a = 7a, 5a — 2a = 3o, 6a6f 5a6 3a6= 1 lo6 3o6 = 8a6,
Sx*6x*+9x*2x*=\lx'~Sx'=9x*.
in
In the laat example we may, of course, perform the operations •^der in which they occur and obtain the same result
the
10
ALGEBRA
Unlike terms can not be added or subtracted.
Thus, the sum of 3a and 56 can be indicated in the form 3a456, but they can not be combined into a single term vmless the numerical values of a and 6 are given.
BXBRCISE
1.
4
(18,
Oral)
What What
is
the numerical coefficient of each term in the expression
5a3+a2+o
2.
is
?
the
sum
of the numerical coefficients in
2x^
3.
+ 3xy+x+y
?
Which are like terms in the expression
5a24263a+764a2
4. 5.
?
In 66cy, what
is
the coefficient of bey
of
:
1
oi cy
1
oi by
1
of 6
?
What
is
the
sum
(1) 2a, 3a, 4a.
(3) 4a2,
(2)
5m, ^m, fm.
la\
5a^.
(4) 3xy, 4xy, 2xy.
6.
If
x=2,
find the numerical value of the
sum
of Sa;^
and 4x^
in
two
7.
different
ways and compare the
results.
Simplify the expression
3a+86+2a+6+a+3fc by combining
like terms.
8.
Express in as simple a form as possible
(1)
(3)
5TO47m— 3m— 2m.
(2) (4)
%ah—3ab + 2ab—ab.
15a+1067a(46.
:
3x+a+2x+a.
9.*
Combine the like terms in the expression 2x+7t/+5za:+2i/3z+3a;4t/z
and
find its value
If
when
a;=3, i/=5, z=10.
10.
a =6, find the value of
15o2— lOa^— 3a2+8a5a— 20.
11.
What
arithmetical
?
number does lOOa+106+c
?
represent
when
a=2, 6=3, c=4
12. 13.
When a=9, 6=5, c=7
SimpUfy
2x^\3x\lx'^{\\x2x^4x+b.
walks 4x feet East, then x feet West, then 3a; feet East, then 5x feet West. How far is he now from the starting point and in what direction from it ?
A man
ALOEBRAIC NOTATION
14.
11
began to work for a firm on a salary of x dollars a year. was double the salary for the preceding year, how much did he earn in four years ?
If his
A man
salary for each year
15.
If x\Sz\5x is
equal to 72, what
is
is
the value of x
?
How
do
you know that your answer
16.
correct
?
Write in the shortest form you can
aaa+aaa{aa\aa\a\a\a.
17.
Find the average
of (1) 10, 8, 15, (2) 3x, Ix, 5x.
11.
Use
of Brackets.
In algebra brackets are used for the
same purpose and with the same meanings as in arithmetic. In finding the value of 10+8+5, we may perform the additions in any order, but if we wi'ite it 10+ (8+5), it is understood that the 8 and 5 are first to be added and the sum of 10 and the result is to be taken. Similarly, a\{b\c) means that the sum of the numbers represented by b and c is to be added to the number represented by a.
In the expression 7+5x2, the multipUcation is to be performed first, and then the addition. If, however, we wish the value of (7+5) x 2, we must add the 7 and 5 before
multiplying by
2.
Although 10+(8+5) is equal to 10+8+5, it is clear that (7+5) X 2 is not equal to 7+5x2, the former being equal to 24 and the latter 17. When a is to be multiplied by b, the sign of multiphcation
omitted the indicated product so when (7+5) is to be multiphed by 2 we may write 2(7+5) or (7+5)2, the sign of multiphcation being understood.
is
;
m
It
is
the order in
thus seen that one of the uses of brackets which operations are to be performed.
is to indicate
Thus, 10 — (7 — 3) means that 3 is to be subtracted from 7 and the is to be subtracted from 10. If the values of the letters were given, what operations would you perform to find the values of
result
:
a+{b+c), a{b+:), a{bc), {ab){cd)t
The
pupil should recognize that 3a^
is
not the same as
12
(3a) 2.
ALGEBRA
The
latter
means that
is
a
is
first
to be multiplied
by
3 and the product
to be squared.
3a* = 3x4=12, = 3ax3a = 6x6 = 36.
Thu8,ifa=2,
and
(3a)*
are to be considered as a single quantity, that
Brackets also indicate thai the numbers within the brackets is,_ they are used
for the purpose of grouping.
The dividing
line
between the numerator and denominator
of a fraction has the
same value
as a pair of brackets.
is c
Thus, in
, a\b is
a single quantity and so
c\d
+ d.
The
fractional
form
is
another way of writing (o+6)7(c+d).
E3XB3RCISB 5
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
(118, Oral)
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
26.
13
(3o+26— c)(o— 36).
27.
a^+b^+c^—2{ab\bc\'Ca).
2a— 36— 2a—5b+2c~ a+b—2c
a\Zh—c
30.
a— 6
'
'
be
'^
b—c c+a
c+a
o+26
When a=6 and 6=3, show that R(o— 6) +3(a+6) = 2(4a6).
EXERCISE
1.
If
a;
6 (Review of Chapter
I) 4a;
represents a certain number,
?
what does
will
represent
?
^xl
2.
X*
1
3x*
If
?
number
3.
a represents a number, what y times the number ?
represent 5 times the
How
do you indicate that y
?
is
to be
added to x
a.
?
That x
is
to be subtracted from y
4. 5.
Indicate the
If
sum
of x
and y diminished by
one yard of cloth costs x cents, how
dollars
?
many
cents will 10 yards
cost
?
How many
If
6. 7.
a yard of ribbon
is
worth y cents, how much
?
is
a foot worth
it
?
A man
If I
bought an
did he
article for
x dollars and sold
at a loss of
y
dollars.
What
sell it for
8.
paid a dollars for
c articles
b articles,
how much
price
?
did I pay for each
?
What would
cost at the
same
A boy has a dollars. He 9. How many cents has he left
?
earns b cents and then spends
c cents.
10.
I
have x
dollars.
If I
left
?
pay two debts
is
of a dollars
and
b dollars,
how much
11.
If
shall I
have
one number
is
x and another
5 times as large,
what
is
the
sum
of the
If
numbers
?
12. 13.
one part of 10
rn
is x,
what
is
the other part
7
A man worked
how much
per hour,
hours a day for 6 days. did he earn ?
If
he was paid $2 In a
How far can a man walk in 5 hours at 4 miles per hour 14. hours at b miles per hour ?
15.
7
A man
bought x acres
of land at a dollars per acre
and sold
7
it
at a loss of 6 dollars per acre.
16.
What
did he
?
sell it for
?
What number By how much
is
15 greater than x
15 less than x
6
17.
does a* exceed 6*
when a = 7,
=3
T
i4
ALGEBRA
z
When x=l, j/»=2, 18. 2x+5y3z, 7x3y+z T
If a = 3, 19. 6a»26*+4c».
= 3,
what are the values
of
x\y"t,
6
= 4,
c=0,
find the values of 2ab, Aac, a'+b*+c>,
20.
If
x=^
?
and y=s, what are the values
of 3x
— 2y,
6xy, 2x*
— 3y*, — c*),
8x» 272/3
If 21. c(a»6»).
a= 10, 6 = 5, c = 3,
is
find the values of a(6+c),
a(6— c),
a{6*
22.
23.
What What
d
?
the
sum
of 2x, 5x, Ix
and 3x
?
Simplify
is
5a— 3a+lla+o10o.
the average of 20, 15,
0, 8,
24.
a, 6, c,
12
?
Of
2a, 3a,
la
?
Ot
25.
In 8 years a
man
will
be x years
old.
How
old
was he
If
8 years
ago
?
26.
$«,
B
has $20 more than A,
7
C
has $20 more than B.
A
has
how much has C
27.
What
is
the
?
sum
of the numerical coefficients in the expression
3a+ ^a6+ac+ fad
28.
power
29.
of 3
Express 1000 aa a power of 10 64 as a power of 4.
;
;
32 as a power of 2
;
81 as a
Express
15, 105, 3a6, 35x*y, as
it
the products of simple factors.
30.*
How
long will
take
me
to
walk o miles at 3 miles per houi
?
and
at
ride 6 miles at 12 miles per
hour
A farmer buys 5 lb. of tea at x cents per lb. and 20 lb. of sugar y cents per lb. He gives in exchange 7 lb. of butter at z cents per lb. If he still owes something, how much is it ?
31.
32.
If I
per
lb.,
buy 100 lb. of nails at a cents per what is the average cost per lb. ?
lb.
and 200
lb.
at 6 centf
What is the total number of cents in x fivecent pieces, y ten33. cent pieces and z halfdollars ?
34.
What number
c
is
represented by
lOOOa+1006f lOc + d, when
?
a=I, 6=2,
35.
= 3, d=4 ? When a=4, 6 = 0, c=l, d = 9 When a = 2 and 6 = I. what are the values
7
of
a+6,
ab, ti
^, a»+6», a»6» ab
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
36.
if
16
fraction of the
A
can do a piece of work in 10 days and S in 15 days, what work can they together do in 1 day ? What fraction could do it in x days and B in y days ?
li
A
37. If a = 20, 6=15, c=10, d = 5, find the difference between (0+6) — (c+d) and (o — 6) — (c — d), also between 3(a+6) — 5(c — d) and 6(0 (f) 3(6 c).
38.
When
If
x = 7 and y=\, the product of
much
39.
greater than the product of x — y,
x\y, x+2y, x — by x—2y, x—3y ?
is
how
= 3,
find the value of
1
\
^
•
CHAPTER
II
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
12.
Idea
see that the scales
draw
?
If
weight (w) balance ?
4
lb.
article, when you what conclusion do you a 5 lb. bag of salt is placed in one scale pan, what must be placed in the other pan to restore the What must w be to balance a 3 lb. bag and a
of
Equality.
In weighing an
are balanced,
bag
?
the scales are balanced in each of the following figures, what must w be equal to ?
If
Fia.
1.
Pio.
2.
Fio. 3.
what is w equal to ? what is iv equal to ? If 1^+3 = 5+2, as in fig. 3, what is w equal to ? If the scales are balanced and I add 2 lb. to one side, what else must I do to preserve the balance ? What, if I take away 3 lb. from one side ? If I halve the weights on one side ? If I double the weights on one side ?
If
U)+4 = 9, as
in fig.
1,
If w\io= 12, as in fig. 2,
13.
The Equation.
is
When
What
:
a certain number
the
in
is
added to
10 the result
briefly
27.
is
number
?
The condition expressed shown in the form
this
problem might be more
or in the
10+ a certain number =27, form 10+? =27, where the question mark
stands for
the required number. Any other symbol would answer the same purpose as the
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
17
question mark. Thus, if x represents the required number, then the problem states that
10+a;=27.
an equation and is merely a short given in the arithmetical problem preceding. In order that the statement may be true, it is easily seen that the symbol x must stand for the number 17.
This statement
of stating
is
called
is
way
what
Ex.
— When
?
?
number
is
multiphed by
is
3,
and 5
is is
sub
tracted from the product, the result
19.
What
the
number
Here,
if
x stands for the number, the problem states that
3a:5=19.
Before the 5 was subtracted the product was evidently 5 more than
19 or
If 3
19+5
or 24.
times the
solution
number
The
If
may
is 24, then the number must be be written more briefly thus
:
\ of
24 or
8.
3a;5=19,
..
3a;=
19+5 = 24,
x=Jof24 = 8.
That 8
fact,
is
the correct value for the
it
is
that
when
multiplied
is
number is shown by the by 3 and 5 is subtracted
from the product, the result
14.
19.
of
Solving an Equation. The process of finding the value such that 8a::— 5=19, is called "solving the equation," and the value found for x is called the root of the equation.
X,
ESXSRCISS
1.
7 (Oral)
in
State the
:
number
for
which the question mark stands
each
of the following
(1) (4)
5+? = 12.
15=8 + ?.
(2) (5)
?
+ 12=20.
(3) (6)
40=62?.
8+a;=32.
I0a:=8.
10V=2. ?8=42.
:
2.
(1)
What
is
the
number
for
which x stands in each of the following
(3) (6)
a:+6=20.
a:16=7.
(2)
25=x+6.
12=17x.
(4)
(5)
O
IB
3.
ALGEBRA
The
first
liquation in Ex. 2 states that
is
creased by 6 the result
20.
What
when a number is in does each of the other equa^Bone
say
?
of a
If 3 times a number is 45, what is the number ? If onehali number is 16, what is the number ? If n stands for a given numberj what would represent \ of the number ? \ of the number ?
4.
5.
For what number does
(1)
n stand in each of the following equations*
(3)
4«=24.
(2)
^n = 10.
is is
m=36.
? ?
(4)
ln=U.
6.
7.
If
2x+5=ll, what
what
the value of 2x
oi
xl
If 3/rt— 2=13, If
the value of
3m
?
of of
mT
?
?
8. 9.
^p+3=10, what
^x— 11=7, what
2(a;+4)
is is
the value of p
the value of
;ix ?
p
If
If
of
?
a;
10.
= 14,
:
what
is
the value of a:+4
of
a;
7
Solve the equations
11.
14. 17.
a;+10=30.
12. 15, 18.
3x— 2=16.
2n = ll.
13.
5)/
+ 217.
4<5=27.
3m;+2 = 38.
16.
19.
7?i4=24.
^x— 1=4.
iM;+2=5.
5(x2)=45.
Equations.
2/i+l=4.
20.
3w— J=5J.
3(x+l) = 30.
21. 24.
22.
25.
x5=15.
i(xl)=3.
23.
15.
Axioms used
in Solving
If
equal,
to
what
?
is
the result
when the same number
T
two numbers are is added
each
Thus,
if
x=6, what
is
is
x+2
equal to
What
the result
or
from two equal numbers
same number
ia
;
same number is subtracted when each is multiplied by the when each is divided by the same number ?
the
;
when
or
Thus, if x= \x equal to
10,
?
what
is
x— 4
equal to
7
What
is
3x equal to
?
What
The preceding
(1)
conclusions
may
be stated thus
to
:
// the same
number
he
added
equal numbers, the
sums
are equal.
(2)
// the same number he subtracted from equal numbers^
(he remainders art equal.
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
(3)
19
// equal numbers be multiplied by the same number, the // equal numbers be divided by the same number, the
products are equal.
(4)
quotients are equal.
These statements are called axioms, or selfevident truths, and are used in solving equations. The method is illustrated by the following examples
:
Ex. 1.—Solve Add 7 to each side,
Divide each side by
..
3a:7=35. 3x— 7+7 = 35 + 7, axiom
..
(1),
3x = 42.
3,
.".
x= V = l'i> axiom
ia;+2=34.
(4).
Ex. 2.— Solve
Subtract 2 from each side,
•Multiply each side
..
ix+ 22 = 342, axiom
^x=32. x=64, axiom
(3).
(2),
by
2,
.".
Ex. 3.—Solve Add 3 to each side,
Subtract 2x from each side,
5x— 3=2a;+12.
.'.
.".
5x=2a;+15.
5x— 2x=15,
3x=15.
x=
5.
Divide each side by
3,
.'.
The object
equations
{x) to
is
of the
changes which have been
to get the quantities containing the
made in these unknown
one side and the remaining quantities to the other side. The unknown quantities are usually' transferred to the left side, but sometimes it is better to transfer them to the right.
Ex. 4.— Solve
3m+20=5m— 16.
.*.
Add
16 to each side,
Subtract
3m from
each
side,
.'.
3m+36=5m, 3m+36 — 3m = 5m — 3m,
36 = 2m,
18
=m
or
m= 18.
16.
first
Verifying the Result.
side of the last
we substitute equation we get
If
18 for
m
in the
3m+20=3x 18 + 20=74.
If
we
substitute in the second side
we
get
5m16=5x 1816=74.
02
20
ALGEBRA
This process
is
called verifying or testing the correctness
of the result.
If
the root obtained
is
the correct one, the
same number when the value found for the unkno\^Ti is substituted. The equation is then said to be satisfled. The beginner is advised to verify the result in every case. Verify the results obtained in Ex.'s 1, 2 and 3.
two
sides of the equation should be equal to the
BXBRCISB
i.
8 (Oral)
3x=lo, what does x equal ? What axiom is used ? What axiom is used 2. If oar 12 = 17, what does 5^ equal ? What does x equal ? What axiom Ls used ? What two axioms are used If 2?/— 3 = 13, what does ?/ equal ? 3.
If
?
?
4.
If
Ax— 4=6, what
?
does ^x equal
?
What
does x equal
?
What
two axioms are used
5.
If
?x=6, what does \x equal
?
?
What
does x equal
?
What
two axioms are used
What
6.
is
the value of x in the following equations
7.
2x=18.
6x=72.
2x41
8.
5x=:16.
9.
3x=69.
10.
14.
x+20=25.
11.
= 15.
12.
16.
3xl=20.
Jx=2.
9
13.
17.
6x+5=29.
^x=15.
ix=8
15.
§x=12.
BXHIRCISB
Solve the following equations, giving
In each case verify the result
1. 4.
7.
full
statements of the methods
3xrll=47. 3x 10=65.
2.
5.
7x=60+3x.
10xL3=3xf
66.
8.
10.
11.
2x+5=27. 4x=x+21. ix+5=50. 6a— 3a=a+5.
14.
3.
13.
8m=36— 4m.
12x652=7x+428.
20+6x5=503xfll.
15.
17.
16.
764x9=680xf 12.
Nine blocks of equal weights (w) together with a 20gram weight Express this by are balanced by weights of 50 grams and 10 grams. an equation and find the weight of each block.
18.
19.
17x— 11 is equal in value to 5xt121, what is the value What value of will make 11?/ +60 equal to 20t/— 30 7
If
j/
of x
?
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
17.
21
statemeni
As we have already shown, an equation is merely the in algebraic form of the condition given in an
is
arithmetical problem.
The
solution of the problem
thus obtained by solving the
equation.
EXBRCISS
an equation
1.
:
10
af
State the condition in each of the following problems in the form
2.
3.
4.
5.
is
What must be added to 33 to make 50 ? What must be taken from 90 to leave 40 ? What is the number which when doubled is 36 ? Five times a certain number is 45. What is
If
the
is
number
25.
?
a number
?
is
doubled and 3 added, the result doubled by adding 27
What
the
6.
7.
number
What number What number
If 8 is
is
is
? ?
is
halved by subtracting 20
8.
subtracted from f of a certain number, the result
?
is
7
What
9.
the
number
Solve the equation in each of the preceding examples.
18.
Problems Solved by Equations.
The
following examples
will illustrate the
method
of solving problems
by means
of
equations
:
Ex.
result
1.
is
—When
I
double a certain number and add
is
16, the
40.
What
the
number
?
Let X represent the required number. Then 2x»tS the double of the number. Then 2x+16 is the double with 16 added. But the problem states that this is 40,
..
'
2a;+ 16
= 40,
2x=24,
a;=12.
Therefore the required
number
is 12.
The
result should be verified
satisfies
by showing that the number
I
obtained
I got 40=
the given problem.
12
is
Verification;
When
doubled
is
get 24 eind
when
16
ia
added
Therefore the result
correct
22
ALGEBRA
Note that the substitution is made in the original, problem, There might be an error in writing down the equation and then the sohition obtained might satisfy the equation, but would not necessarily satisfy the given
not in the equation.
problem.
Ex. 2. The number of pupils in a class is 33, and the number of boys is 7 greater than the number of girls. Find the number of each.
Let
.'.
—
x = the number of
girls,
x+7 = the number
x\x{l
of boys,
= the
total
number,
..
x+a;+7 = 33.
2a;
= 337 = 26,
..
a;=I3,
.'.
x+l = 20,
of
the
number
:
of girls
is
13
and the number
boys
is
20.
Verification
20+13 = 33,2013 = 7.
§100 among A, as A, and
number
„ „
Ex.
3.
— Divide
x=
3x= 3x+30=
B
C
receive 3 times as
much
the „ „
..
and C, so that B may S30 more than B.
Let
:.
.'.
of dollars
A
receives,
„ „
B c
„
they
all
receive (x+3a;+3x+30) dollars,
a;+3x+3x+30=100, 7x+30=100,
7x = 70, a;=10,
.. A receives $10, Verify this result.
B
$30 and
C
$60.
19.
Steps
in
the
Solution
will
of
a
Problem.
The examples
problem
:
which have been given
show that
in solving a
the steps in the work are usually in the following order
(1)
Read
the
problem carefully
to see
what quantity
is to be
found.
(2)
Represent this
unknmvn by a
letter.
If there be more than one quantity to be found, represent the others in terms of the same letter.
(3)
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
(4)
23
the
Express
the condition stated in the
problem in
form
of
an equation.
(5)
Solve the equation
and draw
the conclusion.
(6)
Verify the solution by substitution in the problem.
On referring to Ex. 1, we see that there was only one quantity to be found, and therefore step (3) did not appear in the solution. In Ex. 2 there were two quantities to be found, and when we represented the number of girls by z, we could represent the number of boys by
x+1.
The pupil
English, as to
is
advised to
let
make
full
statements, in plain
what the unknown
represents.
Thus, in Ex. 3 to say, only lead to difficulties.
Note.
x=A,
or let x=^A's money, will
—The examples
in the following exercise are to
be solved by
means
of the equation
and the
results should be verified in every
case. Although the answers to many of them may be given mentally, the pupil is advised to give complete solutions, so that he may become familiar with algebraic methods.
E3XERCISE!
1.
If 37 is
?
11
is
added to a certain number, the sum
63.
What
What
is
the
number
2.
If 27 is subtracted
?
from a number, the
result
is
5.
is
the
number
3.
A
sum
If the
number was doubled and the result was is now 73, what was the number ?
a number
is is
increased by
27.
4.
When
If five
product, the result
5.
59.
multiplied by 7, and 25 subtracted from the Find the number.
times a
as
if
twice the
number be increased by 6, the sum is the same number were increased by 15. Find the number.
if
6.
What number
If
trebled
?
and the
result diminished
by 36
gives
twice the original
7.
number
you add 19
to a certain
number the sum
is
the
same
aa
if
you add
8.
7 to twice the
number.
Find the number.
Five times a number, plus 19, equals nine times the number,
41.
minus
What
is
the
numbw
?
24
9,
ALGEBRA
Two numbers
The sum
of
differ
by
11
and their sum
ia
51.
Find the
numbers.
10.
15.
What
S1500.
are the
two numbers numbers ?
is
47 and one exceeds the other by
11.
is
^'s salary is three times B's and the difference of their salaries Find the salary of each.
12.
A
twice as
13.
other.
much
The carriage horse and carriage are worth $360. Find the value of each. as the horse.
will
is
worth
Divide 93 into two parts so that one part
be 27
less
than the
14.
The length
is
of a rectangle
is
three times the width.
The
peri
meter
15.
72
is
feet.
Find the
sides.
^
twice as old as B.
In 10 years the sum of their ages wUl
?
be 41 years.
16.
What
are their ages
Divide $500 between
A
and
B
so that
A
will receive
$20 more
than twice what
B
wUl
receive.
The sum of two consecutive numbers is 59. What are 17. numbers? (Let x be the smaller number, then x+1 will be
greater.
the the
18.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum
^'s age
is
is
150.
19.
is
twice B's and
C
is
7 years older than A.
of each.
The sum
of
their ages
67 years.
difference
Find the age
20.
The
10 feet and the perimeter
21.
between the length and width Find the sides. is 68 feet.
of a rectangle
is
much
.
as A,
Divide S468 among A, B and C, so that and C three times as much as B.
B may
get twice as
22 A railwav train travels miles per hour. If it goes from Toronto to Montreal, a distance of 333 miles, in 9 hours 15 minutes, what is the value of
2.3.
m
m? A line
20 inches long
is
of the longer part
^ inch
The length is divided into two parts. more than double the shorter one. Find
5x6 equal to 3x f 40
is
?
the lengths of the parts.
24. 25. 26. oost
7
What
If
value of x will
make
5"o of a
sum
is
$48,
what
the
sum
?
An
article sold for
$261, the loss being
10%. What was the
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
27.
26
Divide $1496
among A,
J's share and
28.
C
wili get
B and C, so that B will get three times $100 more than A and B together.
as B.
A
If
is
has five times as
he has only twice as
29.
much
much money as B. After A How much has B ?
is
has spent $63
$20
less
?
than  of a sum of money
$10 more than ^ of
it
what
the
sum
30. Three boys sold 42 papers. The first sold J as many as the and the second sold \ as many as the third. Kow many did each
third
sell ?
is
The sum of ^ What is the number ?
31. 32.
of a
number and
\ of the
same number
55.
A man
much
?
paid a debt of $4500 in 4 months, paying each
as the
month
twice as
month
before.
How much
did he pay the hrst
month
33.
The
52.
make
half, third and fourth parts Find the number.
of a certain
number together
part
is
34. Divide 72 into three parts so that the second and J of the third.
35.
first
J of the
What number
its third,
is
that to which
if ?
you add
its half
and take
away
36.
the remainder will be 98
n
3a = 46c,
.
(1)
(2) (3)
Find Find Find
a,
b,
c,
when when when
6:= 10,
o
=12,
8.
o=
c= 15. c= 3. 6= .
BXBROISE)
1.
12
(Review
of
Chapter
II)
State the four axioms which are used in solving equations.
Show that 3a;— 7 = 2a;+ll.
2.
3.
x=18
if
is
the
correct
solution
of
the
equation
Determine
Solve
(a)
8
is
4.
(d)
5x43
(e)
7x+l = 9a;9;
5.
a root of 3(a;+6) = 5(a;— 1). = 2x+ 9; (6) l+2x=92x \\x—\ = 5x+\.
;
(c)
3x7 = 82x
five
;
My
much
6. fehsm
as the lot.
house and lot cost $16,800, the house costing Find the cost of each.
If
5^
times as
A horse and carriage cost $520. the horse, what did the horse cost
the carriage cost $60 more
26
7.
ALUEBKA
Three farmera together raised 2700 bushels of wheat.
A
raised
three times as
much
?
as B,
and C raised twice as much as A.
How
much
8.
did each raise
What
where
value of x will
r is
Tr
make
136 — 3a; equal to 172 — 9x
c
is
?
9.
Where
the radius of a circle and
the circumference,
c=2irr,
= 3y.
Find Find
c, r,
(a)
(6)
when r= 7 when c = 88
«
;
;
when r=42. when c=ll.
<=
10
10.
If
5=J/<«, find 5
when
= 4 and/=32; when
women.
and /= 322,
11.
In a company of 98 persons, there are twice as
as men, and twice as are there 7
many
children as
many women How many children
If
Six boys and 15 men earn 5264 a week. 12. four times as much as each boy, how much does a
each
man
in
boy earn
earns a week T
Five times a certain number, increased by 47 is equal to eight 13. times the number, diminished by 43. What is the number ?
14.
If his
An agent charges 3 % commission for collecting an account. charge is $1113, what was the amount of the account ?
Solve (a) •05x=4;
(6)
16.
\d)
x+04x=208
is its
;
(c)
x06x=235
;
a;+6%x=630.
height, the area (o)
is
If 6 is the base of a triangle and h 16. given by the formula a=\bh.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Find Find Find
a,
6,
h,
when b= 8, /t= 4. when a = 36,71=12. when a=176, 6=22.
is
17 .
The sum
is
of the
difference
15 feet.
unequal sides of a rectangle Find the area of the rectangle.
is
65 feet and their
18. 19.
is
If
6x — i/ = 2x + 2/> what
the value of y
if
x=6
?
if
For what number does the question mark stand,
satisfied
when x = 3
5x+i = 3x+?
7
20.
21.
If 4
%
of X together with 3
%
of x
is
equal to 35, find
is
x.
State a problem the condition of which
expressed by the
equation
22.
3x— 20=x.
Together
has $10 more than A, and C has $20 more than B. How much has each 7 they have $190
23.
B
A
turkey costs as
much
as three chickens.
If 2
turkeys and
3 chickena cost $720, find the cost of
a chicken.
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
24. 25.
27
?
What number
increased
by
J
of itself
is
equal to 60
Divide $6400 among A, B and G, so that more than A, and C $160 more than A.
26.
B
will
get
$120
years.
enterprise doubled each year for five the total net income for the five years was $7750, what was the income for the first year ?
If
The net income from an
27.
If2a6 = 3mn,
(1)
(2)
(3) (4)
Find a, when 6=15, 5. 6, n= Find b, when a= 12, 2. 2, n= Find m, when a= i^, 6 = 6, n = J. Find n, when o= 3, 6 =6, m = 12.
6
is
m= w=
28.
Show that
a root of the equation
2(xl)(a;+2) = 4(x+3)(a;5) + (x2)(a;+5).
The area of the United States is 4000 square miles more than 29. seventy times the area of England. If the area of the United States is 3,560,000 square miles, find the area of England.
30
Solve and verify
:
(1)
6850+a; = 27a;+350.
(2)
(3)
Jx+Jx+}x = 3380. 16O7x+20=1762zll.
CHAPTER in
POSITIVE
AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS
62
51
60
59 58 57
66 65 54
53 62
POSITIVE
3.
4.
6.
AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS
? ?
29
?
What was What was
the highest temperature the range of temperature
it
What
the lowest
Between what hours was
rising
? ?
6.
fall
How much
When was
did
7
it
?
it rise
between 10 and 11
How much
did
it
between 6 and
7.
60°, 58°, 55°
?
8.
fall
Between what hours did most rapidly ?
it rise
most rapidly
?
When
did
it
The percentage of games won by a baseball team, up to the 9. beginning of each month of the playing season, was as follows
:
June, 66
;
July, 63
;
Aug., 605
;
Sept., 62
;
Oct., 615.
Draw a graph showing
10.
these changes.
A
boy's height in inches, for each year from the age of 7 to the
age of
14,
was
44, 47, 50, 51, 525, 54, 565, 58.
Draw a graph
to
illustrate the variations in his height.
21. Negative Numbers. temperature for a week.
This diagram shows the
average
Thus on Monday it was 25° above zero, while on Thursday it was 15° below zero.
We
ically
might express
this algebra
by saying that on Monday the temperature was +25°, and on
Thursday
it
was
— 15°.
The
positive
number +25 is called a number and is read " posi25
or
is
tive "
number, and
" plus " 25, while —25 is called a negative read " negative " 25 or " minus " 25.
A negative number is therefore one which is measured on the opposite side of zero from a positive number.
sxsrcise:
1.
14
in the diagram.
Using algebraic signs, write down the temperature for each day Also read the temperature. days was the temperature negative
?
2.
On what
30
3.
ALOE BR A
How much higher was it on Monday than on Thursday lower on Tuesday than on Saturday ?
If the
? ?
How
will it
?
much
4.
temperature
is
be then
5.
If it
had
fallen 10",
—30° and it rises how much Avould
40°,
it
how much
have been then
that
The temperature at which mercury freezes is — 39°C. What does mean ? How much lower is it than the normal temperature
blood which
is
of the
437°C.
?
sells above par is positive and the price below par is negative, make a diagram similar to the preceding, showing the prices of a certain stock for a week, when the record was as follows
6.
If the price at
which a certain stock
:
Mon., 4 above par Tues., 2 below Thurs., at par; Fri., 3 below; Sat.,
;
;
Wed.,
below.
1
above,
H
22.
Distances measured on a Horizontal Line.
9
I \
B
1 \
1
O
+
\
\
AC
\
5
4
1
1
3
2
1
*l
+2
^3
+4
+5
On this diagram the distance between each successive marking represents one foot.
What
differ
is
the length of
OA
?
of
OB
?
In what respect does
this difference
?
OA
from
is
OB
1
How
might we use signs to show
It
usual to consider measurements
made
to the right as
positive
and
to the left as negative.
T
point is +5 feet from ? What one is —5 feet from a point moves from O, 4 feet to the right and then 7 feet to the how far is it then from O ? Is the distance positive or negative ?
What
If
left,
We
thus see that in addition to the numbers of arithmetic
which begin with zero and extend indefinitely in one direction, we now have another series of numbers which also begin with zero and extend indefinitely in the opposite direction. In each series all integral and fractional numbers are included.
23.
(1)
Further Example^ of Negative Numbers.
A man
has property worth $100, and debts amounting
POSITIVE
to $60.
AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS
31
When
he has paid his debts he wiU have property
worth $40.
Thus,
If,
$100 $60=
$40.
however, he has debts amounting to $100, are paid he will have nothing left.
when
these
Thus,
If
$100 $100=
$0.
he has debts amounting to $140, when he has paid a'.' Ae can he will still owe $4G. We express this algebraicall thus $100 $140= $40.
:

In the first case we say that his net assets are $40, in the second they are zero, and in the third they are miniis $40. When we say his assets are $40, we mean he is ji40 in debt. It will be seen that the difference in mea'iing between
—
+40 and —40 when
same
as
referring to dollars
is
practically the
the
in
difference
between
+40 and
— 40,
Line,
when
as in
referring to degrees of temperature, as in art. 21, or to distances
measured
art. 22.
(2)
opposite directions on a horizontal
If
a
man
on another, what
gains $20 on one transaction and loses $15 If he had lost $25 on is the net result ?
the second transaction what would have been the net result ? If we attach a plus sign to the result when it is a gain, how
may we
If
indicate a loss
?
represents a sum gained ^nd L a sum lost, state the result in each of the following, attaching tt proper sign
O
:
1.
$30G+$20(?.
$30
If
2.
5.
$30
4.
L+ $20
a
O.
04 $40 O^
$20 i.
$4f L.
3.
6.
$30Z,+ S20i.
$20
(3)
represent a
lost,
game won game lost.
is
represented
6+ $60 L. by +1, then —1 would
is
:
In a series of games I find that my record won, lost, won, lost, won, won. This might be represented thus
:
won,
lost,
+ 111 + ll + ll + l + = +54= + l.
l
What
does this result
mean
?
:
Write in a similar way the following record lost, lost, won, lost, won, lost, lost, won. Also the following won, lost, drawn, won, won.
:
32
(4)
ALGEBRA
In locating points on the earth's surface, the distance north of the equator (north latitude) is said to be positive, and south of the equator negative.
in degrees
Thiis, the latitude of
What
is
44° and of Rio de Janeiro is  23°. Toronto is the distance in degrees of latitude between these two cities ?
+
The preceding
differs
illustrations
show that
a positive
number
from a negative number
in direction or quality.
Thus, if +10 means 10 yards measured to the right; or 10° east longitude or 10 miles a boat goes up stream or 10 games won or 10 minutes a clock is fast or $10 in bank balance or 10 what would — 10 mean in the correspounds lifted by a balloon
; ;
;
;
my
;
;
ponding cases
?
24.
Signs of Operation and Sighs of
Quality.
The numbers
but
differ
+25 and —25
When
are
the same in magnitude,
in
direction or quality.
the
a number is preceded by the sign +, it means that number is taken in the positive direction or sense, and when preceded by the sign — that it is taken in the
,
negative direction.
be seen that we use the signs + and — with When they are used to indicate the operations of addition or subtraction, they are called signs of operation. When they are used to indicate direction or quality, they are sometimes called signs of quality. The beginner might think that this ambiguity would lead to confusion, but he will find that such is not the case. When we read a quantitj'' hke —25, we should say " negative 25," but this is not followed in practice, as it is usually read " minus 25."
It will thus
two
different significations.
When
no sign precedes a number,
it
is
understood to be a
positive number. Absolute Value.
25.
its
The absolute value
of
a number
is
value without regard to sign.
4 S
Thus,
and
—8
have the same absolute
valu''
POSITIVE
AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS
15 (115, Oral)
33
BXEBCISB
1.
What
$47,
2.
(6)
is the net property of a man who, (a) has $60 and owes has $40 and owes $50, (c) has $65 and owes $65 ?
What is the value of, (a) $40 $30, (6) $40— $60, (c) $30— $20, $20 $30, (e) $10 $0, (/) $0$10? 3. The temperature was —10° at 6 p.m. and 4° at 10 p.m. How many degrees did it rise in the interval ?
(d)
4.
is
A Uquid
whose temperature
?
is
20°
is
cooled through 30°.
What
the final temperature
6. A vessel sailed on a meridian from latitude 15° How many degrees did it sail and in what direction ?
to latitude —5°.
What is the distance between a place 90 miles due east of 6. Toronto and another 60 miles due west ?
7.
I
am overdrawn
balance $100
at the
?
bank
$20.
What must
I
deposit to
make my
If
— 20x=100,
What would
what
is
x
1
a negative number mean in stating the height of a tree above the window of a house ? The height above sea level of the bottom of a well ?
8. 9.
A man
and
biiys a horse for
$100 and
sells
him
for $80.
What
is
his gain
his
gain %
?
10.
from A.
11.
If
A man travels 20 miles from A How far are they apart ?
What
What
is
and
his friend travels
— 10 mile*
?
the rise in temperature from
—30°
to
—10°
— 30ta;= — 10,
b miles
what
is
x
t
12.
and
is the distance between two places which are a Miles west of Montreal, (1) if a is greater than b, (2) if b is
?
greater than a
13.
Denoting a date a.d. by + and of years between these pairs of dates
:
B.C.
by
—
,
state the
number
(1) (4)
+1815 to +1915. 120 to +60.
Augustus was
(2)
(5)
20
to to
+75.
+200.
(3)
(6)
65
to
37.
to
200
+1900
+1800
14.
years was he
Emperor
Roman Emperor from —31 to +14. How many What is the difference betweei 14 and — 31 ? 1
D
34
16,
ALGEBRA
The
last
?
First Punic
War
lasted
did
it
What
is
the difference between
from 264 to —241. How long —241 and —264 ?
16. A boy adds 15 marbles to his supply, gives away 10, buys 5 and gives away 12. How many has he thus added to his supply ? 17.
I
have Sn
in the
bank.
is
If I issue
?
balance
when the cheque
?
paid
If
a cheque for S6, what is my a=40 and 6=50, how do you
mterpret the result
18.
How
19.
has S50 and B has $20. A owes B $10 and much will each have when his debts are paid ?
A
B
owes
A
If
$40.
The weights
of
two pieces
of iron are 65 lb.
and 147
lb.
they
are attached to a balloon with an
upward
?
pull of 239 lb.,
how would
you represent the combined weight
20.
Represent graphically the following changes
in
the price of
a stock
POSITIVE
6.
AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS
A
?
35
—3
In a 100 yards handicap race yards start. What do these mean
has 3 yards start and B has How far has each to run ?
7.
many
8.
In solving a problem in which it is required to find in how years A will be twice as old as B, I get the answer — 10. What
does this answer
mean
?
Find the average noon temperature for a week in which the noon temperatures were 20°, 10°, 15°, 0°, 4°, 6°, —15°.
:
9.
A
train
it
three did
10.
was due at 10 minutes to 3. How many minutes arrive if it was half an hour late ?
before
— 11
11.
miles.
A man travels How far
and
?.
8 miles, then —6 miles, then 4 miles, then has he travelled ? How far is he from the
starting point
in
what
direction (positive or negative)
from
it ?
Egjrpt was a
years was this
12.
Roman province from —30 to 616. How many What is the difference between 616 and — 30 ?
:
The
2°,
daily average temperature for 14 days were
0°,
5°,
1°,
6°, 5°,
0°,
4°,
6°, 2°,
1°,
6°, 3°,
3°.
Show
these
variations
13.
If
by means
?
of a graph.
will represent
a gain of a dollar be the positive unit, what
of a patient's
a loss of $350
14.
at 12
The record
noon was:
temperature for each hour beginning
102°,
100°,
1005°,
101°,
104°,
1015°,
995°,
98°,
975°, 97°.
Represent these changes graphically, taking two spaces on the vertical line to represent one degree.
15.
If the
in the preceding question using positive
normal temperature of the body is 985°, write the record and negative signs.
for the first 15
16.
The minimum temperatures
were:
26°, 22°, 14°, 25°, 21°, 185°, 13°, 75°, 11°, 6°,
days of December 4°. 6°, 1°,
10°. 125°.
Make
a chart to show these variations.
d2
CHAPTER IV
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
26.
Addition of Positive Quantities.
:
What
is
the result ol
combining
(1)
(2)
A A
A
gain of $20 with another gain of $10
?
measurement
?
of 5 feet to the right with another of
rise of 8°
3 feet to the right
(3)
(4)
temperature of 10° with a 6 points won with 4 points won ?
rise in
?
As explained
in
to be positive quantities,
Chapter III., we will consider all of these and we might show this by attaching
four
the positive sign to each. We might write these
addition, thus
:
questions
as
problems
in
+ $20 + $10 + $30
Similarly, the
+5 +3 +8
of 6a
feet
+10°
feet
feet
is
+8°
+18°
10a,
+ +
6 points
4 points
+10
points
sum
and 4a
and the sum
of 2x*, 5x*
and
6x»i3 13x'.
Here we have not prefixed any
positive sign
is
sign,
and when that
is
the case the
understood.
We
is
see then that the always positive.
sum
of
any number of positive
quantities
27. Addition of Negative Quantities. We might change the data of the four questions in the preceding article so that all the quantities would be negative.
M
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Thus, the
result of
ST
is
"What first might be changed to — " combining a loss of $20 with a loss of $10 ?
.
the
Read the other
As problems
three questions
making
similar changes.
?
What would now be
$20
the answer to each question
in addition
they would
10°
now appear
thus
:
— $10 — $30
Similarly, the
5 3
feet
feet
—
— 5x
8°
— —
6 points
4 points
8
feet
— 18°
is
 10
points
of
— 2o^,
and
is
sum of and —a^ and —6a' is —14a'.
— 7x
— 12x,
and the sum
—5a*,
Thus,
the sum of any number of negative quantities is negative, found by adding their absolute values and prefixing the
negative sign to the result.
EXERCISE
1.
17 (Oral)
:
State the results of the following additions
38
ALGEBRA
We
in the
proceed in a similar same column.
way
in algebra, writing like
terms
In arithmetic.
2 yd.
3 yd.
1 ft. 1 ft.
In
in.
algebra.
6
2a\
h+
6c 4c
4
10
in.
3a+ 6+
5 yd. 2
If
ft.
in.
5a+26 + 10c.
same
order, the}'
the like terms are not in the
must be
properly arranged for addition.
Ex.— Add 5x+3^— 22,
4;/— 52
+ 3x,
:
—32+4x4?/.
Here the problem might be written thus
5xl3i/3a;
2z
4xl
+ 4!/y
5z Zz
Sum=12x+8i/102.
EXERCISE
Add:
18 (16, Oral)
AUDITION AND SUBTRACTION
30.
39
Addition of Quantities with Unlike Signs.
is
What
the result of combining
:
(1) (2)
(3)
(4)
A A A A
gain of $20 with a loss of $10 gain of $5 with a loss of 815 ?
loss of loss of
?
$8 with a gain of S6 ? $7 with a gain of $12
?
These might be written as problems
in addition,
thus
7
:
+ $20
$10
r% b
— $8
+$6
$2
—$
8
$15 $10
+S12
5
+ $10
It is
thus seen, that when we add two quantities differing in sign, the sum is sometimes positive and sometimes negative.
When
is it
is
positive
and when
is it
is it
negative
?
How
the numerical part of the
?
sum found when
the
signs are alike
found when the signs are different ? The answers to these questions might be combined into
:
How
the following rule
When
addition,
the signs are alike, the
and
the
common
is
different, the
sum
found by arithmetical when the signs are ; found by arithmetical subtraction, and the
is
sum
sign
is
affixed
sign of the greater
is affixed.
Ex.
1.
— Find the sum of 6 and
result
is
—8.
between
8
Here the
—2,
since the difference
is
and
6
is
2
and
the one with the greater absolute value
negative.
If there is doubt in any case, it is advisable to make the problem concrete by substituting for +6, a gain of $6 and for — 8, a loss of $8, when the result will at once be evident.
Ex. 2. Find the sum of 5a, —8a, —7a, 6a, —2a. The sum of the positive quantities is llo. The sum of the negative quantities is — 17a. The sima of 1 la and — 1 7a is — 6a,
.'.
—
the required
sum
is
—6a.
which they come. Thus, the sum of 5a and —8a is —3a, of —3a and —la of — lOo and 6a ia — 4a, of — 4a and — 2a ia  6o.
also be eidded in the order in
They might
ia
—10a
40
ALGEBRA
Ex. 3.—Add
3a 116+ 5c, 665a, 56c+a.
in
Write the expressions
columns as already explained.
a==b=c= 1
— 5a+
3a116 + 5c
66
c
a+ 56—
The sum
zero.
is
a +4c — a + 4c or 4c— o,
= 3 = +1 = +5 = +3
the
sum
of the second
column being
We may check the result by substituting
for the letters.
particular
numbers
the
of
first
Thus, if we substitute unity for each letter quantity becomes 3—11+5 or —3, the second is +1,
is
the third
—3,
Add:
1.
+1
+5, and the sura (— a+4c) is +3. Since the sum and +5 is +3, we assume that the work is correct.
EXE3RCISB
19 (112. Oral)
+6 ft. 3 ft.
3
7
$10
+ $27
9.
3a26
5a + 36
10.
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
24.
If
4t
the
sum
of
13x— 7, 2x+5 and 6— 4a;
3a;— 6 and 5a;— 6
find
is
is
48, find the valne of
X and verify.
25. If the sum of i— 6, 12— z, 12— 3a; and 12— 6a;, 31.
the same as the
sum
of
x and verify.
If
is
Indicated
Additions.
we wish
to be
to
use the sign of
a,
addition to indicate that b
added to
we
write
it
thus
to
:
a46.
if
Similarly,
11,
we wish
it
to indicate the
sum when
—7
is
added
we
write
ll!(— 7),
the negative quantity being
enclosed in brackets.
To
which
find the value of
is
done
ll+(— 7), we must add 11 and —7, by subtracting their absolute values and
ll+(7)=ll
(

prefixing the positive sign.
Thus,
Similarly,
7 = 4. — 3a) = 6a — 3o=3a, 5w+( — 3m) + m^ = 67w — ?m — w=m, o+{ — fe)=o— 6.
6a + (
and
We
If
to subtract
to add a negative ouaniity is the same <m a positive quantity of the same absolute value. we wish to simplify a quantity hke
thus see that,
(3o26)+(2a36),
or
we may write 2a— 36 under 3a— 26, and add in the usual way, we may remove the brackets and say that tht quantity
==3a— 26+2a— 36,
=5a— 56, when
the like terms are collected.
EXERCISE
Simplify
1. 4. 7.
:
20
(112.
Oral)
3+4.
(2)+(3).
2.
5. 8.
10+(6).
3.
6. 9.
3+(4).
76+(4fc).
5a+(4o).
8a+( + 7a).
10.
12.
5ab+(2ab).
11.
9x^+{Zx'
p\(3p).
(3m)+(8m).
o+(2a)+(3c).
10xy\{^xy)+(Axy)xy+(5xy).
13.*
4i
14.
AIMEBRA
6+(26)+(36)+(46) + 106.
(2m+3») + (5mra)+(3m5»).
(6x+3y42) + (x+2y2)+(y+z7x).
16.
17.
18. 19.
a+{6) + 6 + (c)+c+(a).
z+(a26 + c) + {62c + a)4(c— 2a}r&),
is
20.
When —20
is
that this
true
by adding the
addition,
subtracted from 10, the difference is 30. Show difference to the quantity which was
subtracted.
21.
Show by
that
is
when 2a—h\5c
is
subtracted from
3a— 4643c
22. 23. 32.
the remainder
a— 36— 2c.
(Verify.)
Solve (2x+3) Solve (8x7)
+ (3z5)f(5a;l)=57. (Verify.) + (4a;3) = (5x7)+(7a;2).
is
Subtraction
is
the Inverse of
Addition.
from 7
4 will
equivalent to finding the
7.
To subtract 4 number which added to
make
in subtraction may be changed into a corresponding problem in addition. If we wish to subtract —4 from 7, we enquire what number added to —4 will make 7. We might make the problem concrete by finding what must be added to a loss of $4 to result in a gain of $7, and the answer is evidently a gain of
Thus every problem
$11.
.*.
when
7
—4 is subtracted
from 7 the remainder
is 11.
Thus,
less— 4=11, because 10 less 3 = 7, because
66 less
—4+ 11 = 7.
3 + {7)=
10.
—46=106, because —46+106 = 66.
BXBRCISB
What must
1.
21 (Oral)
be added to
2.
A A
gain of SIO to give a gain of $15
gain of $8 to give a gain of $3
?
7
7
3.
A
gain of %5 to give a loss of $4
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
4.
5. 6.
43
A A
A
loss of
loss of loss of
$6 to give a gain of $3
?
§20 to give a
loss of
$15
?
?
$5 to give a loss of $8
7.
44
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
Rewrite the
following
22
in
problems in subtraction as problems
addition and find the result
1.
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
17.
46
Subtract the
sum
of
3x^— 5a;+6 and
5x*4a;— 3 from 6a;^— x+3
Check when x—\.
18.
What must
be added to
2m+3n— 4p
to give
5mn—2p
3a*— lla + 4
7
(Verify.)
19. 20.
By how much is 7a*— 15a— 11 By three subtractions simplify
greater than
7
(6a+106c)(3a+462c)(a36[4c)(2a+763c).
Subtract the sum of 2p—5q—3r, —p'r3q—2r and 4^ + 6^— 4r from the sum of 3p—4:q'r5r, 3q—4:r\5p and 3r—4ip{5q.
21. 22.
23.
Subtract
2a— 36+ 5c from
a2b
sum
?
zero.
?
What
?
is
the excess of 15 over 10
8 over
—2
? ?
—4
over
— 11
24.
a+b
Add
over
3a;25x+2 over 2^2— llx+7
a*2a— 5 to the excess of 2a^— 4a+3 over
of
a^— 3a+10.
from
25.
zero.
Subtract the
o— 36+c, 6— 3c+a,
and
c— 3o+6
26. What must be added to the sum of x^—5x, 6a;— 3x* so that the result wiU be unity ?
27.
2x^— 3a:+4 and
From 2z3x^+ox^
Indicated
take 3
— Ux^5x^—6x.
we wish we write it:
to
34.
Subtractions.
If
indicate
that
—3
is
to be subtracted from 9
is
9— (—3). From
the preceding this
Also,
at once seen to be equal to 9
(
+ ()3) = 12.
8(5)= 8 + + 5)= 3. — 3o — — 5a)= — 3a + of = 2a. o(6)= a + + 6) = a + 6.
( (
We
thus see that
to subtract
as to add a positive quantify of the
Similarly, (3o
a negative quantity is same absolute value.
the
same
+ 4fe){2a36) = (3a + 46) + (2o + 36), = 3a + 46 — 2a + 36,
=a+76.
a—(b+c)—a\{ — b — c) — a—b—c,
Also
and
a— (6 — c) = a + — 6 + c)=a— 64c.
(
Thus, brackets which are preceded by a minus sign may be removed if the signs of all the quantities within the brackets be
changed.
an
ALGEBRA
Ex.— Simplify 5x— 3?/+42(3.r— 2?/42z).
consider this as an ordinary problem in subtraction and proceed in the usual way.
We may
5x3y + 4z 3x—2y + 2z
2x
y + 2z
We
may, however, remove the brackets using the
:
rule
and then
collect the like terms, thus
The expression
=5x — Zy + 4z — 3x + 2y — 2z, = 2x—y + 2z.
EXERCISE
Simplify
1.
:
24 (110. Oral)
10(3).
2. 5.
5(6).
(2m){3m).
8.
3.
6.
7a(4a).
4.
7.
8z(3x).
{b)+b.
8(4)(2)
??i(3m)(5m).
8abl0ab{lab).
4:X^+(3x^){lx^).
.3a116(5a86).
9.
10.
12.
11.* {5x2y){2x—4.y).
13. 14. 15.
16. 17.
2a36+5c(a46+5c).
(a+6)f(2a36)(4a36).
arb—c—{b\c—a) + {a^b—c).
(6x^—3x+5)+(2x^—5x—6)—{5x^—8x+2).
Find the value of
5a\b,
when a = 2,
6
= — 3.
l,
18.
19.
Find the value of 2a+3b—c, when a =
b^2,
c=— 3.
By two
different
methods
find
the value of a (b—c), whei
0=20, 6=10, c=7.
20.
Solve and verify
(1) (2) (3)
:
2a;3(x4)=8.
3xl(a:3)(z+7)=40. l(4x)(5x)(6x)=52.
make 5x— 6 exceed 3x— 11 by 70
?
21. 22.
What
value of x will
Find the value of 3x*— 2*+5— (2x«+x— 1), when*=0,
1, 2, 3, 4.
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
23.
47
Remove
(1) (2)
(S^
(4)
the brackets and simplify
:
(a+36llc)(6 + 3c8a)(c+5a26). (a36)(63c)+(c3d)(d3a).
—{Zx—y+2z)—{2x—Zy+^) — {'iy%z—bx).
{ah){bc){cd){da).
E3XERCISB
1,* Find the
2.
least.
25 (Review of Chapter TV)
sum
of 5a,
—3a, la and —8a.
which x
is
Find the sum
of four consecutive integers of
the
3.
Find the sum
of five consecutive integers of
which n
is
the middle
one.
4.
5. 6. 7.
Add 3a26 + 7c,
Subtract
56
— 3c — 2o
and ca36.
5a.
—106 from —66, —3a from
From
4a — 36 f 5c subtract 2a — 56 — c.
Subtract
5x— 3t/ + 42 from 4:X—2y — z.
be added to 3a — 56 + 6c to give 6a — 76 + 4c
is
?
8.
What must
If
2t/ ?
9.
x\y—\Q and x — j/ = 4, what
the
the value of 2x
?
What
?
is
the value of
10. 11. 12.
What
is
sum
of the coefficients in
6a—
?
116
+ c — 3d
when
What must
be added to x — j/ to give
i/
When x=3 and
7
= 4,
what
is
the remainder
x*
— y*
is
subtracted from 2xy
13.
What
To
the
is
the difference between 2a — 6 — c and a — 6 + c
7
Give
two answers.
14.
sum
4x*
of
3m — 4n and 2m— 3n add
subtract the
the
sum
of
m+7n
7x— 5
and
3m 2n. 15. From
2x»8x+7.
16.
of
+ 3x— 7
is
sum
of
2x* +
and
By how much
3x— 7
7
greater than
2x+5
?
For what value
X would they be equal
17. 18.
Simplify a + (26 — 3c)(c
If
+ a).
x = a+26 — 3c, i/ = 6 + 2c — 3a and z = c + 263a, find the value 0f(l)x+(y + 2), (2)x(j/2). (3)x(2/ + 2).
48
ALGEBRA
From the sum of •bx\^y and Zx—^y subtract the sum of 19. 2x—\\y and Ax\\Zy. By how much is 3x* — 5a;4ll greater than 3a;* — 8x+17 7 20. What is the meaning of the result when x = 2 7 when x = 1 7
21. 22.
From
If
c
7
%a—^b\\c take
Ja— J6 — Jc.
6
a + 6 + c = 0when
a=3x — 4;/ and
= 4)/ — oz,
what
is
the
value of
23. 24.
25.
5x3(x4)(x2) = 27. (Verify.) value of x will make 3x— 2 exceed x— 7 by Whena=l, 6 = 2, c = 3, the sum of xfa — 36 + 4c,
Solve
What
63
7
2x + 63c+4o
and 3x + c — a — 6
26.
is
124.
Find the value
d.
of x.
Using
breickets,
indicate that the
If
diminished by the sum of c and d = I — 6x, what is the result ?
27.
sum of a and b is to be a = 2x — 3, 6 = 5 — 3x, c = 3x— j,
Solve
2(xi)(i3x) = 1625.
28. 29.
Subtract
2m— 7n — 4x
from
zero.
What must
be added to a —
(1— 6) — (1 — c)
to
produce unity
7
Subtract the sum 30. excess of 4a — 6jc over a + 6tc.
of 2a  36
— 4c
j
d and a — 26 c — d from the
CHAPTER V
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
35.
Multiplication of Simple Positive Quantities,
The
factafs
of
a product
Thus, Also
may
be taken in any order.
3x5x4 = 3x4x5 = 5x4x3 = etc. axbxc=axc X 6 = 6 xaxc =etc.
product
The
latter
may be written abc, acb, 3ax26=3xax2x6, = 3x2xax6,
etc
ai
= 6ab.
Make a diagram
Similarly,
to
show that ixx2y = 8xy. 3a6 x 5cd — 3xaxbx5xcxd,
= 3x5xax6xcxa, = I5abcd.
flO
ALOBBRA
BXBRCISE
26 (Oral)
Find the product of
1.
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
EXERCISE
State the product of
1.
6,
3,
:
61
27 (Oral)
7. —5.
—2?/.
2.
5.
4,
3x,
2t7i,
3.
3.
6. 9.
4, 5.
4.
7.
—2.
—X,
y.
—X,
8.
—3n.
— x,
—3x7/
10. 13.
16.
o(6).
11.
v).
(6)2.
12.
ayix).
— 2?ni;( —
x2,
14. 17.
—\x,—\2x.
15.
18.
—X.
2x2.
— 2a2,
—3a.
— 2.r2x— Sx" — ofcx—
3crf.
19. 22. 25.
— oxy,
5x32/3,
20. 23.
— a^ — a.
Za^b^c^,
21.
24.
3a%X—ah.
—x'^yz^, 5x^yh.
— X2/2.
—abH.
Since
fou expect
—4x3 = — 12, —4x2=— 8, —4x1 = — 4, what would —4x0 to be equal to Also — 4x— 1 and — 4x —2
? ?
39.
Multiplication of several Simple Factors.
Ex. 1.— Multiply 2a, 36, —4ab, —b. The product of 2a and — 36 is — 6ab. „ —6ab and —4ab is 24a*6*. „ „ „ 24a«6« and & is 24a26S „ „
.*.
the required product
is
— 24o'6^.
Of course the factors may be multiplied in any order we choose. we multiply all the negative factors first, what sign will their product have ? What sign will the product have if we multiply four negative factors ?
If
Five negative factors
?
Twenty negative
factors
?
factors
The product will be negative vvhen the number of negative is odd and will be positive when the number of negative factors is even. Any number of positive factors will evidently
not affect the sign of the product.
Ex. 2.— Multiply 3x, —5xy, 6x2, _y^ QyS
(1) The sign of the product is — since there is an odd number of negative factors. (2) The numerical coetficient = 3 x 5 x 6 x 6 = 540. (3) The literal part of the product = x. xy x* .y y^ — x*y^, the complete product 540xH/*'
,
.
.
,",
= —
E 2
52
ALGEBRA
Ex. 3.— Find the values of (2)3, {2)^ (2)^
In
(
— 2)*
the
number
of factors
/.
is
odd,
(_2)3=2»=8.
16
Similarly,
(2)*=
and (2)6= 32.
EXERCISE
28 (118 Oral)
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
53
Compound Multiplication. We multiply a compound 40. quantity by a simple one in a manner similar to the method
in arithmetic.
In
3yd. 2
6yd.
If
arithmetic.
In
2
algebra.
1ft. 4in.
23 = 2.10+3
2 2
3a+46
5c
2ft. Sin.
46 = 4. 10 + 6
60+86— 10c
and
be
y\z,
we wish
x{y\z),
to indicate the product of x
we
write
it
in the
form
which we see is equal to The diagram shows how this product
xy\xz.
may
illus
y
^
trated geometrically.
Make a
similar
a(6
diagram to show that
Similarly,
+ c + d)=o6+oc+od. x{y — z)==xy~xz.
diagram
is
Can you
see that the
7
a geometrical
'^
illustration of this
Ex.^implify 3(a6)4(6— c)2(a6+c).
The expression
= (3a 36) (46 4c) {2a 26 + 2c), = 3o36 — 46 + 4c— 2a+26 — 2c, =o66 + 2c.
54
16.
17.
ALOEBRA
4(o26+c)3(62c+a)2(5c4a56)
i(2a36) + i(2a+56) + i(5af&).
x(a:l)42x(x— 3)+3x(x45).
18. 19.
a(a2a+l)+3(o2+o2)2(a2+2a3).
3x(a;22x+2)2a;(3x2+4a;5)+x(4a;2+5x6).
20.
21.
— 2a(6— c+d)3a(cd+6)— a(d6c).
:
Solve and verify
22.
24.
26.
3(xl) = 2(x+4).
23.
5(x2)2(x+2)=70.
2(5x9)44(xll) = 36.
6(2x3)3(x3)=0.
25.
3(x+2)+5(x3)=2(x4)+4(xl) + 13.
Find the sum of x(x+l), 3x(x— 2), 2x(x— 5).
Subtract a(2a2— a+1) from 2a(a2+3a2).
If
27. 28.
29.
of
a stands for x^^xy^y"^ and 6 for x^—xy\y'^, find the values
a—b,
41.
2a\b,
3a— 26.
Compound
Quantity.
Multiplication by a
The measures of the sides of the large rectangle are a\h and x\y. The measure of the area is the X y product of a\h and x\y, which is seen to ax
be ax\ay\hx^hy,
:.
[a[h){x\y)=ax{ay\'hx^hy.
This diagram shows how to find the product of x + 3 and x + 2. What does it show the product to be ?
Make a
of af6
similar figvire which will
a\b,
show the product
and
and thus
6.
find the value of (a
+ 6)*,
or the square of a +
The method
is
of obtaining the product without the
diagram
similar to that used in arithmetic.
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
50
Thus, (he product of any two expressions is obtained by multiplying each term of the multiplicand by each term of the multiplier. The proper signs are attached to these partial
products,
and
the
sum
of the partial products is then taken.
in
In multiplying in arithmetic we begin at the right, but algebra it is usual, but not necessary, to begin at the left.
Ex.—Multiply
Check
=
(1)
(2)
2a3b by 3a26. 3x5y by 4x+y.
Check
36 26
(2)
(1)
6=1
1 1
2o 3o
—
x=y = \ 2
5
3x
4a;
— +
5y
1/
6a*1
9ab 4a6 + 66«
10
I2x^20xy + 3xy5y12x*—
l'Jxy
6o*13a6 + 66»
42.
— 5y*
Results. In Chapter II. we saw how U which we obtained in solving an equation. We might verify our work in subtraction by addition. As in addition, the work in multiplication is easily checked by substituting particular numbers for the letters involved.
Checking
verify the root
Thus to check the work in the first example we might substitute 1 for each letter involved.
in
the preceding article,
Whena = 6=l,
and
2a36 = 23= 1, 3a26 = 32 = l,
6a*13a6 + 66* = 613 + 6= 1.
Since the product of 1 and 1 is the work is likely correct. 1 A convenient way of exhibiting the test is shown. Of course any numbers might be used in checking, but we naturally choose the
,
—
—
simplest ones.
EXERCISE
x+3 2+4
2x+7
30
Find the product of the following and check
1.
2. 3.
x+5
2x+2
4.
3a;+4
x+1
2x+3
M
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
34.
67
Find the sum of the squares of x+1, ar+2, zf3.
Check by
putting x=2.
Solve and verify
36.
:
{x\5)(xl)={x5)ix+2).
(2a;l)(3xl) = (x2)(6x+4).
36.
{xl)^={x6){x\2).
37. 38.
(a:+ll)(a;2)=(a;7)(xl)+107.
a;(a;+l)+(a:+l)(x+2)=2(a;+l)(x+3).
39. 40.
(x+l)2+(x+2)2+(ar+3)2=3(x2)2+14.
Division by a Simple Positive Quantity.
43.
To
divide 24
division
by
is
6
is
the same as to find the
24.
number by
which 6 must be multiplied to produce
Thus
is
the inverse of multiplication as subtraction
the inverse of addition.
Since
.'.
axb=ab,
ab^a=h and
ai)^b=a.
If we wish to divide 6xy by 2x, we must find what 2x must be multiplied by to produce 6xy.
(1) 2 (2)
must be multiplied by 3
„
„ „
to produce 6,
X
„ y „
:.
„
xy.
6xy^2x=3y.
Similarly,
I5abc^3bc = 5a.
A
problem
in division
may
be written in the fractional
form, the dividend being the numerator of the fraction and
the divisor the denominator.
Thus. 24
6
.
«='*.
o6
—= a
,
6x1/
f>,
^ = 32/. 2x
_
As in arithmetic, we may remove or cancel from the dividend and divisor any factor which is common to both
Thus, ^r = 4a, on removing the factors 3 and
6.
gioul^y,
l^.= 3ay and
^=1^.
68
ALGEBRA
44. Index Law tor Division. Since a^xa^=a'' by the index law for multiplication,
.'.
a'''^a=a^ or a^^ a^^a,
.
.
a^
\ .k .a .a .a
a^
h .k .k .a .a
Thus,
is
the index of the quotient of
powers of
the
found by
subtracting the index of the divisor
same quantity from the index
of the dividend. Thus, a;*:x' = x*~* = x*
Similarly,
;
a''^a'
= a''~*=a^.
^^^ = 5a^*b^^ = 5ab*.
multiplication.
correct,
The work in division may be verified by Thus the preceding division is seen to be 5ab^x3ab = 15a^b^.
since
EXERCISE
Copy and supply the
multiplication
^
:
31
quotients, verifNing
the results by mental
3x1/
q
2.
5abc
„
24mn
3n
12a*
.
25xyz
5z
ab
,
4a2
.
O,
„ b,
42x3
.

7.
—
.
„ o.
BSm^ra
.
2a
9.
??:!'''^
Ix
10.
'
2a2
11.
'
Vimn
12.
'
i!^'.
6p^
14. 17.
ahc
13.
6xz/i2x.
i". ha
15.
l^^V
.
\xy
lOa'fSa.
^miJ^^^r.
ISx'j/V^Sx^t/z*.
16.
19.
10x5^2x3.
16a36^4a6.
18.
22a%^^Uah.
Rule of Signs for Division.
45.
(+a)x(^i) = +aA, ^—aJb, {—a)x{—b)=^ab,
Since
(a)x(+6) =— oA,
it
,
(ta)x(6)
follows that
,
—ab +aZ>  =+0, —06 =+0, r^=—Oy —a \a +a
,
—
,
,
—;r"=~°—
{ab
a
and when the sign of the quotient What then is the rule of signs for division ? Compare it with the rule of signs for multipUcation
When
is
+
is
it
—
!
(art. 38).
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
Ex.
S&
— Divide
(1)
—XOx'^y^ by
— 2xy'^.
numerical coefficient hteral part ? complete quotient 7
?
(2) (3) (4)
What What What What
is is is is
the the the the
sign of the quotient ?
EXERCISB
Perform the indicated divisions
1.
:
32 (Oral)
12+3.
2.
5.
12+4.
0^
4.
7.
—7+7.
0^5.
ah.
10.
13.
lOa*^
— —
a.
S.
11.
2a2.
axy.
16.
19.
—\2m^n.
—
i4.
6mw.
17. 20.
x^y^z.
— — — 6a3+3a. —
—2a.
5.
3.
6.
a.
10+2. —12 + 2^
6a2^
9.
x.
12.
15. 18.
45^
— — — —
2a.
5i
3.
3.
27a;*^
^x\
xyz.
—40^ + — 2a'.
^'^^^
~y V
—pq
?^*!^
—4imn^
21
—2x
(5)
22.
FUl in the blanks in the following
(1)
Dividend:
Divisor
:
6a^
2a
— lOa;^
(2)
(3)
(4)
— lOaftc — 5c
2ac
35m^n
— 5m
Quotient
46.
:
—
2x
6a
Division of a
Compound Quantity by a Simple One.
2
we divide 6 ft. 4 in. by by 6 we get 2 lb. 1 oz.
If
Similarly,
we
get 3
ft.
2
in.,
or 12
lb.
6 oz.
3)9 3
ft. ft.
6
in.
2 in.
to
ALGEBRA
BXBRCISE
88
(116,
:
Oral)
Divide the
1. 4.
7.
first
quantity by the second
2. 5.
9a 2+ 6a,
3.
Qx^\<ix^~2x,
x.
3.
ISz^lOx,
Sr.
16m'— 4m, 4m.
—ax\ay, —a.
x^y+xy^,
xy.
6. 9.
12a2— 4a6,
— 2o.
8.
a*\a^—a,a.
11.
6x2— 4xy,
2x.
10.
— 6aA— 6o,
—3a.
60' Sa^f 4a, —2a.
12.
a^h^—a^h'^, ab^.
13.
15.
—5a*— 10a', —5a\
3y^—2y^,
\y.
14.
—4a: (10x2 —ex', _2a;.
:
Simplify
.
ID.
3i6 —3
lOx— 15
\•
._ 17.
oAfoc
,
hc\ah
,
ac+bc
•
1

5
a
^^ '
b
c
18* g'+3a
o
20.
a:«fxy
^
Sa'+6a
3a
(x+2)(a;2)+(a;2)(z4)
*
2
^^^ *
y'xy
y
,
(a+2)(ah3)(a3)(o2)
'
X
22
2a
ab—ac
be— ah
a^—a^_^a^—a.
a
b
Subtract 24. remainder by x.
26.
(x+3)(x— 8)
from
(2x4)(x46)
and
divide
the
Solve and verify
^^10^
X
^ 3x2+15x _^ lOxlS^^^^
3a;
5
EXERCISE
1.
84 (Review of Chapter V)
State the rule of signs for multiplication and for division.
2.* If a = 3 and
6= —4,
find the values of
:
a«, 6», ab, a*
+ b*,
a*b*,
a», 6»,
a«6».
3.
What
are the values of (1)»,
(lj%
(1)^", (2)*,
(3)»t
4.
5.
Simplify 3a»x
46»x —2o6^ Safes.
Simplify 2a(a + 3)f3a(2a5).
is (a\b)
What is the area in square feet of a rectangle which 6. long and (a — 6) yards wide 7
7.
feet
Make a diagram
to
show that 3xx4a;=12z'.
MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
8.
61
A merchant
bought a pieces of
If
pieces at 80 cents a yard.
total cost in dollars.
silk at 60 cents a yard and b each piece contained 50 yards, find the
9.
To
the product of 3x — 2 and 2x — 3 add the product of
3a;
+2
and
2a;
+ 3.
From
the product of ox — Zy and
10.
of 3x
2x+y
subtract the product
— 2y
and 2x — 3t/.
to
11.
a*
Make a diagram
show that the product
of a
+3
and
a+1
is
+ 4o+3.
12. 13. 14.
Divide 4o' — 6o* — 8a by
—2a and
verify.
To
is
the square of 2?n— 3/. idd the square of
is
3m — 2n.
5x—6y
the
Prove that when I5x* — 8xy—l2y*
3x + 2y.
divided by
quotient
15.
stituting 3 for a
Find the product of a — b, a + b and and 2 for b.
Simplify ^ '
^.
,.,
a*\b*.
Check by sub
^^ 16.
17.
4x38x»+12x
4x
,
15x»+10a;»15x
J 5x 3).
Solve (2x + 3)(3x+2) = (6xl)(x +
(Verify.)
18.
19.
Simplify (2a36)(a + 6) + (a6)(3a + 6).
value of x will make (x+3)(x + 9) equal to Could (x+3)(x+9) be equal to (x+4)(x+8) ?
What
(x
+ 5)(x+6)
T
20.
21.
Find the sum
of (al)»,
(o2)* and (a3)».
3x— 47/
22.
Subtract the product of and 4x+3i/.
Simplify
2x~3y and
3x + 2y from the product
4a'+2a
^^
+(32a)(la).
1,
23. 24. 25.
Find the value of 2x*+3x—
Find the product of
If
when
x= —3; when x=
—4.
x=o* — 3a+l
x— 2, x+2 and x* + 4. and y = 2a* — a—l, find the
values of 2x + 3y,
*x2y,'±y.
26.
If
x=2af6 and y = af 26, find
in
terms of a and
b the values of
ax— by ~2
27.
'
4x— 21/ x*—y* 3"~' 3o~' If x=362c and y = 2b3c,
If
find the value of
(2x—y){3x2y).
28.
x=2, 2/= 2, 2= 4,
find the value of
x*+y*+z*3xyz.
CHAPTER VI
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
47.
{continued
is
from Chapter
the
11.)
Definition.
An
is
equation
statement
of
the
equality of two algebraic expressions.
Thus, 2.r+3=13
true.
consists in finding a value of x
an equation, and the solving of it which will make the statement
between the
The beginner should
clearly see the difference
value of X in an expression like
2x+3 and
the value of x in
an equation like 2a:;+3=13. In the expression 2a:+3, x may represent any number, and for different values of x the expression has different
But in the equation 2.r+3 = 13, x can not represent any number we please, but some .particular number, in this case 5, which when substituted for x will make 2x\3 have
values.
the value 13.
Identity. The statement 4(x— 2)=4a;— 8 is an equation 48. according to the definition we have given. If the first side of this equation be simplified by multi
plication,
we obtain 4a;— 8, which
It
is
is
identically the
same
is
as
the second side.
at once seen that this equation
true
for all values of x.
An
equation which
is
true for
all
values of the letters
involved is called an identical equation or briefly an identity, while an equation which is true only for certain values of the The usual letters involved is called a conditional equation. method, however, is to call all conditional equations .simply " equations," and all identical equc^^ons, " identities."
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
Thus,
93
and
— 2 = 3x+10, (x+3)(a;— 3)=x* — 9,
5a;
is is
an equation, an identity.
We cannot always see mentally whether a given statement is an equation or an identity. Thus, (x+2)(x + 3) = (a;l)(x3) + 3(3x+l) might appear to be an equation, but if we simplify each side, we find that each becomes x*\5z\6; and this statement is therefore an identity.
BXBRCISEI 85
Which
Identities
1.
of the following statements
?
are
equations and which are
8(x+3)=4x+4(a;+6),.
2. 3.
3x{x+l)=x{x+l) + 2x{x+5)+lQ.
(a:3)25=x(x6)+4.
(2x4)(a;5)+(x2)(x3) = (3x2)(a:7)+40.
(x\a){x^\a^)=x^\ax{x^a)\'a^,
4.
5.
6.
(a;+2)(a;3)=a:(z+5)+3(a;l).
of
49.
Transposition
Terms.
In Chapter
II.
the method
of solving easy equations of the four
was dealt with.
entirely on the proper use axioms of art. 15. The following examples will show how the methods of Chapter II. may be abbreviated.
The method depended almost
Ex. 1.—Solve Add 6 to each side,
Subtract 4x from each, Collect terms on each side, Divide each side oy 3,
7x6=4xf 12. 7x = 4a; + 1 2 + 6. 7x — 4x=12 + 6.
3x= 18.
x=6.
Here we added 6
the
to each side with the object of causing
—6
to disappear
from the
first
side of the equation, so
that
we might
hsve only
unknown
quantities on that side.
+6 to appear on that side. We might say then, that the —6 was transposed from the first side and written on the other side with its sign
But the addition
of 6 to the second side caused
64
ALOBBRA
4a
changed, and similarlj', that the
was transposed from the
:
second side to the
first,
with
its
sign changed.
We
Any
therefore have the following rule
quantity
may
be transposed
from one
side of
an equation
to the other if the sign
of the quantity he changed.
1
Using the
rule,
the solution of Ex.
might appear thus
7x6 = 4x+12.
Transposing terms,
7a;
— 4x = 1 2 + 6,
3x=18, x=6.
.. ..
Verify this result.
Ex. 2.— Solve
Removing
brackets,
2(3a:5)
6z —
+ 3(a;5) = 7(a:— 1).
1
+ 3a; — 1 5 = 7a; — 7.
10+ 15—
.. .•.
Transposing terms,
6x + 3x— 7x=
2x=18,
x = 9.
Verification,
first
when x=9
:
side
second side
=2x22+3x4 = 66, =56. =7x8
3(i/2)5(i/3) = 17.
3?/
Ex. 3.—Solve
Removing
brackets, Transposing terms,
— 6 — 5?/ +15=17. — 5j/ = 6 — 15+17, 3^/ 23/ = 8,
..
••
y=—2 =
8
^'
.
Verification
:
first
side
= 3( — 6)  5(  7 = 18 + 35=17.
performed.
Ex. 4.—Solve (2a;— l)2(x3)(x2)=3(a:2)2— 4.
Here the indicated multiplications are
first
(2xl)* = 4x*4x+l,
(x3)(x2) = x*5x+6,
(x2)i' = x*4x + 4, 4x»4x+l(x*5x+6) = 3(x*4x+4)4, 4x*4x+lx* + 5x6 = 3x»12x+124, 4a;»x»3x»4x+5x+12x= 124 1 + 6,
.',
/.
13x=13,
..
«=1.
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
65
Here the product of x — 3 and x — 2 is first found and enclosed in brackets with the minus sign preceding. In the next line the brackets are removed and the signs changed. In 3(x — 2)*, the x — 2 must first be squared and the product multiplied
by
3.
The beginner should not attempt to perform these double operations together.
Note.
—
EXERCISE] 86
Solve and verify
1.
4x4=2x+8.
33a;=95a;.
5(y2)=3(2/+4).
ll(4x5)=7(6a:5).
2. 4. 6. 8.
3x7=82x.
2(x5)=:a;+20.
10(a:3)=8(a;2).
3. 5.
7.
7xll+4x7=3x8.
3(5a;6)9x=30.
5(a;7)
9.
14+5x=9a:ll+3.
7(x3)=9(a;+I)38.
72(x5)=63(5a:).
10. 12. 14.
11.
+ 63=9a;.
13.
15.
28(x+9)=27(46a;).
7(4x5)=8(3a;5)+9.
(a;+7)(a;3)=(xl)(x+l).
16.
18.
4(x+2)=33(2x5).
(x8)(x+12)==(x+l)(x6),
17. 19. 21.
23.
20(x4)12(a;5)=x6.
20. 22. 24.
5(2xl)3(4x6)=7.
5(3;i+l)7;i3(;i7)=6.
(2mo)(4m7)=8m2+52.
(x+5)2(x+3)2=40.
4(2i/7)3(42/8)22/7.
(x+5)2(4x)2=21x.
25.
26.
(x+4)(x3)(x+2)(x+l)=42.
(2x7)(x+5)=(2x9)(x4)+229.
27.
28.
29.
30. 31.
(x+l)2+(x+2)2+(x+3)2=3(x+l)(x+4)7.
2(xl)23(x2)(x+3)=32(x3)(x4).
What
Prove
x.
value of x will
that
make lOx+11 equal
to
5x— 9
is
?
3(x2)+4(3x5)=5(3x— 6)+4
true
for
all
values of
*
32.
33.
What
value of a will
of x
make 5(a— 3) exceed 3(a— 7) by 28
wiU the sum
of
?
For what value be wern^
12+7x, 4a;+3 and 9—5*
F
66
34,
AWEBRa
If
a;
=2
is
a solution of the equation
(a;+l)(x+2)=(a;4)(x5) + 4,
find the value of
k.
is
35.
Prove that 10
a root of the equation
(x+3)(a:+4) + (x+5)(x+6)=422.
36.
When (3x+2)(4x— 5)
is
is
subtracted
from (2x+7)(6a;+3) the
exceed (y+4)(y— 7)
remainder
37.
141.
Find
x.
What
?
value of y will
make make
(2/— 3)(?/+3)
by 40
38.
What
value of k will
(5
— 3A)(7— 2t)
?
equal to
(ll6it)(3it)
39.
What
is
peculiar about the equation
(x5)2(x3)(x7)=0?
40.
of
Under what condition
1
is
the square of
x+3
equal to the product
X—
41.
is
and
If
x6
?
3(2x— 1)
is
greater than 12(x— 3)
x.
is
b}'
the same
amount
that
5x
greater than 22, find
If
42. 43.
4ax— 4a2=ax+2a^ what
lever in the diagram
is
the value of x
?
The
F
when Pa—Ql.
6
balanced by the weights P and Q The point of support F is call d
the fulcrum.
If
P=10 lb., ^=15
?
lb.
and a = 12
in.,
1
p
of support
is
what
44.
is
the length of 6
Q
Two
boys balance on a teeter 16 feet
in
length.
The heavier boy weighs 85 lb. and the point
Find the weight of the
6 feet from his end of the teeter.
other boy.
45.
if
How
far
weights of 8
?
lb.
from the larger weight must the fulcrum be placed, and 16 lb. balance at opposite ends of a lever 12 feet
to change Fahrenheit readings
If
long
46.
of a
The formula C=f,{F—32)is used
thermometer to Centigrade readings.
F=n°,
find the value of
0.
47
.
Change the following readings
0°C., 40°C., 100°C.,
to Fahrenheit readings
:
10°C., 50°C.
the two scales indicate equal
48.
What
?
is
the temperature
when
numbers
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
50.
67
Equations with Fractional Coefficients.
Ex. 1.—Solve
Since
^ + ^ = 1,
lx{\x=2Q.
..
gx
a;
..
= 20, = 20H = 24.
we might
6.
Instead of adding the fractions,
ing each term of the equation
get rid of
them by multiply
by
Then
^xx
B
..
+ ix X 6 = 20x 6,
3a;+2x=120, 5x=120,
a;
= 24.
Verify
by substituting
in the original equation.
Ex. 2.—Solve
(a;+l)+i(a;+2)(a;+14).
2, 3, 4),
Multiply each quantity by 12 (the L.C.M. of
..
^(x+l)xl2 + i(x + 2)xl2 = J(x+14)xl2,
6(x+l) + 4(x + 2) = 3(x+14).
verify.
Complete the solution and
Ex. 3.—Solve
Multiply by 30,
'
x—2
~5
..
x—^_x—l
6^ """To"
x 30
~
^
X 30

^
.,
= %r^
X
30,
.. ..
6(a;2)5(a;3) = 3(x7),
6z125x+15 = 3x21, 6x5x3x= 12 1521, 2x=24,
x=12.
Verification rfirstside
=1^ — ^ = 2 — 1^ = ^.
second side
= ^^^
= J.
Note. omit the
line
not to attempt to with the brackets. He may, however, omit the preceding when he feels that he can safely do so.
line
—In
this solution the beginner is advised
Steps in the Solution of an Equation. 51. equation the steps in the work are
:
In solving an
(1) Clear the equation of fractions by multiplying each term by the L.C.M. of the denominators of the frad,ions. (2) Remove any brackets which appear. F 2
68
(3)
ALOSBRA
Tran.spose
all the
unknown
quantities to one side
and
the
known
(4) (5) (6)
quantities to the other.
Simplify each side by collecting like terms. Divide each side by the coefficient of the unknown. Verify the result by substituting the root obtained in the
original equation.
BXBROISES
Solve and verify
1.
3.
87
p=x+5.
ixJxlO.
ta;+x=a;+5.
2.
^x=^x\2.
4.
^z + ix+ix=2Q.
I
5.
6.
^x
= 2x  ^• ^
7.
§2/=i2/+i
X
8.
l
+ l + l^x4.
^
»•
25 = 4 +
X
X
^
3ot
1
10.
7m ^^ =
4.
11.
 = ^15.

12.
ix+lx=lix.
ix+7x=3a;+li.
13.
+ 2=H + ^
14.
16.
j = 2§.
7a;+2
16.
i(x3)=20.
17.
5 = 2a;
4xl
x+1
18
^r^ =
,
^
a;— 8
!»•
3
+
^=
5
^
^
„„
^^22.
a;— 1
4
+ 5 = «x+4 x+6
a;+3
21.
i(x3)+i(x5)=0.
J{x6) = Kx+5) + i(a;13).
X42
3xl
23.
^r + To = 7 + ^12 "4"^ 3
X
2z+l
5
„
•
3^5
,
„
,
'7
c\
1
26.
X— 3 2x— 4 3x— + ^i— 8" i =
^
,
„„
,
26.
i(2/3)i(y6)=l
o\
1/
27.
70
ALGEBRA
Ex.
2.
A
is
3 times as old as
5
;
2 years ago
their ages.
A
was 5
times as old as
B
was 4 years ago.
Find
Let X years represent B's age.
What will now represent A's What will represent ^'s age, What will represent jB's age,
age
?
2 yea>'s
ago
?
?
4 years ago
Now
Let
express that 3x — 2
is
5 times x
— 4.
:
The complete
solution might appear thus
X years = .I's age,
3a;
.'.
„
,,
(3a;— 2)
.'.
(x— 4)
.
„
=4's =^'s =B's
age,
age, 2 years ago, age, 4 years ago,
..
..
3x2 = 5(a;4), 3x2 = .5x20,
18
a;
= 2x,
=9.
is
.*.
B's age
is
9 years
and A'a
27 years.
5%
Ex. 3.— How do you represent 2i% of $(x+50) ? of §a: ?
:
3%
of 130
?
4%
of $27
?
" Divide S620 into two parts so that Solve the problem 5% of the first part together with 6% of the other part will make $34."
Let
i§, of
.'•
$x = the
first
part,
$(620x) = the other part,
iL
of S((>20x)
..
Sx=5% = 6%
of the first part, of the other part,
T§T)a;+i^(620x) = 34,
5x+6(620x) = 3400.
Complete the solution and verify the
result.
Ex.
4.
—What
is
defect of 30 from
.50
What is the the excess of 73 over 50 ? What is the excess of x over 50 ? ?
?
The
defect of x from 89
:
is
" The excess of a number over 50 Solve the problem Find the number." 11 greater than its defect from 89.
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
Let
then
71
x = the number,
X— 50 = its
..
and
excess over 50, 89 — x = its defect from 89,
verify.
x50 = 89x+ll.
Complete the solution and
Ex. 5. The value of 73 coins consisting of 10c. piecep and 5c. pieces is $5. How many are there of each ?
Let
..
—
x=the number
of 10c. pieces,
73x=
„
„
„
5c.
The value of the 10c. pieoes= lOx cents. The value of the 5c. pieces = 5(7 3— x) cents, 10x+5(73x) = 500.
..
Complete the solution and
verify.
The pupil should be careful to express each term of the equation in the same denomination. Why would it be incorrect to say that
10a;+5(73a:) = 5
?
SXSRCISB
All results should be verified.
1.
88
A number
is
is
multiplied by 23 and 117
is
then added.
The
is
result
2.
232.
Find the number.
the double of a
From
number
is
7
is
taken.
The remainder
95.
3.
is
Find the number.
Three times a number Find the number.
subtracted from 235 and the result
217.
4.
Five times a number with 33 added
18 added.
is
equal to 7 times the
number with
5.
Find the number.
its
Find a number such that the sum of
third
and fourth parts
and they together
may
be 35.
6.
A
have $250.
7.
has $10 more than 3 times as How much has each ?
of two numbers Find the numbers.
is
much
as B,
The sum
4.
81.
The greater exceeds 6 times
its
the less by
8.
Find a number whose seventh part exceeds
eighth part
by
2.
72
9.
59.
/SL&EBEa
The
excess of a
number over 42
is
the
same
as its defect from
Find the number.
10.
Find 3 consecutive numbers whose sum
is
129.
Divide 114 into three parts so that the by 15 and the third exceeds the first by 21.
11.
12.
first
exceeds the second
than
13.
A
Divide S176 among A, and §8 more than C.
B
and C so that
B
naay have 816 less
A man
sold a lot for $2280
?
and gained 14%
of the cost.
What
first
did the lot cost
14.
Divide 420 into 3 parts so that the second
third
is
is
double the
and the
•6.
the
sum
of the other two.
${x\5)
x.
A man
$(a;+25) each.
16.
buys 8 horses at $x each, 5 at The total cost is $2020. Find
each and 3 at
Find a number which exceeds 31 by the same amount that
J of the 17.
number exceeds
1.
Find a number which when multiplied by 6 exceeds 35 by as much as 35 exceeds the number.
18.
for
A farmer sells 7 cows and 17 pigs for $754. Each cow $70 more than each pig. What is the price of each cow ?
If less
sells
19.
is
30
20.
than the number.
10 be subtracted from a number, 40 more than J the remainder Find the number.
of J of the
less
Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum and ^ of the greater is 44.
Divide 46 into two parts so that
3,
if
21.
the greater part
is
is
divided
by
7
and the other by
J times.
the
sum
of the quotients
10.
22.
Divide 237 into two parts so that one part
1
may
be contained
in the other
23.
A
horse was sold for $11625 at a loss of 7%.
What
did he
cost
?
24.
is 17.
The difference between the squares of two consecutive numbers Find the numbers.
in halfdollars
A box contains two equal sums of money, one 25. If the number of coins is and the other in quarters. money is in the box ?
26.
30,
how much
years will
^
is
35 years old
;
fi
is
7 years old.
In
how many
A
be twice as old as
B
I
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
27.
IZ
it
What
28.
is
My age in 20 j'ears will my age ? A is 35, 5 is 7 and C is 5
is
be double what
was 10 years ago.
years old.
How
1
long wUl
it
be before
4's age
29.
the
sum
of the ages of
B
and
C
a fourth of the
30.
Find three consecutive even numbers such that the sum of first, a half of the second and a fifth of the third is 17.
^'s share of $705
?
is *
of S's
and 5's
is
f of C"s.
What
is
the
share of each
The simple interest on a sum at 2% together with the interest 31. on a sum twice as large at 3J% is $135 per annum. What are the sums ?
32.
is
Three % of a certain sum together with 4% of a sum which $50 greater is $12'50. I'ind the sums.
33.
is
The value
of 52 coins
made up
of each
?
of quarters
and tencent pieces
$10.
34.
How many are there A square floor has a
The area
room.
of the
carpet.
of the
margin 2 feet wide all around a square margin is 160 sq. ft. Find the dimensions
35.
angle
angle.
is
In any triangle the sum of the angles is 180°. The greatest 35° larger than the smallest angle and 10° larger than the other
Find the angles.
36. The length of a room exceeds the width by 4 feet. If each dimension be increased by 2 feet the area wUl be mcreased by 52 sq. ft. Find the length.
37.
If I
walk
m
miles at 4 miles per hour
and
m+2
mUes
at 3 miles
per hour, the whole journey wUl take 15 minutes longer than
at the uniform rate of 3 miles per hour.
if I
walked
have
Find the length
of the journey.
38.
$95.
A and B together have How much has each ?
5x10=60.
?l?=x10.
$65,
B
and
O
have $100,
C and A
39
State problems which wiU give rise to che following equations
(1) (2)
4a;a;=24.
(3)
(4)
235a;=4a;4.
of 5 for 3 cents
40.
A
fruit dealer
buys apples at the rate
and
sells
them
at the rate of 3 for 5 cents.
How many must
he seU to gain
$128?
74
41.
ALGEBRA
The sum
\ of
of
two numbers
as
is
147 and J of the
less is
9 greater
than
42.
the other.
\
Find the numbers.
John has
much noney
as his brother, but
spent 25 cents, John has only  as has each ?
53.
much
as his brother.
when each has How much
Algebraic
Statements of Arithmetical TJieorems.
13,
If
we
take any two numbers, say 23 and
their
and add together
sum and
their difference,
we
will find the result is twice
the larger number.
Thus,
and
23 + 13=36 and 2313=10, 36 + 10=46, which is twice 23.
it is
We
would
sure
see that
find
it
true for the
numbers 23 and
13,
and we
are not
true for other pairs of numbers, but
all
we
it is
true for
pairs of numbers.
By
the use of algebraic s^'mbols and methods,
is
we may show
that the statement
true for every two numbers.
Let the larger number be a and the smaller 6. Their sum is a + 6 and their difference is a — b. But (a + fe) + (a6) = tv + 64oo = 2a, and 2a is twice the larger number.
Thus the statement (a+6) + (a— &) = 2a represents
form the theorem stated at the beginning of this Besides stating it in a concise form it shows that it
brief
is
in
a
article.
true
generally.
EXERCISE
Show
1.
39
all
that the following statements are true for
numbers
two numbers by twice the smaller number.
of
2.
The sum
is
equal to their difference increased
The
difference
between the sum
is
of
two numbers and the
difference of the
3.
same two numbers
twice the smaller number.
difference
4.
Half of the sum of two numbers increased by half of their is equal to the larger number.
of
The sum
two numbers multiplied by one
of
them
is
equal
to the square of that one, plus their product.
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
5.
lb
to the square
The square The sum
If
of the
sum
of their difference
increased
of t.vo numbers is equal by four times their product.
6.
of three consecutive
numbers
is
equal to three times
the middle one.
7.
two
integers differ
is
between them
integers.
less
by 2, twice the square of the integer by 2 than the sum of the squares of the two
8. Read the statement {a^b)^\(a—b)^=2{a^+b^) without using symbols and prove that it is true.
BXBR0ISE3
1.
40 (Review of Chapter VI)
?
2. 3.
What What
is
an equation
is
An
identity
7 ?
rule
followed in transposing terms
Solve and verify: 6x(2x+3) = (3x+2)(4a;+
Is
3).
4.
5.
6. 7.
^x ^ 3
——=——
x1 —5
H
8x  6
an equation or an identity
?
What
Solve
value of x will
a; 10
7
make 5(x— 3) — 4(a;— 2)
a;ll
h
2.
t>
equal to zero
7
=— = —
The sum
oi_
of
two numbers
a;
,
is 50.
If 5
times the less exceeds 3
?
times the greater by 10, what are the numbers
o
8.
Show XI ^ x — that
,
1
H
+3 = —
6
—
5x + 6
o
,
1
x—2 ——

.
is
true for
^
,
,,
2
all
values
,
of X.
What value of x will make the product of 9. equal to the product of 11 — 6x and 3 — x ?
2x
10.
If
_
5— 3x and
7
— 2x
3
=
3x
—
4

262, find
x correct to two decimal places.
A and B invested equal sums. A gained $200 and 11. gained $2600. If B then had 3 times as much as A, how much did each invest ?
B
12.
From a
full.
cask which
is
ths
full,
then half
13.
How much will the cask Show that x=6 is a root of
A man
36 gallons are drawn and hold ?
it is
(xl)(x2)(x3) = 2x(z5)(2x7).
has $115 in $2 bills and $5 Altogether, how many of each has he 7
14.
bills.
If
he has 35
bills
76
15.
ALGEBRA
If
—
x—4
H
— =
31
and a
=
i,
find x.
If
In a ntairway there are 45 steps of equal heights. 16. been one inch higher, there would have been only 40 steps. ia each step ?
<f
How
they had high
17.
o Solve
1
^
x—5
x—2 6=^
Divide 150 into two parte such that if the smaller be divided 18. by 23 and the other by 27 the sum of the quotients will be 6.
19.
is 51.
The
difference between the squares Find the numbers.
of
two consecutive numbers
five years
A father is 30 years older than his son 20. four times as old. Find the son's present age.
21.
If
;
ago he was
the
sum
of the fractions
7
2x43 ——
;;
and
3
=— —47
a;
is 9,
what
is
the
numerical value of each fraction
Show that the difference between the squares of any two 22. Show also consecutive numbers is equal to the sum of the numbers. that the sum of their squares is one more than twice their product.
23. 24.
of
Solve 2(a;43x5)=10x.
If
the product of
x+2
and 2x+5
is
greater than the product
2x+l and x + 3 by
25.
127, find x.
Solve (23a;)(x4) = i(x5).
three
Divide 75 into two parts so that 26. exceeds six times the less by 75.
27.
times
the
greater
Solve
X— 3
_+f ._=0.
24x
1
2x
28
.
A man walked a certain distance at
?
by
train at 33 miles per hour.
3 miles per hour and returned His whole time was 4 hours. How far
did he walk
29.
" Take any Prove the accuracy of the following statement number, double it, add 12, halve the result, subtract the original number, and 6 will remain."
:
30. 31.
Solve
+
^^^^=x8.
minutes
of
is it
How many
it
to 10 o'clock
8
'
if
threequarters of an
hour ago
32.
was twice aa many minutes past
value
What
T
a
will
make 2(6x+o)3(2x+a) = 4(lix6)
«n identity
SIMPLE EQUATIONS
33. 34. width.
77
Solve
(6x2)(2xl)(4x— 2)(3a;2) = 4.
length 5 yards longer than its 5 yards longer and 3 yards Find the dimensions of the first.
is
A rectangular grassplot has its A second plot, of equal area,
first.
narrower than the
35. 36.
Solve (a;+l)(x+2) + (x + 3)(x44) = 2x(x+12).
A man
among his wife, two sons and three daughters. A son as much as a daughter, and the wife $500 more than
together.
leaves his property amounting to S7500 to be divided is to have twice
all
the children
Find the share
,
,
of each.
37.
38.
„
x2 4x+5 „ Solve— +g
by
37.
,
7x8 = ^
g
0.
Find an integer whose square
is less
than the square of the next
higher integer
_39.
„ If
2x+l 
—3— exceeds 3x2 by x2 —4— 6
, 
,
,
„
find x.
^
40.
How
far can I
at 10 miles per
walk at 3 miles per hour and return on a bicycle hour and be absent 6 hours 4 minutes ?
If
41.
A man
invested f of his
remainder at 6%. did he invest ?
money at 3%, J at 4%, ^ at 5% and the he receives an annual income of $516, how much
Prove that the product obtained by multiplying the sum of 42. any two numbers by their difference is equal to the difference of their
squares.
CHAPTER
\T1
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
54.
Equations with two Unknowns.
of
The sum
It
is
two numbers
is
10.
What
1
are the
2
numbers
8,
?
evident that there are
many
different answers to this
problem.
etc.,
The numbers might be
and
9,
and
3 and
7,
3 and 13, etc. or J and 9, If we are also given that the difference of the
4,
—
numbers
is
condition.
new The numbers would evidently be 7 and 3. If we follow the method previously adopted and represent the required numbers by x and y, where x is the greater, the first condition would be expressed by the equation
then only one of these
answers
will
satisfy this
x+?/=10.
As
If
stated,
any number
of pairs of values of x
and y
will
satisfy this equation.
the second condition be expressed in terms of the same
unknowns, we have another equation
x—y=4:.
It
will
is
now
required to find a pair of values of x and y which
satisfy
x\y=lO,
and
If
x—y=
we add
2x=14,
.'.
4.
the corresponding sides of the equations
/,
we
get
x=l and
/.
y=3,
7
and 3 are Mxq required numbers.
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
55.
fied
79
Simultaneous Equations.
Any
of
equations which are satis
by
the
same
values
the
unknowns
are
called
simultaneous equations.
Thus, x—1,
y=3
satisfy both of the equations
x\y=\0 and x—y=4:.
To find a definite pair of values of x and y it is seen that we must have two equations containing these letters. To solve any problem where two numbers are to be found we must have two conditions given, from which the required equations
may
be obtained,
Ex. 1.— If 5 men and 4 boys earn $43 in a day, and 3 men and 4 boys earn §29 in a day, what sum does each earn in a day ?
Why
We
Let
do the
first set of
workers earn more than the second
?
How
earn
?
much more do they earn ? How much then does one man How can we now find how much a boy earns ?
might solve
this
problem algebraically, thus
wages wages
of
:
$a;
and
= the $2/ = the
'
a man for a day, of a boy for a day.
algebraicall}
The conditions
by the equations
:
of the
problem would now be expressed
$5a;+$42/=$43,
$3a;$4y=$29.
Or, omitting the $ sign
and using only the numbers,
5x + 4?/ = 43,
Subtract the terms of the second equation from the corresponding terms of the first,
..
2x=14,
..
x=
7.
Substitute
x=7
in the first
equation and
35 +42/ = 43,
..
.. .'.
41/
= y=
8,
2,
.'.
the roots of the equations are x=7, y=2, a man earns $7 and a boy S2 per day.
Verify by showing that these results satisfy the conditions of the given problem.
80
ALOEBEA
Ex.
2.
— For
and
for 5 lb. of tea
the price of
of tea and 2 1b. of sugar I pay $130, and 4 lb. of sugar I pay $2 20. What is one pound of each ?
3
1b.
does this problem differ from the preceding ? in the first statement so that the number of pounds of sugar would be the same as in the second statement ?
How
What change might we make
Let
and
X cents = the price of a y cents = the price of a
lb. of tea, lb. of
sugar.
(1) (2)
Then and
Multiply the
first
3a;+2j/=130, 5x + 42/ = 220.
equation by 2 and
we
get
(3)
(2)
6x + 42/ = 260,
5x+42/ = 220.
Now
•esults
solve (2)
and
(3) as in the preceding example
and verify the
you
get.
Ex. 3.—Solve
3x+4y=39,
4x+3i/=38.
(2)
(1)
(2)
Multiply
(1)
by 4 and
by
3
and we get
12a;+162/
= 156,
12x+ 9y=114.
Complete the solution and
verify.
Ex. 4.—Solve
5x2y^U,
3x+4?/=42.
2,
(1)
(2)
(3)
Multiply
(1)
by
10x42/ = 88.
get rid of the term containing y, When we do so subtract.
To
we must now add
instead of
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
81
Thus in Ex. 4 we eliminated the y. We might have ehminated the X equally well. Solve Ex. 4 by first eliminating the x. After performing the necessary multiplications, when do we add •ind when do we subtract to eliminate the unknown 1
EXE1ROISE3 41
Solve for x and y and verify 121
1.
:
x+22/=8, x+ y=5.
2x \3y=25,
2.
3x+5y=13,
3.
Qx+5y=23,
3x+2y=
6.
7.
3x+2y=n.
6,
4.
5x—2y=lS,
5x+2i/=24,
2x—3y^
7.
2x y=
8.
7.
2x+3y=U.
^.
10.
3x+5y=lS,
2x\3y=12.
x{y=i,
5x—6y=3l, 6x3y=33.
»' 3x2y=2A,
2x3y=\\
12.
11.
3x+ iy=
5,
3x+2^^24,
xy=3.
13.
6x+12y=13.
tk.
— 2a;+3i/=10.
15,
3x— 4t/=16,
lx+3y=62.
^
14.
2x+5y=
0,
2i/— 3a;=— 22,
yi^^
3x'iy=23.
2x+3i/=32
18.
16.
3x=2y+
7,
O*^ 17.
2x='6yl2.
19.
x^3y+20, y=2x20.
20.
21.
3a;=2y,
2xby=33.
22;+3i/= 5x— ^=17. 4x52/=10?/14a;=ia
2x+l3y=
275,
14x17t/=1385.
22.* If
23. 24.
25.
If
5x— 1/=8 and
5?/— x=20, find the values of x\y and
find
x—
j/,
2a:5^31=6(/9a;+57=0,
the value of 19a;413y.
Solve
x+3=4— 2i/,
equals 39
find
7(x— l) + lli/=6.
If ax\by
is
when o
y.
is
3 and b
is 4,
and equals 13 when
a
is
5 and 6
— 2,
x and
26.
What
7
values of x and y will
make 16x— y and
4:X\2y
each
equal to 6
27.
Solve 2(«>/)+3(x+?/)3l, 3(2xy)f 5(a;22/)=53,
82
ALOEBRA
If the equations 57. Fractional Equations in two Unknowns. contain fractional coeffioients of x or y, the fractions may be
removed by
multiplication.
Ex.—Solve
Multiply Multiply
(1)
(2)
^x^^y^
6,
8,
(1)
^a;+f?/=32.
by by
(2)
3z+ 2y=
verify.
48.
4,
z+10!/=128.
Complete the solution and
EXERCISE
Solve and verify 120
1.
:
42
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
21.*
83
^
x—2y
+ :^= 2i
22.
z^kyl^y+Kx+y),
23.
ar+y=y2,
24. 5(a;+2/)7(a;2/)=26,
26. 8a;7i/12,
„„
.
26.
x+l ^
10
 3w— 5  a;— ^. ^
2x—y 4^3 _
27.
?/ix+24=f2/+^a;+ll=0.
EXBRCISB
Solve,
1.
48
by using two unknowns, and verify The sum of two numbers is 40 and their
difference
is 12.
Find
the numbers.
The sum of two numbers is 19. The sum 2. and 4 times the second is 64. Find the numbers.
3.
If
of 3 times the first
41b. of tea
and 7
lb. of
sugar cost $242, and 5
lb. of
tea
and
3 lb. of sugar' cost $2'68, find the cost of each per lb.
4.
Find two numbers such that 7 times the
first
first
is
greater than
twice the second by 23, and 5 times the
and 3 times the second
make
5.
136.
If 5 horses
and 6 cows cost $840, and 3 horses and 2 cows cost
$440, find the cost of a horse.
6. If either 9 tables
is
and 7
chairs, or 10 tables
?
and 2
chairs,
can be
bought for $156, what
7.
If
the cost of each
3
men and
4
women
earn $164 in 4 days and 5
women
woman.
8.
is
earn $135 in 3 days, find the daily wages of a
men and man and of
2
a
26,
Find two numbers such that \ of the first and \ of the second and \ of the first and \ of the second is 8.
Three bushels of wheat cost 20 cents more than 5 bushels ot of wheat and 1 bushel of com cost $2 '30. What is the price of each per bushel ?
9.
com, and 2 bushels
6 2
84
10.
ALGEBRA
In 10 years a
man
will
be twice as old as his son, but 8 years
ago the
11.
man was
If the
is
8 times as old as his son.
of
Find their present ages.
sum
;
the result
is
18
if
two numbers be added to 3 times their difference twice the sum be added to their difference the result
26.
Find them.
12.
A
at $25,
13.
merchant sells 33 suits, some at $35 each and the others and receives $945. How many did he sell at each price ?
of the second
Find two numbers such that 5% of the first is greater than 6% by 3, and 7 % of the second is greater than 4 % of the first
3 algebras
by
75.
If
14.
and 4 arithmetics cost
$295,
3 arithmetics cost $2' 10, find the cost of 6 algebras
and 2 algebras and and 2 arithmetics.
15.
A
bull's
eye counts 5 and an inner
4.
In 10 shots a marks
man
16. there
scores 46 points, each shot being either a bull's eye or an inner.
of each
How many
kind did he
make
?
A
is
?
classroom has 25 seats, some double and some single.
If
seating
accommodation
for 42 pupils,
how many double
seats
are there
17.
A man
at a gain of
$1030.
18.
bought 8 cows and 50 sheep for $900. He sold the cows 20% and the sheep at a gain of 10%, and received in all Find the cost of a cow ?
10
If
men and
8 boys receive $37, and 4
receive
?
men
receive $1
more
than 6
bo3's,
how much does each boy
19. A man bought 20 bushels of wheat and 15 bushels of corn for $36 and 15 bushels of wheat and 25 bushels of corn, at the same rate, for $32'50. How much did he pay per bushel for each ?
20.
will be twice the second,
Find two numbers such that, if the first be increased by 8 it and if the second be increased by 31 it will
first.
be three times the
21.
farmer bought 100 acres of land for $4220, part at $37 and How many acres were there of each kind ? the rest at $45 per acre.
22.
A
Find two numbers such that 7 times the greater and 5 times
the less together
23.
make
332,
and 51 times
their difference
is
408.
is
The quotient
is
20 when the sum of two numbers
7
divided
2.
by
3,
and the quotient
is
when
their difference
is
divided by
Find
the numbers.
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
24.
86
30c., the total
A
grocer bought tea at 60c. a
cost being S96,
He
sold the tea at 75c. a lb.
lb.
and gained
.$21.
How many
and coSee at and the of each did he buy ?
lb.
coffee at 35c.,
Three times the greater of two numbers exceeds twice the less 25. by 90, and twice the greater together with three times the less is 255. Find the numbers.
26.
The sum
Find the
of
two
If
fractions
respectively
is 29.
the numerators be interchanged the
whose denominators are 2 and 5 sum would
divided
be
4*1.
fractions.
is
27.
by
17
Divide 142 into two parts so that when the larger part and the other by 19 the sum of the quotients will be 8.
farm was rented for S650, part of it at S6 and the rest at S8 If the rates had been interchanged the rental would have been S750. How many acres were in the farm ?
28.
A
per acre.
29.
the
sum
^'s age 3 years ago was l^alf of fi's present age. In 7 years Find their present ages. of their ages will be 77 years.
travelled 240 miles in 4 days, diminishing his rate each
distance.
?
30.
A man
day by the same
The
first
two days he went 136
miles.
How
far did he
go each day
EXBRCISB
1.
44 (Review of Chapter VII)
Solve 2x+3i/ = 38, 3x + 22/ = 37.
I fire
2.
— 2, how many
3. 4.
20 shots at a target. hits did I make if
If
a hit counts 5 and a miss counts
score
is
Solve 7x — 22/=13,
my net 2a; + 3y = 43.
51
?
65,
in
The average marks of those who passed an examination was If there were 1000 candidates and of those who failed was 25. all and their average was 53, how many passed ?
5.
Solve
2(a;
— = 3(a;4?/),
2/)
14(x
+ 2/)= ll(x + 8).
^'j
At an election A' a majority was 384, which weis 6. number of votes. How many votes did A receive ?
7.
of the
whole
Solve ^(a;+5)5=§(2/ + 2), ^(y +
8)3 = J(a;3).
Divide $5600 into two parts, so that the income from one part at 3% may be equal to the income on the other part at 4%.
8.
9.
Solve f 4 ?
=
3x

7j/

37
=
0.
86
10.
t of
ALGEBRA
Two numbers
If
the smaller.
differ by 11, and Find the numbers.
J
of the larger
is
1
more than
11.
q
= 2,
find x
px + qy is 74 when p = 5 and q—3, and and y.
is
76
when p = 6 and
and 5% of ^'s
12. If 3% of ^'s salary plus 4% of B's salary plus 3% of B's is $111, find their salaries.
is
$93,
13.
14.
Solve
2l2/
+ 20x=165,
77i/30x=295.

Divide 100 into two parts so that J of the less by 2.
15.
16.
of the greater part exceeds
Solve 5x—2]/ = 7x +
If 3
2!/
= x+2/+ 11.
5
men and 4 boys earn $26, and what would 7 men and 3 boys earn ?
17.
18.
men and
2 boys earn $34,
Solve J(x+l)J(!/ +
If
2)
= 3,
J(a;
+ 2) + i(]/ + 3) = 4.
that a = 3 and
3x — 4 = ax + 6
when x = 2 and when x=5, show
b=4.
19.
I
a profit of
I sold the horse at bought a horse and carriage for $400. 20% and the carriage at a loss of 4%, and on the whole
transaction I gained 5%.
20.
What
2x
did each cost
?
Solve
^2
is
27/
*
=

^= 2
7.
21.
A man
of bills
pays a debt
24,
of $52
in $5 bills
and $1
?
bills.
If
the
number
22.
how many
are there of each
140.
Solve 19x21i/= 100,
21x I9y=
A's wages are half as high again as B's, but A spends twice as If ^ saves $5 and B $10 per week, what are the wages of each per week ?
23.
much
24.
as B.
If
23x+15y = 91, and y
is
50% more than
x, find
x and
y.
married his age was I more than his wife's a 25. age. His age 8 years afterwards was } more than his wife's age. How old was he when he was married ?
26.
If
When
man was
3(5x2i/) = 2(3x4
6t/),
find x in terms of y.
27.
is is
A man has two farms rented at $5 per acre and the total rent WTien the rent of the first is reduced 20% and the second $1100. How many acres are there increased 20%, the total rent is $1120.
7
in aach
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
28.
If
87
I
+
I
=
I
+ i^ =
9,
find the value of

+
Seven years ago B was three times as old as A, but in 5 years 29. he will be only twice as old. What are their present ages ?
31.
Solve?2±5
=
6
+ ?±', !^« = 3 + ?±?.
CHAPTEK
When
Vlll
TYPE PRODUCTS AND SIMPLE FACTORING
58.
Factor.
a quantity
is
more
quantities, each of the latter
is
the product of two or called a factor of the
given quantity.
Thus, the factors of 3hc are
3, b
is
and
c.
The product
.'.
of 6fc
and a
ab^ac,
the factors of oA + oc are a and 6 + c,
ab\ac
or
Siroilarly,
= a{b + c).
by
a,
ab — ac = a{bc).
is
When
x]y\z
multiplied
the product ax{ay\az
recog
contains the factor a in each term. If we wish to factor ax\ay+az,
nize that since a
Ls
we
a factor of each term, it °) °^r°y+°^ x\ y{ z must be a factor of the whole expression. The remaining factor is the quotient found by dividing the
expression
by
a.
Then
ax^ay\az=a{x+y+z).
This is seen to be similar to the method in arithmetic. How do If we wish to factor 485, we see that 5 is a factor. we obtain the other factor ?
Ex.
18
— Factor
On
4a2— 6a6.
of
Here we see that 2 and a are factors
a factor.
Similarly,
each term and therefore 2o
3ft.
division the other factor is 2a — .. 4a*6a6 = 2a(2a3ft).
36a;
+ 6cx = 3x(
a(
)
aba*~a^^
).
The
and
result of the factoring
may
81
be verified by multiplication
this
may
usually be done mentally.
10.
90
ALGEBRA
The middle term in every case is seeu to be the of the two cross products, each taken with
rf 5
sum
the proper sign.
xZ
State the pn
1.
x+l x+2
TYPE PRODUCTS AND SIMPLE FACTORING
1
91
The last terms in the and 8 or 2 and 4.
factors
must be
factors of
8,
so they
must be
x+1 x+8
Which
of these of
x+2
a;+4
T
when
multiplied will give the proper middle term
What
The
are the factors of x* —
6x+8
?
factors
x*— 9x+14 must be
?
of
the form
(x—
)(x—
).
What
are the factors
Ex. 2.—Factor x^2zl5.
Here the factors must be of the form (x— must be the product of two numbers differing
combinations are
:
)(x(
),
since
—15
in sign.
The
possible
x15
X+I5
x+
Which
1
X
1
x5 x+3
x+5 x3
of these sets of factors is the correct one ? In factoring a trinomial like x* — 8x+15, we require two factors of 15 whose algebraic sum is —8. They are evidently —5 and —3.
..
x»8x+15 = (x5)(x3).
—21 whose
In factoring x* — 4x— 21, we require two factors of algebraic sum is —4, and they are evidently —7 and 3.
..
x*4x21 = (x7)(x + 3).
The
Thus,
pupil
is
below the expression he
X* —
advised to write the factors under each other, is attempting to factor.
16 8 x*
6x—
x*+nxy4:2y*
X X
X X

+2
EXERCISE
—
+14?/ 3y
x»6x16 = (x8)(x+2).
+ Uxy4:2y* = (x+Uy){x3y).
47 (115. Oral)
3.
6.
Factor:
1.
x2+8x+7.
a^+22a+2\.
a^+3ab+2b^.
2.
5. 8.
x2+6x+5.
x2_^8x+12.
t/2+8y+15.
4.
7.
62+106+24.
2/2+40xt/+39x*.
m^+lmn+lOnK
x2— 7x+6.
a^Uab+28b^.
9.
10. 13.
x25x+6.
x*—ixy+3y'.
11.
12. 15.
x212x+ll.
14.
m^— 7mn+12n«.
92
16.
19. 22.
ALGEBRA
X2X20.
17.
y^—y30.
18.
a^+a—30.
a:2_i0a;24.
a;4_i0a;2+9.
x2— 5x— 14.
a^b^+8ab + 15.
20.
23. 26.
m26m40.
x2y2_ii_j.j^_^30.
21. 04, 27.
25.
a2+6a + 9.
x^
— 14x+49.
_. ^y.
y*—\2y'^+36.
Use factoring
_ ^ ^o.
to simplify the following
a2^5a4
f—
a2+4o5
.
ari
a+5
•
m^— 5to+6 — m^7m+l2
m—
m—
^B
(x''+3x+2)(x5)
3x26x
2x34x2
x25xf4
"^
x23x10
32.
3x
^
2x2
x1
*
What
factor
is
(1) (2)
common to X2X30 and x22x35
a^+ab and a2+3a6+262
:
?
?
Find three factors of
33. 36.
2x210x412.
If
34.
3a2+3a36.
has two
all
35.
x38x2+7x.
wi ?
the expression x2L7ftx— 6
binomial factors with
integral coefficients,
what are
the possible values of
factored
37.
Is the expression
x2— 3x— 10
when
it is
written in the
formx(x3)10?
62. Square Root of a Monomial. When a number is the product of two equal factors, each factor is called a square
root of the
number.
Thus, 16 = 4x4, therefore a square root of 16 is 4. But 16= —4x —4, therefore a square root of 16 is also —4. Similarly, the square root of 25 is (5 or —5, and the square root of 9a* is j3a or —3a.
Thus
It
is
it
is
seen that every
call
root.
number has two
square
roots
differing onl}' in sign.
customary to
the positive square root of a
number
the principal square
63.
Radical
Sign.
is
The symbol
y/"
,
called
the
radical
sign
or root sign,
of a
used to indicate the principal square
root
number.
Thus,
^25 = 5, Va* = a,
V9x*y*==ixy.
T7PB PRODUCTS AND
When
considered, both signs
81 MPLB
FACTORING
93
both the positive and negative square roots are must precede the radical sign.
is
3 not +3, but ±V9=±3, and Thus, V'9 = 3 not 3; read " plus or minus the square root of 9 equals plus or minus 3."
Thus,
V9=
but
If
\/4+V9 = 2 + 3 = 5, +\/i±V'9=±2±3=±5or
represent the square root of 16 by
x,
±1.
we
then 0:^=16.
To
solve this equation, take the square root of each side,
.".
x=±4.
includes the four
We might have said statments
:
± x= ± 4, which
+a;=f4, ~\x——4:,
— ^=+4, — x=— 4.
If both terms of the last two be multiplied by 1, the statements become the same as the first two, which are represented by a;=±4. We see then, that it is necessary to attach the double sign to the square root of only one side of the equation.
—
Ex.—Solve (x+ 1)2=25.
Take the square
root of each side,
.'.
a;+l
= ±5,
+ 5— 1 = 5— I
or —6.
a;=
or
— 5— 1,
=4
Show by
substitution that each root satisfies the given equation.
EXERCISE
State the two
48 (116. Oral)
94
20.
its side.
ALOEBRA
If
the area of a square
is
100 square inches, find the length ot
21.
If
r
is
the radius of
approximately.
radius, or
If the area of
is
what
a circle the area is nr^, where 7r=3^ a circle is 154 square inches, what is the the value of r, if S}r^—154: ?
circle
22. 23.
Find the radius of a
whose area
is
616
its
sq.in.
If r is the radius of a
sphere the area of
surface
is
given by
is
the formula, area =4:nr^.
If
?
the area of the surface of a sphere
164
sq. in.,
what
is
the radius
64.
Squares of
Binomials.
will
the result, which
If we multiply x]y by z\y, be the square of x{y, is x^\2xy\y^.
The diagram shows a geometrical
*'
tration of this identity.
illus
The
first
and
last
terms in
x^\2xy\y'^
are the squares of the terms of X'\y, and
the middle term
is
twice the product of x
and
the
y.
Therefore, the square of the sum of two numbers is equal to sum of the squares of the numbers, increased by twice their
product.
Also
{x—yy=x^—2xy}y^.
Therefore, the square of the difference of two numbers is equal sum of the squares of the numbers decreased by twice their product.
to the
In the square of a sum all the terms are positive, and in the square of a difference the middle term is negative.
Thus,
+ 2(3o){26) + (26)«, = 9a* + I2ab +46». (5x3t/)' = (5x)»2(5x)(3!/) + (32/)«, = 25x*— 30xy +9y*. (ix42/») = (Jx)*2(ix)(42/) + (42/)», = Jx* — 4xy flGj/'.
(3a + 26)«=(3o)*
TYPE PRODUCTS AND SIMPLE FACTORING
EXERCISE
What
1. 5. 9,
Sfi
49
(116, Oral)
are the squares of
2.
6.
:
a+l.
2a+l.
y+2.
l3x,
3.
7.
m—
1.
4.
8.
«— 4.
2x+3.
pg.
3x—2y.
3a;—
f.
2a— 3.
10.
TO— 2n.
2!/— J.
11. 15.
12. 16.
4x— 3(x.
13.
J—
a;.
14.
— x—
Simplify
17.*
19.
(x+l)2+(zD2.
(2xl)2+(a;2)2.
18.
(a6)2+(a+6)2. (a+6)2(a6)2.
20. 22.
21.
23. 25.
26.
(3TOn)2— (2to+7i)2.
(a:+l)2+(a;+2)2+(x+3)2.
{3x+2y)^—{2z3y)^.
24.
[zl)^+{x—2)^{z3)^.
2{a+l)2+3(ol)25(o2)2.
Find the value of
Simplify
a^ffe^jc^
when a=x—y, b=z\y, c=x—2y.
27.
{x+l)^+{x2)^+{xZ)^3{x^)^
28.
From
the
sum
of the squares of
a;l2, a;3, a;f4,
subtract the
sum
of the squares of
z— 2, z— 3,
differ
a;— 4.
29. 30.
SimpUfy {2a3b)^+{3a{2by{2a+2b)K
If
is
two numbers
by
2,
show that the
+^ 2
difference of their
squares
31.
equal to twice their sum.
does the square of x
By how much
I
exceed the square of
X
2,
X
32.
Show
that the
sum
of the squares of three consecutive
numbers
is
greater
33.
by two than three times the square
of 1234
is
of the middle
number.
The square
1,522,756.
Find the square of 1235.
34.
30J, etc. that this
in J.
2^=2x3+^=^6^; the square of 5 = 5x6+J= In the same way find the squares of 6^, 8^, 20^. Prove method may be used to find the square of any number ending (Let the number be n+J.)
The square
of
65.
Square Roots of Trinomials.
Any
is
trinomial which
is
of the
form
a^\2ah\b^ or a^—2ab\rb^
In order that a trinomial
may
a perfect square. be a square, the first and
ALOEBRA
last terms must each be a square and the middle term must; be twice the product of the quantities which were squared to produce the first and last terms.
Thus, 9x* + 24x3/+ I6y*
(1)
.a
square, because
the square of 3x, 16?/* is the square of iy, (2) 24Ty is twice the product of 3a; and 4y. (3) •. 9a;*+24xi/+16?/* = (3x + 42/)». .•. the square root of 9a;* + 24x1/4 16?/* is 3x + 4?/. Is 4m*— 12mn+9n* a perfect square ? What is it the square of What in its square root ?
9x*
is
T
Similarly.
25x* 10x+
l
= (5x(
1)*,
)*,
)*.
36x* + 24x + 4 = (
a*6*6a6 + 9 =
Why is a*45a6f256* not a square ? How would you change it so'that it would
it the square of o + 66 be a square ?
Is
7
— a—b
It
is
The square
is
root of a^\2ab\b^
is
a\b,
but
— (a+6)
or
also a square root, since
.
(a—b)^=a^+2ab\b^.
customary, however, in stating the square root of a trinomial to give onl}' that one which has its first term
positive
EXERCISE
Express as squares
1.
50
(124. Oral)
a;2+2x2/+j/2.
2.
5. 8.
y^'2y+l.
9a224afl6.
3.
4.
7.
4a2+20al25.
a^b^2ab+l.
a^b^c'^2abc+l.
is
l6y+9y^.
10.
11.
x^+x+J.
x^^xy+^y^.
What
13.
the square root of
14.
17.
9a2+12a+4.
4a262_20a6 + 25.
16. 19.
'im^+2m+l.
9—12x44x2.
will
44a+a2.
20.
Supply the missing terms, so that the following
squares
:
be perfeci
22.
26,
a^
+

•
^
+ b^+9
23.
x».
.
.+4y\
. .
24.
27=
x^^Gx
.
.
.
.
.
4m*—.
26.
9a*+lSa,
.— 4a;v4t/»
T7P10 PRODUCTS
AND SIMPLE FACTORING
is
97
28. If 16o maf4 is a perfect square, what Give two answers and verify eacL
29.
—
is
the value of
m
?
What
the square root of 9a;^+6a;+l
?
Check by putting
a;=10.
30.
Solve the equations and verify
(1)
(2)
Vx^+2z}l + Vx^+10z+25=U.
3Vx^—Ax+'L—2Vx'^+6x+9=—2.
(3)
V9x^+6x+l + V&+Ix+l + Vx'^—2x\l = 13.
that
31.
Show
2^0260+9^02— 4o+4=3V'a22a+lV4o2+4a+l.
66. a\b
Product of the
Sum and
Difference.
The product
a a
ot
and
a—b
:.
is
a^—b^,
{a\b){ab)=a^b\
+b —b
abb*
Here the two factors multiplied are the sum and difiference of the same two quantities a and b, and the product is the difference of the squares of a and b. Therefore, the product of the sum and difference
two quantities
Thus,
is
a*\ab
a*
b*
equal
to the difference
of the of their squares.
same
{x+y){x—y) = x*—y*. (2a+36)(2o36) = (2a)»(36)» = 4o«96». (3a*6)(3a*+6) = (3a»)*6* = 9o«6». (J + 3x)(J3x) = (i)»(3x)» = i9x«.
Factors of the Difference of
67.
Two
Squares.
I
ab
I
Since
a^—b^~{a{b){a—b),
the
factors of
the difference of
two squares are the
sum and
I
X
I
the difference of the quantities squared.
The diagram shows how
this identity
may
b
X
I
be illustrated geometrically.
Thus, 9a;*252/*=(3x)»— (52/)«, which shows that is the difference of the squares of 3a; and 5y. Therefore one factor of 9x'— 25^' is the sum of 3x
it
b
and 5y, and the other is the differeuoe of 3j; and 5v9j;»252/» = {3x + 52/)(3x5i/,. That is, Similarly, ll6m»9(47n)» — 3» = (4m+3)(4m3>
98
If
is
ALGEBRA
we wish to factor Sx'^— 2y2^ we should recognize that 2 a factor of each term.
..
8x*2i/» = 2(4x»2/») = 2(2a;+y)(2ccy).
EXERCISE
State the products of
1.
:
51 (124, Oral)
m{n,
m—n.
TYPE PRODUCTS AND SIMPLE FACTORINO
40.
99
Simplify {a^b^){a^5ab+6b^)^{a'^3ab+2b*). Simplify
a;2
41.
x—y
—
yi
]
3.2
j,2
—
3.2
and
iQ
3.2
g •
x\y
X— 4
x+3
42.
Solve ?!i:l
x+l
+ ?!i:i^ = X—
10
;
2(x5)(a;+5)=15+(a;l)(a;+l).
68.
Numerical Applications
this
of
Products and Factors.
In
Chapter
we have developed
certain
formulae
concerning products and factors.
(1) (2)
(afe)2
=a22aZ) + 62.
(a+6)2
=a2+2a6+62.
(3)
(a+&)(a6) =a^b^.
for all values of the letters involved.
These formulae are true
By
see
substituting particular
numbers
for the
letters
we
will
how some
Since
arithmetical operations might be simplified.
(1)
(a6)' = a*2a6 + 6*, 99«= (100 1)«= 10000200+ 1 = 10001 200 = 9801. 37«= (403)*= 1600240 + 9= 1609240=1369. = = 998* = (10002)*= = = 89«= (901)*=
{a
(2)
Since
(3)
+ b)* = a* + 2ab + b*, + 2)*= 8100 + 360+4= 8464. 121* = (120+1)*= 14400 + 240+ = 14641. = 75*= (70 + 5)*= = a*6«, Since (a + 6)(o6) 92x88 = (90 + 2)(902) = 90*2* = 8100 4 = 8096. 65x75=(705)(70 + 5) = 70*5* = 490025 = 4875. = = 27x23 = (25 + 2)(252)= = = )= 87x93 =
92*=
(90
1
(
)(
(4)
Since
a*6*=(a + 6)(a6), 53* 52* = (53 + 52)(5352) = 105x 1 = 105. 41* 31» = (41+31)(4131)= 72x10=720. = 727»627* = )= )( = 67» 33» = )= )(
( (
H
2
100
69.
(1)
ALOEBRA
Some
If a is
(leometrical AppliCwtons.
the length of t\u
^ide of
the large square and
b the side of the
IS
small square
,he area of the
shaded portion
evidently
a^— 6^.
If
a
(2)
.".
we wish
to find the area of the
snade" part when
a=77 and 6 = 23, we have
a
a»6* = 77»23» = (77 + 23)(77 23)= 100x54 = 5400.
If
a = 225 and
6= 125,
find the difference in the areas
of the
two squares.
is
The
radius of the large circle
E
is
and
of the smail
circle is r.
The area
is ^^r^,
of the large circle
'^fR^
and
of the
small one
the area of the shaded part
is
"^^{R^—r^).
If iJ
= 39
and r=31,
find the area of the ring.
The area
If i?
= 89
and
r
= V(«»r») = V(39*31») = V(39f31){39 31) = Vx 70x8= 1760. = 82, show that the area of the ring is 3762.
In the rightangled triangle in the figure
in
it
(3)
'^
is
shown
geometry that
62c^=a2 or
If
b^=a^—c^
or c^^=a^
— 6^.
a = 41 and
c
If
a = 61 and
= 40, find the length of 6. 6« = a»c» = 41»40»=81xl=81, 6=v/81 = 9. 6=11, show that c = 60.
..
SXERCISE3
Use short methods
1. 2.
52
in the following
:
Find the squares of 98, 999, 119, 58, 799.
Find the products of 91 X 89, 61 x 59, 47 X 53, 203 X 197.
3. Find the values of 52248^, 79^782, 21522052, 72522752, 67325732.
4.
5.
If
If
x2=62c2,
find
X when
6
= 13,
c=12
;
when 6=25, c=24.
7x2=642572,
find the value of x.
TIPS PRODUCTS AND SIMPLE FACTORING
6.
ii
101
Find the difference
of
the areas of
squares whose sides are
and b
for the following values
a=
i
41
1
13
102
ALGEBRA
12,
22." Find three factors of x^ — x, 3x*—
23.
24.
a^3a* + 2a.
Solve (z3)* = 25; 4(a;i)» = 9.
If a
= 7rr»,
find r
Find the values of 997«, 25. using algebraic methods.
Find four factors 26. a\x^y>)b*(x*y*).
27. 28.
of
when a=1256, = 314. 875* 7o«, 97x103, 81x81, 86x94,
7r
2x«32, a« 13a»f36, '27n' 18m and
Simplify (6+
Simplify
92 If a 29. algebraic methods,
30.
31.
of
=
+ (6 l)* + (cf l)» + (c 1)«. {x + y){xy) + {x+2y)(xy) + {x + y){x2y). and 6 = 88, find the values of ab, a* — b*, a* + b*,
l)*
using
Simplify (a26)(a + 26) + (a46)(o + 46)2{a36)*.
What
two factors with positive
32.
33.
are ail the possible values of b, if a;*+6x+42 integral coefficients ?
is
the product
Simplify ^ ^
If
?^^%"i^V^^x—Zy x—y x—2y
is
the square of 426
181476, find the squares of 427 and 425.
CHAPTER IX
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING
70.
Highest
Common
it
Factor.
is
When
a factor divides two
factor
or
more expressions
called a
common
12
of
those
expressions.
Thus,
4
is
and
a
in
is
a a
common factor of 8, common factor of a*,
the
highest
and
20,
2a and 3a6.
factor
As
arithmetic,
all
common
(H.C.F.)
is
the product of
the simple
common
factors.
3,
and
Thus, the simple common factors of 3a '6, 6ab* and 9abc are therefore the H.C.F. is 3o6.
a
and
b,
In the case of monomials the H.C.F.
may
be mitten
down
by
inspection.
Ex. 1.— Find the H.C.F. of 6m^n,
(1) (2) (3)
12mH^ and 9mH^.
The H.C.F. of 6, 12 and 9 is 3. The highest power of m which is common is m*. The highest power of n which is conamon is n.
.•.
the H.C.F.
is
3xm*xn
or 3m*n.
If
the expressions are not monomials they must be factored
after
when possible, by inspection.
which the H.C.F.
may
be written down
Ex. 2.—Find the H.C.F.
a*
of a^{ab, ab\b^, a^\3ab\2b^.
+ o6 = a(a + 6), ab + b* = b{a+b), o» + 3o6 + 26* = (a+6)(o+26}, „•. the H.C.F. = a+fc.
104
ALGEBRA
E3XERCISE
64 (112. Oral)
Find the H.C.F. of
:
Thus.
„.
.,
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING ^==ij=o = etc.
b
105
, Similarly,
r
am = — = =
OCX
box
i
.
rbe
etO"»
a*b*
a*bc
_
a6» abc
_
6» be
_
6
c
73.
Lowest Terms.
A
fraction
is
said to be
in
its
lowest
numerator and denominator have no common factor. If it is not in its lowest terms, it may be reduced by dividing both terms by all the common factors.
terms
when
its
EXAMPLBa.
18_18f6
42
15a»6
2.
3
7
42^6
25a6»
_ "
\5a*b^5ab
25ab*^5ab
_ ~
3o»
*
66
x*—y*
3.
^
(
x+y){x—y)
^ x—y
x+y
^
x*\2xy\y*
{x\y){,x\y)
x*
4.
+ 5xy{iy* ^
x*+3xy—4y*
(x+y)(x+4y) (x—y){x+4y)
^ x+y
x—y
The attention
factors
of the pupil is drawn to the fact that it is and not terms which are cancelled from the numerator and
denominator,
Thus, in the fraction qto
fraction
is
7
+ 2 ^6 cannot cancel the twos and say
is
that the
equal to
,
for the value of the fraction
is
y\,
which does not
th.
equal
J.
But
if
the fraction
is J,
7x2 
—
^
we can now
cancel
twos and
the resulting fraction
Similarly,
— =  after cancelling, or dividing by the common factor a.
not equal to
.
But
a+c
is
is
c
It
thus seen,
that
no cancelling can be done until both
terms of the fraction are expressed as products.
108
ALGEBRA
KXBRCISE
55 (621 Oral)
Fill in
the blanks in the following
:
^15___30____6a:y
'
20~
ax bx
4
~
_
_
b
_ oc
~12~4a~ _ _ —5a _
bm
Zam
3
a^
b
^ g<P+g)
6(m+n)
Gfe""
6a'a;
*
_
a^x
_
(
a*a;
_
2x2
_
)
<*
12a2x2
a'6'
*
^
K
(
a*2a6[62
)a
^ ^.j
Reduce to lowest terms
6.
:
li. 21
7.
??. 6
8.
^. 25
1^!^.
15to»
».
?*. 6c
10.
?^.
00
11.
1^.
6x
12.
13.
§^.
5a6
14
^"+^
6
'
15
'
3a»+6a
12a
'
^^
'
4x
^^
'
2x28x'
^°^^~y)
21
'
o(x3) 6(x3)
°(°~^) (ab)^'

18
^(^^)
(a;l)2'
19
(^l)(^2
)
20
'
(x2)(x3)"
23
'
&a^
'
22*?!z:3 x^—x
*
y'y y^—2y+l
a'&'
24
'
^'3^+2
x^— 4x+3
25
"t'+7m +12 TO«+4m
«;z:^.
2g
'
g?
'
3^'"%'
3x2+9xy+6t/«'
'
o25a6+46*
28.
a*—
2».
^^. 4a*—
30.
?;^^
x'—
74.
Multiplication and
Division of Fractions.
The methods
in
by which fractions aie multiplied and divided ^re the same as in arithmetic
algebra
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING
Examples.
3 5
iO",
^
3
•
3><_5
_
15
10
^'
21
^
7_^_10 ~
15 21
7
15_25_
^ 4
^
3
~
6
"
*•
a
b
c_axc_ac d~ bxd" hd
xhi
a* X*
ah
ab
xi/
x*y
o*
a
X*
b
xy
a
cd\d*
X
a*+os6
c*+cd ^ ab+b'
_ ~~
a{a+b)
c{c
d(c\d)
+ d)
56
^
b{a
_ + b) ~
ad
be
SXERCISE
Simplify
2.
1x^^1. 15 7 14
xy
3.
5.
— x be
25x2
6.
^
•
15^
7y
•
•
^
141/2
11
4a+6fe^
5x
^^
lOx
^,
2a+36
a2_3a_i_2
a27a+12
a'^^a\Z
108
ALGEBRA
lowest
is
,
,
^
u
The
common
is
multiple
(L.C.M.)' of
expressions
of factors
the expression containing the smallest
two or more number
which
a multiple of each of the given expressions.'*; .C^
Ex. 1.— Find the L.C.M. of Qzy, 9xy^ and I2xy^.
The numerical
of 6, 9
coefficient
of
the L.C.M.
is
evidently the L.C.M.
of
and 12 or 36. The highest power of x
so that the L.C.M.
..
y
is y^,
in any of the given expressions is x* and must contain the factors x* and y^. the L.C.M. = 36 xx»X2/S = 36x*!/'.
Ex. 2.— Find the L.C.M. of a^b^ and a^2ab+b^.
a»6» = {ofe)(a + 6). a*~2ab + b* = {ab)*.
:.
the L.C.M. =(a6)«{a + 6).
7
Why
is
{ab)(a + b) or {ab)*{a + b)* not the L.C.M.
EXERCISE
Find
1.
67
(19,
Oral)
the L.C.M. of
3, 4, 5. a, ab, a^.
:
2. 5.
8.
10, 15, 20.
x^, xy, y^.
3. 6.
2a, 4a, 6o.
4.
7.
2ah, 3ac, 66c.
Ga^fc, 4ab^.
lOa^, 15a2, 5a.
3a^
3x,
2a^, 4a.
9.
10.* a2, a'^^a.
11. 14.
3x*+6x.
{x^y)^.
12.
ab+ac, h^+hc.
^3.
16.
2XI2, a:"!.
x^+xy,
a^fe^,
15.
x^\, x^^x+2.
18.
a^ab,abb^.
2x, 4a;+4,
17.
a22a6+62.
x^x,x^x.
^19.
2x^2.
^.
y^3y+2, y''y2, y^\.
Show that the product of x^+x— 2 and 21. the product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M.
76.
x^— x— 6
is
equal to
Addition
and
Subtraction
of
Fractions.
If
we wish
add or subtract fractions we must reduce them to a common denominator. As in arithmetic, the lowest common denominator is the L.C.M. of the denominators.
to
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING
Examples.
109
4
('^
35_2_9 1P_^_ 9+108 _ ''6 "12''" ~ "12*
11
3
12
12
12
.01
c
b
3
~
ac
be
ah
ac+ab
be
'
bc~
5
_
4
_
^ _ i^
a;(a;4j/)
Soft
,
_
36«4a*+6qfe
ay—bx
x»+x2/
2x
5.
a^+y»
y{x+y)
2 ~ z+2 "
xy(x+y)
x«— 4
2 ~ x+2 ~
2« (x+2)(a;+2)
2z2( z—
(x
)
+ 2)(x2) 2x2z + 4
(x+2)(x2)
Oral)
(x+2)(x2)
BZERCISB
Reduce
1.
58
(18,
to fractions with the lowest
2.
•^,
common denominator
2, 5. 3 9
±.
46
r?
.
3.
1,1.
a
a^
4.
l.A.
3x
4
.
2x
36 —
a'^
^ O.
3a
—
43
,
4a —
b.
^
m —
nm
, '
,16
7,
_, _.
„
2
,
oc
S.
a
'
3a' 4a2' 2a3*
?_
3t/2'
6'
c'
a*
'
6
'
2
'
36c
12
^
A.
13
*
^ ^
:
_L
14
*
°+^
o
'
g— 1 g+2
2a
'
3xy' 2x'
3aA' 26c' 4ac'
3o
"
Perform the operations indicated
15.
?
+ ?. 3^4
3 5
16.
^ + ^. 2^3
6
17.
18.
^^_?.
_1_
<
19.
oi
I'
"
lx"^l+x
2
J_
22 *
^ "3  i^
^ + J. xl^x+1
20.
^+ 3^5 ^ ^%°^. ^
5::^.
2
+ ^
3
4
23
^±^ + ^i:^  ^+^ "^
4
2
8
'
24
'^Z^'^IZl
+ 3^4
'Lty.
26
^
xy
x+y
^.
no
26.
ALGEBRA
JL + JL_ 8^. a+4 a— 4 a*— 16
27.
28.
^__^. 3x+6 2x+4
s a*+3a+2
XX
'
^±^4?!:? +
o
x
9 a
ox
29.
a*— aft
a6— 6*
30.
——^
+ a«+5a+6 h3—^ ^^r^ o«+4a43
1
(Check when o
= l.)
31
liT o*+3a+2 q!— 1 + ^T
Mixed Expressions.
1
a«+a2
77.
An
is
expression
which
is
partly
integral
and partly
fractional
called a mixed expression.
A
mixed expression
in arithmetic.
in algebra corresponds to
a mixed number
Thus, 31
i3
a mixed
number and a + c
is
a mixed expression.
Note that
omitted and
in
3r
a mixed number the sign of addition is means 3+?. But in algebra the sign must
c
be inserted, as a  would mean
ax and c
not a
\
—
c
Since Reduction of a Mixed Expression to a Fraction. 78. every integral quantity may be written as a fraction whose
denominator is unity, it follows that the reduction of a mixed expression to a complete fraction is a problem in
addition or subtraction.
Examples.
2
15+2
17
c
a;
e
c
a;
c
a.
o y
5y = — — = 5yx
y
y
a(6
y
c)
ac
*•
+
ac
b
ab+ac—ae
b
°~bTc^~b+c
+ c~
+c
'
_ "
ab
b+e°
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING
79.
111
Reduction
of
a
Fraction
to
a
Mixed
Expression.
To
separate
into
two fractions we merely reverse the
operation of addition.
rhus,
„
ab{bc
a
ab — bd—c
=
ab
,
be
a
a
bd
6
=
,
.
be
,
b
c
\
a
,
and
ab 6— =T
6 = °'^6'
(19,
c
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
50
Oral)
to complete fractions
2.
:
2+.
1+^.
x
3.
3
+ ?.
4.
aH ^4
5.
— ^3
6.
3
— .
c c
7.
x^*.
n
a
8.
2x
+ ^. X
x—y
9.
a6^.
2a H
.
10.
—

b+c
11.
x\
^.
12.
a—b
13.
x+l + l. 3z
14.
a6^. 2
:
15.
—
'
.j/ »
+
i
"'+^
^_^y
Separate into fractions in their lowest terms
16
^+^
4
'
17
'
?^±^.
ab
'
18
5x8j/
10a
'
19
6a236*
3o6
*
20
'
^'^^"^
21a6
— 3oc
'
21
'
^iJi?
6xy
r
'
.„ ^^
•
3»in— 4n ^^r 2n
_„
*
6a6c— 96cc'
•
*.0»
„. ^*.
(a— 6)*+x
a—
•
EXERCISE
1.
60 (Review of Chapter IX)
factor
Define highest
common
and lowest common multiple.
8,
2.* Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of 3a; 6, 4a;
5x10.
112
3.
ALGEBRA
Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of x' + xy, xy + y* and x*y + Qry*. Find
*.he
4.
H.C.F. and L.C.M. of
x»— 7x+10 and
is
Show
that the product of these expressions
x' + 2x8. equal to the product
of their H.C.F.
and L.C.M.
:
6.
Reduce to lowest terms
a*+ab
a*
'
X* x*
— xy' 8a6—
abx—bx* 6a' — 9ab 126*' acx — cx*
/6.
„
Multiply
5^. ;2' 2^'
2c*
„.
,.,
3bd
6cd
/•
Reduce
to lowest terms
a;»
:
x*2x x»5x+6'
J6.
2g» 18 o* 6« + 4x + 4 x» + 5x + 6' 3x» + 3xr8* a*2ab+b»'
i
Simplify
x~y ,— „ *,, X
.
x+y K^~^ X
,
2ax
X
xy — y'
,
•
,
'/»
0.
T^Divide
^
o»
x+2 x»— o»— OX ox by , ^r^ and — by ^ ,,„ ' x*— xjl o*— 4x* + 2ax
•'
—
—
'
Simplify
.,
x3
3
+
,
x+4
,
~4
^^^
2xl
3
, '
84x
g"
'
\/12.
Find the sum of Fi
T, From
x—y
xy
t
y—z
yz
z—x
zx
,
/IB.
Zo
the
u
sum
36
of
+ 4a
and
66c
^t—
^ ^ subtract
,
a+6c
v—

•
I
^ 4.
Simplify
„.
...
^
"^
x3 — x5 =— ~K—
3x
5x
and
3x2/ xy
—
3221/
yz
of
15.
Express
a*b*
^r^
as
the
difference
two frMtions
c*
c
in
their
lowest terms.
Do
the
same with
5»_c*
,
o'c
,
,
and
— a*
,
a
.
and
find the
sum
of the three results.
16.
By how much '
does
V— 4 1 V—5 exceed = 4y 5j/
—
—
7
17.
Find the sum of
a\o
—r., a —
11
.
and
2a
,
j,
a*
o"
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING
3.
113
18.
By
?
wliat
must
—
3
_.
be multiplied to give
2;* ^
5a;
+6
b,b
n~~r'ity
the
product
19.
Find tne quotient when
«+4
j
—
.
is
divided by
.
x*4a;— 12
j
•
—
2U. 21.
Solve (o6)x = (o»6*)(o + 6).
Find the difference between
z a—x + b—x
,
a
b
,
c
c—x
from
and
,
,
X X r a—x h b—x
,
,
X
c—x
by '
first
subtracting
a—x
a—x
etc.
22.
Find the missing term
in the following identity
:
x*5x+6 a!»3x4 ^
x*
+ 5x.
a;»9
.
.
_ a;»+2a;8 ~ x*x12'
CHAPTER X
REVIEW OF THE SIMPLE RULES
furnish
In this Chapter will be found such exercises as will a review of the elementary rules. In it is also included matter which it was not thought advisable to present to beginners in the subject of algebra.
80. 81.
Use
of Brackets.
We
have already seen that
(1) a^{b\c)=a\b\c, (2) (3)
(4)
a{{b—c)^a\b—c,
a—{b\c)=a—b—c, a—{b — c)=a—b\c.
are preceded
by the negative sign, be removed if the signs of all terms within the brackets be changed ; but when they are preceded by the positive sign, as in (1) and (2), no change
That
is,
when brackets
(4),
as in (3)
and
the brackets
may
is
made in
In
(3)
the signs
when
of
b
the brackets are removed.
the
sign
in
a—{b\c)
(
is
positive
as
the
expression might be written
are
a— + 6 + c).
When
the brackets
removed we follow the rule and change \b into —b. Sometimes we find more than one pair of brackets in the same expression.
Ex. 1.—SimpHfy a(3a26) + (5a4&).
Following the
rule, this expression
becomes
or 3a
a— 3a + 26 + 5a — 46
— 26.
it is
is
When
better
one pair of brackets appears within another,
to
advised to
remove the brackets singly, and remove the inner brackets first.
the pupil
REVIEW OF THE SIMPLE RULES
Ex. 2.— SimpHfy 4:X{2xi3+x)}.
Removing the
inner brackets,
116
we
get
4x{2x3x].
Removing the remaining
brackets,
we
get
4x2x+3 + x
Ex.
The
3.
or 3x + 3.
— Simplify
3a— [a+6— {a— 6— c— (a+&— c)}].
expression = 3a — [a+b—{a — b — c — a—b\c}],
= 3a — [a+b—a\b + c + a+b — c], = 3a—a — b{a — b — c — a — b{c, = 2a36.
After removing the
first
pair of brackets, the quantity
a—b—c—a—b+c
might have been changed into the simple form —26. problem again, simplifying at each step.
Work
the
When
removed.
brackets are used to indicate multiplication,
the
are
multiplication
must
be
performed
if
the
brackets
Ex. 4.— Simplify ^x—3{x—2y)\2z^^y.
The expression
=ix — (3i —Gy) \2x—^y, = 4x  3x +62/ +2x  4 y, = 3x+22/.
to
Note. When the pupil has had some practice he should be able remove the brackets and perform the multiplication in a single step.
—
EXERCISB
Remove
1.
61
(1e,
Oral)
the brackets from
:
(afe)+(crf).
2. 4.
6.
(ah){cd).
3.
6.
7.
(a6)+(cd).
a—{h—c)—{d—e).
a+{6+(cd)}.
a{h+{cd)].
{ah){cd).
a—{—b){—c).
a+\b{cd)\.
a{b{cd)\.
8.
9.
10.
11.
a{h{cd)\.
12.
[a\h{cd)\].
I
2
116
Simplify
13.
15.
:
ALQEBhA
4a26(2a2fc).
2(7a;3t/)3(2a;— 3j/)
14. 16.
3(a6 + c)2(a^6c).
2a :3a42(a— 26);.
17.
3(a+6c)2(a6+c)+5(6c+a).
18.* 15a;:4[35x(3x7)];.
^.
20. 21.
Add 3(a+6)— 5(/)4?),
Add
— 2(a+6)+(p+?)
and
and 4(p+g).
1+z—
2/,
1—x—y
1— z+y
Add 3x2(yz), 3y2{zx), 3z2{zy).
the brackets and express in descending powers of x
Remove
.
22. 23. 24.
3{5x3+2z2)_2(x25 + 3x)3(45x6x2).
2x(3x2)5(x3)+6x(xl)2(x25x).
^(4x3)J(6x2)+(x2+8x12).
:
Solve for X and verify
25.
4(x3)7(x— 4)=6x.
5x[8x3;i66x(45x);]==6.
^JtQ.
^7.
28.
3(2x7)(x14)2{5x+17) = 6(58x) + 21z+149.
i(272x)==^(7x54).
Simplify
S' '"^P lif
^9.
2(5
a— [56— {a— (3c36)+2c(a26c)n.
S{ab+c)+2{bc+a){ca+b) 5{a2b+c)2{b3c+2a){Uc2anb)'
1/
'
^
31.
Solve (7jx2J)[4i(3J5x)]=18J.
Insertion
of
82.
Quantities
in
Brackets.
The
trinomial
a—b\c may be changed into a binomial by combining two This may be done in a number of its terms into a single term. of ways.
Thus.
a6 + c = (a6) + c = (a + c)6 = a — (6 — c) = at(c — 6).
the brackets mentally and see that each of these
is
Remove
to
equal
o— 6+c.
REVIEW OF THE SIMPLE RULES
Ex,
1.
117
— Express
a
— h\c—d
may
as a binomial.
in
As we have
seen, this
be done
many ways
as a — (6
— c + rf),
(a6) + (cd), (a+c)(6 + rf), (od)(6c), c(6 + da).
Note. The pupil must exercise particular care when dealing with brackets which are preceded by the negative sign. The signs of all terms inserted in such brackets must, of course, be changed. He should, in every ^case, remove the brackets mentally to test the accuracy of the work.
—
last
Ex. 2. Express a\h—c as a binomial by combining the two terms within brackets, preceded by the negative
a\b
—
sign.
— c = a—{ — b\c), = o— (c — 6).
Either form is correct, but it is usual to make the first term within the brackets positive, so that the second form is preferable.
83.
Collecting
CoefiBcients.
Brackets are frequently used
for the
in
purpose of
collecting the coefficients of particular letters
an expression.
Thus,
ax\by — cx — dy = x{a — c)\y(b — d), mx—ny\px\qy = x{m\p)—y(n — q),
and
=x{m+p)\y{q—n).
Verify these by removing the brackets,
BXERCISB
1.
62
Express 3a— 26+ 4c as a binomial in three diff^ent ways and verify in each case.
2.
p^erify.
Express p—q—r\s as a trinomial in four different ways and Express
3.
verify.
x—y—z—k
as a binomial in four different
ways and
Collect the coeflBcients of x
4.
6.
ax — by — ex
and y
:
dy.
mx ny — px{qy—ax\by.
a(xj/)+6(2j/3x)Hc(5x+2t/).
6.
7.
x(c— 6)+y(6— c)— d(x+y).
8.
2ax— 36y— lOx— 5j?+66x— 4oy.
{a—%)v~(^—h)x\^y\2ax—{Zx\h^),
»o
118
10.
AWE BRA
Enclose a
b—c—d—e^f
;
in
alphabetical
tcrrriH in ea<;h.
order in
brackets,
with two terms in eich
with throe
Arrange
11. 12. 84.
in
descending pxiwcrs of x
a<z2+43z)6(3a:5x2)c{l4;c).
(ix'^hx+c(2jjx^'iqx+r)—{ldx^^'icx+f).
Multiplication
with Detached
Coefficients,
The method
of
multiplying two
bino.aiaLs has
is
Chapter V.
The same method
been shown in followed when the factorf?
already
are not binomials.
Ex. 1.— Multiply
(3)
ar»3x+4 X 2
Check
x=\
+2
1
the two methods are the same, with the exception that the letters are omitted in the second method and the coefficients only are used. When the second method is used the first coefficient in the yjroduct must h>e the coefficient of the product of x^ and X, that is, of x^. The next must be the coefficient of x^ and the next of x, as the product will evidently be in descending powers of x, as both factors multiplied are so written. In {'4) the check is shown as explained in art. 42.
coefficients.
The second method is called The proce.Hscs in
multiplication with detached
Ex. 2.— Multiply ^x^~lx\2 by a;22x+3.
Here the term containing x* in the first exproHsion is rniBsing and a zero is Hupplie<^J
'
3
+ 0—7+
2
"
1—2 + 3
'140 "^ '
irj*
powers
of X
order to bring coefficientH of like ^ under each other in the partial
7t2 "t
HE VIEW OF THE SIMPLE RULES
Kx.
3.
119
— Find
the coefficient of
.(•''
in the
product of
5.1:3— 6.12 +3.r 2
and .r^— 2.r2
3.r~ft.
(lio
Horo the oomplete product
contains
;c*.
)s
not roqiiirod. but only
torin
which
The partial products wliicli will we obtain by multiplying —2 by
5x*
,,
contain x' arc evidently those which .»', 3.v. by — 2.r*, — tU^ by — 3x and
f
1
by
4.
thp coefficient of x* =
4.
 26
8
+ 20 = 30.
Ex.
— Multiply
ax~\b.v{c
by 7nx—n.
\bx
ax*
Here the multiplication
+0
~\cin.v
is
,,,^
performed in the usual way. In adding the partial [)roducts, the coetVicients of
tiie
(n/i.r'

biiix*
aii.r*
powers
of
.v
are collected.
amx^
\
~— {bm — an)x* + (cw» — bn )x — ciu
—
biix
—en
BXBROISfil 68
Multiply and check
1.
a;23a;+2, «2.
2.
4.
6. 8. 10.
2a;»5.c3.
.'^.)2.
h.
3.
5.
7.
x»a;+l,a;+l.
a^\ab+b\ a
x^x+l, x^+xil.
3.»:22a;r>, .r2f;i3.
a'6a»2.
'Za^^rnib
a;''
\
aM «l
\
:W\ 2a'

[wh'Ah^
0.
a \bc,ab\c.
2.r'

4.r
S.
.r24.r+4.
11. 12.
b^b+l,b^+b+l,b*b^\l.
x'—xyjy^'rx^y^l, .rfj/—
1.
Use detached
13.
ooefVioionts to multiply
;
chcok the results
r
3x34xa+7x3 by
r>a*6<i32(i'»«
I
a;22.r
1.
Ai.
16. 16.
2
by
2f/
:hi
2.
4x'5a;2 by 4j;a3.cl.
(x2a;2)(2x«a:
l)(3.r2).
Simplify
17.* (a;l)(x2)
+ (x2){j:3)+(x3)(xl).
120
18.
AWEBRA
(a+x)(6c)+(6+a;)(ca)+(c+z)(ob).
(a+6)(c+d)(a6)(c(f).
19.
20. 21.
(o+6— c)(a— 6) + (6+c— a)(6c) + (c+a6)(c— a>,
(x+l)(z42)(«+3)(a;l)(x2)(x3).
:
Find the product of
22. 24.
(l_a;)(l+a;)(l+a;2)(l+a;*).
23. 25.
(xl)(ar2)(a;3)(a;4).
(xl)(a;3)(a;+l)(a;+3).
eoeffieient ofa;2 in the
(al)(a2+a+l)(a3+l).
:
Find the
26.
product of
3a:2_5x+ll and 5x2+6x4.
a;3+4x2— 5x+2 and x^— 2x3.
27. 28.
29.
3x212x+15 and 2x27x38.
Multiply
1+x+x^+x^ by
l42x+3x^44x', retaining no powers
higher than the third.
30.
Add
together
(xl)(x+2), (x+2)(x3), (x+3)(x+4)(xl).
(x+4)(x22x+3) and 7x2+3x. Check by putting x=2.
3*: 32.
Multiply
7x3— 5x2yx?/2f 6?/' by 4x2+3x2/— 22/2.
Show
that the expression x(x+l)(x+2)(x+3)
+
l
is
equal to
^ (x»+3x+l)2.
33.
Find the
2
first
four terms only in the product of:
+ 3x+4x2+5x3
and
l2x+3x2— 4x3.
product of
34.
Find the
coeflBcient of x* in the
X
36.
37.
l+4x+7x2j10x3+13x* and l+5x+9x2+13x'+17a;«.
Solve and verify
:
(x2)(t4)(x6)(x10) = (x1){x5)(x7)(x9).
Collect the coefficieni^
Multiply ax^\bx\c by bx^—cx\d. of X and write in descending powers.
Multiply px^—qx\r by px\q, and {a—\)x^\ax—\ by ax+1.
Simplify
38.
(ay^hy+c){ay+h)+{ay^^hyc){ayb).
^^i^%.
Subtract the product of x2x(p+l) — 1 and
x— 2p
from the
product of
X*— x(j3— 1)+2 and
xfj>.
REVIEW OF THE SIMPLE RULES
40.
121
Point out two obvious errors in each of the followin^tatement8
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
ah{a^h){a^]^b^)
(2x+3?/)'=6x='
= a*b^a^b\a^h^~ab*. + 36xy54a;2/2+27»/3.
x^—%x^y—^xy^+2y^={x—2y){x^Ax\y%
41. Use the formula (a+l)(6+l)=a6+(a+6) + l to find the product of 2146 and 3526, being given that the product of 2145 and 3525 is 7,561,125.
dividing
by a Compound Quantity. The method of by a monomial has already been shown in Chapter V. The method of dividing by a quantity containing two or more terms is in many ways similar to long division in
85.
Division
arithmetic.
Divide 672 by 32.
(1)
(2)
32)672(21
3. 10+2)6. 10* + 7. 10 + 2(2.
10+1
64 32 32
6ol0*+4.10
3.
10+2 3.10+2
form,
In
3
.
(2)
10+2 and
If
we
is expressed in the equivalent the dividend 6 102+ 7 10+2. substitute x for 10 the problem would be
the divisor
.
.
^
:
Divide Qx^{lx\2 by 3x+2.
The method here is so similar to the 3a; + 2)6x* + 7x + 2(2a;+l method in arithmetic, that little explana6x* + 4a; iion is necessary. The first term in the ix\Z quotient is obtained by dividing 3x into ^x+2 6a;». The product of 3a; +2 by 2x is then subtracted from the dividend and the remainder is 3x+2. The last term of the quotient is obtained by dividing the first term of the remainder (3a;) by the first term of the
divisor (3x),
the same as hers.
In more compUcated examples the method is precisely The division is continued until there is
122 J
J
Division.
ALGEBRA
is
no Tpmoinlbj^nr until a remainder nan^The degree tljan^he divisor
86. * Verifying
found which
is
of lower
The work may be
It
is
verified as in
arithmetic,
test
by
multiplication.
simpler,
for
by substituting a particular number
however, to each letter
involved.
Thus, in the preceding problem if we let x=l, the divisor is 5, the dividend is 15 and the quotient is 3, which shows that the result is very likely correct. If on substituting particular values for the letters involved, the divisor becomes zero, other values should be selected.
87.
Division with Detached Coefficients.
As
in multiplication
the method of detached coefficients
may
be used.
Ex.— Divide
Check
\4.x^x^2^x^\\2 by 7a;2+3a;6.
^
74.3 6)14 129 + 0+ 12(2 12 14 + 612
x=l
4)4(l
717 +
7
+6 146+12 146+12
3
Here the
first
term
in the quotient is 2x*, since 14a;*f7x*
is 2x''
= 2a;*.
The complete quotient
— x — 2.
Divide also by the usual method.
BXERCISB
a;2+3a;+2
1.
64
(16.
Oral)
State the quotients in the following divisions
„
'
x+1
a;24
,
a23a+2 a—\
a2+2afe+62
„
'
a^
a—b
3a;25x+2
_
'
x+2
:
5.
*
a+6
8.
3x2
6x^+xyl2y^hy3xAy.
9a^\6ab—35b^hySa+lb.
Divide and verify
7.
6a;2+x15by2a;3.
9.
5x^—Zlxy+&y^hyx—&y.
10.
REVIEW OF THE SIMPLE RULES
11.
123
25a;3.
7x3+96a;228xby7a;2.
H^.
lOOx^lSx^^x by
yt3.
3+7x— 6x2by3— 2a;.
x^+13x^+54:x+'12hy x+G.
t^.
6a2+35— 31a by 2a— 7.
^^.
17.
^. 2a3+7a2+5a+100 by a+5.
18.
x'^+Sx^y+^xy^+y^hy x+y.
16to3— 46wi2+39m— 9 by
—x^+ix^y—3xy^+y^hyx—y
,
^
19.
8m— 3.
»
20.
j^^tf
22.
6x3— 29x22/+18x2/H352/3 by 2x7y.
a*+a3+4a2+3a+9 by a^ a+3. x<— x3— 6x2+15x— 9by x2+2x— 3.
by Sx^+llx+lL
t^. 5x*4x'+3x2+22x+55
1^.
2x38x+x*) 127x2 by a.2_^23x.
^.
26.
27. 28.
3012x2+x*xby X54X2.
coefficients to divide
:
Use detached
x3— 3x2+3x— 1 byx2— 2x+l.
6x*x3llx210x2by 2x23xl. oS5o3+7a2+6a+l by a2+3a+l.
29.
4x2+9+x«+3x+x3 by 2x+3+x2.
(x2x2)(2x2+a;l) by 2x25x+2.
•»
30.*
31. 32. 33.
^Ox^+llx*2s:^\lx^x\^ by 2x''+xl.
Divide
a^— 1 by a— 1 and o'+l by a+1.
x^{y^
Simplify
x^—y^
x+y
02+0+l
!
x—y
"'+^ o2— O+l

34.
Simplify
^!l±,+
__ 3o.
Q , Solve
6x2+x2 ——
2xl
3x2+8x3 ,, J =11. 3x—
find x.
—
i§6j
37.
If
x(3a2a + l)+2=3a37a2+3a,
is
The dividend
divisor.
a^+ea^+Ga^ 9o42,
the quotient
is
a'+3o— 1.
Find the
38.
Divide
x8+x*y*+^ by
x^—x^y^\y* and divide the quotient
by x^—xy\y^.
194
o11/
ALOSBRA
abx^—x(ac+b^)\b€
^
,
acx^\x(nd+bc)+bd
^
bx—c
cx+d
Without removing the brackets divide
40.
41.
ax^+{b+ac)x+bc by ax+b.
x^+{2pl)x+p{p—l) by x+p.
a^x^
42.
43.
— 2abx+b^—c'^
by ax—{b—c).
aV+(2a'+a)y'+(a'+2a)2/+(a+l) by ai/2+ot/+l.
88.
Inexact Division.
As
m
arithmetic, the divisor
may
be a
not divide evenly into the dividend, and so there
may
remainder.
Thus, 34^5 gives a quotient 6 and a remainder
/.
3ji
4,
= 6+4
is
or 34 = 6. 5
+
4.
Similarly,
when a*r3a + 5
is
divided by
a+1, the quotient
is
o+2
and the remainder
3.
at1
o+l
or
a»
+ 3a + 5 = (a+l)(a + 2) + 3.
That
Ex.
is,
dividend=divisorxquotient+remainder.
— Express
l
j
as a
mixed expression.
Here the quotient
ia
+ x+x*+x'
is
1— a;)l ^'
+x*{l+x + x* + x*
sind the
remainder
!
2x*.
+x
__ =
Divide
+ , + .. + .3+^_^
that
,•
+ x*
+x* — x'
1— x^by 1 + x and show
1
1+x
=
—
X
4 X*
—
x»
+ X* — 1+x
,
+^ +* + x»— x«
2s«
In such cases the division may, of
course, be continued to
any number
of
terms.
MVIEW
OF THE SIMPLE RULES
BXEROISB
66
i2«
Find the remainder on dividing
1.* a:210a;+25
3. 6.
;
by a;7.
2.
a2+20a+70 by a+6.
a:3_4^2_^53._^20by
X— 1.
4.
6.
y^—7y^+8y\ hy y^—y+l_
x^—y^ by x+?/.
x^+y^ by
x—
i/,
Express as mixed quantities
7
:
^±^
a;4l
8
'
^±^^
a—
9
'
^°~^^
fe
a+b
10 '
Q^^+7a:3
x\2
Find four terms in the quotient
11.
15.
of
l^(lx).
12.
l^(l+x).
is
13,
1±^.
1—
14.
l+a+2a' 1— a+a^
is
When
Divide
the dividend
a^— 3a + 7,
the quotient
a and the
I'emainder
16.
is 7.
Find the
divisor.
x^— 5x+a by x— 2 and determine
is
for
what value
of a
the division will be exact.
17.
If
x^— mx+12
is
divisible
by
x— 3,
what must the quotient
bfe
\nd what
18.
the value of
m
?
By
division
show that
;
— ^a+b + a—o a~o
'
_L^=a64——
a+o
a]o
BXERCISB
1. 2.
3.
4. 5.
66 (Review of Chapter X)
3x»
Add x^2ax*+a*x+a^, Add
+ 3ax*,
2o»— ox*— x».
^a — }b,^a lb, la+i'o.
Subtract 8a + 36 5c from
Ua 26 + 5c— 3d.
zero.
Subtract Subtract
— 3a + 46 — c
from
a— ^6 + Jc from fa+§6 — c.
must be added
to
6.
How much
and
c
Jx— iy+^z
to produce
x—y+z\
sum
of
7.
Subtract the sumi of 3a + 26, 26 — 3c and 3c — a from the
a— 6, 6— c
8.
— a.
Simplify
o(364c)(6+co)2(a—c).
im
Subtract 4x* — 3x' — 9. by substituting 2 for x.
10.
ALGEBRA
a;2
from
7x' — 6x* +
2x—
1
and check
Find the value of o' + fe' + c' — 3a6c when a=2, fc=3,
Simplify {a + bc){b + ca){c + ab){a+b+c).
c=— 5.
11,
,.,„,*2T
Multiply
l4x10x' by l6x+3x*.
13.
Find the product of x+1,
x+ 2
and
X— 3.
3x2 by
3x« + 4x— 4 and
Divide the product of x + 2, 2x3, %4. check when x= 1.
IfiT*
Multiply a*'rb*\c* — ab — bc — ca by a + b + c.
16.

Find the product of
Divide Divide
a 2, a+ 2, a* + 4. o*+ 16.
17. 18.
x«+64 by
,
'coefficients
by x* + 2x3, using detached and verify by multiplication using the same method.
of x' in the
+ 4x+8. x* + x* — 24x* — 35x + 57
x»
Find the coefficient 19. and 2x» + 5x»+llx+4.
'
product of 3x' — 2x* + 7x —
20. The expression 44x* — 83x' — 74x*+89x + 56 is the product ^two expressions of which 4x' — 5x— 7 is one. Find the other.
,
of
Divide x* + 4x' + 6x* + 4x4v21 BUJMtituting x= 10.
22.
of
1
by
x* +
2x+l
and
check
by
powers of x
23.
24.
Subtract ax* + 6x + c from cx* + dx4/. collecting the coefficients in the result.
y
Find the remainder on dividing x*+6 by x*—
1.
Show that
(a
— 6)(x — a — 6) + (6 — c)(x — 6 — c) + (c — a)(x — c — a) = 0.
b
25.
Show that (a6)(6c)(ca) = a{6*c*) + fc(c«a*)+c(o»6*).
If a = x* + 2xy + 2y^, 26. value of ab — c.
= x*2xy + 2y^,
c
= x*y\
find
the
27. 28.
Subtract 2x3{y + 2z) from 32/(Bz3x).
If «
= a + 6 + c,
in
find in terms of a,
a(3
b, c
the value of
— a) + b{s — b)\c{s — c).
x,
29.
Arrange
descending powers of
c{ax — b)—x(a — b)\bx(x*
30.
— cx).
When
o = 5, find the value of
2a_i3a(4642oU + 5a(46— o)..
RE'9'fEW
OF THE SIMPLE RULES
">
127
What quantity when divided by x* — 2a;+3 gives x* + 2x— 3 as 31. quotient and 9 as remainder
^.
33.
of:
30,
If
a = a;*3x + 2,
6 = 3x»10x+8,
c
= 4x*9a;+2,
find
the
value of (a+26c)^(x2).
Arrange in descending order of magnitude and find the average 15, 27, 0, 3, 10, 2, 6, 8.
the
What number must be added to 5x*— 13x'2a;— 1 so that sum may be divisible by x— 2 ? Find the coefficient of x* when l+a; + x* is divided by 1 — x — x'. 35.
34.
y^.
37. 38. 39.
Divide 3p*7p(lj3»)(2+p») by (3j9+l)(p+l).
If X*
— 9x + c
is
divisible
by
x4, find
c.
Find the sum
of the coefficients in the square of 2x*
— x— 3.
Find the product of x\a, x + 6, x + c. Collect the coefficients of the powers of x in the product. From the result, write down the product of x4 1, a;2, x + 3 and of x— 1, x — 3, x + 4.
JLii.
Divide
x«2x'+l by x*2x+l.
a = 3, h = 2\, c = 2, find the value of
>1.
When
—+
\/7a6(2c«o6)

(2o36)».
^
/42.
43.
Prove that (I+x)»(l+y>)(I+x*)(l+2/)« = 2(x2/)(lxi/).
If
p=X
—

and q
= x*
j,
show that
j)*(p*
+ 4) =
g*.
j^'^. Divide a' + 6' + c' — 3a6c by a + 6 + c. of o'46» + c*— 3a6c ? Compare with Ex. 15.
i^^ft5.
What
are the factors
Multiply x* + fex4c by x*\px\q, arranging the product in descending powers of x.
^.
47.
Divide 9a*46*c* + 46c by
Multiply x* — x(o— 1)—
I
3a26 + c.
by x* + ax+l.
As.
49.
of X.
Divide o«166«c* by a2bc.
Arrange the product of x — a, x — b, x — c
in
descending powers,
Divide a*6 + 6*c + c*a — ofe* — 6c* — ca* by a — b, and divide the 50. quotient by a — c.
51.
of 2x*
What
expression will give a quotient of x*fl and a remainder
— 7x + 6whendividedby 3x»— lOx* — 6 ? Divide x'y^ + Bt/' 12y+8 by x — + 2. 62.
1/
CHAPTER XI
FACTORING
89.
[continued)
In Chapter VIII. we have already dealt with the This Chapter will of factoring in simple cases. furnish a review of the methods already used, and an extension of those methods to more difficult examples.
subject
90.
Type
I.
Factors
common
to every
Term.
When
every
term of an expression contains the same can be found by inspection (art. 58).
Thus, 2xy
is
factor, that factor
a factor of
.'.
4:X*y
— 6zy* + 2axy,
^
^x*y — 6xy* + 2axy = 2xy{2x — 3y \ a),
is
a factor of aix\y)\b{x\y). divided hy x + y, the quotient is a + 6,
is /.
Also, x + y
When
this expression
aix+y) + b{x+y) = {x+y){a + b),
Type II. Factors by Grouping. When every term has common factor, if the number of terms be changed by grouping, we may sometimes obtain a common factor.
91.
not a
Ex.
1.
— Factor mx\nx\my\ny.
(1)
(2)
mx + nx + my{ny^
= x{m + n) + y{m + n), = {m + n)(x + y)
factor in the
mx\nx+my\ny, = m(x+y) + n(x+y), = (x + 2/)(m + nV
Here we changed from four terms to two, and we found a conunon two terms. The other factor of the expression was then found by division. The two solutions show that different methods of grouping may be If the first method tried is not successful, try othsrs. Rtaployed.
12S
/
Usually those terms are grouped which contain a simple common In the example we should not expect to be successful by grouping mx with ny, as these terms have not a common factor.
factor.
Ex. 2.—Factor x^+x^+2x\2.
Use two and a;* + 2.
different
methods
of
grouping and obtain the factors
x+l
Ex. 3.— Factor {a—h'f—ax^hz.
{a
— b)* — ax + bx = {a — b)* — {ax — bx), = {ab)»x{ab), = {a — b)(a — b — x).
Note. When quantities are enclosed in brackets, the pupil must not forget to verify by mentally removing the brackets.
—
EXBROISB
Factor:
1.
2. 3.
67
(19,
Oral)
3a;2X
4.
5.
b^5b.
7.
a{xiy)\b{x+y).
2a6.
a23a.
3a2_i5a6.
6x^y—l2xy^.
8.
p{mn)+(mn).
x{a—b)—2y{a—b).
6.
9.
Factor, using
multiplication
^ytO.
12. 14.
16. 18.
:
two
different
methods
11.
of
grouping and verify by
ax{bx+ay\by.
am—bm\an—bn,
bx—axjab—x^
x'^—ax+bx—ab.
13.
15. 17.
2ac+^ad2bc3bd.
x^+x^+x+1.
a=— a2— 3a+3.
a;3+4a;2_3x12.
x—y—xy+l.
a^ 7a 2 40+28.
yt^.
20. Factor x^+x*—x^—x^+x+l by making three groups each containing two terms, also by making two groups each containing three terms.
21.* Find three factors of
22.
3x^—6x^+3x—6 and
and
ax\ay\bx\by,
of
axy—ay—ax{a.
Find a common factor of
am+bm+an+bn
and
oi
x^—x^+x—1 and
x^—x^\2x—2.
I0x^—5zy—6xz+3yz and a^b\a^bc—3a^b^—Sab^c.
K
130
24,
AIjOEBRA
Find a
common
it
is
and show that
25, 26,
factor of 2x^—6x2— 3a;+9 and a factor of their difference.
x^— 3x^+2a;— 6,
Factor 48aa;— 56a?/— 356!/+306x.
Factor (x+2/)2+4x+4!/ and 2(ab)^—a+h.
III. Complete Squares. We have already seen 64 how the square of a binomial may be written down. We have also seen in art. 65 how the square root of a trinomial may be found, when the trinomial is a perfect
92.
Type
in art.
square.
93.
Square of a Trinomial.
A
trinomial
may
be squared
a
2
by expressing it in the form by multiplication.
Thus,
(o
of a binomial or
..
+ 6 + c)»=a + (6 + c)«, = a» + 2a(6 + c) + (6 + c)*, = o*+2a6+2ac + 6» + 26c + c», (rt + 6 + c)« = a* + 6« + c«+2rt6 + 2ac+26c.
results.
Multiply a + 6 + c by a\b\c in the ordinary way and compare the Examine the diagram and see that the same result is obtained.
Similarly,
(a
and
Complete these two
(a_6c)* =
in
+ 6 — c)«= {a + (fec); — (6c)l*.
a
*,
a manner similar to the one worked in
full.
If we examine these products we see that they consist of two kinds of terms, squares {a"^, b^, c^) and double products
{2ab, lac, 26c).
We
The, square of
might express the result thus any expression is equal
:
to the
of each of its terms, together with twice the of each pair of terms.
sum of the squares sum of the products
In writing down the square, care must be taken to attach the proper sign to each double product.
Ex.1.
(2x3?/ + 42)»
= 4x»49y»+ 162* 12xt/+ 16x2 24j^2,
FACTORING
Ex.2.
131
(a26+cd)»
y
= oS + 4fe» + c» + d*4a6+2ac2a<i46c + 46d2cd.
Ex.
This
3.
is
Factor
a;*
+ 42/* + 2*— 4x1/— 2a;2442/3.
Which
evidently the square of an expression of the form x+2t/ + 2. when squared will give the proper arrangement of signs ? Verify by writing down the square.
of these
EXERCISE
132
^ J
AL9SBRA
i
Complete the squares by suppijang the missmg terms
39.
41.
x^
.
/.
.
,
.+25.
,
40.
4a;2+.
.
.
v
,
.
+25y^.
a^+iab
:^\
*
.
.
42>/.'^'*r
.
.
— 12m»+97i*.
43.
a2+962+.C
.0a02ac
.
V .G'/^C
44.
45.
9x2+.y;.
Factor
.+.
...
.6xyl2xzi.^.C^Z.
Find three factors
of 3x'^
+ 6a;+3
^
.
and of al 44026+406*.
>' ~
46.
c\^ i^
"
^
j
(a+6)2+4c(a+6)+4c^ and \a+b)'—2{a\b)(c+d)+{c+d)^.
47.
is less
Show that the square of the sum of any two consecutive integers than twice the sum of their squares by unity.
Divide the sum of the squares of a— 26+c, 6 — 2c+a, of the squares of a—b, b—c, c—a.
If
48.
c— 2a+6
by the sum
49.
50.
X
i + X = 4,
find the value of x^
\
—
i
.
X*
Factor {axYby)'^+{bx—ay)^+c^(x^+y^).
51.
52.
Express a^x^+ft^^+a^^+ft^x^ as the sum of two squares
Find the
value
of
x2+2/^+22+2x2/+2xz+22/2,
when
x=a+26— 3c, 2/=6+2c— 3o, z=c+2a— 36
94.
Type IV.
The Difference
ohe
sum and
difference of the
The product of Squares. same two quantities is equal
66)
of
to
the difference of their squares
(art.
Conversely, the difference of the squares of tveo quantities
is
equal to the product of their
Or, in symbols,
sum and
difference (art. 67).
and
95.
{a\h){a—h)=a^—h^, a'^h'^={a+h){ah).
The formula
may sometimes
for the product of the sum and difference be used to find the product of expressions of
more than two terms.
Ex. 1.—Multiply
Here and
2a— fe+c by 2a—h—c. — 6 + c is the sum of 2a — b and c, 2a 2o— 6— c is the difference of 2a — 6 and
c
FACTORING
is
133
therefore the difference of the squares of 2a
/.
rhey might be written {2a — b'jjc and (2a — b) — c. — 6 and c.
The product
{2ab+c){2abc) = (2ab)*c*, = 4a*4a6+6* — c*.
of
Ex.
2.
—Find the product
2x^y—z and 2x—y\z.
Here the first expression = 2a;+(?/ — z), and the second =2x—{y—z), the product =(2x)*—{y~z}*,
.•.
= 4x»(2/*22/z+2»),
= 4aj* — 2/* + 21/2 — z*.
Verify
by ordinary
multiplication.
Ex.
a and
3.
—Multiply
a—b\c—d by a+b—c—d.
Note that the terms with the same signs in the two expressions are —d These should be grouped to form the first term in each
a — b+c — d = {a — d) — {b — c),
a\b
..
factor.
— c—d={a — d)4(b—c),
the product = (a— d)* — (6 — c)'.
Simplify this result and verify by multiplymg in the ordinary waj:
Ex.
4.
—Factor p^—4:pq\'iq^—z^.
first
:
Here the be written
three terms form a square and the expression
may
[p*
— ^q\iq*) — x* = {p — 2q)* — x*, = {p2q+x)(p2qx).
and subtracted
to
What two
the factors
?
quantities were here added
obtam
Ex. 5.— Factor a^b^i2bcc^.
Here the
square.
;.
last three
terms should be grouped to form the seconu
a»6* + 26cc« = a*(6«26c + c«),
= a»(6c)», = {a + (6c)}{a(6c)}, = (o + 6 — c)(a — 6 + c).
Verify
by
multiplication.
i34
J
ALGEBRA
Ex. 6.—Factor x^{y^—a^h2\2xy+2ab.
Evidently three of these terms form one square and the remaining three the other square.
The expression
= {x* + 2xy + y*){a*2ab + b*), = (x + y)*(ab)*, = {x+yiab){x + ya + b).
EXERCISE
69 (110. 1732, Oral)
:
Use the formula to obtain the following products
1. 3. 5. 7.
(2a+3)(2a3). {xy+5){xy5).
2.
(4xl)(4x+l).
{ab—c){ab{c).
4.
6. 8.
(2m^+3n){2m^—3n).
(x+J)(a;i).
{abc\xy){abc—xy).
(x2y2)(x2+t/2).
9.
{x+y+z){x+yz).
{a+b—c){a—b+c).
1«.
(afec)(a6+c).
(2x3i/5)(2x+3y+5).
11.*
13.
,
12.
14.
{p2q+3r){p+2q~3r)
{\z+z^)il+x+x').
15. 16.
{a+b—c+d){a—bc—d).
{a—2b^c—2d)(a2bc^2d).
:
Factor and verify
17.
x2— 9.
a%^x^.
la262.
18.
20. 23.
26. 29.
32.
{x+y)^'2o.
(a+6)2(cd)2. 30
a^
— 2a6f62_c2
35.
(4x+3)216x2.
^.
a^+b^+2abc^
FACTORING
45.
136
of
Find three factors
of
ba^—\0ah+5b^20c^ and
(a;36)3— 462x41263.
46.
Find four factors
of a^b^—aH^—bH'^\c'^d'^
and
of
(a2+62c2)24a262,
47.
Factor
a'^x'^
—b'^y'^ ^2aA^x\c'^
48.
Find the simplest factors of
w^— Gm^n^+w^— 2m». 3x^—2^^—30; +2 and of
and
a;*— a;3_9x2+9x.
49. 50.
Simplify
(a— 6+ c)(a— 6— c) + (a+6c)(a— 6+c).
that x^—y"^
51.
'
Arrange x^{x^—a^)—y\y'^—a'^){2xy{x^—y'^) so as to show is a factor of it, and thus find the simplest factors.
Use. factoring to simplify
:
'^Af
'''^^''^^'(1)
'

(a23a+l)2(a23a)2.
(2) (a;22/+32)2(32x+22/)''=.
(3) (4)
(a23a4)2(a24)2.
(5x22a;2/+?/2)2_(5x2+2a;y2/2)2.
52.
Multiply aArb\c by a + 6— c and
a— 6+c
by
a—b—c
and use
the results to obtain the product of
(a+b\c){a\b—c){a—b\c){a—b—c).
53.
Show
that x{y^z^)\y{z^—x^)\z(x^—y'^)
is
equal to
{x—y){y^—z^)(x^—y^){y—z)
and then
54.
find
the factors of this expression.
in the
Arrange a{b^—c^)^b(c^—a^)+c{a^—b^)
form
o(62c2)6c(6c)a2(6c)
and thus obtain the factor b—c.
Find the other two
factors.
96.
Type V.
Incomplete Squares.
We have already
factored
expressions which were seen to be the difference of two squares.
many
Sometimes the two squares
of
which an expression
is
the
difference are not so easily seen.
136
ALSEBRA
Ex. 1.— Factor .r^+.r^/z^+y*
This expression would be the squar*^ oi
2x^y*.
We
will therefore
a' + y* if the middle term were add x^y* to complete the square and also
subtract x^y* to preserve the value of the expression.
Then
.:
+ x^y* + y* = x*+2xh^* + y*x*y*, = (x* + y*)*{xy)', = {x* + y* + xy){x^ + y*xy), x*+x*y* + y* = {x* + xy + y^){x*~xy + y*).
x*
seen that
In order that this method may be successful, it will be t1ie quantity we add to complete the square must itself be a square.
Thus, to change a* + ab + b* into a*(2a6 + 6* — a6 is not an algebraic square.
is
of
no value as
06
Ex. 2.— Factor a*+4t*This can be
made
,\
the square of a' + 26* by adding 4a*6*.
a«
+ 46« = a« + 4a*6«46*4a«6».
Ck>mplete the factoring and verify by multiplication.
Ex. 3.— Factor
the factoring.
4m<— IBw^n^+gn*.
to
What must be added
Try
to factor
it
make
it
it
the square of 2m* — 3n*
?
Complete
by making
the square of 2m* + 3n*.
Ex. 4.— Factor a*\rb*\c*2a%^2b^c^2c^a^.
How does this expression differ from the square of a*f6* — c' T Express it in the form (a* + 6* — c*)* — 4a*6*, Write down the two factors and see if you can factor each of them again and thus obtain the result
(a
+ b + c)(a+b — c){a—b+c)ia—b—c).
Factor and verify
^
FACTORING
10.
137
26a;*— 89z^*+642/'=
li
x*+y*—\\x^y^.
and x^+z^+x.
i^^x^—lx*+l.
13.* Find three factors of 2a;*+8
14.
Find four factors of 9a*—l0a^b^+b^,
15.
Find three factors
of
x^+x^+lby
Find four factors of a*+b*+c*2a^b^—2b^c^—2c^a^ completing the square of a^—b^\c^r
16.
17.
Factor (a+l)*+(a2— l)2+(a— 1)*.
97.
Type VI.
Trinomials.
We
have already dealt with
the factoring of expressions of the type x^{pz\q, where the
coefficient of the first
We now
where
98.
m is
term is unity (art. 61). wish to factor expressions of the t;^^e 'mz^\px\q, not necessarily unity
Method, by Cross Multiplication.
First
Ex. 1.— Factor 2x^\lxy{3y\
The product
the
first
of the first terms of the factors is 2a;*, and therefore terms must be 2x and x similarly, the last terms must be
;
3y and y and the signs are evidently .'. the factors must be
all
positive.
2x+3y
z+
It
first
.'.
y
or
2x+ y x+Sy
in
is seen, by cross muitiplication, that the coefficient of xy product is 3 + 2=5, and in the second is li6 = 7. the correct factors are (2x\y){xir3y).
the
Ex. 2.— Factor 3x2— 7a;— 6.
Here the numerical coefficients of the first terms of the factors must be 3 and 1, and of the last terms may be 6 and 1 or 3 and 2. Since the third term is negative, the signs of the second terms of the factors must be different. The possible sets of factors, omitting the signs, are
:
3*
*2
a
3a;
2 3
3a;
6
I
3a;
1
X
X
x
6
138
ALOE BRA
Since the signs are different tor the last terms, when we cross multiply to find the ooefficien*^ of x in the product, the partial products must be subtracted It is easily seen that the second arrangement is the only one from which 7z can be obtained. Since the middle term is negative, the larger of the cross products must be negative.
.,
the factors are
is
(3x+2)(x3).
This method
pupil will find
in the work.
liable to
be found tedious
when the
coefficients
have a number
of pairs of factors, but in ordinary cases the
little difficulty
after he has
had some practice
99.
Second
Method,
by
Decomposition.
multiplying two binomials hke
2x+3 and
In the process of 3x\5, we have
(2a;+3)(3x+5)=3:c(2a;+3)+5(2a;+3),
=ex^\9x\l0x\15,
= 6x2+19x+15.
If
we wish
so
to
factor a trinomial like
process.
Gx'^+lQ^+lS, we
may do
Thus,
by reversing the
6x2+19a:+15=6a:2+9a;+10x+15,
= 3x(2.c+3) + 5(2a:+3), = (2x+3)(3x+5).
The only difficulty in this method is in finding the two terms into which the middle term, 19a:, should be decomThis difficulty may be overcome in the following way posed.
:
{ax\b){cx{d)—acx^\x{ad\bc)\bd.
of z,
Note that the product of the two terms ad and be, is the same as the product of x^, ac and the absolute term, bd.
15
in the coefficient of the coefficient
In the trinomial 6z2i9x15 above, the product of 6 and is 90 and the two factors of 90 whose sum is 19 are 9 and 10, which shows that the middle term, 19a;, should be decomposed into 9x4 10a;.
FACTORING
Ex. 1.— Factor 6.c2+13a:+6.
The produc*^ The two factors
..
139
/
of the coefficient of x* of 36
whose sum
is
13 are 4
and the absolute term and 9.
is
3&
6x*+13x+6 = 6x» + 4a; + 9x+6,
= 2x(3x+2) + 3(3x + 2), = (3x+2)(2a;+3).
Ex. 2.— Factor \2x^\lx5.
Here we require two factors are evidently —20 and 3.
..
of
—60 whose sum
is
—17, and thej
12x*17x5=12a;«20x+3x5,
= 4a:(3x5) + (3x5), = (3a;5)(4x+l).
BXBRCISn
Factor and verify
1.
:
71 (118. Oral)
a:2^4x+3.
2. 5.
8.
a2+lla430.
3.
4.
7.
a2lla+18.
x2_i5a.^l4_
x214a:+48.
a'^b'^^ab+Q.
10. 13.
16.
l21x+38x2,
x24x5.
2/2_4y_2i.
11. 14. 17.
x26x2/+8i/2.
a29a— 22.
l2aloa2.
4x2 +8x2/ +32/2.
19.
.^.
2x2+5x+3.
20.
23.
^^^0^2.
25.
8x2+xg.
3x2352,
4x^+x— 5.
1062896
9.
26.
15621968.
28.
29.
9x2— 31xi/+12i/2
140
41.
ALGEBRA
Show
If
divisible
that the product of 6x2 13a; (6 and 2x^lx + 5 by 3x^— 5a; + 2 and tind the quotient.
is
42.
3x^\ax—\'l
is
the product of two binomials with integral
coefficients, find all the different values that a
may
have.
of
43.
By
factoring, find the quotient
when the product
6a^ + lab20b^ and
is
22a^l^abUb^
divided by
44. 45. 46.
40^— 4a6 — 356^
x'^{5xy\^y^\x\y.
Factor
Factor Za^—ab—2b\%a+4:b. Divide the product of x^\Zx+2 and a;*— 1 by the product
of
x2+2a;+l and x^+x — 2.
100.
Type
VII.
Sum and
x\y,
Difference of Cubes.
Divide x^^y^ by
x4y)x^
+y^{x*xy\y*
and
..
x^—y^ by x—y.
a53+i/3=(a5+i/)(a52aci/+i/2),
^
+^
^
and x^—y^={x—y){x^+xy\y^).
^v ^v _ ^
^
Examine
factors.
carefully the signs in these
+^
+y "^'^y
It
is
is
thus seen, that
the
sum
of the cubes of two quantities
divisible
by their sum, and the difference of the
cubes
iif
divisible
by their difference. The quotient in each case consists of the square, product and square of the terms of the divisor., with the proper algebraic signs
Ex. 1.— Factor 8a^+21b^.
Here
.'. .'.
8a* = (2a)»
and 276» = (36)»,
'
the expression the first factor
may
is
be written (2a)' + (36)', 2a + 36 and the second is
..
(2a)»(2a)(36) + (36)* or 4a*6a6 + 96>. 8a3 + 2768 = (2a + 36)(4a»6a6 + 96»).
Ex.
2.
— Factor
a^x^—64y'^.
o«a;»64y« = (az)»(42/*)»,
= (a!e4v*Xo*a;» +
4<ftBf
s+ !8y«>
FACTORING
Ex. 3.— Factor
This
cubes.
..
141
.r«?/8.
may
be expressed as the difference of two squares or of two
x82/« = (a;»)»(?/3)«, or (a;*)»(2/»)3, = {x^ + y^){x^y^), or {x*y^){x^ + x^y'^^y'^).
will
use,
Complete the factoring by each method and decide wliich you if you have the choice, as here.
Itt
If
ALGEbBA
one of the factors of a product be zero, the product
also be zero.
must
If If
what can we infer a6=0, it follows that either a=0 or 6=0. If (x— 3)(x— 4)=0, then either x— 3=0 or a:4=0. (x2)(x27x+12)=2;3— 9a;2+26j;24, Since x^— 9x2+26x— 24 must be equal to zero when x=2, for then one of its factors, x—2, is zero.
1
the product of two numbers be zero,
.'.
If
we
substitute 2 for x,
we
see that this
.
is
.
true.
a;39x» +
26x24=2»9
2»
= 836
+ 26 224, + 52 24 = 0.
Conversely, when any expression becomes zero when x=a, then x—a is a factor of it.
Substitute
x=3
3»6
a;
Divide
it
by
..
— &x*^\\x — Q and it becomes 36 = 2754 + 336 = 0, — 3 is a factor of x' — 6a;* + llx — 6. x — 3 and the other factor is x* — 3x + 2. x»6x*+llx6 = (x3)(x*3x+2), = (x3)(x2){xl).
in x^
.
3»+ll
.
If x
1
is
a factor of an expression, the expression must be equal to
since
zero
when
Thus,
x= — 1, for then x+ 1 = 0. x+1 is a factor of x' — x*— lOx— 8, x+ 1
and complete the
is divisible
(!)»( l)»t0(l)8= 11 + 108 = 0.
Divide by
factoring.
Any
zero)
expression
by
x—a,
if
it
vanishes {becomes
when a
is
is substituted
for x.
This
called the factor theorem.
is
Show Show
that x — a that x + a
is
a factor of x' — 7ax*+ 10a*x — 4a'. a factor of 5x' + 6x*o+ llxa*+10a*.
Ex.—Factor x^— 9x+10.
If it
has a binomial factor
x±l,
Testing for these factors
..
it must be of the form x±2, x±5 or x+10.
we
find that
x— 2
is
a factor,
The
factoring
is
x«9x+10 = (x2)(x* + 2x5). complete as x* + 2x— 5 has no simple factora^
FACTORING
102.
of
Special Case.
148
It
is
easy to see when
1
x— 1
x,
is
a factor
any expression,
Thus, ifx=l
for
when
is
substituted for
the value
of the expression
becomes equal to the sum
x»2x»19x + 20,
of its coefficients.
=
.'.
1
2 19 +20 = 0,
factor
is
X— 1
is
a factor. x—a
Complete the factoring.
is
Similarly,
a
of
3x'—
16a;*a
— 7a;a* + 20o',
since
3167 + 20 = 0, 16 + 3 + 2 = 0.
and
ab
a factor of a«6o*6 + 3o6* + 26», sine?
EXERCISE
Each
all
73
of these expressions
is
divisible
by x — 1,
x—2
or x
— 3.
Find
the factors of each and verify.
1.
z'I0a;2+29a;20.
2. 4,
6.
x^Zx'^\2x+\i:,
3.
5.
x3+5a;2— 2x— 24.
x—^x^\x+^.
2a;37x2+7x2.
4x^9x2 lOx+3.
Factor
^
(^
2x3llx2+5x+4.
,8.
x'2x2x+2.
x319x+30.
x37x+6.
^^.
x+2 x+o
is is
is
/
11.
13.
14.
o3+a210a+8.
Show
Show
that that that
^f2^ a'^'iab^2b^.
a factor of a factor of
x'— x*— x+10. x'+7x%+9xa^ + 3a^
are the factors of
find a.
all
16.
16.
17.
Show
If
x+3, x+4 and
divisible
is
x— 7
x'— 37x— 84.
x^— lOx+a
that
by x+2,
Show
a—b
a factor of a^+'ia'^b+ab'^%^, and find
the factors.
18.
is
Noting that x^ 2x— 3=(x+l)(x— 3), a factor of x*— 4x3+2x2+4x— 3.
show that x^— 2x—
19.
Show
that
a—b, b—c and c—a
are factors of
a(62_c2)+6(c2a2)+c(a262).
and x—2 are factors of x^— Sx^+ax+ft, find px33x2+gx10 and qx^+2x^\lx+p are both by x—2, find p and q.
20.
If If
X— 1
a and
b.
21.
divisible
144
103.
ALOBSBA
Equations Solved by Factoring.
We
have seen that
if
then
z— 3 =
or
x— 4=0.
is
Thus the equation (x— 3)(x— 4)=0
simple equations a:— 3=0 and
equivalent to the two
But and if
.'.
if
x—4=0. 2—3=0, x=3,
x
— 4=0,
a;=4,
are
3,
the roots of the equation
(x— 3)(x— 4) =
4.
The truth
If
of this
a;=3,
Ifa;
= 4,
may be .seen by substitution. (x3)(x4) = (33)(34) = 0x 1=0. (x3)(x4) = (43)(44)=lx = 0.
(a;3)(x4) = x*7x+
12,
Since
the given equation
may
be written
x»7x+12 = 0.
equation which contains higher power is called a quadratic equation or an equation of the second degree. The preceding shows that if we wish to solve a quadratic equation we may do so by finding, by factoring, the simple
104.
Quadratic
Equation.
Any
the square of the
unknown and no
equations of which it is composed. The simple equations when solved will give the roots of the given quadratic equation.
Ex. 1.—Solve
Factoring.
..
x26a:7=0.
(x
— 7)(x+l) = 0,
Verification
:
or x+i=0, x=7 or — 1. if x= 7, x*6x7 = 49427 = 0, if x=l, x*6x7= 1+ 67 = 0.
X—7=
Ex. 2.—Solve
previous problem
3x^\lx=6.
Transpose the 6 so aa to make the righthand side zero, as in the
3x»f7x6 = 0,
..
(3x2)(xl3) = 0, 3x2 = or x + 3 = 0, x=f or ^3.
Verify both of these roots.
FACTORING
Ex.
3.
145
— Form
is
the equation whose roots are 2 and —5.
is
The required equation
two simple equations
at once seen to be a combination of the
a;2
=
and
x»
xt5
= 9,
and therefore
or
{x—2){x\ 5) = 0,
+ 3a;— 10 = 0.
Ex.
4.
—
is
If
2
is
a root of the equation
x3
+ 3a;216x+12 = 0,
—1
is
find the other roots.
Since 2
a root, then x
a factor of x^\^x'^
is
— \Gx\\'i
and
the other factor, found by division,
..
x^fSx— 6.
.'.
the other
+ 3a;»16x+12 = (a;2)(a;l)(x+6) = 0, X — 2 = or X— 1 = or x+6 = 0, x=2 or 1 or —6. roots are 1 and — 6.
a;»
BXBIROISEI 74
(116,
Oral)
is
To what equations
aquivalent
i.
of
the
first
degree
each of
the following
(xl)(x2)=0.
146
27. 28.
If 2 is 3
ALQEBitA
root of j' 19j+30 =0, find the other roots.
Solve
z3— 6x2+llx— 6=0 and ix^— 12x=^4llx3=0
is
(Note that the sum of the coefficients
29.
30.
P'ind
zero.)
The sum The sum
them.
of a
of
number and
its
square
is
42.
Find the number.
is
the squares of two consecutive numbers
61.
31.
The
sides of a rightangled triangle are x, x\
1
and x+2. Find
x.
105.
is
Notes concerning Factoring.
The subject
of factoring
one of the important parts of algebra, as it enters into so many other processes. We have already had examples of its use in solving equations and in performing operations on
fractions.
to
In the preceding exercises, in this Chapter, the expressions In the be factored have been classified for the pupil. practical use of factoring, however, he must determine for
himself the particular
method
This
to
is
usually
done by
to be used. determining
the
type
or
in
form
the
which
the
expression
belongs.
The examples
review exercise which follows will give the required practice. The types which have been discussed in this Chapter are
here collected for reference
I.
:
ax\a(j.
(Common
factor in every term.)
II.
ax\ay\hx\hy.
(Factored by grouping.)
III.
x^±2xy\y'^.
(Complete squares.)
IV.
a^—h^.
(Difference of two squares.)
V.
VI.'
x*'\x^y^+y'^.
ax'^\bx\c.
(Incomplete squares.)
(Trinomials.)
or difference of cubes.)
VII.
VIII.
X^ ±
y^.
(Sum
Factored by the factor theorem.
FACTORING
BXERCISE:
1.
147
76 (Review of Chapter XI)
State the squares of a\b, a — b,
x—3y, 2x—\, 3x — 5.
5a\ 2b
!ix—4:y,7a—Z,a*—l,a\
2. 3.
State the squares of o + 6 + c, x\y — z,
a—b — c.
a(o — 6 + c), {x\l)(x\^
Writedown the products
of
x(a — b),
[x3)(x5), (2a;3)(2x+3), (ax6)(ax+7).
Use short methods to
4.* {x + a + b){x
5. 6.
7.
find, in the simplest form, the
value of
:
+ ab) + {x — ab){xa + b).
+ x+l)(x* + xl)(x*a;+l)(x*xl). + b + c)* + {a + bcy + {ab + c)^ + {abc)K (2a+36c)« + (3a + 62c)« + (a263c)*.
(x* (a
8.
9999«9998*.
9.
574324257*.
(a
:
10.
503x497502x498.
11.
+ 99)«(a+98)2.
_^.
Find the simplest factors and verify 1229
1^12.
^^
x*x42.
x'
^3.
^^\.
y^Q.
i.,^8.
— 4x.
X* — a x»
1
+ ax — X.
+ 5x«4x20. — 4tx*.
^^20.
22. 24. 26. 28.
5a* + 32a + 9.
x*
(x3)* + (x3)(x + 4).
l
abc*
+ 2a6a»6*. + a*cd + abd^ + b^cd.
>80.
32. 34.
36.
38.
4(x2)*x+2.
(a+263c)*(3a + 26c)«
108a«500.
x«7x*18.
XX2/1322/*.
x^
40.
42.
<i4.
+ y^ + 3xy{x + y).
o*46«3a66.
a* + 2ab + b*\ac
+ bc.
45.
o*2o6 + 6*a+6. L 2
148
46. 48.
x*\x*
ALGEBRA
+ xy* — y*y.
47.
ia*25b* + 2a + 5b.
x*
49.
61. 63. 65.
is
,60.
+ y*18x*y*.
 a*b'  a»b* + ab*. 8(a + 6)»(2a6)». a*a«92a«6« + 6*+6a.
a*b
^62.
64.
x»Ux*+7x+3.
x«c»c» + x*l.
3a»5a*8a+10.
a'a'' + 8a«8.
66.
Show
that a — b + c
a factor of
(2a36 + 4c)» + (2o6)».
Factor 4a« — 37a*6* + 96«, (1) by cross multiplication, (2) by 67. completing the square of 2o* — 36*, (3) by completing the square of
2a»
+ 36».
Without multiplication show that
(a;»4a;+3)(z«12x + 35) = (x*6x + 5)(x«10x + 21).
68.
69. 60. 61.
Make a diagram
Find the factors when x = 2.
to
show the square
of a
+ ftfc + d.
being given
that
it
Factor (ab)(b*c*){bc)(a*b*).
of 6x'
— 7x*— 16xf 12,
vanishes
62.
Find four factors of (x*5x)»+ 10(x* — 5x)24 and
of
(x*6)*4x(x*6)5x«.
63.
Use the factor theorem
to solve
x*31x + 30 =
64.
If
is
and x«43x» + 42x=0.
by
6,
two numbers
differ
show that the
of
difference of their
squares
65.
x*
equal to six times their sum.
x*
— (c — a)x — ca
66.
67.
Find the quotient when the product is divided by x' + (a — 6)x — a6.
Multiply
° a*b*c» + 2b€ by °+^ +
— {b — c)x — bc
and
a+b—c
.
If x*
+ x^
\
ax* \ bx — 3
factor.
is
divisible
by
x—
1
and x+3,
find a
and
6
and the remaining
68.
Factor 2x* — ax + bx — ab — a*.
69.
in
Express a*b*^c*d* — a*c* — b*d* as the difference of two squares
different ways.
two
Factor a*{b* + c*—2a*b* — 2b*c* — 2c*a* 70. square of a* — b* — c*.
71.
by
completing
the
Find four factors of {a*b* — c* + d*)* — 4{adbc)*.
CHAPTER
XII
{continued)
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
106.
In Chapter VII. the solution of simple examples two unknowns has been considered. The method there followed was to make the coefficients of one of the unknowns numerically equal by multiplication, and then that unknown was eliminated by addition or
of equations in
subtraction.
Other methods of eliminating one of the unknowns are
useful in certain cases.
107.
Elimination by Substitution.
Ex.— Solve
x—2y=
2,
(1)
5z^ly=18.
Froin(l), x = 2 + 2y. Substituting this value of x in (2),
5(2
..
(2)
(3)
+ 22/) + 72/ = 78,
172/
10+102/ + 72/ = 78,
= 68,
Substituting
2/
= 4in(3),
2/= 4. a;=10.
Here we eliminated x by finding the value of z in terms from (1) and substituting that value in (2). We thus obtained an equation which contained only the unknown y. This is called the method of elimination by substitution.
of y
We might
Thus from
take the value of x from
(2),
(2)
.'.
and substitute
in (1).
5x = 18ly,
(1),
x=
2y
^^T^^
2.
'
Substituting in
^^~S^
140
—
=
Complete the solution and verify the
roots,
150
ALOE BRA
The value of y might have been found from either equation and substituted in the other.
Thus from
(1),
2y=x2,
(2),
:.
j/=— —
=
78.
_,
o
Substituting in
5x
+
(2)
"^^^s^^^
Complete the solution.
Solve also by finding y from
If
and substituting
it
in (1).
this problem, the first
the four solutions be compared is the simplest.
solving
will
be seen that, in
In
should
equations with two unknowns, the pupil examine them carefully and choose the unknown
will
which he thinks
108.
be the simpler to deal with.
Elimination by Comparison.
E^Solve
2a; 3?/=
7,
(1)
(2)
3x\5y=39.
7
+ 3y _
2
3952/
3
'
..
3(7
+ 32/) =
2(3951/).
Complete the solution and verify
theNi;Dots.
Here we effected the ehmination
values of x from the two equations.
of
xM^
of
comparing the
This
is
called the
method
of elimination by coln^arison.
might have compared the values Solve it that way. the two equations.
109.
We
y obtained from
Three
Methods
of
of
Elimination.
We
have
illustrated
three
methods
elimination,
by addition or subtraction,
by substitution and by comparison. When no particular method is specified, the pupil is advised to use the first method as no fractions appear in it.
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
State the value of eaoh
1.
16i
78
in
(16,
Oral)
unknown
2.
terms of the other in
3.
6.
4,
x+y^5. Zx—y^%.
X— y=3.
2a;+3;/=12
:
x+2yll.
5a;— 4?/=
19.
5.
Solve by substitution and verify
7
x+2y=\%, 2x+oy=i\.
/S.
11.
Zx+ y^
7,
4x+3y=ll.
3a;— 4i/=10,
12.
2z— t/=19, 5a;32/=46.
8a;+ 9?/=
7,
10.
2z— 32/=14,
\y
x5y=
x+3y=
x\by
0.
u^
2x+&y=\\.
:
10x+21?/=12.
Solve by comparison and verify
13.
10,
14.
14.
2xrJ/= 26,
=
15.
3a;+4!/=10,
3x— !/=
=
14.
4a;3i/=
5.
Solve by any method and verify
16.
\x\y=2.
,17.
Zx^2y,
18.
2/=
\x\&.
hx=ly2.
19.
20.
fa;
2
3'
5
^3
sy.
11.
2^
3y—~x=x,
!='
22.
3a;
a;+
3xl
=
1.
+ 2 y+7 .11
2y
+ ?±i^ =
10.
23
24.
x52/+3=2a;82/+3=7a; lOy+16.
(xl)(2/2)(y3)(x+l) = 17,
(x3)(2/5)(x5)(2/3) = 22.
25. 26.
lx+21y+52=01a;+01?/+30.
x+5 = 3(?/3),
4x
5x 4
11
,
2x
9
+
19.
27.
3y—
4
_ lx2y 23
of
2x 9y
28.
If
the
sum
two numbers
is
is
^
of the greater
number, the
diSerence of the numbers
how many times
the less
?
162
110.
ALGEBRA
Eqiy^iops with three
Un]^wns.
(1)
(2) (3)
Ex.—Solve
2x\3y—4z=12, •
3x y+22=15,
4a;+
*
'^
y3z=19.
This system of equations differs from the preceding by containing three unknown quantities.
If
we can obtain from
the
these three equations, two equations
same two unknowns, the solution can be efiFected by preceding methods. How can we obtain from (1) and (2) an equation containing X and z only ? How can we obtain another equation from (2) and (3) containing x and z only ? Perform these two eliminations and find x and z from the
containing
resulting equations.
Now find y by substituting in any one of the given equations and verify by showing that the values you have found for x, y and z will satisfy all of the given equations.
The
solution might be written in the following form
(1)
:
Eliminate y from
and
(2),
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
163
EXERCISE
1.
77
(14,
Oral)
What
(1)
operation will eliminate both x and
a;+?/z=35
(1)
y from
of
and (2)?
What
is
the value of 2?
x+yl
2.
x\y—z=25 xy\z=\5
(2)
(3)
?
What
is
What
3.
is
operation will eliminate both y and z from (2) and (3) the value of a; ? of y—z ?
How
can you eliminate both x and
t
z
from
(1)
and
(3)
?
What
the value oiy
4.
of x\z
?
In No. 5 below, which letter
?
is
simplest to eliminate from two
?
pairs of the equations
Which
in
No. 6
Which
in
No. 7
?
Solve and verify
6.
:
^\
x+2y+ x+Zy+
3z=16, 4z=24, a; t42/ 102=41.
6.
2a:— i/+3z=
7,
3a;+s/— 42= 7> 6x— !/+52=21.
7.
4x3i/+ 2=10,
8v
'
x+y—
x—y{
2=16,
^
9.
6x— 5?/+22=17, a;+ i/+ 2= 8.
x+22/+3z=32,
4a;— 52/l6z=27,
z=
4,
a;+y+22=22.
10.
a;+?/=25,
7x+8y92=14.
2/+z=75, 2+a;=70.
.^
J 13.
'
a;+22/=12,
^.
3(21)
4(2/+x)
=^2{yl),
32/+42=
2,
5z2x=21.
3+x=5+4!/,
2+x=3i/, 7?/=z+2.
2
=92 —4, 7(5x32)=2y 9.
i2/+ Jz =36, lx+^\y+.}QZ =10, ira;+ i2/+Az =43.
Ja;f
^. ^
\
•^^^^
+ 3+43 + 4 + 54 + 5 + 6^x—y\z=9,
ax^—hx\c
c.
'r
and
x+y\z\w=l2,
16.* If x\2y=25, ?/+32=55, z+4a:=35, find the value of x+y\z.
17.
find
i«.
If
2x\y=8,
1/— 42=5
18.
If
is
8
when x=l, 8 when
a;=2, and 10
when
a;=3,
find a, 6
and
V.f.if
154
19.
If
ALGEBRA
ax^+bx+c
find its value
is 9 when x=l, when x = 3.
—3 when x= — 1,
18
when
z=2,
20.
Determine three numbers whose sum is 9, such that the sum twice the second and three times the third is 22, and the sum of the first, four times the second and nine times the third is 58.
of the
first,
21.
If
+ 6=12,
6+c=15, c+d=l9,
find
a+d.
111.
first
Two equations of the Special Forms of Equations. degree in x and y will usually determine the values of
:
X and y. Consider the following sets of equations
(1)
2x3^=10,
4j+5j/=42.
(I),
if
(2)
2x3y=l0,
4x6.y==20.
(3)
2x3y=l0,
4x6!/ = 30.
In
the two equations are solved in the usual
way
we
find
that
x=8, y=2
of x
will
satisfy both of the equations,
will satisfy
and no other values
and y
them.
We
is,
therefore say that these equations are determinate, that
they determine the values of x and y. In this ca.se the second equation can not be deduced from We therefore say the first, nor the first from the second.
that the equations are independent.
In
(2),
the second equation
2.
by multiplying by
may be deduced from the first These equations are dependent and
not independent as in (1). Any number of values of x and y will satisfy both equation^ because any values which will satisfy the first will also satisfy These equations are therefore indeterminate. the second. In (3), if the first equation is true, the second can not be
true.
They are therefore said to be inconsistent or impossible, and no values of x and y can be found to satisf}' both of them. We thus see that tioo equations in two unknovms can have a definite solution only when the equMions are independent and consistent. Zx\2y— z= 5, In this set of equations, the third may be 4x— y\Zz = 2Q, obtained by adding the other two. They are
therefore dependent equations
and consequently
lx\
y + 2z = 25.
indeterminate
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
156
EXERCISE
1.
78
Find three pairs of values of x and y which satisfy the equation
2xZy=\2.
2.
Solve 2x+3?/=13, bx—y=24^.
Is it possible that
2x+3!/=13,
5x—y=24: and 4x+5?/=19 can be
3.
true at the
same time
?
What
8a;
is
peculiar about the equations i^x\y=\l, %x\2y^5
?
7
Also about
4.
+12^ =60, 6x+9i/=45
Show
that the equations
x+z+4=32/, 2x+z=2y+%, 2x+t/=10,
are indeterminate.
5.
If
2=5, solve the equations
of the simultaneous equations
Find two solutions
x+z/+2=10, ^x—2y—z=l.
For what values
6.*
of a will the following sets of equations be consistent
7.
3x— y= 5, x+2y=25,
3x+2«/=
I0x'iy=
7,
2,
8.
9a;— ay=Q,
3x
y=2,
x+4y=
9.
a.
3x+ay=ll.
ox—^y=^.
Show
that these equations are inconsistent
2x+3y3z=20, 3x+7y—2z=5, x+2y—z=6.
112.
Special Fractional Equations.
Ex.—Solve
z
 =
y
2
11,
(1)
4
X
+  = 21. y
(2)
Here we could obtain the solution in the usual way by removing See if you the fractional forms, by multiplying each equation by xy. can complete the solution by this method. It is simpler, however, to eliminate v from the equations as they dtand.
166
ALOE BRA
(2)
Thus, multiplying
'^
1
by
95,
4
and adding
95x
=
=
8
1
19,
Substitute x
=
5
 in (1)
and 15
11.
y
2/
=
2.
The
solution, therefore,
is
x = l, y
Verify this result.
EXERCISE
Solve and verify
:
79
2,
^ X
y
1/
^
29,
^
5
24_21_j
y 6
2.
1^
X
X
!
y
2/
7_9 = 3. 1  
y
yi
*
_4
y
101.
+ 2t/ =
15,
X
+ ?=!..
1/
ii+i
y
3y = 6.
?? = 2.
y
2
^1 =
3y—5x=xy, 2y+3x=2exy.
9.
17.
x^22/
= i^ + l =
2x^3y
5^3^13575^3^
X
J/
X
J/
10.
3x
+?
y
12x
++
y
u
14
=   2x y
82
14.
11.
4.^1 + '
X
122
X
+ 17.
?/
Problems leading 113. Simultaneous to Equations. In Chapter VII. we have had illustrations of problems which were solved by using equations of two unknowns. We now give some further examples on special subjects which ^ere not then considered.
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
.
167
The number 47 might be written 4 10 + 7. What is the sum of the number ? What number would be formed by reversing the digits ? What is the sum of the number and the reversed number ? What is the sum of the digits of the reversed number ?
digits of this
Ex.
1.
—A
the digits are reversed.
number has two digits. If 18 is added to it The sum of the two numbers is 88.
digit,
Find the number.
Let a;=the units digit and y the tens
.".
the
number
:.
and the reversed number
=10y + x, =lOx+y.
10i/ + a;+18=10x+2/, + a;+10x + = 88. 9a;— 9t/= 18 or x — = 2, lla;+ll2/ = 88 or x + = 8. z=5, y — 3.
2/
1/
(1) (2)
and
Simplifying
(1), (2),
102/
2/
Solving
.'.
the required
:
number
is
35.
Verification
35+18 = 53,
35 + 53 = 88.
Ex. 2. If 4 be added to the numerator of a fraction and 3 to the denominator, the fraction becomes . If 2 had been subtracted from the numerator and 5 from the denominator the result would have been ^. Find the
fraction.
—
Let

=
the fraction,
y
x+4
2/+3
168
ALGEBRA
better way, however, would be to represent the larger
Ix,
A
by
and then the smaller would be
6.r.
By
doing so we
get rid of the use of fractions.
Ex.
2,
3.
—The
S3a;
incomes of
A
and
B
are in the ratio of 3 to
and
their expenses in the ratio of 5 to 3.
Each saves
a year.
Let
Let
Solving
..
Find their incomes and expenses.
= yl's
income, then 82x=B's income.
$5y = A's expenses, then $3y = B's expenses.
..
3x52/ = 400 and 2x3?/ = 400.
X = 800 and y = 400.
^'s income
= $3x= $2400
and B's
..
^'s expenses = $5i/= $2000 and B's
= $1600. = $1200.
Note.
— In solving the problems
in the exercise following, the pupil
he frequently has the choice of using one, two or more unknowns. Except in special cases, he is advised to use as small a number of unknowns as possible. In each case the results should be
will find that
verified.
BXERCISB
1.
If
80
10 ^>oys, earn $96 in a
10
men and
4 boys, or 7
men and
day, find a man's wages per day.
2.
10.
Two numbers are in What are the numbers
The sum
of three
the ratio of 5 to 7 and their difiference
?
ia
3.
is
numbers
is
370.
The sum of the
first is
first
two
70 more than the third, and six times the Find the numbers. the third.
4.
equal to four times
Find three numbers such that the results
of
adding them two
at a time are 29, 33, 36.
5.
by
7,
the second by 4 and the third by 2 will
Divide 429 into three parts so that the quotient of the all be equal.
first
6. A workman can save $200 a year. He goes to another town where his wages are 10% greater and his expenses are 5% less, and he can now save $310 a year. What are his wages now ?
7.
If
The denominator
is
2
of a fraction exceeds the numerator by 3. subtracted from each term, the fraction reduces to . Find
the fraction.
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
15§
8. Divide 120 into three parts, so that J of the first part is greater than the second by 5 and J of the second part is greater than the third by 10.
9.
If 6
earn $57 in
1
men and 2 boys earn $56 in 2 days and 7 men and 5 boys J days, how long will it take 3 men and 4 boys to earn $60 ?
is
>»
^10.
A number between 10 and 100 and if 45 be subtracted from it, the number. ^"V
8 times the
sum
of its digits,
digits are reversed.
Find the
^^1. The difference of the two digits of a number is 4. The sum the number and the reversed number is 110. Find the number. 7iJ
yf2.
of
The sum
of the
two
digits of a
number
added to the number the
digits are reversed.
is 14, and when 18 Find the number,
is
^f
9
When 1 is added to both terms of a fraction the result is \. If had been subtracted from the denominator only the result would have been \. Find the fraction.
^/
^
Ai
oithe
A number
consists of
digits be reversed, the
than twice the original
digits whose sum is 11. number thus obtained is number. What is the number ?
two
If
the order
greater
i
^
by
7
p^
Snow
16.
The
difference
between the
is
digits of a
that the difference between the
digits
number less than 100 is 6. number and the number formed
two numbers
by reversing the
always 54.
is
The sum
of the reciprocals of
first is
^.
Six times
the reciprocal of the
the second
greater than five times the reciprocal of
by
\.
'
Find the numbers.
(The reciprocal of x
is
•)
X
Divide 150 into two parts such that the quotient obtained by dividing the greater by the less is 3 and the remainder is 2.
18.
n?/
tea worth 30c. per
must
19.
I
wish to obtain 100 lb. of tea worth 34c. per lb. by mixing lb. with tea worth 40c. per lb. How much of each take ?
I
Three pounds of tea and 10
Find the price of each per
lb.
of sugar cost
$240.
If
tea
is
increased 10^/ in price and sugar decreased
$252.
10%, they would cost
20.
is
Two numbers
I
are
in
the ratio
of
is
7 to
5.
What
quotient
obtained when three times their
sum
divided by six times their
difference
100
21.
ALGEBRA
Show
that the
sum
of
any number
is
of
two
digits
and the number
formed by reversing the difference is divisible by
digits
9.
always divisible by 11 and that the
^2^ A number
and
/
has three digits, the middle one being
be added the digits are reversed.
five
The
is
difference
0. If 396 between the number
is
times the
sum
of the digits
257.
What
the
number
?
Divide 126 into four parts, so that if 2 be added to the first, 2~be subtracted from the second, the third be multiplied by 2, and the fourth be divided b}^ 2, the results will all be equal. (Let the result=x.)
23,
^24.
There are three numbers such that when each
is
t<Ihe^sum of the remaining
two the
results are 44, 42, 39.
added to twice Find the
numbers.
25? The sum of the three digits of a number is 12. If the units and tens digits be interchanged the number is increased by 36, ariS if Find the hundreds and units be interchanged it is increased by 198. the number.
,
Find three numbers such that the first with \ of the sum of / 26. the other two, the second with J of the others, and the third with \ of tb%others, shall each be 25.
work can be done by A working 6 days and B\2\ working 8 days and B 18 days. In what time could each of them complete it alone ?
27.
piece of
A
days, or by
A
28.
2 to 4 to
^
3,
5.
the second to the third as 3 to
Divide 84 into four parts, so that the first is to the second as 4, and the third to the fourth as
y
29.
^oi the
first
Of what three numbers is it true that the sum of the reciprocals and second is , of the first and third is \ and of the second
is
and third
30.
order.
J
?
Two numbers
The sum
15
consist of the
of the
numbers
is
same three digits but in inverted 1029. The sum of the digits of
is 5.
each
is
and the
difference of the units digits
Find the numbers.
.31.
Iflistance
stream flows at 2 miles per hour. A man rows a certain in 5 hours and returns in 1 hours. How many miles per hour could he row in still water ?
A
up stream
32.
balance at §150 a head.
first
rancher sold 50 head of horses, part at $125 a head and the After spending $50 he was able to make the payment of J of the purchase price of 1200 acres of land at $18
A
per acre.
How many
horses did he
sell
at $125 a head
?
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
33.
161
digit,
A number
2.
consists of a units digit
and a tenths
is
the units
digit being the greater
by
1.
The sum
of the digits
less
than twice
the
number by
Find the number.
34.
A
grocer spent S120 in buying tea at 60c. a
of coffee.
at
He
sold the tea at an
of
advance
of
an advance
20%.
The
total selling
and 100 lb. and the coffee price was $148. Find the
lb.,
25% on
cost
number
35.
is
of lb. of tea purchased.
When
\.
2
is
equal to
Show
if
subtracted from each term of a fraction the result that the result would have
been the same
1
had been subtracted from
geometry that the two
the numerator only.
36.
It
is
shown
in
tangents drawn to a circle from a point are
equal.
Thus, in the figure
(7.4
AD=AE,
etc.
z.
If
AB=15, BC=U,
37.
19, If
= 13,
find x,
y and
the sides of a triangle are 10, 15 and
will
where
?
the inscribed
circle
touch the
sides
(See figure of preceding example.)
38.
in
If A can do a piece of work in m days and what time can they do it working together ? If a; is the number of days required,
B
can do
it
in
n days,
then X
111 =—
m


n
m\n
Use the preceding together can do a piece
39.
separately in
(1)
A and B working work which could be done by A and B the following number of days
result to find in
what time
:
of
4
in 10, fi in 15.
(2)
A
in 20,
£
in 5.
(3)
^
in J, fi in IJ.
BXBRCISE
Solve and verify
:
81
(Review
of
Chapter XII)
/^~x
y. 7x8i/=10,
•^
Zx2y=\Q.
^
2.
4a;+72/=l, 3a; y = 3.
^
73x+2/=
76,
z+732/=147.
y
7
4
2
25
2y
32/
+ 4x:=2xy.
X
y
X
M
ALGHBEA
^
^'
3:r^=6, /fit 5 o^ "4y
"'
/fg)
?±i _ £±1  2 y + 2 2y+l~'^'
""3"
3(a;
 ^T~* + y) = 8.
^5
+
^' =
12.
^
/^/
__
^3 .rffc^^1 ap»^ x+j,+^=33. '
2x+3y2
246
= 5,
x+ y+ z=3. 2 = 0, 3x4 y + 62 = 0.
X + 22/+ y
\_y^ 3x4y + 22=l, 4x—6y + 5z = 7.
a:+y + 2 = 24.
17
18.
_ x+2 ~ ~60"' (xli)(yli) = x2/5. ixy+z+l = 3(xi/) + 52 + 4=x+6i/229 = 0.
~3
3/f5 12"
X— 1
^
to
2^^102+ix^g
x + y = 5,
?/)z
20.
= 3, 2 + 1^= 1, X — w = 3.
(Add
and
subtract
th.
31x4282/ = 146, 28x4 31y= 149. 21. equationa and remove common factors.)
22.
23.
97x592/ = 329, 59x972/=139.
What
?
values of x and y will
make
X — 2?y —^
—
and
X 4* V
—=
each equal
x10
24
Show
that x + y + z=\2, 3x4
4?/
52= 22,
10x4 12?/6z = 4,
are indeterminate.
Divide unity into two parts so that 18 times the
first
part
mav
e^eed
26,
12 times the second
by
13.
its
A number
18 be
?
and
the
if
of two digits is four times the sum of added to the number the digits are reversed.
digits,
is
What
number
O^aT^.^
Wh&i> the The tens digit of a number is twice tiio units digit oumb«r i^ dividend by tbAmjDo oi the digits what muBt thequoUeat be ^
t
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
28.
16S
exceeds
Find a fraction equal % of the numerator by
to
8.

such that
J
of the
denominator
/29.
if
'
Two
persons
who
iiTliey
walk in opposite directions, but are not together they walk in the same direction. What are their rates ?
JO.
'
are 30 miles apart are together after 5 hours for 15 hours
A'a age
is
ago
A
was twice
as old as B.
equal to the combined ages of B and C. Ten years Show that 10 years hente A will be twice
as old as C.
Qi^ A bill of $1950 was paid in halfdollars and quarters and four times the number of quarters exceeded twice the number of halfdollars by 12. How many of each were used ?
f
32j
lb.
If 5 lb. of tea
lO%''^in price
and 8 lb. of coffee cost $580, and coffee advances and tea 15% and they now cost $6o3, find the prices
per
of each before the advance.
refceive
sum at 4% and another sum at 6% and $42 interest. If the sums had been interchanged I would have received $850 more. What were the sums ?
/dS.y I invest a certain
If each side of a rectangle is increased by 5 feet the area is increased by 275 square feet. If each side is decreased by 5 feet the Show that the sides can not area is decreased by 225 square feet. be determined from these conditions.
35. 36.
40c. to
Solve
^^i^^=^ = 4x^=l.
mix tea worth
601b.
A
grocer wishes to
?
30c. a lb.
36c.
with tea worth
make a mixture weighing
must he use
If
worth
a
lb.
How many
lb.
of each
37.
thata = 3,
3x*— 2a;f 5 = ax* + 6a; + c, when x=\ 6= 2, c = 5.
or x='2 or
x=Z, show
3.
The tens digit of a number exceeds the units digit by 38. how much is the number decreased by inverting the digits ?
By
A train 39. miles per hour
hour.
is
27 minutes late
is
?
when
it
makes
it
and
42 minutes late when
its usual trip at 28 runs at 27 miles per
What
is
the distance
40.
or
by
A piece of work can be done by A working 6 days and B 16 A working 9 days and iS 14 days. How long would it take
it ?
days each
alone to do
41.
A number has
of the hundreds,
^f 396 be subtracted the digits a
three digits, the units being J of the tens versed.
and J Find
the number.
y^
v_i
Wo^
184
ALGEBRA
When the greater of two numbers is divided by the less the 42. quotient is 5 and the remainder is 2. When 12 times the less is divided by the greater the quotient is 2 and the remainder is 12. Find the
numbers.
le
sum
Find four numbers such that when each of the remaining three, the results are
is
46,
added to twice 43, 41 and 38
respectively.
V
H^M^''^*»'^>
44.
If the
is
sum
of
difference
b times the smaller,
two numbers is a times the greater and the show that a — 6 + a6 = 2.
CHAPTER
XIII
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
114.
Function
of
x.
The value
x.
of
the expression 3a;—
depends upon the vahie of
Thus, when
x=
4, 3, 2, 1,
3x2=10,
7, 4, 1,
3, —4, 0, —1,2, 2, 5, 8, 11, 14.
When
Thus,
the value of an expression depends
is
upon the value
of X, the expression
called a function of x.
2x— 3,
is
What
1,
5x, \x\\, are functions of x. the value of each of these functions
when x = 2,
1,
0,
2?
Instead of repeating the words " the expression " or " the function," we might represent the function by a symbol, say y.
Thus,
If
7/
1,
= 5a;+ 1, when x= 1, = 6 x=3, y= 16. if = x+4, what are the values of y when x has the 8 ?
2/ 3/
;
values
6, 3, 0,
115. Variables and Constants. A quantity that has nor always the same value is called a variable, while a quantity whose value does not change is called a constant.
variables, while the
Thus, the population of a city and tha height of the barometer are number of days in a week and the length denoted
by an inch are constants.
Note. To do the work of this chapter properly, pupils should be supplied with squared paper. Paper ruled in tenths or eighths of an
—
mch
will
be found most satisfactory.
165
106
ALOE BRA
Two variables may be so 116. Connected Variables. connected that for every change in the value of one there is a corresponding change in the value of the other.
Thus, value of
if
y.
y = 2x\5, for each value of x there is a corresponding Here x and y are variable quantities, but 5 is a constant.
20 and 21 we have shown how the changes in two may be represented by a diagram. Those diagrams show that for each variation in time there is a corresponding variation in temperature.
In
arts.
variable quantities
A line so drawn as to exhibit the nature of Graph. 117. the relation of two variables is called a graph.
118.
iji
Arithmetical Graphs.
The
solution of
many problems
:
arithmetic might be represented graphically as follows
Ex.
mile.
Thb passenger rate on a railway Lg 3 cents per Represent graphically the amount charged for any number of miles from 1 to 10.
1.
—
?
In the diagram each unit on the horizontal line OX represents 1 mile and each unit on the vertical line represents
OY
3 cents.
••;
1
The point A shows that the
4 miles
is
Hj 12
12 cents.
What does
cost for the point
B
show ? The point C ? Read from the figurj the
5 miles, 9 miles.
cost for 2
miles,
far can 1 travel for 9 cents, 21 cents, 27 cents T
How
OEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
peculiarity do
interest
167
What Place a ruler on the points marked A, B, C, D, E, F. you notice ? Make a similar diagram, on squared paper, which will give the
4%
1
on $200 at ber of years from
your diagram
will
for
7.
any num
to
not
much
of $1.
unit on
space vertically, OY to represent $4 instead
in
So that occupy too suppose each
Y
CJ 8
C
for 3 years,
is
?
7
Read from your diagram the
terest for
5 years.
In
how many
years $24, $4, $12, $44
the interest $8,
108
ALOEBEA
They meet at at about 3.15 p.m. and at a distance from P ol about 26 miles. How far are they apart at the end of each hour from 1 1 to 5 ? Wken
did
M
B
reach
P
?
We
might solve the problem
algebraically.
Suppose they are together x hours after 9 a.m. Then A has travelled x— hours at 5 miles per hour, and B X — 4 hours at 15 miles per
hour,
..
5(xl)+15(x4) = 60.
Solve and compare with the
•
8
io
11
12
1
2
a
4
5
resvdts obtained graphically.
119.
Graphical Results only Approximate.
The
last
problem
that the results obtained by graphical methods are approximate only. When the problem is solved algebraically we find that they will meet 26 J miles from P
illustrates
the fact
at 3.15 P.M.
GEGMETEWAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
6.
If
169
8 kilometres equal 5 miles, construct a graph which will
enable you to change into miles any number of kilometres up to 20. Read the approximate number of miles in 3, 5, 11, 13, 16, 19, 20
kilometres.
6.*
A starts from Toronto at 12 miles per hour to motor to Hamilton,
An
hour and a half later
a distance of 40 miles.
B
starts
from Hamilton
to drive to Toronto at 8 miles per hour.
By means
of a graph, find
when and where they
7.
will meet.
The distance from A
to
B E
is
10 miles,
5
to
C
8,
C
to Z> 8, i) to
E
10 miles.
A
mail train, which leaves
A
at 10 a.m., arrives at
B
at
10.24,
C
at 10.48,
D
at 11.12,
at 11.40.
An
express train leaves
If the
E
and without stopping reaches A at 11.28. stops 4 minutes at each station, show graphically
at 10.24
(a)
(6)
(c)
mail train
:
when and
at
what point they pass each
and at
other,
11.12,
how
far they are apart at 10.30
when
the express passes through B.
120.
The
call
the axis of
x
We will
OX,
X,
In the diagram the and Y the axis of y. the measurement along
Axes.
7
line
OX
is
called
and along OY,
y.
For the point A the x measureis 3, and the y measurement is 1. What are the x and y measurements for the points B, C, D, El. Examine the x and y measurements for each point marked on the line OP. What equation connects the values of x and y for each point on the line OP ? For each point on OQ, OR,
ment
OSl
of
is the graph of the equation y=2x, OQ of i/=4x, OR y=x, and OS of y'=lx. The X and y measurements of every point on the Une OP satisfy the equation y—2x. This equation is not satisfied
OP
170
ALGEBRA
line
by the x and y of any point not on the by the x and y of the points A, C, D,
121.
satisfied
OP.
Is
it
satisfied
E
1
Equation
of
a
OP
by the values and by no other
of the line
is
of x
equation y—2x is each point on the line points, the equation y=2x is called
Line.
Since
the
and y
for
the equation
OP.
OQ
?
What
122.
the equation of
of Oi?
?
of
OS
?
To Construct the Graph
of a given
Equation,
Ex.
— Construct the
graph of y=lx.
Here when
y
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
171
172
to tlic
ALGEBRA
or
OXy
two points and transferring the compasses to the line any other line, and reading off the distance. Plot the points (3, 5) and (6, 1), and see if the distance between them is 5.
BXBRCISEI
1.
84
(3,
In what quadrants are the points
4),
(4,
—1), (—5,
3),
(1, 2)?
2.
3.
Plot the points Plot
the
?
(1, 2), (4, (5,
6), (3,
7),
(5, 2).
is
points
0)
and
(
— 3,0). What
(5,
the distance
between them
4.
Where
are the points (0, 0), (0, 2),
is
0), (4, 0)
situated
?
5.*
0,
What
the distance between the points
is
(6, 4), (1,
—8)
?
What What
?
kind of figure
order
?
formed by joining the points
is its
(0,
0),
(4, 0), (4, 4), (0, 4) in
What
is
?
area
?
7.
kind of a triangle
formed by joining the points
(0, 2),
(2, 6), (2, 2)
What
is its
area
8.
Plot the points
(1, 1), (1, 3),
(2,
1), (3,
3), (3, 1).
Join them
in order. 9.
What
is
letter is
formed
?
What
the area of the figure formed by joining
6), (1, 6) in
(1,
—3),
(5, 3), (5,
order
?
10. The angular points of a triangle are (6, 0), (3, 4), ( — 2, 0). Construct the triangle and find its area. Measure or calculate the
lengths of the sides.
11.
What
is
the length of the perpendicular from the point
?
(5, 8)
to the line joining (3, 2) and (7, 2)
127.
Complete
Graphs.
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
(—2,1),
173
(—4,2) and (—6,3).
This
is
as
we would
expect because
x=—2,y= — l; x=—4:,y=—2; x= — 6, y= — 3,
all
satisfy the equation y^=^x.
128.
Linear
Equation.
It
is
seen that the
graphs of
all
the equations so far constructed have been straight lines. This is true concerning all equations of the first degree. For this reason an equation of the first degree is sometimes called
a linear equation.
Since a straight fine
points on
of
it
is
fixed or determined
when any two
are fixed,
it
follows that to construct the graph
an equation of
it.
the first degree,
we need
to
determine only two
points on
129.
of the
Lines not passing through the Origin.
Every equation
form
y=mz
represents a straight line passing through
the origin, because the equation is satisfied by x=0, y=0. If the equation contains a term independent of x and y, it represents a straight line which does not pass through the
origin.
Thus, 2/ = 2x4 1 represents a straight line which does not pass through the origin, because this equation is not satisfied by x = 0, y = 0.
Ex.
are
1.
—Construct the graph of y==2x\\.
This
is
The coordinates of two points on the line x=0, y = \ and a;=l, 2/ = 3. Locate these two points and draw the un
limited straight line whicli joins them. the required graph.
it also passes through points (2, 5), (—1, —1), (2, —3), (3, — 5). Do the coordinates of these points satisfy the equation ?
The diagram shows that
the
In constructing the graph of an equaby locating two points on it, the pupil should try and determine two points whose coordinates
tion
are inteaers.
174
A LOB BRA
2.
Ex.
—Construct the graph of 3x+4y=15.
= 153x

„ Here
y
——
J and when
,
/x=l, w = 3

^ join
Plot the points graph.
(1, 3)
and
(5, 0)
and
them giving the required
We might have found the points at which the graph cuts the axes. Thus, when x = 0, 2/ = 3J and when 2/ = 0, x = 5. The required line is then found by joining the points (0, 3) and (5, 0).
If the latter
method
is
followed and fractions appear in
the coordinates of either of the points found, the unit of measurement should ijo changed, in this case, by taking /ottr
spaces as the unit instead of
07ie.
not one space, it should be clearly shown on the diagram what the selected unit is
the unit
is
When
EIXBROISE
86
Find two pairs of values of x and y which satisfy x{y=6. 1. Plot the points whose coordinates are the values found and construct
the graph of the equation z\y=6.
2.
What
are the coordinates of the points at which the graph in
1
Ex.
1
cuts the axis of x, the axis of y
Construct the graphs of the following equations
3. 6. 9.
y=x+3.
y=3x—2.
2x + 3y=\2.
4.
7.
y=x—3.
x+2y=l.
3x4y=\6.
5. 8.
y=2x3. x2y=l.
10.
11.
5x+6y=n.
12. Construct the graph which cuts off 4 units from the axis of x and 6 units from the axis of y. Find the area of the triangle which this
line
forms with the axes.
13.
i;
On
?
the
4
2^=7.
/ntersect
same sheet construct the graphs of x—y=^lO and Wliat are the coordinates of the point at which they Do the coordmates of this point satisfy both equations ?
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
14,
175
Will the point
(3, 4) lie
Which
(5, 2),
(
of the following points lie
on the graph of the equation 4x+3?/=24 ? on it: (2, 6), (0, 8), (6, 0), (9, 4),
— 1,
By
9)
?
V^erify
by constructing the graph.
15,
positive integral values of x
16,
of X
constructing the graph of 2a;f 3t/=24, find three sets of and y which satisfy this equation,
is
Why
there an unlimited
will satisfy
2a; +3?/
number
of positive integral values
and y which which wiU satisfy
130.
2x—3y=2'i, but only a limited number
?
=24
Graphical Solution of Simultaneous Equations.
In this
diagram are shown the graphs of the equations
x+y = 5
and
2x—3y=lo.
The coordinates
which the lines both equations.
.*.
of the point P, at
intersect,
must
satisfy
The coordinates of P are (6,1). x=6, ?/= — 1, must be the values of X and y which satisfy both equations.
We
the
sohition
have therefore obtained of these two equations
evident that two straight
Graphically.
Since
lines
it
it is
can
inter.sect at
only one
there
is
point,
must follow that
only one
pair of roots of
tivo
simultaneous equations of the first degree. In this diagram are shown the graphs of
(a)
xy=3,
(6)
2xy=7,
(c)
iJa;+?/=7.
At what point do the graphs of (a) and (6) intersect ? (a) and (c) ? (6) and (c) ? Is there any point which is common to Are there any values the three lines ? of X and y which will satisfy these three equations at the same time ? When three equations in x and y are all satisfied by the same values of x and y, what peculiarity will appear in their
graphs
?
176
ALQEBHA
GEOMETRIC AL EEPRESEN^^TION OF NUMBER
4.
of X.
If
177
3x—2y=6,
express x as a function of y and y as a function
Solve graphically and verify
5.
:
x+'Sy=9, 2x+ y^8.
6.
x+ y=
2?/== x,
8,
7.
x— 2j/=
6,
3x—iy=lO.
6,
2x— 3t/=ll.
10.
8.
2z+3y=
9,
x+iy=9,
3x8i/=3.
12,
3x\2y=14:.
11.
10jr=4x2.
the
3x—2y=5
12.
sistent.
Show by graphs that have a common pair
Show Show
graphically that
is
equations x\y=5, 2xr3y—
of roots
and
find them.
2x+3y=13 and \x\%y=2
are incon?
What
peculiar about the graphs of these equations
13.
the equations x{y=4:,
••.he
graphically that no values of x and y will satisfy all of 2x—y=ll, 4x+2/=13. What values satisfy
first
first
and second, the
and
third, the second
and third
?
14.
Show
the coordinates of the points where the graph of y=2x\3
cuts (1) the axis of x, (2) the axis of y, (3) the graph of
15.
?/=6— x.
3x—4:y=0 and
Show by graphs
that the values of x and y which satisfy
will
2x— 32/41=0 and 5x2?/— 14=0 x—2y+2=0.
also
satisfy
BXEIRCISB
1.
87 (Review of Chapter
XUI)
At what point does the graph
?
The
axis of y
the graph of x
2.
first
+
of x{y = 5 cut the axis of x 7 Construct the graph. In the same way construct 4!/= —4. At what point do they intersect ?
it appear geometrically that two equations of the degree can have only one set of roots ?
How
does
3.* Plot the points (0, 0), (3, 4), (3, 12), (2, 0). distance between each conscoutive pair of these points ?
What
is
the
4. From a certain point a man walks 5 miles E., then 4N.; than 2W., then 3N., then 3E., then 4S. Using squared paper, determine by measurement how far he is now from the starting point.
5.
A man
walks 8 miles
W. and then
5S.
Find by calculatioo
how
far he
must now walk
to reach a point 4 miles E. of his starting
point.
N
179
ALOlCBiiA
If 11 lb. equal 5 kilogrammes, make a graph from which you 6. can express any number of kilogrammes in lb. or lb. in kilogrammes. Read from the graph 3J kilogrammes in lb. and 8J lb. in kilogrammes.
7.
What
is
the perimeter and area of the triangle whose angular
points are
8.
of 5x
(3,
(0, 0), (5, 0), (0, 12) ?
How do you show that — 2y=l9 Which of the
1
the point following
?
(3,
lie
—2)
on
lies
on the graph,
5), (1,
it:
(6,
— 7)i
(5, 9),
17),
(4, 1),
(2, 12),
(5, 3)
9.
(8.
Find the area of the triangle formed by joining the points 6). (7. 6).
find its area.
the triangle whose vertices are (2, 0), (10, 0), (5, 6) and Why do the points (2, 0), (10, 0), (8, 6) determine a triangle of the same area ?
10.
Draw
Solve graphically and verify
11.
:
x+2y=l2,
12.
3x'iy=
0,
16.
t/x = 4,
x='2.
14.
x~2j= 2. y2x=3,
x+2y=li. What is the
x = 4,
4x3i/ = U.
15.
2x+7y = 52,
3x5!/=16.
16.
j,'
!/
= Jx + 4. = Jx+5.
17.
area of the figure formed by the lines whose
equations are:
x=— 2, y = 3, y= —
?
l
?
What 18. the points (2, 3) and
19.
are the coordinates of the middle point of the line joining
(6, 5)
On
the
same sheet draw the graphs
y = x+4,
2/
of the equations
= 4x2, y = 2x+2.
?
What peculiarity is presented by the graphs do you draw concerning these equations ?
What
conclusion
Draw the graphs of 2xf3y = 20, 4x6!/ = 35 on the same 20. What do you conclude as to the "solution of these equations ?
Determine graphically whether these
or inconsistent
:
sheet.
sets of equations are consistent
21.
4x4
X y= 4, = 26,
2/
22.
x+2j/=10,
23
x+
y=
8,
2x5y=
2.
3x y= 2x y=
9,
1.
3x42?/=
13,
9.
5x3i/=
.vhose sides are represented by the Describe the crianglt 24. — 14, x! 102/= — 14. W^hat are the equations: 3xr2y=14, ox— coordinates of its vertices 7 (Verify by solving the equatiorw •*> oairs.)
%=
GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF NUMBER
25.
intersect
179
At what point do the graphs of 2x+Zy=\2, ? At what angle do they seem to intersect ?
3x — 2y = 5
A teacher's salary is increased by $50 each year. His salary Construct a graph from which you can the first year is $750. What is his salary for the 8th year ? read off his salary for any year. In what year would his salary be $1300 ?
26.
for
27.
In the process of solving 2x — 3y=l, 3x + 22/ = 8, by eliminating
y
we have
2x3y=l, 3x+2y = S.
4:x&y=
I I
2,
I
x=2,
j
x=

2,
9x + 62/ = 24.
j
2a;3y=l.
y=l.
On the same sheet show the graphs of each of these sets of equations, and thus show that they all determine the same point and that the
four sets are therefore equivalent
9
t
CHAPTER XIV
HIGHEST COMMON
FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE
In Chapter IX. we defined the terms highest common and lowest common multiple, and showed how they were found in simple cases. When the expressions under consideration can be factored, the H.C.F. and L.C.M. can at once be written down from
132.
factor
the factored results.
A few examples are here given of a more than those previously considered.
Ex. 1.— Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M.
x^y{lxy^\12y^
of
difficult character
and x^y—x^y^~l2xy^.
x*y\lxy*+l2y^ =y{x*^lxy+\2y^) = y{x^'^y){x + ^y).
x'y — x*y*— \2xy^ = xy(x*~xy~ l2y*) = xy{x — 4y){x\Sy).
Here the common factors are y and x+Zy, and since the H.C.F.
is
the product of
all
the
..
common
factors,
the H.C.F.=2/(x+3!/).
The L.C.M.
will
is
include
all
the expression with the lowest number of factors which the factors of each expression, .. the L..C.M. = xy{x + 'iy){x + 2y)(xiy).
Ex. 2.—Find the L.C.M. of
a;2—
1,
x^+l, x*—x and
x^+x^+L
x*l = (x+l)(x]). x^+l = {x+l){x*x+l).
x*—x=x{x'— l) = x(x—\)(x*{x\ 1).
x* +
:.
x*+\ = {x*+l)*x' = {x* + x+l){x*x+l),
the L.C.M.
= a;(x+l)(a;l)(a;» + a;l){x«x+l).
H.C.F.
If
AND
L.C.M.
181
the multiplications be performed the L.C.M. will be found be x' — x. It is customary, however, to leave the result in the factored form, as it is in this form that it is usually made use of.
to
BXBRCISB
Find the H.C.F. and L.G.M. of
1.* ^x'^y^z, 8xy*z% \2axyH.
2. 3.
88
x^—y^, xy—y'^,
x'^'—xy.
a^~h\ o6+62,
a'^+2ab\b^.
4.
x^lx\\2, x^\2x\5, a;29.
^.
Jo.
[/I.
a2+8a+15, a^2a25, a'^^Za~\Q.
3x2 12x4 12, 3x212,
x'^—xy\xz—yz, xy—y"^.
3x2
^3x6.
^. m38,
j^.
m*n^47n^h^, 4»i216ffi+16.
6a3663, 2a^+2a^b+2abK
f^.
^12.
a^+abac, a^ib^c^+2ab.
[kU. a262c226c, b^c'a^2ca, c^a^b^2ab.
x3+2/3,
x*+x^y^+y*.
 )^
14. 15.
j(^16.
3x2+7x6, 3x2llx+6, 6x213x+6.
10ax2a+15cx3c, 25x21, 25x210x+l.
x35x2+6x, x33x2+5x15.
u*—v*, u^—v^,
u^—v\ u—v.
±1^
xH2x28x— 16, x3+3x28x24.
Show
that the product of
18.
x*— 8x+15 and x^\x—\2
a'^
is
equal
to the product of their H.C.F.
and L.C.M.
The L.C.M. of a25a+6 and 19. Supply the missing term.
20.
is
6
is
is
a33a2_4a4i2.
Find two trinomials whose H.C.F.
x—2y and whose
L.C.M,
z'— 7xy'+6v*.
182
ALGEBRA
Ex. 1.— Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of
a;22.r3
and .r^S.r+S.
factored,
Here
tlie
ar*
+ 2x— 3
is,
is
readily
but
none
of
<reviously given will apply in factoring
x*— 8x + 3, except by
:
the methods using
factor theorem of art. 101.
difficulty
The
If
however, easily overcome thus
x»
+ 2x3 = (xl)(x+3).
X— 1
the expressions have a common factor it must evidently be either or x+3. By using the factor theorem, find if x— 1 or x + 3 is a factor of
x»8x+3.
When xl=0
or
x= 1,
.".
x38x(3=
1
1
8f3=  4,
X— is not a factor. When x+30 or x=3, x»8x + 3= 27 + 24 + 3 = 0, x+3 is a factor. How can we obtain the other factor of x* — 8x+3 ? x'' + 2x3 = (x l){x + 3), We now have x*8x + 3 = (x+3){x*3x+l). and
/.
the H.C.F.
the L.C.M.
and
= xl3, = (x+3){x l)(x23x+i),
Ex. 2.— Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of
a;2_7a;^10 and a:^— 6a;2+lla;6.
The
Here
since
Is
factors of
it is
x*7x+10
evident that
x— 5
are (x5)(x2). is not a factor of the second expression,
5.
term is — 6, which is not divisible by a factor of x^ — 6x'+llx — 6 ? Complete the solution.
its last
X— 2
SiXBROISB
Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of
:
89
^*
2.
x23x+2, xs6x2f 8x3.
a'6a+5, a^lQa^f I7a+1.
x82x2+4a:8, 2xS7x2+12.
3.
/f.
yt
a»o2+al, 3a32a2+5a6. a:8+3a;2_4a;. x37x+6
LC.F.
AND
L.C.M.
VSa
6^^If X — 2
is
a common factor of xHSa:^— 9a;— 2 and x^— 4x2+3x+2,
find their L.C.M.
yf.
Reduce
to lowest terms
x^—2x^—'ix a2— 3a6+262 and 2x*—Ux^—12x a319a62+3063
8.
is
a;2_5a;_j_6
Find two expressions of the third degree in x, whose H.C.F. and whose L.C.M. is x*— lOx^+Soz^— oOx+24.
133.
Method
of
finding the
H.C.F.
of
two expressions which
can not be factored by the usual methods.
it
From
the preceding
seen that Lhe chief difficulty in finding the H.C.F. of two expressions is in factoring the given expressions. If neither of the expressions can be factored by the usual
is
methods, another method may be used which depends upon the same principle as that of finding the G.C.M. of two numbers in arithmetic.
134.
Fundamental Theorem.
This method of finding H.C.F.
:
depends upon the following theorem
If 0^ is
factor of
common the sum or
a
is
factor of
any two
quantities, then oc
is
also a
difference of
any multiples
of those quantities.
Then mx~nx, mx—nx, pmx\qnx, rmx — snx, sum or difference of multiples of mx and nx.
Thus, X
a
common
factor of
mx and
nx.
are each the
It is evident that each of these is divisible by quotient in each case being found by division, thus
:
x,
the
x)mx\nx
184
ALQEBRA
It is evident that x— 3 is not a factor of either expression, since their terms are all positive. Therefore if they have a common factor it must be x+3. By applying the factor theorem, or by division, we find that x+3 is a factor of each, and since it is the only common factor, it must be he H.C.F.
Ex. 2.— Find the H.C.F. of
3a;317x25a;+10 and 3a;323a:2+23a:6.
TheirdifEerence = 6x*28x+16 2(a;4)(3x2). Now 2 is not a factor of either and may be discard_ed, also x — 4 not a factor, since 4 is not a factor of 10 nor of 6. Therefore if there a common factor it must be 3x— 2. Divide 3x— 2 into one of them and see if it divides evenly. If
=
is is
it
does not there is no common factor but unity. If it does divide evenly into one of them, it is not necessary to divide it into the other, for if it is a factor of one of them and also of their difference it must be a factor of the other.
Ex. 3.— Find the H.C.F. of
3x313a;2+23a;21 and Qx^\x^4Ax+2\.
Multiply the
first
by
2
and subtract the product from the second
and we get
27x»90x + 63 = 9(xl)(3x7).
Now since 9(x— l)(3x— 7) is the difference of two multiples of the Which given expressions, it must contain all their common factors. Complete the solution. of these factors may be discarded ? We might have obtained the H.C.F. thus The sum of the expressions is
:
9x»12x*21x = 3x(x+l)(3x7).
This expression contains
expressions.
all
the
common
factors
of
the
given
Complete the solution by
this
method.
is
The object
expressions
in
each
case
to
the
obtain
second
from the given
degree.
If
an
expression
of
this
not be factored, it must be the H.C.F., if there is any common factor other than unity. If it can be factored the H.C.F. can then be found either by the factor theorem or by ordinary division.
expression 'can
H.C.F.
AND
L.C.M.
185
In obtaining the expression of the second degree, the last problem shows that it is sometimes easier to eliminate the last terms than the first terms.
Ex. 4.— Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of
6x3— 5a;2— 8a;+3 and 4^3— 8a;2+a:+3.
Eliminate the absolute terms and show that 2x — 3 is the H.C.F. Since 2x — 3 is a factor of each, the other factors may be found by division, then 6a;»5a;»8a;+3 = ((2a;3)(3x* + 2a;l),
4a;»8x*+x+3 = (2a:3)(2a;»a;..
1),
the L.C.M. = (2a;3)(3a;» + 2a;l)(2a;»a;l).
Why
is it
unnecessary to factor 3x* + 2x—
1
and 2x* — x—
1
7
Ex. 5.— Find the H.C.F. of
and
Subtract
Multiply
terms.
(1)
a;*— 4a:3+10a;2— llx+10, a;*— a;3— 4a;2+19a:— 15.
(1)
(2)
from
(2),
and we get
3a;»14a;»
+ 30a;25.
(3)
by 2 and add to eliminate the absolute Remove the factor x and we obtain 5x314x» + 22a; + 5. (4)
(1)
by
3
and
(2)
The common factor we are seeking must be a factor of both (3) and (4). Eliminate the absolute terms from (3) and (4) and show that the
H.C.F.
is
x»3x+5.
Find also the L.C.M.
Ex. 6.—Find the H.C.F. of
8a:*+4a;3+4a:2— 4a; and 6a;*+2a;3+2a;2— 4a;.
a factor of the first expression and 2x of the second, and a common factor. Remove these sioEiple factors and find the H.C.F. of the quotients, and show that the H.C.F. is
is
Here 4x
therefore
^x(x»
3a;
is
+ a;+l).
Product of the H.C.F. and L.C.M.
of
135.
Suppose that x is the H.C.F. n have no common factor.
mx and
nx, so that
m
and
186
ALGEBRA
tlie
Then
But
L.C.M. of
mx and
of
nx
is
mnx.
xxmnx= mx x nx,
any two quantities is equal to the product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M. Is a similar theorem true concerning any three quantities
therefore the jiroducl
mx, nx and px ? If the H.C.F. of two quantities has been found, we might therefore find their L.C.M. by dividing their product by the H.C.F.
BZBROISB 90
Find the H.C.F. of:
§.
@l* x37x2 + 13x15, x36a;2+x+20. a310a2+33a36, a^2a2'ia+m.
.
6x3
+ 10a;2+8x+4,
6x3—2x24.
1/4.
2x35x220x+9, 2x3+x243x— 9.
263
+ 562861.5, 46346296+5. ^. *3x3 + 17x2j/44xi/2_28)/3, 6x35x2^33x?/2+28j/'. ij^ 2a33a24a+4, 3a*4a310a+4. ^. 2x^12x3 + 19x2 6x+ 9, 4x3 18x2+ 19x3.
t^
9.
18^55_3a4ft_i2a36_3a26, 12a5c6a*c9a3c+3a2c.
10.
x3— x22x+2, X*— 3x3+2x2+x— 1.
:
Find the L.C.M. of
A.1.
x37x6, x34x2+4x— 3.'
j^2.
x3+6x2+llx+6, x3+7x2+14x+8, x3+8x2+19x+12.
/3.
^4.
]jCb.
2x3+9x2+7x— 3, 3x3+5x2 15x+4.
x36x2 + llx6, x3— 7x2+14x— 8.
20x*+x2l, 25x*10x2 + l, 25x*+5x3xl.
Find
a
value
^acti
16.
of
x which
0.
is
will
make
'x3
— 13x+12
ta 7.
and
x'— 6x2— x+30
17.
of the
equal to
The L.C.M. of two numbers numbers is 14, find the other
70 and the H.C.F.
If
ooa
H.C.F.
18.
If
AND
L.C.M.
is
187
The H.C.F. of two expressions is x— 2, the L.C.M. one of the expressions is x^—lx+10, find the other.
x^— 39x+70.
factor,
19.
Two
integers differ
by
it
11.
If
they have a
common
other than unity, what must
be
?
EXERCISE
91
(Review of Chapter XIV)
:
Find the H.C.F. and L.C.M. of
jt!*'
x*20x+99, x*24x+143, a;*21a;+110.
a;*15x+36, x'27, x33x«2a;f 6.
.
itf
''
•
a*b*,a*2ab + b*,a^b\ A. x32x*15x, x^ + x*— 14X24. 4a'12a«a + 3, 2a3 + a*18a9. y<^ 6. X* — ax— 6xfa6, x^ — bx—cx\bc. x» — 6x«+llx6, x* + 4x« + x6. 7. x« + 3x« + 3x* + 5x12, x*4x' 19x«+ IOx+ 12. 8. 2a«+15a' + 39a« + 40a+12, 2a« + 9a»2a*39a 18. fin. x*—6x*2/+13x«2/* 12x1/3 + 42/*, x* + 2x3j/ — 3x*i/* — 4xt/3 + 4V*. </ll. x* + x*2/* + 2/S X*— 2x3?/ + 3x2^ — 2x2/' + y*
^.
'
^
'
=
12.
Show that two consecutive
integers
can have no integral
common factor except unity. Two odd integers which differ by 13. other than unity. What must it be ?
14.
15.
6
have a common factor
Find the H.C.F. of x^ + a' and
If the
x^
+ x*a* + a^.
is =•
H.C.F. of a and b
is
d,
show that the L.C.M.
a
If a is the H.C.F. and b is the L.C.M. of three quantities, show 16. that the product of the quantities is a^b.
17.
For what
?
x'
common values of x will — 3x*x+3 and x*4x»+12x—
in x,
both vanish
18.
is
x1
10, 19
Find two expressions of the second degree and L.C.M. is x^Sx^ + 17x— 10.
whose H.C.F.
D J Reduce
18x»3x« +2x+8 ^ , . —^^ to lowest , terms. ^ , 12x»+8x* — 7x+12
,
,.
——
,
^pr ^''
^^
CHAPTER XV
FRACTIONS
In Chapter IX. fractions were introduced, and simple ^ examples of operations upon fractions. In this Chapter the subject is extended and applications made to more complicated forms.
in the Form of a Fraction. Both terms of a be multiplied or divided by the same quantity without altering the value of the fraction. As previously stated, the only exception to this rule is, that the quantity by which we multiply or divide must not be zero. The rule might be stated in the symbolic form
136.
Changes
fraction
may
:
a_
b
ma ~~
mb
na _ a
nb
~~
6
The case
by
in
which the terms are multiplied or divided
—1
deserves special attention.
the rule of signs for division
From
same
as
—r
is
seen to be the
—a 
, ,
.
so also
is
—j—
—a
•
FRACTIONS
Since
189
it is
(a— 6)
differ
/;(
— !) = — afft
1.
or h
— a,
seen that
is
a—b
and
h—a
is,
only in sign, or that each one
equal to the
other multipHed
That
— — {h—a) a—h =
by
(
and
b—a= — {a—b).
a—b _ d—c ~
a—b _ (g— 6)x( — 1) _ b—a _ ~ (c— d)x( — 1) ~~ d—c ~ c—d
Also, since
it
(
(
b—a
c—d'
follows that
m
(a6)(cd)
— a) x( — 6) = + a) x + 6) = a6, (o — 6)(c — d) = {6 — a)(d— c), m —
{ba){dc) (a6)(dc)
m
(6o)(cd)'
(aa:)(by)
^
{b—a){a—y)
( xa){yb) (x—b){y—a)
^
ax){yb) (b—x){y—a)
(
^
^^^
E3XERCISE! 92
(129, Oral)
Express these fractions in their simplest forms with no negative signs in either term
:
2
4
4
—
5
6 —9
3a
—a
2/
— 4o6
2b
—m
—axb
10.
—a — ax — bx
^"
9.
— 3x— 5 =
7
b
—a.—b
11.
—x.—y ^
J—b
—c
b—a x—y
Express with the numerator a — b
13.
:
— —3
:i
—a
:r
•
14.
— —0 r
b
— —a
•
15.
Express with the denominator
17.
c—d
:
—5 a—
4
7
18.
— x. —y —J — a
4
a
19.
—
:
:i a—
Express with the positive sign before the fraction
21.—=25. 29.
22.—;:.
—7
23.
T6
a
—
X
•
a—b What is
;
26.
— a+b
a—b
,
•
27.
— x—2 x—y
.
—
•
28.
——, — c—d
c+o
the relation between
a , and ic—y
a
.
y—x
a+b a—b
;
and
,
b+a r b—a
—
b—a s— —^ and —— —3
a 3
?
190
30.
rrr
ALGEBRA
Write
•
(?
.
— ?){? — _
..
')
.
in four equivalent forms, with the positive
sign before the fraction.
31,
Which
of the following are equal in value
:
(ab){bc){ca), {ba){cb){ac), {ab){cb){ac), (a—b){b—c){a—c), (b—a){b—c)(ac)
137.
?
Reduction
of
Fractions to Lowest Terms.
its
The formula
lowest terms.
ax
,—
ox
=
a
7
may
^
be used to reduce a fraction to
all
by dividing both terms by
the
common
factors.
Ex. 1.— Reduce
x'
^
"^^
x* + x*y* + y* = {x*
.'.
+ y^ = (x\y)(x^~xy+y*). + y*)* x^y^ = {x' + xy + y*}{x*xy + y*),
the fraction
=
x^+xy+y*
•
,—
—
•
Ex. 2.Reduce
„._,.^^,^,^ a» + 6*c» + 2a6 = (a + fe;*c* = (a + 6 + c)(a46c).
x2lla:+28
Complete the reduction.
o T. J Ex. 3.Reduce
1
,^3_6,2+7,_60 a;»llx+28 = (x4)(x7).
can not divide into the
"
Which
of
these factors
denominator
7
Complete the reduction.
T^ J Ex. ^.Reduce T.
.
3x3 15x2 19a;+6
e.3+3.25.+ l
"
common
Here the factors of neither term can be readily obtained, 30 the factor must be found by the method of art. 134. Eliminate the x' and we obtain
33x* + 33xll or
1
l(3x«
+ 3x 1).
This expression must contain any common factor of both terms. Since 3x* + 3z— 1 can not be factored, what conclusion can be drawn ? Complete the reduction.
FRACTIONS
EXBRCISB
Reduce to lowest terms
98
191
a2+3a+2
6a;2+a;—
/2.
4.
x^\5xy
4x2+8x+3*
— 24i/2 x^{2xy\y^ — z* y^—2yz — a*
a;2
*
*
23j/2y2 4_5y_62/2
7*
og+2a+l a3+2o2+2a+l
a;3
'
x^—2x
*
« 8.
a;33a;2+4
a^4a+3
4a39a215a+18'
11.
10.
_3x2— 3x— 18_
6a;612x*18a;3"
2a:3— a:^+2x—
12.
3x3+4x2— 6a;—
36a;3+27a;2_40a;16'
2a:«— 4a;3— 2a;2— 12a;
2a;3+3a;2+4a;+3
13.
gg+gg— 3g—
g5irct*^a3+2g2— 3a—
Addition
5
14.
4a;*+2x3+6a:2— 4x~
138.
and
Subtraction.
In adding or subtracting
fractions
we should be
careful to note
whether any of the
given fractions can be reduced to lower terms. result is obtained we should examine it to see
reduced.
When
if
the
it
can be
Ex. 1.—Simplify
The expression
—
X
^
+
2y
xy'^+y^
y
x^—xy^
y'{x+y) x{x—y){x+y)
= x—y + 2y X x—y
^x—y
^ _ ~
^P~..~ x—y
"""
x{x—y^
^
{x—y)*+2xyy*
x(x—y)
x*
x(x—y)
_ ~ x—y'
a;
The form of the last fraction in the given expression should prompt the Dupil to examine whether it can be reduced.
192
ALGEBRA
2.
Ex.
—Simplify
x2
'
x—2 +
x^—3x\2
a;2— 4a;+3
The expression
{xl){x2)
(a;3)(xl)'
_ _
(al)(a;3)+x32(a:2) {x2){xl){xZ)
g*— 5x+4
(x2){xl){x3)
_
(x—4)(x~l) {x2){xl){x3)
x—i
{x2){x3)'
BXERCISB
Simplify
94
i.*_?_^__L. a+ft a—
a— 4 a— 2
yf
2x'
2.
'
— z—
—.
t/
3.
'
x\y
^+y x—y
a'
»y
x\y
o— a—
2x2
,
2a2
2a
o*— 6^
o+6
1
*
a—a^
x'4y' x*+2xy
3y
I
1+a'
x*— 2/2
x^+xt/
r
^
'
^_y
x^— y2
^
t/
*
x2y
x
2x—
^JC x*+9x+20
,<ft^
__i
^
.j^
TT;
x2+12x435 lAll5 jj+y
^
y
^'+y'
xy'^ x^y*
2x
«•
^^
^
x23x10 x28x+15
x2+2x3 x23x+2'
^
i^
Cj'
'
xy
x^
izy
x'+x'y x^yy^'
a'—ab+b^ _ a^+ab+b^
a—b
0+6
a+6
V^* x—y
Af^"
^ x+y
3x^8 x^l
_ y—x ^.  %^
x\y
x^—y^
^'
\\jf
afe
I
2(o+6)
^ 2(a6)
_
o^+fc" o^ft^
_
5x47
x^+xjl
2
"""xr
^_+i£±^ + _L_. i«^ J___1_ + _L., ^' 2a36^4a«962^2a+36 k^ x1 x2^x3
«.d=.* x27x+10 x»3x+2
*
x26x+5
a 6
^
(o46)(6+c)(c+a)
a6c
_ a+fe _ 6+c _ cfa
c
FEACTIOHB
a«— 6*+26c— c«
aj
cg+2ca+o^—
*
^.
•'
az{bc)^
(o4c)262
o*
b^{ca)'
(6+a)2c2
3a
"^
c^iahY' (6+c)2o2
— 2a
x+y
1
5a
oaa2
25.
6a4
and
6o2+2a4
x—y
xt/
1
xy
?^
x+y
x^+y*
^
27.
^28
•
:6;I_i
i^.
x*+y*
a;+?/
1
x^+y^
2x
Q+a;^
2a=»
3—
,
a;
3+x
«
"^
I
«
4a'6«
>•
a6
1
a+6 "^ a^+fc^ "^ a*b*
1
X
X
4— 4x
'"•
4+4x
2+2«2
1+z*
^"^"^
x^lk+6+ x^+lt+U
Types
in

x^+ll+2l
= l'
<^^^y^
139.
Special
Addition
and
Subtraction.
We
have already seen that
6— a= — (a— 6) and a—b= — {b—a),
cr
(a— 6)i(6— a)= — 1.
Df
oecur in the factored denonainatoM which are to be combined, it is not leeessary to include both of them in the L.C.D.
different fractions,
When a— 6 and 6— a
Ex.
1.
—Simplify ^
^
a
r a—h
is
+? b—a
it
b
•
Here only one faetsr
either
required in the L.C.O. ftad
is
we may uie
a—b
or b
— a.
vise
a
„,
we
de<nde to
a — b, then
6
better to change the second
fraction into the
form
a
i
a—b
b
r
•
Then
a_,
—
r + b—a = a—b
»
a
b
a—b
;
= a—b = r
a—b
I.
194
t:.
ALGEBRA
4
3
,
o o ir Ex.2.S.mphfy^^j +
X^S
j^,.
be changed to a;*—
1,
The denominator
BO as to be the product of
rru expression The '^
.43
x— 1
of the last fraction should
and
x\ I.
=
x—l

x+l
—
x3
x*—l
10
z
—
^
4(a;+l)3(a;l)(a;3)
(xlKx+l) Ex. 3.—Simplify
(xl)(x+l)
{xl){x2)
L.C.D.
1^2
'
3
{x2){3x)
{xS){l—x)
Here there are only three factors x—l,
x— 2,
x — 3, required
in
the
therefore change the second and third fractions so that the given expression
1
9.
We
a
(xl)(x2)
Complete the
140.
(x2)(x3)
+
'
(x3)(xl)
simplification.
Cyclic Order.
Suppose we wish to simplify
c\a
, '
6+c
{a—b){ac)
aib
'
{bc){ba)
(ca)(c— 6)
The L.C.D.
in this case will contain three factors
dififerent
and
it
might be written in
forms as
etc.
{a—b){b—c){c—a), {a—b){a—c){b — c),
The
pupil
is
advised
to
write the
factors
in
what
is
called cyclic order
It we arrange the letters on the circumference of a circle, as in the diagram, and follow the direction of the arrows we see that a is followed by 6, b by c, and c by a.
Thus, if we write a — b as the first factor, then changing a to 6, 6 to c, and c to a, we write the second
factor b — c and the third c — a. write the L.C.D. as (a — 6)(6 c)(c — a), we should change the fractions so that these factors appear in the denominators.
If
we
—
FRACTIONS
'Rie given expression then
b+c c+a a+b _ ~ ~ (ar'b)(c "7) ~~ {bc){ab) ~ (ca){bc) _ — (6+c)(bc (c + a)(c— g)— (a+6)(a— 6) ~ (a — b){b — c){c—a) — b* + c* — c* + a^ — a' + b* = 0.
)
195
(a—b){b—c){c—a)
be
„
Ex.
—Simplify
oivc
j— {ab){ac)
+
,
ca
j
—r
{bc){ba)
+
'
at>
{c^cjjicb)
result
Proceed as in the preceding example and you should get the
— 6*c+6c*— c*a+ca*— a*6+a6*
(a=^(6c)(ca)
This fraction is equal to uniiy, for the numerator denominator. Prove that this is true.
is
equal to the
EXSRCisE
Simplify
1.*
1
gs
1
a^+ax
„
x'+ax
x+3_x—3
x2
a^—ab
r'
5.
2^'
b^—ab
3
_2
x23
X—l
X+1
1— X2
y
/^
x—y y
x+y + y^—x^ x\
a;+4
x— 4
16— x*
^2 */ j3
3a+2x 3a2x
^^
_ 3a 2x
4
16x2_
3a+2x'^ ix^9a^
_8_
3a:+7
j'
x1
1x
i+x^x2r
• >
IM
14
ALOEBRJi
J^
i
'ah){ca)
16.
,
'
(6a)fc6)
*
(xoXafi)
17.
f^—
,
..,
(x6)(6o)
2
»
,
^— +
3x
l3x
2
2
+
1
a
20
*
3+x
l+3x
'
l16x
9x21
2
a;28x+15
<^+^
1
x24x+3
fe+c
"^
Gxx^S
J
"^
f +a
(a6)(6 •!
(6c)(ca)
1
(ca)(a6)
21
•
(ab){ac)
n.^
?^
1 L ^ (bcyha) ^ {ca){cb)
,
I
/
/22.
+
7)2

(a6)(ac)
(6c)(6a)
^ + ^ {ca){cb)
«2
^
'
{xy){xz)
(yz){yx)
~r 7T
{zx){zy)
ax— be
(a6)(ac)
a*
(6c)(6a)
62
"^
—
bx—ca
TTTT
,
+ (ca)(c6)
g£ "^ (c^TT^sj/^lTj;^
cx—ab
(/^^
•
(a262)(a2c2)
(62_c2)(62_a2)
/
27
(ab){ac)~^ {bc){ba)'^ {ca){cb)'
1
1
_
Q+36
463
06
2(b+a)
2{a^'+b^)^ b*a''
Va;6^x+5/
29,
Va;+3^x3
a+1
x+l
»+4
«— d
—
a+3 z+3
^4^ a+2
1
L
(Check when. a i.)
^
30.
_L_L
X— 1
L.
(Checi£whena;=2.)
FRACTIONS
141.
Multiplication
197
and Division.
The ordinary
cases
in
multiplication
art. 74.
have been treated in Some special forms which appear are illustrated
of fractions
and division
in the following examples.
Ex.
1.
—Multiply
,
a
\
by a
—

•
Here the mixed expressions should be reduced to the fractional form before multiplying.
_,
The product
=
a*—ax\ax
'
x
a*+ax—ax —
o*
a*
a+z
!
— x'
Ex. 2.—Multiply ?
++ a
by
J+1. a
Multiply thia in the ordinary way, by multiplying each term of th«
one by each term of the other.
We
and
1
should recognize that the
first
expression
is
the
sum
of
t H
and the second
is
the difference.
1
Th» produce
Or,

(I
1)'
=
?,
1,
+
2
+
^^:

1
_ «! + +
^^:.
we might proceed
a*j^b* + ab ab
a*
as in Ex.
thus
+ b*ah ^
ab
{a*
+ b*)*a*b* _ ~
o*6'
a*+a*b*+b*
a*b*
6*
j,
This result
is
seen to be the same aa
a*
ii
0'
+
1
H
—
a'
and the answer
may
be given in either form.
Ex. 3.—Divide
The dividend
:.
^+X y
by
y
^ + . ^
y
= ^^^^, =
the divisor
= «^*^+y* =
^±1^ y
•
the quotient
"^
xy'
x
, , x'—xy+y^
'^'^
Divide in the ordinary
way and
get the quotient 
f
1.
We
the
must not make the
or
error of tliinking that
reciprocal
of
it,
we can
invert
divisor,
take the
by inverting
198
ALGEBRA
each term of it, and change the problem to one in multiphcation, thus
:
The
a
reciprocal
of
,,
is
a\b,
but the
reciprocal
of
+r
_,
is
not
^ b
a\b.
± or
1,1 — =— a
a\b
r— and ab

.^
.
,
.
ab
= •
its
reciprocal
is
a{b
EXERCISE
Multiply
96
a'^+b^ abb^ a a^—ab' a*—b*' b
^^ x^—x—6
'
x^—2x —8
2.
'
a:2+4x+4' a:^— 7x412"
»M2x15
'
x^+lx U
r*b* a'
4.
ab
x^+8x—33' x^{9x+20'
a2— 2a6+62' ^2^06*
^^
a+b
a—b
x2
I
(Py + ^,!j I/—
a;
^
a;+y'

y^
y *«" x*
+
a;2+l+,
x^
9.
6
+ 2
6a;
^
12,
a^
+ 2 + a" ^2,
2
a2
2+

2
a
~2
+ ^^,
1
a+a;'
a^b^ ajrb a^ab+b^ J3+P' ab' o2+a6+62'
Divide
11
a;^lla;+30
,
o^—5x
"^
o2._62
^
a;2_6x+9"
a;23a;
,
x^—xy
by
a^\ab
I M* xy—y
^.
b
'
o2+62_g24.2a6 c2— a2— 62+2a6
a\b^c
6+c—
y
i+rby? + ^,
y3 x'
y
X
.<9. ^^^
x*—y*
^^>y^'^' x—v x—y
gg— 4 o2+5o
a''+2g
iplify:
0+1
a^—2a
0+2
a^—a
'
o*4
a*—a^
.
.
•'^'
o2— 25'
FRACTIONS
199
XJ^ ^'
2x2+xl
2x^5a;+3
.
2x^7x+6
3a;27a;6*
a;24a;+3 ^ 6a;2+a;2
*
>. (— ^ + ^.)(«+)^
^ ^'
23
'
(a+6)^(c+t^)^
^ (gc)2(rf6)'^
•
(a+c)2(6+d)2
a''64
(a_fe)2_(d_c)2
a2+24o+128
A
02+12064 0^64
\
^ a216a+64
"
'
a2+4a+16
26a \ 263a/
24
•
^ _
Complex
26
^
/
2a
_
V06A
3a26/
U+26
142.
Fractions.
A
complex
fraction
which contains fractional forms denominator or both.
in either the
is one numerator or
Thus, 
is
a complex fraction
and
is,
of course, onky another
way
of
writing r
f
3
•
It
,
is
simplified in the usual
way by changing
it
into
X be which
,
a
d

,
.
,
equals r^
be
ad
•
A complex fraction may sometimes be easily by multiplying both terms by the same quantity.
Thus,
simplified
——=
r
—TT— on multiplying each term by
a
4.
ii ^•»
a+2b
a+b
"^
b
_
6(a
a+2b
b
a_
(a+2b){a\b)
+ 26) + a(a + 6) _ — ab
a*+2ab + 2b* a*+2ab + 2b*
_
~ a+b
Here both terms were multiplied by 6(0+6).
500
If
ALOE BR
th«
L.C.D.
it is
is
not the same for
both terms
of
the
fraction,
usually better to simpKfy tko terms separately.
a;l
Ex.
—Simplify z—2
Xf2 x{2~
x—l X—2
x+3'
z^
— 2x
(x+2){x2)
10a;
(a;+2){a;3)
The numerator The denominator
.•.
= {x+l){x2){x\){x+2) (x+2){x2)
= =
(a;2)(z3)(x+2)(x+3) (x+2)(x3)
2x
(x+2)(x2)
(a;+2)(a;3)
the fraction
xS
6(«2)
lOx
BXBROISBl
Simplify
:
97
1
1.*
60 66
2.
11
ft
60
3.
12c
g— a+6
a;
4.
y
x—y
x^+y*
a;4y
12c
1
1+*
6. 6.
0+6
1
0—6
7.
]
a;
+y—
+y
1o
2zy_
x\y
l+x
aj6
a—
g
x
— 2 — a^—5a
a—
(a;+3y)g(a:3y)'
a
+ a—
IV
(Zx+y)^{Zxy)*
2
10.
+ xy + — m xhj[^ — 1
t
+ 6
a
6_'
cH»
12
\
_a
tfc
13^
FRACTIONS
a
1*.
b
20%
—— — a+b
I
I
—— — a+b
I
.
16
"
a
—
a^
,
ab^ b^
16.
Find the value
of
17.
Find the value of
^^ when x= ^ y= ^ a\b a—b x+y ^~^^+? when a  ^11^, 6 = fc^' (a:+2/)2 x+2/ l+2a+6
98 (Review of Chapter
EXERCISE
Simplify
^
:
XV)
a a
a
2a*
a
c
b
o
/^'
_«
a;+3y
y
(a?!/)*
*
2
Sya:
a:»9i/»'
l_lj_!/
X y
1
y
ac_
^_x
y
X
/K
^_ ^ _i_
/i
/
.
4.
^_
^
•
4
^
fi
^_ _
(la;)3
(l
L
^
1
7
("fe)' )
/
fe'
1
I
*•
r"^
4a6
26c
J
V
,
2o&
26c
+ Q* \ /
V,
1
J,
+ (l+x)=' + a;)»(la;)»'
6*
„
\(,
6cc»\
_1
.
1
x+1
a*—ab a'b»
t/^
' •
a;»+3x+2"^a;3+6a;»+lla;+6'
ab + b*
'
2a»6
'
o»
+ 68
a*+o»6«+6«
a+6 o«— 6» a* + 6* a«+2a6 + 6» ^ o»^^» ^ o*+o*6»+6*
v'o
a+x i±_+
+oa;+a;*
a—x  a*— aa;+a;*
+
2x' zz
a*+a*a;*+x*
yi4.
(la«)

(la)«

(a>l)

(a
+ ^)}.
*
6+c—
W«^*
(o6)(oc)
*
c+a—
(6c)(6o)
'"
0+6—
(co){c6)
202
^*
ALGEBRA
ixy)ixz)
'16.
+
y'
''
{yz){yx)
^
1
.
{zx){zy}
47 '•
18.
^+6
6z»
3x9
2a;»3x9
+ 6x6"^
ISxlO 9x»12x+4"
Express the product of
86x + a;« ^ and l+x
)
1
i
(a;_i)(2a;)
(x2)(4x)
(a;4)(lT)
as a fraction in its lowest terms.
19.
How
can you show mentally that 3 a
x+a
XXX
x+b
\
is
the
,
sum
b
I
of
'
c
x+c ^^
x*—y*
y*_ ^^
x+a~^x+6

x+o
4^'
2x_ Divide =Px+w ^.
.,
+y
x—y
_^ ^
—
by "^
•'
,

^^^
x+y
f'
x»t/* x
a*(6 + c)*
6'(ca)«
(afec)»
f' '22.
/
Divide
^
a
7.
+ '^ + b
^:::ii by
c
2fl+UlY cl \a b
^
^
0/f,
Show that ,/'^+^^^^^^
Tf lfa = ;r
=
x(ly«) + y(lx')
(l_a;«)(l2/»)4x2/
(lX3/)»(x+t/)»
c=i5
o. 24.
25.
2
2,2 — o=r — —
2
,
c
5. 2— d o=s X 2—
2,2 —
,
prove a = x. ^
Find the product of
J y^, and 1+X+
,
l+a:'
1
'^^'
" 10 » 26. Subtract . ^ from t and determine which fraction o\ 10 greater if a is greater than b and if both a and 6 are positive.
„
,
is
the
y
28. 29.
Add
(^+°^)(l+°g ) (l+bc)(l+&a) (afe)(ac) (6c)(6a)
'
(l
'
+ cq)(l+c6)
when x = a\b
as
it
(ca){c6)
Show that
x—a
•
1
x—b
=•
has the same value
has when
x=
j a+b
Bum
Prove that the product of any two quantities divided by the sum of their reciprocals.
is
equal to their
*,><'/
FRACTIONS
30.
If
203
X—
h
—c
,
y = —;
c
— a 2= a—b —
,
,
^, ^ prove that
xyz + x + y\z = 0.
31.
If
a=^^^,
x+y
6
= ^^,
y+z
c=^^=^, show that
z+x
(l_a)(l_6)(l_c) = (l+a)(l+6)(l+c).
32.
If
a and b are positive, which
is
the greater
a+3 b
a+26
»y33.
Simplify

a + 26
^"^
a+6
J
6
^^
2(a+6)
a+3b
2(a*
_
4b»
+ 6*)
z—x
o*6*'
x~y
Simplify ^ ^
y—z
i/*
2*— (a;— 2/)*' a;*— (y— z)*'
4
3
r
35.
x—t
X— ^ 3
,

X— 1
12
,
— (z— a;)*
^. X—
36
When x=
a+c
find the value of
x—2a _ x+2a X— 2c x+2c
r
,
iac
X*— 4c*
^
I,
«—
a;
y— x
^
37.
Simplify J
j
_i±^^;^ x(yx)
^
,(^?\
\a; «/>
2/(ya;)
CHAPTER XVI
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
If an equation involves fractions, the fractions may 143. be removed by multiplying every term by the same quantity. In Chapter VI. simple examples of fractional equations
were given.
The case
attention.
in
which two fractions are equal deserves
c
special
d
Thus,
if
r
=
3 and each side a
is
multipUed by bd we have
bd.
 X bd
=
^ X a
ad=bc.
144.
Cross
Multiplication.
It
is
fractions are equal,
we can remove
the fractions
thus seen that when two by multiplying
the numerator of each fraction
other and equating the results.
called cross multiplication.
by the denominator of the This operation is sometimes"
Ex. 1.—Solve
Cross multiply,
..
z—5 x—1
a;»
x{3
a;+9
(a;5)(a;+9) = (x43)(x— 7),
+ 4aj45 = x»4x21,
8a;=24,
x=3.
Verify
by
substitution.
This method is applicable only when a single appears on each side of the equation.
fractioD
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
r. o Ex. 2.— Solve
,
206
«
4a:+17
x43
—
—r
7 =^
3a: 10
X—
—
.
Simplify the righthand
member and we have
4a;+17
a;f3
_ ~
4a;— 18 a;— 4
'
Now
cro8S multiply, complete the solution
and
verify.
SXBRCISE]
Solve and verify
^
:
99
3a;+l
2
_ a;+12 3~'
=
a;
2
*
3a:5
3a;l
„
io. r
a;
a;—
11
„  9.
.
4.
5xZ~ 5x\' x— 2 a;— 6 = ^
a;3
3
—
x5
3
0.
L
x42_a;— 2 ~l 2
7a;3
,
a;—
1~'
^
„
x+1
~2
_ x— 3 _ a;+30
13"
_
,
2x+5
3
a;2_^7x6
/
9.
2
x2+5x10
10.
X— 1
^
x+2
x+1 x1
x(l
= 2^.
X—
X— 2
x3
^
X— 1
J_ + l = ^.
X
11.
J_ + J_^^.
2x+38 x+12
2x47
3
12.
3x— 2
^i:i_2^ =
6x—
o.
13.
_ 6x+8
2x+l
8x+19
12
,
^^
^^
.
yS
2/287/+15
_
„
^.
yl2
2/2122/+30
10.
^^
= 5x+ll
7x+9
lb.
X— 1 X— 2
2x+7
,
x5 = x3
,
r
17.
._
68x
3
3— X
1—
„ = 8.
/
x+1
^„ /IS.
x+1
3x5 — 5x+9 —
x+2
x+3
49.
4x3+4x2+8x+l 2x2+2x+3
_ 2xg+2x+l
X— 3
/21
*
X—
J
^^^
16
"^125
_^ _
^=
18
2x3
9
"^
"
206
oo 22.
to a
cbolve
1
ALOEBRA
3a;«— 4a;+5
3x—
— — = 4a;«— 5a;+7 4x—
.
by
,
farst
^
j u reducing each iraction
•
•
.
mixed expression.
Find three consecutive numbers so that the sum of the second anu } of the third may be 30.
Divide 300 into two parts so that
7,
if
23.
first,
of ^ of the
I
24.
the other by
answers.
25.
the difference of the quotients will be 18.
one be divided by 5 and Give two
How much
make
a
water must be added to 100
lb.
of a
4%
solution
of salt to
3%
solution
?
26.
A
pupil was told to add 3 to a
number and
the
to divide the result
by
5.
Instead of doing so he subtracted 3 and multiplied by 5 and
obtained the correct answer.
27.
What was
of tea
number
lb.
?
A man
bought 180
lb.
and 560
of coffee, the coffee
costing 1^ as much as the tea per lb. He sold the tea at a loss of 25% and the coffee at a gain of 50%, and gained $6260 on the whole. What
did the tea cost per
28.
for
I sold
lb. ?
1 lb. less,
some butter at 25c. a lb. If I had received 5c. more I would have received 2c. more per lb. How many lb.
did I
29.
sell ?
If I walk to the station at the rate of 11 yards in 5 seconds have 7 minutes to spare yards in 6 if I walk at the rate of 10 seconds I am 3 minutes late. How far is it to the station ?
I
;
145.
Fractions with similar Denominators.
..
^
CI
,
^+6
2x18
2z\3
16
,
3a;+4
Here we might multiply each term by the L.C.D., which is 132. be found simpler, however, to remove all the fractions but the first, to the same side of the equation, as they are easily reduced to a
It will
common
denominator.
g+6 _
2a;— 18
2a:+3
16
3x+4
n "
U ~
a;
x+6 ^
•
"^ 3 + 3 4 12 4(2a; 18j,3(2a;+3)l:64+3a;4 12
Now
ettrrect
simplify,
cross
multiply
and complete the
solution.
The
answer
is
=6.
FKACTWNAL EQUATION
This
if
207
of
problem
shows
that
the
denominators
certain
fractions are such that these fractions can be conveniently
combined when they are grouped on one
T. o EX. o 2.Solve
,
side of the equation.
2a:+3
4a:+5 __=.__ + 5a;+4 __^.
,
Since 4x+4 = 4(x+l), second fraction with the
it
is
seen that
it
is
simpler to combine th^
first
than with the third.
2x+3
Subtract the
the result.
T^
first
4a;+5 _ x+l ~ 4{x+\) ~
fractions,
5a:+4
*
5x{ 1
two
complete the solution and verity
Ex. 3.— Solve
Here
it
is
^
o
.
x—l
X— 2
^
x—2
o a:— 3
x—4:
K x—o
+ x—5 = 0«
,
x—o
laborious to multiply all the fractions by the found easier to change the equation so as to have two fractions on each side, then simplify each side and cross multiply. Solve by transposing the last two fractions, also by transposing the second and fourth, and compare the results.
too
L.C.D.
It will be
Ex. 4.Solve
AA^Addmg
u on each
J
1^
+
1_
= ^1^ +
1g
,.
'
side,
2x+7 x*+7x+10
•'•
2x+l 2a;+7 ^Tpf^+To = ^^+T^c+12 2x+7 _^j^ x^+lx+V2
^^>
^^"'^ '^
(x^+lx+lO ~ x^+lx+u)
= ^'
x=S^
or x^
+ lx+lQ = x' + 7x+\2.
the
Since the equation x* 7a;+ 10 = x^+7a;+ 12 is impossible, only root of the given equation is x= —3^. (Verify this root.)
+
If in line (1) we divide each side of the equation by 2x\'i an impossible equation will result. It is not allowable to divide both sides of an equation by a common factor unless we know that the factor is not zero. Here 2x\l might be equal
208
aW£:BRA
to zero, and, in fact, would be if x= If x=—Z\ the 3^. equation in line (1) is satisfied as each side becomes zero. Solve the equation by writing it in the form
—
ji
X+5
a;+4~z+3
EZBRCISB
100
LJ
L
x\2'
Solve and verify
:
2x+l
5
_ 6x— _ 3a:—
~T5
3a:+5
6a;+3'
^
'
2a:+3
4
6x4 1
_
6x^ ~
3xl
2
x—\
_ x\2
2
a;+3
*
"t"
*
I
6x+2
3
_ 2a:4l ~ 14
29
,
2xl
=ft.
4 ^
3a;2
R
x8
_5
"*"
2a;16
5a;—
24
3x24
12
12x+8
_ 6x47 ~ 9x+6
_ 7x14 _ 23x88 f2~ ~ 17X66
13x— 10
36
4x+9
~T8
1
@
3x4 6x9
5X17 184x
1
,
12
6x5 8x^12
23
2xll
14
3x7
21
42
5x7
lOx5
10
4x3 4x2
1^
Jl
X— 1
X— 10. X— 5
r^.
1111
X— 2 X— 3
X—
l___l
X— 7
X—
x f6
i^+
3xfl2
3
'
'
6x+24
2x410
14.
5__
, 1
_8
1_
,,
,
.
—5
15.
X— 8
?;— 10
X— 7 7— X 5— X— 4 = X— 5 X— 7 X— 6 X— 7 X—
, 1
(transpose terms)
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
,^
lb.
209
2x21
,
x14
x1 = x12 x8 x13
,
2xn
z9
•
17.
Solve the preceding example by changing
2x— 27 x14
'
into 2
+ x14
'
and making similar changes
._
in the other fractions.
4x17
,
lOx13
X—
19.
2x— 3
2xll
8x30 2x— 7
4X55
,
5x4
X—
x6
5X64
X— 13
X— 6
X— 14
X—
x+l^x2^xl
21.
22.
Solve
b\c
If
is
1
\
c+a
a+b
it
— —

3.
a^—b^—a—b,
does
follow that a
?
must be equal to b)
What
the alternative conclusion
Unknown. Equations often which the known quantities are represented bj" letters instead of numbers. These are called literal equations. The same methods are used in solving them as were used
146.
Literal Equations with one
occur
in
in solving
equations with numerical coefficients.
Ex.
1.
—Solve az=bx\c.
ax~bx = c,
.*.
Solve
..
8a;
= 3>c+20
4.
8x3x = 20,
5x=20,
c
..
x(d—b) = c,
_
x=^ =
a—b
Here the letters a, b, c represent some known numbers whose values, however, are not stated, while x represents the unknown whose value is to be found in terms of a, 6 and c.
represent
represent
Usually the earlier letters of the alphabet are used to known quantities, and the later ones x, y, z to
are practically
coefficients
unknown ones. Compare the two solutions given. They identical. When we work with numerical
result
the
can usually be expressed in a simpler form.
P
210
ALGEBRA
Note.
— The
pupil
must not make the mistake
true,
of giving
x=
as a sohition of ax
= bx\c.
but
it is
This statement
is
give the value of the
umknown
in
not a solution, since it does not terms of known quantities only.
Ex. 2.— Solve
Removing
brackets,
Transposing,
a{x—2)h = a—2x. ax—2a — b = a—2x. a^[2x = a+2a + 6,
..
a;(a
+ 2) = 3at6,
_3a + 6 "^"0+2'
The result should be verified by substitution, but this will frequently be found more troublesome than the solution. When it is not verified in the usual way, tue pupil should review his work to ensure accuracy.
T^
Ex. 3.— Solve
Cross multiply,
«
r.
1
^—^ a—x
x—a h—x
bx—b^ — x^\bx = ax—a*—x^\ax, :. 2bx2ax = b'a', _ ^'— °' _ ^+a 2" ^~2{ba)
Verify by substitution.
EXERCISE
Solve for
1.
x,
101
verify 112:
2.
mx\a=b.
x{a
ax=bx\2.
3.
a\h
=
c.
_7
3 6
_
'
"
x—a_a
x\b
_
'
x—c_a—b
x{c
x—a
b
.
a\b
a_
X
..
x—a_x—b
x—b
x—ax—h_.
*
'
x—a+b.
c
x—a
** 11.
I
26
i
2a
L\
c\
ax
10.
—
1
=b
a
1
dx
.
o(a;— o)46(a;— o)=0.
\
Ti
d
12.
c
_ 1l_ 1  1 = 1_
X X
b
13.* (o+a;)(6+a;)=(c+a;)(d4a;)
a
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
14.
211
{axb)(bx+a)=a(bx^a).
a
b
15.
"J^^  ^^"^ =x.
16.
_ a—b
x—c
x—a
z—b
17.
x{x—a)+x{x—b)=2{x—a){x—b).
{xa){xb) = {xab)^.
X—a
18.
19.
J
X
— 2a
'^^ —
x
3a
x — 4a
'.
20
.21.
{x—a)(x—b)(x+a){z+b) = {a+b)^.
{a+x){b+x)a(b+c)^'^ + x^
b
22. 23.
(a4z)(6x)+x2=fc(a+x)
— a
a
is
a'^x^b^+abx=a^—bH.
The excess
of a
24.
number over
three times
its
excess over
b.
Find the number.
25.
Divide the number a into two parts so that one part
c.
may
contain b as often as the other will contain
26.
Divide a into two parts so that
b.
m
times the greater
may exceed
n times the less by
27.
A
If
rectangle
is
a
square of the same area.
28.
feet longer and b feet narrower than a Find the side of the square.
a,
a number be divided by
of the
sells
the
sum
of the divisor, quotient
and onethird
29.
number
is 6.
Find the number.
A man
?
a acres more than the
left.
mth part
of his
farm and
has b acres more than the nth part
How many
acres were in the
farm
30.
Solve {a—x){b—x)={c—x){d—x).
Check by putting a=l, 6=6, c=2, d=Z.
31.
If 5
=  (a+i),
=
r—
,
solve for w
;
for a
;
fori.
32
.
If 5
solve for a
;
for
I ;
for
r.
33.
If 8=at\^gt^, solve for
a
;
for g.
V 2
212
ALGEBRA
147. Literal Equations with two Unknowns. Every simple equation in x and y may be reduced to the form ax\by=c, where a, b, and c represent known quantities. If two equations in x and y with literal coefficients be given, the equations may be solved by the same methods as were used with equations with numerical coefficients.
Ex.
1.
—Solve
axjby—c,
ax—by=d.
Adding,
2ax=c\d,
.".
x
=
x
Subtracting,
2by=cd,
c—d
,".
y
26
Verify in the usual way.
Ex.
2.
—Solve
(1) (2)
ax\by=c,
(1) (2)
'mx>rny=k.
Multiply
Multiply
by by
n,
b,
nax{'nby=cn.
binx+bny=kb.
x(na — 6m) = cn — ^6,
Subtracting,
_
cn — kb
na—btn
We
might substitute
it is
to find y, but for X.
this value of x in either of the given equations simpler to solve for y in the same way as we did
Eliminate x from the two equations and find y
=
bm—an
,
or
an—bm
=
—
Ex.
3.
—Solve
a^x^b^y=c^, a^x+h^y=c.^.
Here the symbols
tities.
They
a,, a.,, etc., are used to represent are read " a one, a two, b one, etc." There
known quanis
no relation
in
value between a^ and a.,, nor a, and fej. The notation is used to obviate the necessity of employing many different letter forms. Solve these equations as in the preceding example and obtain
^
^
62Cj6iC^
^
ggCiaiCg
ftjOaft^Oi
016,026,'
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
EXERCISE
Solve for
1.
.r
213
102
and
y, verify 112:
mx\ny^=a,
2.
'
lx\~my=m,
mx\ly=l.
3.
px\qy=r,
xj/=0.
^'
mx—ny=b.
4.
ax\hy=a^{h'^,
5.
ax}by=2ab,
yji.
x\y=a\b.
bx—ay=b^—a^.
8.
ax^hy=2, ahc—b^y=a—b.
^
J.
9.
ax—by=2a^+3b% bx+ay=—ab.
a^x+bh/^a^—ab+b^,
ax — by=a — b.
ax—by=2ab, 2bx+2ay=3b^a^.
g^
10.
"^
a X a
13.*
+ 1 = 3, n b
y
b
,
^1. ^^ ^
n. a
+ f = 2, h b
12.
a^xb^y=a'+b^
r
ax—by=a^—b^.
= 2. = _ ^,
^,
'
a2x+62y=a363,
14.
a^x+biy=Ci,
16.
_
+
_
3a
46
y
X
16.
(a+6)a;(a6)l/=^a2+6^
17.
^ + ^=c„
X
y
x—y=a—b
X
18.
a:
y
+ a—
^=^ +
•
2/
= 6.
19.
a\b
l:^ +
X
•5a
a;
^==22.
y
'356
2/
_rt_
20.
If
If If
z.
ax\by=c and
x— 2/=l,
prove that x{c—a)=y{b\c).
that y{q—bp)=x{aq
21.
22.
x,
y=ax\b and
x=py—q, prove
—
6).
bx\ay\cz=ac{bc,
ax{by=ac,
cy\dz=ad,
solve
for
y and
23.
What
is
the value of m, in terms of a and
b,
if
the following
equations are consistent
ax+362/=a2+362,
3x+i/=3a+6,
4tx~Zy=m
?
«14
ALGEBRA
BXE3RCISE;(39i§i^
mevlew
of
Chapter XVI)
Solve and vnrify 124
:
A
•
5,7.,„i..)=,(«8).
3
»'
xy_^xy_^« 3"^ ^ 2"^
2
A ifEi:±f;=i2x+] _ 9a; _ xU ^~ 2 7 11
^'
'
/2x3
x4
"^
3x2 _ 5x»29a;4 x8 " x*12x+32'
m
x+1 _
~^
3
x~3
_
x
5x
6~
*
5+3x _ 4x7 _ 16x27 _ x+3
2
3 1^.
2x3 3x7 _ ~ 21 5 V" 2x+l + 3x+5~ a(x— a) — 6(x— 6) = (o + 6;(x— o— 6). 12. ax+6 = 6x+a.
•
^,
,/^
8x + 5 9x3 4x3 To" 7^+2= 5
^,
4x
"13
2
/*•
>6. ^
+ 7—
4x
^
=
^^
16.
a
+ f=l.
ff,= 40
3a
5.
«^J = £^. ax—b ex—
^
17
A4l7l + i3
ax + 6i/ = 2o6, aw6x=o»6». ^ ^
'
^18
tf

1
I
^^
b
.
19. y^
20.
X —r , x+6—
^
=1
^
I '
r x+6 —
^
21
y
x+3
^±^_^iJ_^+^_^±^.
x+4
1^22.
•
xH6
x+ 7
x+10
x10
x2
^Hi _ ^iJ _ ?Z:5 x7 V" x2 x4 x6'^x8
oq.
"•
t/ ^^'
8x3 x+1 _ 1 6'^15x20 3x4
(i^5.* (3ax)(o6.) + 2ox=^46(a+x).
'\x
A/26. ^
a
2x
\2b(ac)
X +r=
c(a
+ b)\
2x
c
27.
+ ^=^±3+7.?^«^ = 24i4j,.
28.
1+2^3x^3 7x3y_^^^^

2».
+ =
7,
3x2y=
10a:y.
FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS
30.
31.
216
^ + ^ = 2lxy,
What
5y2x = 24x7/.
make
equal to
,
,
value of y will
x+5
^+V
,
y—l
x—l
?^? ^ + y+11
.
Two sums of money are together equal to $1000, and 5J% of 32. the larger exceeds 6J% of the smaller by 16 cents. Find the sums.
Find a fraction such that if 4 be added to its numerator 33. becomes equal to J, but if 4 be added to its denominator it becomes f
34.
If
it
ax + b = cx + d, give the argument which leads to the con
clusion that X
= — a c
,
indicating at
what point
it
is
assumed that a
and
c are
vmequal.
fractions whose sum is unity. Add between their squares. Show that the result
35.
is
Take any two proper
'onity to the difference
always twice the greater fraction.
36.
A man
He
receives $65 per
the latter.
has §30,000 invested, part at 4% and the rest at 5J%. annum more income from the former than from How much is invested at each rate ?
37. The sum of three numbers a, b, c is 3036; a is the same multiple of 7 that b is of 4, and also the same multiple of 5 that Find the numbers. c is of 2.
38.
39.
If 5 If
b.
=

(2a
+ nd — d),
solve for a
;
for d.
a;*
ax — by = a*{b*, x — y = 2b and
+ 2/* = c,
hill
find c in terms of
a and
40.
A man
hill.
can walk 2^ miles an hour up
and 3J
nailes
per hour
of
He walks 56 miles in 20 hours on a road no part is level. How much of it is up hill ? A farm cost 3 times as much as a house. By selling 41.
Jown
at
which
7% gain and the house at 10%
loss,
$2754 was received.
the farm Find
the cost of each.
In 10 years the total population of a city increased 11%. 42. The foreign population, which was originally ^j of the total, decreased by 1160 and the native population increased by 12%. Find the total
population at the end of the period.
CHAPTER XVn
EXTRACTION OF ROOTS
In art. 65 we have seen any trinomial, which is a perfect square, may be written down by inspection. We have also seen that every quantity has two square
148.
Square Roots by Inspection.
that the square root of
roots differing only in sign.
and
Thus, the square root of a^]2ab\~b^ a^—2ab\b^ of
is
is
±{a\b),
±{a—b).
or
± {a'rb)=a\b or
If
—a—b; ±(a—b)=a—b
in
is
b—a.
form a root. It is usual, however, to give only the square root which has its first term positive, and we say that the square root of a^\2ab\b~ is a\b and of a^—2ab{b^ is a— 6 or b—a.
its
we had
written a^—2ab{b^
is
equivalent
b^—2ab\a^,
it
seen
that
b—a
EXERCISE
State the square
104 (Oral)
EXTRACTION OF ROOTS
WH
149. Formal Method of Finding Square Root. When the square root of an expression of more than three terms ia required, it is not always possible to write down the square
root
by
inspection.
Thus, to find the square root of
9x4— 12a;34 10x2— 4a;+l.
Here we could say that the first term in the square root and that the last term is either +1 or —1, but it evident that there must be another term as well.
3x2,
is is
Let us again examine the square of the binomial a [6, which is a2(2a6+62 The first term of the square root is a, which is the square root of a2. The second term of the square root, h, may be obtained in two different ways, either from the last term, h^, or from the middle term, 2ab. Let us now see how we could obtain the second term in the square root from the middle term 2ab. This term is twice the product of a which is already found, and of the last term of the square root which is still to be found. If twice the product of a and the last term is 2a6, then we can find the last term of the root by dividing 2ah by 2a, which
gives
b.
The quantity 2a which we use
the square root
divisor is 2a\h,
is
to find the second
term
in
called the
trial divisor.
Since a'^\2ah\'b'^=a^\h{2aArh),
we
see that the complete
that
is,
the
trial divisor
it.
with the second term
in the
square root added to
:
The
(1)
steps in the process are
a*\2ab\b* \o.{h
is
The square
root
of
a*
a.
The
a*
square of a is subtracted from the expression leaving 2a6 + 6*.
(2)
2a + 6

+2a6 + 6»
2ab + b*
The
2a
trial
divisor for obtaining the
6,
second
term
is
When
root.
(3)
the square root is 2a. divided into 2ab the quotient is
in
the second term in the
is
The complete
divisor
is
2a +6, and when this
multiplied by b
21
ALGEBRA
2ab{b^ there
is
and the product subtracted from
square root
is
no remainder.
Tlie
thnn
17
+ 6.
It might be thought that step (3) is unnecessarj, as the root has already been found in (1) and (2). It is unnecessary if we take for granted that the expression is a perfect square. If you attempt to find the square root of a* + 2a6 + 46* and do not go beyond steps (1) and (2), you would get the result a\b, aa before. This, however, is not the correct result. Why ?
We can now extend the method to find the square root of a quantity of more than three terms.
9x* 12x'+ 10x«4x+
9x*
1

3x»2a;+
l
6z^2x 12x3+I0x24x+l
\
12x»+
4x»
6x»— 4x+I 6x'4x+l
6x»4x+l
After finding the first, two terms in the root, as in the previous example, the 3x^ — 2x is treated as a single quantity and tlie second trial divisor is twice 3x^ 2x or 6x^ — 4x. The square root is 3x'— 2x+ 1.
150.
in
Verifying
Square
Root.
We
might verify the result
the preceding example by
writing
down
the square ol
3:c— 2x4l.
Verify in this way.
is
A
simple method of checking
for x.
to substitute a particular
number
^nd
When x=l, 9x< 12r»+ 10x» 4x+ 1 = 9 12+ 104+ 1 = 4, =2. 3x2 2x+ 1 = 32+1
Since the square root of 4
is 2,
we presume
the work
is
correct.
EXERCISE
1.
106
Find the square root, by the formal method, and verify the results
x2+12x+36.
9xH24x!/+16;/2.
?. 4. 6. 8.
9a26a+l.
25x'^—\0zy+t/.
3.
5.
\\Sab + Hla'b'.
49a*28a^b^+ib*.
7.
aH2a^3a*— 4a4l
4x*+4x'+5a;«+2a;+l.
EXTRACTION OF ROOTS
9.
21©
z«6a;3+17a;224x+16.
a*4a36+6o262_4Q/,3^ft4^
13. 14.
10.
9a*12a3+34a2—fiOa+25
a^^a'^+^a^^.
11.
^12.
9a*
+ 12a36+34a262_(_20a63+256*.
x«4x5+6x3+8x2+4x+l.
a;*2x3+2x2x+i.
a*
15.
4a3
fc"
6*^
,
^
2a^_4a
fe2
ft
^
its
17.
o2_4a6+6ac+462— 126c+9c2.
square root.
18.* Simplify a(a+l)(a+2)(a+3)4l, and find
19.
By
If
is
extracting the square root of
value of X which will
20.
>vhat
make
it
x*+4x'+6x^+3x+7, find a a perfect square. (Verify by substitution.)
x*— 8x^+30x2— 56x+49 be x^+mx+T
the square root of
the value of
m
?
21.
Using factors,
find the square root of
(x2+3x+2)(x2+5x+6)(x2+4x+3).
22.
of
Find the
first
three terms in the square root of
1
— 2x— Sx^
and
412x.
23.
When x— 10,
the
number 44,944 may be written
4x«+4x3+9a:^+4x+4.
Find the square root of the
44,944.
latter
and thus deduce the square root
of
In algebra, an expression of which the square root is is usually a perfect square. When such is the case the formal method may be greatly abbreviated.
151.
required
Ex.
1.
— Find the square root of
r44a;3+10a;2— 12x+9.
term
is
The The
.'.
first
x'
and the
is
last is
+3
or
—3.
is
trial divisor for
obtaining the second term of the root
2x',
therefore the second term
the square root
is
— 4x*i2x' or — 2x. x* — 2x + 3 or x* — 2x— 3.
22t
ALGEBRA
If (v* square ar* — 2x + 3, the term containing x will be twice the product of — 2x and 3 or  12x. If we square x* — 2x— 3, the term containing x will be +12x. We thus see that if the expression is a perfect square, the square
root
is
X*
— 2x+3.
by putting
Check
this
x= 1.
Ex.
2.
—Find
the square root of
4x4+20x3+ 13x230a:+9.
What is the first term in the square root ? What is the trial divisor 7 What is the second term in the root ? What may the last term be ? What is the square root ? (Verify your answer.)
•
Ex.
3.
—Find the square root of
3a3+V+a*5a+fla2.
in
Write the erpression
descending powers of
a.
The
.".
first
term
is
in the root is o*.
is
The
trial divisor is 2a*, therefore
the second term
— 3a'^2a*
or —3a.
the root
is it ?
a*— ^afj ora* — 5a— §.
(Verify
Which
by squaring.)
Ex.
4.
— Find
the square root of
4
Here the terms are already arranged
the term
in
descending powers of
o,
+9
2
coming between a and
in the root
is
.
The
la^t 13
first
term
2a, the
second
is
— 4a r 4a or — 1,
and the
+.
~a
Complete and
verify.
It will be recognized that
cases that
It
is
it is only in the most complicated necessary to use the formal method in full. advisable to use the contracted method whenever it is
possible.
EXTRACTION OF ROOTS
BXBRCISB
Find the square
results.
221
106
Verify the
root,
using any mt^thod you prefer.
1.
3.
5. 7.
x*+2x^^x^2x+l.
2.
x*4kx^+6x^4x+l.
o*— 6084.502+ 12a+4.
9a*6a3+13a24a+4.
4a;*+20a;3_3x270x+49.
67a;2+49+9a;*70z30x3.
a:«+2x3a;+].
4.
6.
x*+8x^+12x^—lQx+^.
x*
+ 6xhj+7x^y^—6xy^+y*
x^' ll0z+21x^l0x^+x\
10. 12.
9.
ai2_8a9+18a«8a34l.
11. 13.
x^2x^+?,x^lx+^^.
a«6a2
+ ll , + 1 a^ a*
i^a;2_^a;^i.
.
14.
15.
  3x3 ^
4
17.
54
1
X^
!_2x+x2.
X
19.* (x+i/)«4(x+2/)3
20.
+ 6(x+2/)24(x+2/) +
l.
x2(x5a)(x— a)+a2(3xa)23a2x2.
(a6)2Ka6)'2(a2+62)f + 2(a*+6*).
(a46)*2(a2462)(o4fe)242(a*+6*)(..
If
21. 22. 23.
24.
of
+ J.) + 4(.'+i^) + 6.
is
a;*+6x'+ 7x^^40x41
a perfect square,
what
is
the 7aiue
o
?
25.
If the
sum
of the squares of
of their product,
any two consecutive integers be
prove that the result
will
added to the square
square.
be a
26.
If
4cX*+l2x^y+kx'^y^{6xy^\y*
is
a perfect square, find
k.
27
.
If
m=X
X
and n=^ y
— ,
y
show fjat
mn4V(m2+4)(n244)=2x2/428.
—
xy
•
Find the square root of 4x*48x348x244x41.
Check when
a:=10.
222
152.
ALGEBRA
Cube
of
a
Monomial.
When
is
three equal factors are
multiphefl together, the product
called the cube of each of
the factors.
Thus, the cube of 2a or (2a)3=2a 2a 2a = 8a', the cube of a* or (a*)' =a* a* a* = a^, and the cube of Za^ or (Sa')' = ^^a^ Sa' 3a»= 27a*.
. .
. . .
.
The cube of a monomial
each factor of
it.
is
found by writing down
the cube of
Thus, the cube of 5ab*x
is
125a'6'x*.
153.
Cube
a\b
of
a
Binomial.
its
cube of
a\b.
by multiplying
also the
Find the square by
c«
2a6 ° "^^
a^
+
+ 6»
Find
cube of a—b.
{a+bY=(i^+'^a''h + Zah'\b\
+ 2a^b+ ab* + a^by,ab^+b^
Note that in each case the cube contains four terms, in descending powers of a and ascending powers of b, and the numerical coefficients are 1, 3, 3, 1. The cube of a—b is the same as the cube of a\b, except that the signs are alternately plus and minus. From the forms of these two cubes, the cubes of other expressions may be written down.
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
+ 2yy = x^ + 3x^{2y) + 3x{2y)^ + (2y)\ = x^ + 6x*y+l2xy^ + 8y^. (32r2i/)3 = {3x)33(3x)'(2i/) + 3(3x)(2i/)«{2i/)3, = 21x^54x^y+36xy^Sy^. (a^6 + c)3 = (a^fe + c)^
{x
= (a + 6)3 + 3(a + 6)»c + 3(a + 6)c« + c3, = a» + 3a*6 + 3a6» + 63 + 3aSc + 6a6c + 36«c + 3oc* + 36c« + c', =a* + b* + c' + Z{a*b + ab* + b*c + bc* + c*a + ca*) + 6abc.
EXTRACTION OF ROOTS
223
224
155.
ALGEBRA
Cube Root
of
a
Compound
Expression.
is is
The cube and or
root of a^{2a^b
+ 3ab^^b^
a\b,
a^—2a~b^3nb^b^
when an expression
its
a—b.
Therefore,
a perfect cube,
of four terms is known to be cube root can at once be written down
of its first
by finding the cube roots
and
last terms.
is
Ex. 1. The cube root of x^6x*y\\2xy^ — 8y^ cube root of x' is z and of — Sy^ is — 2y. Ex. 2.— The cube root
of
—
x—2y,
since the
a^2a*b + lab*
^^b^
is
evidently a^b.
In the cube of a\b, the second term is 3a^b. After finding first term a of the cube root, we might have found the second term of the root by dividing Sa^b by Sa^, that is, by three times the square of the term already found.
the
Thus, the second term of the cube root in Ex.
1
is
and
in
Ex.
2
is
— 6x*?/^3x* — 2a*6H3a'
or
—2y,
or §6.
Here
trial
three times the square of the first term of the root is the
divisor,
corresponding to twice
the first
term in finding
the square root.
Ex.
3.
— Find
the cube root of
The The
first
8x«+12x530x4— 35a;3+45x2+27a;— 27. term in the root is 2x* and the last is — 3.
the second term of the root
is is
trial divisor for finding
3(2x*^
or I2x^ .". the second term of the root .". the cube root is 2x*+s;— 3.
12x^1 12x* or x.
It is thus seen that it is easier to find cube root by inspection than to find square root, as in finding cube root there is no ambiguity as to the sign of the last term in the root. 156.
root
Higher Roots. Since (x^)^=x*, we may find the fourth by taking the square root and then the square root of
the result.
EXTRACTTON OF ROOTS
Also, since {x^)^=z^
225
root
and {x^)^=x^, we can find the sixth by taking the square root of the cube root, or the cube
the
root of the square loot.
Thus,
square root of x*+8x^ + 24:X* +
is
32x+16
is
x*
+ 4x + 4,
therefore the fourth root
x\2.
is
The cube root
of
x^Qx^+\5x* — 20x^+l5x* — Qx+\
is
x*2z+l,
therefore the sixth root
x— 1.
BXE3RCISE
State the cube root of
1.
:
108
(115,
Orali
64.
2.
27a3.
3. 6. 8.
\25a%^.
4.
8(a6)3
5. 7.
x3+3a;243a;+l.
x^'^xh^+Zxy'^y^.
a3+6a2+12a+8.
9.x^\2x^+Qx\.
9.
a;V+3xV+3x2/+l.
125x375x2+ 15xl.
10.
12.
64a3144a2+108a27.
27x327x22/+9x?/2j/3.
11.
»« 
^
15.
m3
 9w + —  —
first
'
.
"^
16.
:r
 6x< +
12x2m3
_ gw*.
What
'
f.
17.* In finding the cube root of
x«+3x5+6x*+7x3+6x2t3x+l,
what
the
is
the
term
in the root
?
What
is
?
the last term
?
is
?
trial divisor for
finding the second term
What
is
the cube root
^
Check by substituting x=l.
Find the cube root and check
v^lS.
:
^
'
t.
^
^
27
27
^*l
u^^Sim
l6x+21x244x3+63x*54x5+27x«.
^ „ 2,3+2x7 + . + ^ f
a;3
,
IZ^^Ja..*
»**
n a9.
20. 21.
22. 23.
x2
18
.^
/
^l
^iZ
Ik^im
^^
t^
27a«108a» + 171a*136a=»+57a'=12a+l.
(I
^q^"
VQ.
/
?
+ 3x2)2x2(3+x2)2.
will
^^''•^itOiay
x3+3cx2+2c2x+5c3 be a
perfect cube
For what value of x
Find the fourth root of
X*— 4x^+6x2— 4x+l,
1
'^i.i^.'i.'n
(f)i
'^
226
24.
25.
ALGEBRA
Find the fourth root of a« — 12a3)54a*— 108a Find the sixth root of
+ 81
x«12x* + 60x* 160^3+240x2 192x464.
EXERCISE
Find the square root of
1.* 9z*24x»t/
2.
3.
109 (Review of Chapter XVII)
:
+ + 4xS2x«10x'+I3x*6x+l. xi« + 6xi'' + 5x*8x«+16x*8x* + 4.
28x*2/»16xt/»44t/«.
x«
4.
6. 6. 7.
Jx«Jx»+Vx*5x+l.
12a3x26a*x* + 25x« + 9a«20ax3.
+ 3a) + (3a+7)». (x* + 5x + 6)(x« + 7x+12)(x* + 6x+8).
4x»(7f x*
8.
9.
(2x'x3)(x*4x5)(2x*13x+15).
4x«
is

20x»
+
33x»
:
32x
+
34

— + ^ XX*
^_^
*
What
10.
11.
the cube root of
27136x+225x»125x».
8x«12x'>+]8x«13x»f 9x«3x+l.
(afe)3
•
t,
J
'^*
'I**
"*"
12.
+ 36(fc»)*f 3fe»(«*) + i».
:
13.
Find to three terms, the square roots of
l2x, 1a,
4
Find the value of y for which 14. square and prove by trial that your result
16.
last
+ x. x* — 2(a — y)x + y*
is
is
a complete
correct.
The first two terms of a perfect square are 49x* — 28x*, and the two are 6x+. What must the square root be ?
Prove that the product of any by unity is a perfect square.
four
16.
consecutive
integers
increased
Find the square root of a* + 4a*+6o* + 4a+ 17. square root of 14,641.
18.
1
and deduce the
By
finding the cube root, simplify
{a
t».
If a
+ b)' + 3(a + b)*(ab} + 3(a + b){ab)' + {ab)\ = fc4 1, show tiiat a> fc» = 3a6.
l
3;
z
EXTRACTION OF ROOTS
227
Show that the product of any four consecutive even integers 20. How might the result be deduced increased by 16 is a perfect square.
from No. 16
21.
?
By
inspection, find the values of
(a6)*+(ftc)* + (ca)* + 2(a6)(fec) + 2(6c)(ca) + 2(ca)(a6),
{2xy)^Z{2xy)^{2x + y) + Z(2xy){2x+y)*{2x + y)\
22.
To the square
of the
integers,
add the square
of tlieir
double product of any two consecutive sum. Prove that the result is always
a perfect square. 23.
Express in symbols
:
The
of
difference of the cubes of
numbers exceeds the cube product multiplied by their
24.
their difference
any two by three times theit
this
is
difference.
Prove that
true.
The expression 8x936a:8 + 66x'87a;«+105x*87x* + 61x»42x«+12x8 Find its cube root by getting two terms from the is a perfect cube. first two terms of the expression and the other two from the last two terms. Check when x=I.
What number must be added to the product of any four 25. consecutive odd integers so that the sum may be a perfect square ?
Show that the sum of the cubes of three consecutive integers 26. exceeds three times their product by nine times the middle integer.
27.
Find the cube root of
(4xl)» + (2x3)3 + 6(4xl)(2x3)(3x2).
[Note that
28.
If
it is
of the
form a^ ^b^ \Zab{a\b).'\
first
4x*+
12x^4 5x*—2x* are the
four terms of an exact
square, find the remaining three terms.
^y^<^^
Q 2
CHAPTER
XVIII
QUADRATIC SURDS
157.
Surd.
When
is
the root of a
number cannot be
exactly
found, that root
called a surd.
equal to
Thus, we cannot find exactly the number whose square is 2, and we represent the number by the symbol a/2
it is
and we call V2 a surd. If no surd appears in any quantity,
quantity.
called a
rational
By the arithmetical process of extracting the square root of 2, we can obtain the value of V 2 to as many decimal places as we pleaae, but its exact value can not be found. To four decimal places the value of V2 is 14142. Find the square of 14142 by multiplication and see how closely it approximates to 2. We can find geometrically a line whose length is V2 units. In this square, whose side is 1 unit, draw the diagonal BD. Then, from geometry, we know that
:.
:.
BD*=l*+\* = 2, BD =V2.
On squared paper mark
whose
side
is
10 \inits.
the corners of a square Measure the diagonal and
thus estimate as closely as you can the value of V 2. Make a diagram like this to show how to represent
graphically lines whose lengths are V^, VS, etc. Take the unit line 1 inch in length.
vi, V5,
What
test
have you of the accuracy
158.
of
your drawing
?
Quadratic surd.
to be
A
surd hke
V2
in
root
is
found
is
called a quadratic surd.
which the square In this Chapter
quadratic surds only are considered.
QUADRATIC 3URD9
159.
228'
Multiplication of Simple Surds.
is 2,
Since \/2 represents a quantity whose square
..
\/2x V'2=2=V4,
also
^4x^9 = ^/36,
because
2x3=6.
this
Similarly,
is
true
we might expect that v/2x V3 = V6. That may be shown by finding the square of y/2 x V3.
(\/2xv'3)2=V2xV3x\/2xV3,
[Just as {ab)'^=a .b .a .b.]
= \/2xV2x VSxVS,
=2x3=6.
..
a/2x\/3=\/6.
A/3xV'5=Vi5,
y/a x
Similarly,
and
Vb= Voft.
is
Therefore, the product of the square roots of two numbers equal to the square root of the product of the numbers.
Since
Vab=VaxVb,
;
.'.
\/f2=V4x a/3=2a/3,
and
V'50=\/25x V2=5\/2
Thus,
VT8a^=V9a^xV2a=3aV2a.
see that if there is a square factor under the radical sign, that factor may be removed if its square root be taken.
Conversely,
we
5^3= a/25 x V3= VTS, aVb=Va^xVb=Va*b,
axViny= Va*x* x
Vmy= Va'x*'my.
quantity
it is is is
Mixed and Entire Surds. When a surd 160. the product of a rational quantity and a surd, mixed surd. If there is no rational factor it
entire surd.
called a
called an
Thus, 5V3, aVb,
{a
— b)Vx — y
are
mixed
surds,
and V3, V50,
Vax\b are entire surds.
In the preceding article we have shown that a mixed surd can always be changed into an entire surd, and an entire surd can sometimes be changed into a mixed surd.
230
ALGEBRA
surd
is
A
said to be in
its
is
simplest form
integral
when the quantity
under the radical sign
factor.
and contains no squar*
Thus, the simplest form of
V50
is
5\/2.
EXERCISE
Find the product
1. of
:
110 (129. Oral)
V2, V3.
QUADRATIC SURDS
f
231
^4.
radius
35.
If the area of
(7r
a
circle is
66 square inches, find the length of the
= 3^).
of the squares of
The sum
is
two surds, one
of
which
is
double
the other,
36.
40.
Find the surds.
of the diagonal of a square
is
The length
10 inches.
Find
the length of the side.
37.
One
side of a rectangle
is
three times the other
and the area
is
96 square inches.
161.
Find the
sides.
rational factor
In the surd quantity 5\/3, 5 is a is called a surd factor. When aurds, in their simplest form, haye the same surd factor, they are called like surds or similar surds, otherwise they are unlike surds.
Like
Surds.
and
VS
Thus,
3V2, 5^2,
2\/3,
and
162.
aV2 3\/2, jV5
are like surds.
" "^
are unlike surds.
Addition and Subtraction of Like Surds. Like surds be added or subtracted, the result being expressed in the form of a surd.
may
Thus,
3V'2 + 5V'2 = 8\/2, just as 3o+5o=8a.
7V'34\/3 = 3\/3, just as 7a4a=3a. a/762v'3 = 5\/32v/3 = 3V3.
V'50 +
V32\/r8 = 5V2 + 4V23\/2 = 6\/2.
Che
sum
or difference of unlike surds can only be indicated.
Thus, V2\V^ can not be combined into a single surd, but the approximate values oi V2 and V3 may be found and added. Show that V2+v'3 = \/5 is not true, by finding the square roots of 2, 3 and 5 each to two decimals.
Is it true that V'i
+ VQ=VYZ
BXBRCISE
?
111
(18,
Oral)
Express as a single surd
1.
:
3^2+5^2.
2. 6.
5\/73V7.
3.
6.
2Va+3Va.
4.
2Vx+5VxVx.
VS+V2.
^12+^3.
232
7.
ALGEBRA
VisVs.
V75+Vr2+3\/3.
8.
V4a+V9a.
2V18+3a/85\/2.
2\/635\/28+a/7.
"^
11
13.
10.
12.
14.
Vi5V2b+V80.
4\/f28+4\/565Vr62.
10^444^99.
15. 16.
A/45+V20\/80+\r80.
\/72+a/98V128V32\/50.
:
Simplify the following and find their numerical values, correct to two decimal places, using the square root table
17.
VT5.
18.
V63.
19.
2^
V60+\/l5.
20.
VI^2VI2.
21.
VI28VT62.
V56+V'72+V'90.
ix24 = 19.
^x2=Jx2_47.
Find
1
Solve, finding x to three decimal places
23. 26. 29.
x2=37«***'^,
31x2=132.
27.
3x2+5=50.
i(3x2ll)=53.
is
25. 28.
The area
of a circle
176 square inches
its
radius.
Square Roots of Numbers from
n
to 50
QUADRATIC HvltDS
233
It is thus seen that the product of two surds is found by multiplying the product of the rational factors by the product of the surd factors.
5V3x2V3=10.3=30,
also
It,
ay/cxhVc=abc.
therefore, follows that the product of two lik^ surds
i'
always a rational quantity.
Ex. 1.—Multiply
VSO by Vl5.
Here the surds should be simplified before multipl3dng.
Since
..
V50 = 5V'2 and V75 = 5V'3, V50X V75 = 5\/2x5V3 = 25v'6.
2i2\/3
Ex.
2.
—Multiply
2
+ 2V3
by 3V2.
^~ ^^
6j6v3
~
6
Here the multiplication is performed ma manner similar to the multiplication oi a\b by x + v
+ 6\/32\/22V6
— 2v2— 2v6 ~ ^
164.
Conjugate Surds.
If
we wish
to multiply
5V3+2V2
we may
by 5\/32\/2,
follow the same method as in the preceding example. These expressions, however, are seen to be of the same form as a\b and a—b,
:.
(5\/3
+ 2V'2)(5V32\/2) = (5\/3)2(2\/2)2=758=67.
(3+ V2)(3 V2) = 92 = 7,
Similarly,
and
(2Vl0)(2+\/l0) = 410=6.
Such surd quantities as these which differ only in the s)gn which connects their terms are called conjugate surds. Note that the product of two conjugate surds is always a
rational quaniitv.
234
ALOEBRA
E3XERCISB
112 (112. Oral)
Find the product of
1.
:
2V3,
3a/5.
2. 5.
5\/2, 6a/3.
{2\/3)2, (V2)2.
8.
3.
6.
aVb, bVa.
\/2+l, ^2.
4.
7.
W2,V3,V5.
A/31V5,
\/2.
\/a+V'6l, Vc.
9.
V3 + V2, V3V2.
10.
12.
Vro
3,
VIO+3.
2v'2— VS.
11.
Vx—Vy,Vx+Vy.
{\/3+a/2)2.
(3\/22V'3)2.
2\/2\/3,
^?3a/6, 4V2.
15. 17. 19. 21. 23.
14.
3V^, 4\/7,J\/2.
(2\/6V7)'
16.
18. 20.
(Va+\^)2.
3\/2 + 2V3,
413V2, 53A/2.
5^23^3.
22. ZV5W2, 2\/5+3"v/2. 3Va~2Vb, 2Va3Vb. V5+V3+V2, ^5+^3^2. ^Sk' V7+2V2V3, V72V2+V3. 25. Va+b—3, Va+b]2. Va+Va— 1, Va— Va— 26.
1.
27.
29.
(a/3+\/21)2.
28.
i^^J!
(V'5+2\/2\/3)^
(Va+b+Va^)^.
(3V'^^2Vx+y)^
Simplify
31.
(62a/3)(6+2\/3)(5V2)(5+v/2).
./
^^,.32f"(\/3\/2+l)2+{A/3V2l)2.
^8^r^50 VI8+ \/72+ V32) X iVS.
^3^/2(4\/33\/2)(3\/32\/2) + (5\/2"3\/3)(4\/2+2\/3).
y«5.
36.
(
V3+ \/2)(2\/3  \/2)( \/32\/2)( V33V2).
squaring
By
VlOf Vs and
Vs+Vl,
find whicii
lies
is
the greater
37. The product of 5\/3f SV? and two consecutive integers ?
3^3— V?
between what
38.
taches.
Find the area of a rectangle whose sides are
5+ V'2 and 10— 2^?
QUADRATIC SURDS
39.
inches.
235
7(4V2 and
7
The
sides of a rightangled triangle are
— 4v'2
Find the hypotenuse.
40.
is
The base
of a triangle is
2^3 + 3^2
inches and the altitude
places.
3V3+2\/2
165.
inches.
Find the area to two decimal
Division of Surds.
•
Since
VaxVb=V^,
:.
Vab^Va=J'=Vb. y
a
,
Inh
Similarly,
Va ~ Vh = —7= = \/ Vh ^ h
3\/l5f2V5=V3.
and
Ex.
(1)
1.
—Find
might
the numerical value of V5ffind the square roots of 5
V2
or —p^
•
V2
We
and
2
and perform the
required division.
(2)
,_,
V5
VSh ^2 = 2236: 1414= 1581 V'5^V2=\/=V'275= 1581. \/lO 3162_,_•\/5xV2
at once seen to be s.'^pler than
Here the third method
either of the others.
is
In
(3)
^
we changed
,
Vs —
^
.
into
VlO
,
that
is,
V2
we made
is
the
2
denominator a rational quantity.
rationalizing the denominator.
This operation
called
Ex. 2.— Find the value of ^^.
if
^2=14142.
we
first
V2
by
a/2
jr
Here, instead denominator.
of dividing
1
14142,
rationalize
the
™ Then
1 lxV2 = —^ = —^ y^
=
14142
\/2
•v/2xV2
2
—2— = ^
2\/6
is
7071.
__,
Ex. 3.— Divide
6^8 by
2^2 sVa
10a/27.
6V8
6x2\/2
mV2i
JOxsVa
2xV2xV3 sxVsxVs
2x24496
15
= 32W
236
ALGEBRA
4.
hx.
— Rationalize
by
its
the denominator of
will
•
be rational
We
have already seen that the denominator
it
if
we
multiply
conjugate
3— V
5.
2+\/5 _ C2+V'5)(3 \/5) 3+A/5 ~^4a/5)(3V5)
^ + Vh ^ + Vl ~ 95 ~ *
l l
Ex. 5.— Divide 5 + 2^3 by 74\/3.
5
I
Write the quotient
in the fractional
form
2\/3
,_.
74\/3
rationalize the
.
denominator and simplify.
EXERCISE
Divide
:
113
(1
QUADRATIC SURDS
Solve, giving the value of x to
JSSTi
two decimal
places, using the table
28.
31.
a;\/2=3.
29.
xVz=V2.
32.
30.
a;V'3=\/2 + l.
x\/2xV2=\.
x2(\/3l)==2(\/3+l).
xV55=2xy/5.
33. 34.
The area of a triangle is 2 square feet. V6\VZ feet. Find the base to three decimals.
35.
The
altitude
is
Simplify
2+VlO
4\/2+\/20\/18a/5
Equations.
is
166.
Surd
A
the
unknown quantity
of the terms.
surd equation is one found under the root sign,
in
in
which one or
more
Thus, V'a;+7 = 4,
Vx+Vx— 5 = 5,
are surd equations.
Ex. 1.— Solve
Square both
Verification
Vx^=2.
a;— 3 = 4,
.'.
sides,
x=7.
2.
:
Vx^ = VT^ = Vi =
Ex. 2.— Solve
Squaring,
Verification
V5^^2a/^3=0.
\/5x—\ = 2^/x\%.
Transpose 2\/x+3,
5x— l = 4a;+12,
..
x=13.
the positive square root only,
:
v/5a;—
1
— 2 Vx4 3= \/64— 2^/^6 = 8— 8 = 0.
we have taken
Note that
in verifying
as defined in art. 63.
E3XBRCISB
Solve and verify
1.
4. 7.
:
114
(18,
Oral)
2Vx=Q.
\/x+2=4.
2.
5.
Vx— 5=4. Wx=V20.
8.
3.
Q—\/x=l.
6,
Vx— 6=a.
'
.
m+V'i=n.
9.
Vx2+9=9x.
V9x2llx5=3x2.
10.
7— Vx— 4=3. Vx2+llx+3=x+5=
2x\/4x210x+4=4.
11.
CBL
44^,
@
2a+Vz+a^=b+a.
V(xo)»+2a6+6»=*a+6,
«38
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
116 (Review of Chapter XVIII)
Simplify
:
1*
QUADRATIC SURDS
^2f\
239
Find the value of
(2V2+V3){3V2 \/3)(3 V3 V2).
28.
If the sides of a rightangled triangle are
is
Vs+l
and
V3—
1,
what
28C ^^
I
the length of the hypotenuse
c!r. Simplify 7=
?
oo^
30.
^51 Vo2
V53 \/o + 3
jz:
and
,
—j:z
V 3+V2 7^ V3V2
of
V3V2 ~
V3+A/2
7=
•
Find the value to two decimal places
x+y x—y
4.,afr^ Multiply
xy ^henx=2 + V'3, x+y
y = 2V3.
2\/303V'5 + 5\/3 by
V3 + 2\/2V5.
t,3gf^ Multiply
^7 + 2^6
by \/72V6.
is
The area of a rectangle is ISVlO — 25 and one side 33. Find the other side to two decimal places.
3V5— V2
CHAPTER XIX
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
quadratic equation has already "been defined in In the same article we considered the method of solving some of the simpler forms of it. Quadratic equations frequenlly occur in the solution of problems as shown in the following examples.
167.
art.
A
104.
Ex.
462.
1.
—Find
two consecutive numbers whose product
x\\.
is
Let the numbers be x and
a;(a;+l)
..
= 462,
x»4a;462 = 0.
Ex. 2. The length of a rectangle is 10 feet more than the width and the area is 875 square feet. Find the dimensions.
Let
.".
—
x = the number of feet
a:+ 10 = the
in the width,
number
of feet in the length,
x(x+10) = 875,
..
a;«+l Ox 875
= 0.
Ex.
Let
3.
—Divide 20 into two parts so that the sum of their
be 36 more than twice their product.
a;
squares
may
= one
part,
20 — x = the other part,
x« x» + (20a;)*=2a;(20a;) + 36, + 40040x + x» = 40x2x* + 36,
..
4x» 80x4364 = 0,
x»20a; + 91
J40
= 0.
QDADRATIC EQUATIONS
exercise:
116
Ul
Represent the number to be found by x and obtain, in its simplest torm, the quadratic equation which must be solved in each of the
following
1.*
2.
3.
The sum
of a
number and
is
its
square
less
is
132.
its
Find the number.
square.
Find the number which
156
than
The sum
of the squares of three consecutive
numbers
is
149.
Find the middle number.
4.
112.
The product
of a
number and the number increased by 6
five
is
Find the number.
times the width.
The length of a rectangle is 6 feet less than 5. The area is 440 square feet. Find the width.
The average number of words on each page of a book is 6 more 6. than the number of pages. The total number of words is 9400. Find
the
number
7.
of pages. of a rectangle
is
The area
88 square inches and the perimeter
is
38 inches.
168.
Find the length.
Standard
Form
of
the
Quadratic
Equation.
Every
quadratic equation
may
be reduced to the form
ax^\bx\c^O,
and c are any known numbers, except that a not be zero. The term not containing x is called the absolute term. It is frequently necessary to simplify equations to bring them to the standard form, and thus determine if they are quadratic equations.
in vv'hich a, b
'jan
Ex.
1.
(a;+l)(2a;+3)=4x222,
2x* + 5x + 3 = 4a;«22,
..
2a;* + 5x + 25 = 0,
2a;»5x25 = 0.
Here the equation is seen to be a quadratic. of a; is —5 and the absolute term is —25.
Or, o =
2,
The
coefficient of x*
is
2..
6= — 5, c=25.
242
ALOE BR A
2.
j
Ex.
4
:.
+
=
X
1,
7*« + 4(a;7) = 4x,
7x»28 = 0,
x»4 = 0.
Here a=l, 6 = 0,
c
= 4.
2x
a:
41
..
2x(x+2) + (x+l)(xl) = 3(a;l)(ar+2),
2x* + 4x+x*l=3x« +
3x6,
x+5 = 0.
Here a = 0, 6=1,
the coefficient of x*
c
= 5,
and the equation
is
not a quadratic, since
is
zero
EXERCISE
Reduce
in
117
of a, b
to the standard
is
form and state the values
:
and
c,
which a
1.*
3.
always positive
6x2=x+22.
19x=158x«.
2.
6.
— —=
^
5x.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Ex. 1.—Solve
243
2x^—3x=0.
a;(2x3) = 0,
x=0
x=
Verify both roots.
or or
2x3 =0,
f.
Ex. 2.—Solve
.'.
ax^+bz=0.
x{ax + b) = 0,
x= x=
or ax or
+ b = 0,
b
•
.'.
a
zero, the equation
(2)
\Mien the middle term
b}' factoring,
is
can always
be solved
or bj' extracting the square root.
Ex.—Solve
.*.
3a;2— 27=0.
3(z3)(x + 3) = 0,
a;3 =
or xf3
= 0,
x=±3.
Or thus,
3x»27 = 0,
..
x*
= 9,
when none of the quadratic expression, any of the methods previously
the
effected.
:.
x=±3.
(3)
The equation
a,
b,
is
a complete quadratic
zero.
If
coefficients
ax^\bx\c,
c
is
given, the solution
can be factored b}' is then easily
Ex.
1.—Solve
..
3x2lla;=14.
3x«lla;14 = 0,
(a;+l)(3a;14) = 0,
a;
=—1
or
V
Verify both of these roots.
Ex.
2.
—Solve
x^—mx\nx—mn^=0.
t(x — 7n)(n(x — m) = 0,
.'.
(x
x=
— m)(x + n) = 0, m or — n,
E 2
244
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
112.
118
Solve the equations in the preceding exercise and verify. Solve the problems in the
first
1319.
exercise in this Chapter.
(Verify the results.)
Solve by factoring and verify
:
^^.
24. 26.
a:^— mx— 6/7j2=rO.
^^. x^— ax— 6x+a6==0.
25.
27.
x2L2x(a+6)44a6=0.
2ax2+aa;— 2x=l.
(x— a)(x6)=a6.
:
x^— a2=(xa)(6+c).
whose
170.
sum
is
Find two numbers Consider the problem 100 and whose product is 2491.
Let
100— x=the
..
a:=one number, other number,
a;(100x) = 2491,
x2 100^+2491=0.
.solve this equation by the preceding method, we must two factors of 2491 whose sum is 100, but this is exactly what the problem requires us to find. The necessity is therefore seen for another method of
To
find
the quadratic equation when the factors of the quadratic expression cannot be obtained readily by inspection.
solving
171.
Solution
by
Completing
the
Square.
We know
that
(xa)2=x2+2axia2, the middle term being twice the product
of X
If
and
the
a.
first
asc
two terms of a square are x^A^lax, we know that it must be the square of x+a, and, therefore, a must be added to x^\2ax to make a
complete square. What is the area of the stiaded portion in
*
"
the
diagram
?
Similarly, x*i4x must be the first two terms in the square of x+2. To make x'(4x a complete square we must add 2* or 4. Also, x* 8x are the first two terms in the square of x — 4, and, therefore, 4' or 16
—
must be added.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
To complete
added
is
245
the square,
it is
seen that the quantity to be
jc.
the square of half of the coelTicient of
Ex. 1.— Factor
a;2^6a:— 40.
Add
Then
9 to x'\6x to
make a complete
square.
x*
+ 6a;40 = a;»+6a;+9940,
=a;*+6a;+949, = (*+3)*7»,
= (a;+3 + 7)(a; + 37), = (x+10)(x4).
Ex. 2.— Factor
x^+5xS0Q.
Add
Then
(I) or
^^
to x*\5x to complete the square. x*
+ 5x806=x^+5x + ^\^S0Q, = (a;+)«_(V)*, = (a:+§ + V^)(x+§V). = (x+31)(x26).
Ex. 3.—Solve
a;2100a;+2491=0.
x" 100x425002500 + 2491 = 0, x2100x + 2500 9 = 0,
(x50)232 = 0,
..
Add
50* or 2500 to complete the square.
(x50 + 3)(x503) = 0,
{x47)(x53) = 0,
x47 = or x53 = 0, x=47 or 53.
The
solution might be
:
contracted by writing
it
in the
following form
Transpose the absolute term,
Add 2500
to each side,
root,
/.
x»100x+2491 = 0. x^— 100x= — 2491. x*  100x + 2500= 2491 + 2500=9.
.'.
Take the square
/.
x — 50=±3,
x=50±3,
= 53
or 47.
246
ALGEBRA
Here the solution depends upon the same principle, but assumes a simpler form. It is thus seen that we effect the solution of a quadratic equation by finding and solving the two simple equations of
which
it
is
composed.
Thus by the first method of solving x2— 100x+2491=0, we obtained the two simple equations x— 47 = and x— 53=0, and by the second x— 50=3, and x— 50= — 3.
Ex. 4.—Solve
Divide by 3 to
3.r2+x=10.
the
first
make
side,
term a square,
Add
(J)» to
each
..
x«+
ia;
+ 5V = V+irs = Vv
Take the square
root,
.".
2;+i
= + Y. x=±V— 8 =
3
or
—2.
Verify both of these roots.
The
1.
steps in this
method
are
:
Reduce
the equation to the standard
form and remove
the
absolute term to the right.
2.
3.
Divide by the
coefficient of
x^
if not iinity.
Complete
the
square by adding
to
each side the square
of half the coefficient of x.
4.
5.
Take
the sqvxire root of each side.
Solve the resulting simple equations.
EXBRCISE
What must
square
1.
?
119
(18,
Oral)
be added to each of the following to
make
a comolete
x^+2x.
2.
a;24x.
3.
7.
x^+\Ox.
x24ax.
4. 8.
x^Ur. x^—
:
5
x^+3x.
6.
x2— 5x.
.J.c
Factor, by
making the
difference of squares,
and verify
fT.
^. x^+'Lt—n. (l^ x»x1640.
JO.
x2— 54x(713.
x^— 2x— 899
^^
x'i^x+^.
(l4r'3x«16x99.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Use the method
verify the roots
:
247
of
completing the square to solve the following and
^
^.
21.
2;2^8x=9.
x29x+18=0.
2x23x=2.
If
&
22.
^. x2— 6x=7.
x2+7x410=0.
2x2+x=1081.
Qi x^— 10x+9=0.
€^
23.
x2x=2.
6x2+5x=6.
24.
x2+x=l^,
find the values of x
+
•
172.
Equations with Irrational Roots.
In
all
the quadratic
equations
we have
solved,
we found that when we had
completed the square on the left side, the quantity on the right was also a square. This would not always be the case.
Ex. 1.—Solve
a;26a;l=0.
a;«6x=l,
..
x»6x+9=10, x3=±v'IO,
x = 3±v'ro.
The two
We
value
roots are 3 + VTO and 3VTO. might go a step further and substitute roots
for
VlO
its
approximate
3 16.
The two
would then be
3±316 = 616
If
or
16.
we
substitute either of these values for x in x'
— 6x— 1,
the result
will
not be exactly 0, as we might expect, because \^10 is not exactly 316, but the difference between and the value found for x' — 6x— will be very small.
Ex. 2.—Solve
2x^+x=2.
x»
+ ix=l,
x + i=±\/H=±iVl7.
x=i±^Vr7.
The two
substituting
roots are
\\kV\l,
\kVV1,
or
'781,
1281, on
V 17 = 4 123.
248
173.
ALOE BRA
Inadmissible Solutions of Problems.
is
a problem does not follow that the two roots of the equation wull furnish two admissible solutions of the problem.
solved by
When
means
of a quadratic equation,
it
Ex.
in 1^
—A
man walked
less.
25 miles.
If his rate
had been one
mile per hour faster he would have completed the journey
hours
What was
his rate
?
Let his rate be x miles per hour.
The time taken
to walk 25 miles
his time
25 = —
At the supposed rate
=
X 25
hr.
r hr.
x\l
••
Simplifying,
Solving,
_ 25 " x+l~ ^' a;* + a;— 20 = 0,
25
X
x=4
is
or
—6.
Therefore his rate was 4 miles per hour, the other root giving a
solution which
inadmissible
BXE3RCISE
Solve,
finding
120
three
the roots approximately to
decimal places,
using the table
1.* k.
x^—4x=\.
:c2+8a;=19.
^:
6.
a;2—
10x+17 = 0.
3.
«H2x6=0.
2a;2+3a;4=0.
x(a;+3)=J.
:
^6.
Solve, expressing the roots in the surd form
y
7.
a;2— 6x=2.
8.
x'^^9,x=\\.
9.
4a;2— 4a;=7.
10.
4x28x=37.
11.
3x25a;ll=0.
<12.
\x^^\x=\.
In solving
verify the
The
following problems reduce to quadratic equations.
the equations factor
results.
by inspection where
and
possible
and
13,
The sum
of
two numbers
is
11
their
product
is
30.
Find
the numbers.
14.
The sum
of
the squares of two consecutive numbers
is
85.
Find the numbers.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
15.
249
is
The
difference
is
and the area
I
between the sides of a rectangle 300 square inches. Find the sides.
13 inches
Find two consecutive numbers such that the square of their 16. 'sum exceeds the sum of their squares by 220.
17.
A
merchant bought
silk for $54.
price per yard exceeded the
of yards.
number
of yards
The number of cents in the by 30. Find the number
18.
18 rods
19.
The area of a rectangular field is 9 acres and the length more than the width. Find the length. The three
sides
of
is
a
rightangled
triangle
are
consecutive
integers.
Find the
sides.
20.
How
can you form 730
front of one will contain 4 21.
men into two solid squares men more than the front of the
so that the
other
?
The owner
of a rectangular lot 12 rods
double the size of the lot same amount. What should the increase be
22.
If x\2 in
by 5 rods wishes to by increasing the length and width by the
?
men
in
x+5
x.
days do
five
times as
much work
is
as a:+l
men
23.
x— 1 A
of
days, find
rectangular mirror 18 inches by 12 inches
is
to be surrounded
by a frame
uniform width whose area Find the width of the frame.
24.
equal to that of the mirror.
What must
3.
a radius
25.
inches less
be the radius of a circle may be  as large ?
is
in
order that a circle with
>
One
side of a right triangle
is
10 less than the hypotenuse
afld the other
5
less.
Find the
sides.
spends $90 for coal, and finds that when the price is increased $150 per ton he will get 3 tons less for the same money. What was the price per ton ?
26.
27.
A man
A man
bought a number of
articles for $200.
He
kept 5 and
did he
sold the remainder for $180, gaining $2
on each.
How many
The sum
huy?
28.
The sum
of the
is
two
digits of a
number
is 9.
of the
squares of the digits
29.
f of the
number.
Find the number.
the rest
A
number
of cattle cost
a'vera^ed $10 T>8r head
more
$400, but 2 having died Find the number bou;ht
250
30.
ALGEBRA
How much must
in
by 6 inches
be added to the length of a rectangle 8 inches order to increase the diagonal by 2 inches ?
31.
In
.
the
figure,
the
rectangle
AO 05= rect.
angle
CO OD.
(1) If
(2) If
.40=16, B0^3, C0= 8, ^0=10, £0=4, CD=13,
figure,
find
OD. OD.
circle,
find
32.
In the
when OA
4,
8,
is
a tangent to the
OA^=^OC .OD.
(1) If
(2) If (3) If
0C=
0.4=
0.4
CD=
5, find
OA.
00.
0Z)= 10,
0Z)=16,
find find
= 15,
OD.
33.
I sold
an
article for
$56 and gained a per cent,
equal to the cost in dollars.
What was
the cost
?
34. The denominator of a fraction exceeds the numerator by 3. If 4 is added to each term the resulting fraction is f of the original fraction. Find the fraction.
35. An open box containing 432 cubic inches is to be made from a square piece of tin by cutting out a 3 inch square from each corner and turning up the sides. How large a piece of tin must be used ?
36.
A
and
it
B
alone can do
in 12
can together do a piece of work in 14 days, and A days less than B. Find the time in which /I could
do
it
alone.
BXERCISE
1.
121
(Review of Chapter XIX)
?
What
it.
is
a quadratic equation
2.
Is (x+l)(a;— 2)(a;+3)
=
{a;
— 4)(x— l)(a; + 7) a quadratic equation?
its
Solve
3.
number
^4.
5.
6.
The sum of a positive number and to two decimal placas.
square
is
4.
Find the
SolvegA_+gA_ =
If x*y*
3;L^=l.
are the values of xy
1
— 6xy — l = 0, what
7
Are x = 4 and x'=16 equivalent equations, that
Solve
is,
have they
the same roots
C9
x'— xy+y* = 39, when y=7.
3t r
*
251
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
8.
may
is
Divide 14 into two parts so that the be greater than twice their product by 4.
If
sum
of their squares
9.
(a;2)(x3) = 7(x3), does
?
it
follow that
x2 = 7
?
What
the proper conclusion
10.
The distance
is
t
seconds
{s) in feet that a body falls from rest in given by the formula s=l6lt*. How long will it take
a body to
fall
6440 feet
1
?
ir.i Solve 3x «  4x 
= 0.
of the
?
number.
13.
r
.„
Ten times a number is 24 greater then the square Does this condition determine the number definitely
x+2 Solve— =3 + 4a; ^^.
„
,
7
^
^R.
15.
16.
Find two consecutive odd numbers whose product
Solve(2a;
is
399.
+
3)«2(22; +
3) = 35.
The
„
units digit of a
of the digits
is 12.
number
7
is
the square of the tens digit
and the sum
._
Find the number.
;
17. 18.
Solve
If
,
a;+10
—!—
10
X— 5
X
=
11
"E
6
— x+5
r5
5 a;— 3
15 =
5 3
•
2 hours less to travel 315 miles.
a train travelled 10 miles per hour faster Find the rate.
it
would require
<^.
Solve (3j;7)(2j;9)
— (5a;12)(a;6) = (x2)(2a;3).
number which
is
20.* Find, to three decimal places, the positive 'ess than its square by unity.
^yJH*.
If 4a;«
— 3xy^y'=14,
find x
if j/
= x + 3.
34 feet and the length of the
"'22.
The perimeter
is
of a rectangle
sides.
is
diagonal
23.
13 feet.
Find the
which
is
Solve x* + (x — 4)* = 40. State the problem, the condition expressed by this equation.
in
24. A line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, such that the rectangle contained by the parts has an area of 48 square inches more than the square on the shorter part. Find the lengths of the
parts.
25.
26.
Solve x^ + !/^ =
9,
when y = Z—x.
is
The diagonal
If 5 is
of a rectangle
39 feet and the shorter side
is
i'^
of the longer.
Find the area.
one root of x' — 7x*f6x+20 = 0, find the other roota
27.
to three decimal places.
252
28.
ALGEBRA
Find the price of eggs per dozen when 10
less in a dollar's
worth
raises the price 4 cents per dozen.
The length of a field exceeds its breadth by 30 yards. If the were square but of the same perimeter, its area would be t^ greater. Find the sides.
29.
field
30.
31.
If
8x —
—= X
4, find
x to three decimal
pleices.
was S20. This was to be divided the men present. But four failed to contribute anytjjing, and thereby the cost to ea^h of the others was increased 25 cents. How many men were there ?
cost of an entertainment
equally
The
among
32.
in 3
If a man walked one mile per hour faster he would walk 36 miles hours less time. What is his rate of walking ?
If
A polygon with n sides has ^n(n— 3) diagonals. 33. has 20 diagonals, how many sides has it ?
34.
a polygon
Solve aHa:a)« = 6*(x + a)*.
A can do a piece of work in 10 days less than B. If they work 35. together they can do it in 12 days. In what time could each do it alone ?
36.
If x'L
X"
^ = 81.
*
find the value of x^
and
is
of x.
37.
6 acres
The length
is
?
of a rectangular field
and the area
54 acres.
How many
to the width as 3 to 2 rods longer must it be to contain
CHAPTER XX
RATIO AND PROPORTION
174.
Methods of Comparing Magnitudes.
When we
in
wish tc
compare two magnitudes, there are two ways comparison may be made.
(1)
which the
We may
We may
other.
(2)
determine by how much the one exceeds the This result is found by subtraction.
determine how
result
is
many
times the one contains
division.
;he other.
Here the
found by
Thus, if one line is 6 inches in length and another is 18 inches, we may say that the second is 12 inches longer than the first, or that the second is three times as long as the first.
Neither method of comparison can be used, unless the magnitudes compared are of the same denomination, or can be changed into equivalent magnitudes of the same denomination.
Thus, we can compare 3 lb. and 10 but we can not compare 5 lb. and 4 ft.
175.
Ratio.
lb.
;
2 yd.
1 ft.
and 2
ft.
9 in.
;
When two
are
compared by
division, the
magnitudes, of the same kind, quotient is called the ratio
magnitudes. Thus, the ratio of 3 to 4 is the same as the quotient of 314, which is usually written . The ratio of 3 to 4 is written 3:4,
of the
.'.
3:4=3^4 = 1.
a
:
Similarly,
b=a^b =
r.
254
ALGEBRA
may
be
It will thus be seen that all problems in ratio considered as problems in fractions.
Comparison of Ratios. To compare two ratios we 176. simply compare the fractions to which these ratios are
equivalent.
Ex.
i
1.
—Which
is
is
the greater ratio, 3
changed into
:
:
4 or 7
is
:
9
?
The problem
or i
at once
"
Which
the greater fraction
"
?
To compare the
in the
fractions
§f
,
we reduce them
it is
forms ^l and
also
and
m.ight
compare them
to the same denomination seen that the latter is'the greater. We by reducing the fractions to equivalent
decimals.
Ex.
2.
— Which
a
is
greater, a
:
a\2 or
a+1 a+3.
:
_ a+2 ~ g+l _ a+3 ~
What
is
a(o+3)
(a
+ 2)(a + 3)
)
(a+l)(a + 2
(a+2)(a+3)
?
+ 2)(a + 3) _ a* + 3a+2 ~ (a+2)(a+3)"
(a
_ "~
a*+3a
the conclusion
177. Terms of a Ratio. In the ratio a b, a and b are called the terms of the ratio, a being called the antecedent and b
:
the consequent.
of
equivalent denominator.
o Thus, r
_,,
the
The antecedent corresponds to the numerator fraction, and the consequent to the
numerator , denominator
.
=
antecedent consequent
=
=
dividend
,.
•
.
divisor
is
178.
Equal Ratios.
Since a ratio
a fraction,
all
the laws
which we have used with fractions
ratios.
may
:
also be used with
Thus, since 
=—
mb
j
,
it
follows that a
b=^ma mb.
:
Hence bolh terms of a ratio may be multiplied or divided by the same quantity {zero excepted) without changing the value
of the ratio.
Thus, 6
:
9
=2
:
3, i
i .23 = 3
:
:
2, ^:
'
6
o
= ^^ *
:
6»
RATIO AND PROPORTION
265
EXBRCISB
their lowest terms
1.
122 (115, Oral)
Simplify the following ratios by expressing them as fractions in
256
f28^
ALOE BRA
When
is
part
a sum of money is divided in the ratio 1 820 more than when it is divided in the ratio 2
:
2,
:
the smaller
7.
Find the
3um.
(_29.
What number must
i
be added to both terms of

to
make
it
equal to
?
(*Ji^
(30^
13: 19
31.
What number
?
subtracted from each terra of 7
:
10 will produce
What must
is
What
32.
be added to each term of a the conclusion when c^=d^.
:
b to
produce
c
:
d
1
If a is a positive
number which
is
the greaterratio,
, 7
SoTeet Soieet per second.
34.
Q
:
l+2a l+3a
The
rate of one train
is
143a
or
l+4a
is
?
30 miles per hour and of another
What
is
the ratio of their rates
Divide a line a inches long into two parts whose lengths are
:
in
the ratio b
c.
Ji^. ^'s income
expenditure =5
:
:
5's
If
income=3
spends
:
4,
6.
?
^
all his
5's and A'^ expenditure income, what per cent, of his
:
income does
B
save
^^^. Divide 8315 among A, B and C, so that as 3 4, and £'s to (73 as 5 7.
:
A's,
share will be to 5's
37.
A
line is divided into
two parts
in the ratio of 5
two parts
division
38.
in the ratio
3:5.
If the distance
7 and into between the points of
:
is 1
inch, find the length of the line.
Two numbers
are in the ratio of 3:5, but
to
if
10 be taken from
reversed.
the greater and added the numbers.
39.
the smaller, the ratio
is
Find
Two
bodies
ra feet in
a seconds
The are moving at uniform rates. and the second n yards in b minutes.
?
first
goes
is
What
of
the ratio of their rates
179.
Proportion.
A
proportion
Is
the statement
the
equaUty of two
Thus, 3
:
ratios.
:
Therefore, 3
4=15 20, since  = i^. 4=15 20 is a proportion,
:
:
or
3, 4, 15,
20 are
said to be in proportion, or they are said to be proportionals.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
If a, b, c,
257
d are in proportion or a
.b=c
:
d,
then
,
a
r
= cJ a
ad=bc.
proportion a:b=c:d, a and d are called the and b and c the means. Since ad^bc, it is seen that <^e product of the extremes is
In
the
extremes
equal to the product of the means.
180.
Fourth Proportional.
When a:b=c:d,
10, 12,
d
is
called
the fourth proportional to
Thus,
then
if
a, b, c.
the fourth proportional to
10
..
15
is x,
:
12=15
:a;
10 or yg
=
15 —
10x= 12x15, x=18.
To find a Ratio, by Solving an Equation. From certain 181. types of equations in x and y, the value of the ratio oi x :y may be found.
Ex.
Since
1.
—
If
bx=Qy,
find the ratio oi x .y.
.*.
5x X X
:
= %, = ft/, _6
=
 or 6
:
the ratio of
x
y
5.
Ex. 2.—If 3a;4t/=3t/7x, find 
3x+7x =
Sy — iy,
10"
y~
If
the ratio ot x
each term in the equation is of the first degree in x or y, y can be found, but it can not be found if there is a term not containing x ox y.
:
Thus, from 2x — 7i/=
10,
the value ol x
:
y can not be found.
S
258
ALGEBRA
{x2y){2x3y)
:.
Ex. 3.— If 2x^—lxy\6y^=0, find x:y.
Factoring,
= =
0,
x—2y = 0or2x—3y = 0,
2 or 5
•
y
2
Here there are two values
equation by
y*,
of .
If
we
divide each term of the given
we
get
In this form
we
see that the equation
is
a quadratic in

,
and we
might naturally expect to find two values
for the required ratio.
Ex. 4.— It
2x—5y\ 2=0,
3x+2«/— 2z=0,
find the ratios of x, y,
If
z.
we eliminate
z in
the usual way,
we
get
7x8y=0,
x
_8
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Find the value oi x:
13. 16.
y,
259
2x=ly
\x=^'iy.
a:2=42/2.
14,
17.
32/=
12a;.
15. 18.
2xi/=0.
S^z+llx^O.
2x=Zy.
4x2=91/2.
19.
20.
21.
(xSj/Kz— 5i/) =
22.
If
b
= , show
d
that c
= ,
a
and a
= .
c
2, 3,
:
(^
k,
Find a fourth proportional to
\
;
18;
5,
—7, —10;
\.
a, b, c
;
a, 26, 3c.
^4y
Find a fourth proportional to: 3a+2, a2— 5a+6, a25a+4.
a
— h,
{a\bY,
a^—b^; and
What number must
(2&7
If
be added to each of the numbers
?
2, 4, 17,
25
8(^Jfiat the results will be proportionals
(Verify.)
x.
does the result
27. 28.
a+x, 6+x, c+x, dj^ mean when bc=ad
in order that
is
:
are proportionals, find
?
What
Find a
^'s age
their, ages.
a+3 a+15=3
:
:
4.
4.
to B's as 4
5.
Five years ago the ratio was 3
:
Find
29.* In an equilateral triangle the ratio of the altitude to either
of the equal sides
is
VS
is
:
2.
If
the altitude
is
10 inches, find the side
to
two decimal
30.
places.
When
a line
drawn
j^arallel to
the sides in the same ratio.
the base of a triangle it divides In the figure, AB=20, AD—l'i and
AC=15.
31.
similar.
Find
AE and EC.
In the figure, the triangles
ADE
and
ABC
are
D/.
When
triangles are similar their correspond
^ /\
\E
^
ing sides are in the
same
:
ratio, so that
:
:
AD AB=DE BC=AE
If
AC.
^
AB=8, BC^IO, AC=9, AD=6,
In the same
figure,
find the lengths of all the other
lines in the figure.
32.
the areas of the similar triangles are in
the
If
same
ratio as the areas of the squares
on their corresponding
sides.
is
AD^20
and AB=35,
find the area of
ADE
if
the area of
ABC
735.
s 2
260
ALGEBRA
The
side of the square
33
/^
A BCD
is
10 inches and
EF
is
parallel
B
to
DC.
If
the length of
AE
is
3 inches, find
the
length of
34.
FC
to three decimals.
If the bases of
two
triangles are in the ratio
:
3
:
4 and their heights in ratio 8
9, find
the ratio of
their areas.
J3tf^
From
these equations find z
:
y,
;
13x+5!/=9a;f13j/
;
ax+by=cx+dy
px\qy=0.
mx—ny^=nx\my
;
as^ Find
,>?r^
oi a
:
tv.'o
values ol x
:
y when
;
6x^—l3xy+6y^=0
If
x^=4xy+5y^.
find the ratios
5a — 36+2c=0
:
and a + b+c=0,
b,
a
c,
a
:
b
:
c.
38.
figure.
39.
Find the lengths
of
all
the other lines in this
3
If
a pole 10 feet high casts a shadow 17J feet
cast,
D
9
long,
time,
what will be the length of the shadow by a monument 84 feet high ?
at
the same
Write the equation 3x^'\0xy{3y^=0 in a form showing
as the

unknown, and
find
x
:
y.
:
J^.
A number
of
two
digits bears the ratio 7
digits.
If
4 to the number
formed by reversing the find them.
the
sum
of the
numbers
is
66.
^2.
The length
of a
:
room
If
is
to the width as
6:5, and the length
is
i/ to the height as 3
find the dimensions.
2.
the area of the floor
187^ square
feet,
If 4 men and 3 women earn as much as 16 boys, and 6 men 43. and 5 boys earn as much as 10 women, find the ratio of the earnings of a man, woman and boy.
44. 46.
If
3ab+2b^:2a^ab=9:5,
the angle
:
find a
:
b.
When
A
is
bisected,
:
AB AC^BD
(1) If
(2) If
DC.
AB=10, AC=S, BC=12, find BD and DC. AB=c, AC=h, BC=a, find BD and DC
RATIO AND PROPORTION
46.
261
The
ratio of the area of a rectangle to the area of the square
its
described on
47.
diagonal
is
6
:
13.
Find the ratio of the
7,
sides.
The
sides of
is
a triangle are
10
and
?
12.
The perimeter
of
a
similar triangle
72J.
What
are its sides
48.
If
—— =
5
= ~—^!
7
9
—
,
find x.y.z.
When three numbers form a understood that the middle number is to be repeated. The three numbers are said to be in continued proportion, and the middle one is called the mean proportional between the other two.
182.
Mean
Proportional.
proportion,
it is
Thus,
4,
6
and 9 are
in
continued proportion, since
9.
4:6 = 6:9.
Here 6
If
is is
X
mean proportional between 4 and a mean proportional between 3 and 27,
the
X
.'.
=
~^,
27
..
x»
= 81,
..
a;=+9. ~
the
3
i:
mean
proportionals between 3 and 27 are
+ 9.
Since
results.
=
tt;^
9
9 and 27
3—9 — = — —9 27
;;
,
it
is
seen that these are the correct
Similarly,
if
x
is
the
.
mean
a X
proportional between a and
..
h,
then
= ,
X
x=»Va&.
/—
Therefore, the
is
mean
'proportional between
any two
quantities
the square root of their product.
183.
Third
is
Proportional.
If
a,
h,
c
are
in
continued
h.
proportion, c
Thus,
if
called the third proportional to a
and
X
is
the third proportional to 6 and 15,
 16
= lf,
X
•
6x=225,
..
x=37i.
262
ALGEBRA
BXSRCISB
124
;
•o.
4063 and 'da%
Find a mean proportional between 4 and 16 (ai)^ and (a + ft)^.
;
;
2a and 8a
;
J?r Find a third proportional to 2 and 4 x'^—y^ and x— ?/.
3
and 30
;
5a and
lOaft
A.
34
The mean proportional between two numbers whose sum
Find the numbers.
is
is 15.
(/4.
Three
numbers are
in
continued
proportion.
The middle
12
one
is
12 and the
sum
of the other
two
is
51.
Find the numbers.
3, 7,
5.
What number must
be added to each of the numbers
?
80 that the results will be in continued proportion
semicircle
P
figure, the angle BAC being in a a right angle. When AD is drawn perpendicular to the hypotenuse it is proven in
C*
In
the
is
u
geometry that
AD is a mean proportional between BD and DC, AB between BD and BC, and AC between CD and (1) If BD= 4, DC= 9, find AD. (2) If BD= 5, AB= 8, find DC. (3) If BC = n, AC=\2, find DC, AB, AD. (4) If AB= 3, AC= 4, find BC, AD, BD.
7.
BC.
How
(1)
(2)
would 30U use the preceding to
line
find
?
?
A
whose length
is
VG
inches
is
The
side of a square
whose area
12 square inches
A. tnem
Find two numbers such that the mean proportional between
is
4 and the third proportional to them
line 21
is
32.
9^ Divide a
loV^est
is
four times
the shortest and
inches long into three parts such that the the middle one is a mean
proportional between the other two.
184.
The
following examples will illustrate a
method which
has
many
appplications to problems with ratios or fractions.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
^^Since
263
^^^
r
6
=
d'
P^^^^ '^^' ^^:i56^
= ^^35^
c=dk.
•
=
a
„ let
each fraction
^.
.'.
=
k.
Then
b
r
=
a=bk,
c in
,
d
= k,
.'.
Substitute these values of a and proven.
each side of the identity to be
3o«+2b«
a*— 5b*
3c'
_ ~~
~
Sb^k*
+ 2b*
*
b*k*5b*
d*A;«5d«
3a»
+ 2d» _ 3d*P + 2d
cs_5d»
b*(3k* + 2) _ 3k* + 2 ~ b^k^5) ~ fc25 +2 _ rf»(3fc* + 2) _ ~ d^(k^5) ~ k'5
__
3A:''
*
'
+ 2 6» _
prove
3c»
+ 2d'
Ex. 2.If 
=^=
.
^^^qip^q:^
=
(a+6+c)3'
Let x = ak, y = bk, z = ck. of the fractions is equal to
,. If
Substitute as before and show that each
k^.
«
r 6
185.
c =T rf
^^
.
then
— —^ = c—d a—o
a\b
^
c\d !—^
•
Prove
this
by
letting a
= bk and c = dk, as in the preceding examples.
was obtained by adding and suband
c
Here the fraction
tracting the terms of the fraction r,
in
—
.
was obtained
a similar
way from
is
^
•
This principle
sometimes useful in simplifying equations.
4:X\3
Ex. 1.—Solve
Adding and subtracting,
..
3a+46
4a:— 3
3a— 46
Si*
^=
646x
= _
36a,
9a
^~T6b'
Solve also, in the usual way, by cross multiplication.
264
ALOE BE A
^. „ 2.—If a\b\c4d = a+b—c—d —^ —4 ^ Ex. '—J a— 0— cfa a—o\c—d
*• AAAA u, Adding and subtiacting, ^^^^
—
.
a prove r o
=d

c
2a+2d
a\d
2a2d = ^^—^,
b
a—d c' + c~ 6 — o + d _ b{c
a—d
Adding and subtracting,
9^
a
b—c
~
9~
'
b
*
d
a
•'
c
_
d
b^c'
;2$
—%
EXBRCISB
^. •^
If 
=
:
h
If a
, d^
:
prove that
2a+36
—=
2c+3d
mc — nd.
^.
3<
6=c
d, show that ma+nfe ma—nh=^mc\nd
:
:
If
a
:
6=c
4
:
d,
prove a26d+6^c+6c=a62c+a6d+od.
•^
•
5.
If
? y
= ?,
find the value of
??!±^.
6x2/42/2
(Here x=?/, substitute for x and simplify.)
T* If
a;
2
=y ^.
3
^
find the value of \^
,
,,
,
,
(2x+3w)(3x+2w) /, • 32/)(3x— 5t/) (5x— /,,„
^
^^
If
? y

= 3 and ? = ?,
6
find the value of
5
"P^ 2az+3by
is
fii
.
^^
,
If
==
b
,
prove that each fraction
equal to
a
c
o+fitc
——
^
,
that
IB,
to
sum of numerators sum of denominators
£\ n ^ =
\J
b—c
c—a
J^=
^, a—b
prove x(6+c)+2/(c+a)+2(o+6)=0.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
265
h^d\h(J^.
^?
dc^
If
.1,
b, c,
d are proportionals, prove that ah\ac^,
and
hd"^
are proportionals.
b
c
(3^"^
\^.
/i2J
nX
If
If T, If
+y
:
y—z
:
z+x
,
prove that a^h\c.
b^.
o
b=b
c,
show that a c=a^
:
:
a—b:a\b^=c—d:c\d, prove a:b=c:d.
a+6+c+d = a — 6+c —
a\b—c—d
,
——
!
d
;
,
a
— b—c\a
•
show that
,
c 1^0 = 
.
b
d
6
16.
c ooJve
,
3x+46 3x46
sum
of
—= 5a+3b
5a 36
If the
two numbers
is
to their difference as 7 to 4, find
the ratio of the numbers.
^a 16.
equals
17.
T* If
a—b+l = b—c + 3 = c—a+5 b—c+2 c—a+4: a— 6+6
;
•
—
,
show that each
,
,,
,
.
x
fraction
i
f.
(Use Ex.
7.)
Solve
a
^^±^=^^±^±^.
aa;— 6+c
bx\c—a
:
^.
19,
If
:
6=3
b
:
5, 6
c=7
:
9, c
:
d=^\f>, 16, find the ratio
oin:A. s«i>.
If 
a
also equals
=^=c
,
show that each
•
fraction equals
^
5a— 36+2c
—
^—I
—
,
and
ma\nb
j
—pc ——
y^^.
21.
find the
Find two numbers such that their sum, difference and product
9.
if
are proportional to 4, 2,
If a, b, c are
consecutive numbers and
c^—b^
:
6^— a^=41
:
39,
numbers.
:
22. The length and breadth of a room are as 3 2, and if 2 feet be added to each, the new area of the floor is to the old as 35 27. Find the dimensions.
:
^^23.
If a
:
b=c
:
d,
prove a
:
A
a+6=a+c 0+6+c+d.
:
^
'4.
If
^^^^
lOc+d 12c+d
a
:
show that ?
6
:
= ^
d
:
If
6=6
:
c,
then 0^+06
62=62+6c
c'
266
ALGEBRA
BXBRCISB
126
(Review of Chapter XZ)
forma
:
Write as fractions
in their simplest
w^7i:8.
4.
^.
5,
1
x*y*:{xy)\
a*
^.
6^
.
,
o«
+ 6»
:
:
(a
+ 6)«
li:l + .
1
:1
a1
c
^_
^
/f, x^
i
x*5x+6' x'+z—12
9.
,1 „ ^ >c^a»+l + ^:al+^
3, 4,
Divide 144 into three parts proportional to
11.
it
*
*^
r
10.
to 6
:
What must
7
?
be added to each term of 4
:
7 to
make
equal
/* 4
11.
Write as a proportion
3. 6
in
two ways
:
= 2. 9; 2.5 = 3z; ab = cd (a + 6)(a6) = 3 4 a*5o + 6 = a* + 5o+4.
;
.
;
^i^
:)ther
131*.
If
the means are 7 and 12 and one extreme
?
is 3,
what
is
the
extreme
Find a fourth proportional to:
a, a',
7,
15,
a'
;
x + y, x — y, x* — w*
;
a
11— — —
7.
:
35
;
r a}o
,
a*
— b*.
«)f
IfC
IS.
Find two numbers
504.
in the ratio 9
5,
the difference
whose
aquare^s
Two numbers
are in the ratio of 5
:
8,
and
if
1^3 and 2 be taken from the greater, the ratio numbers.
i^.
is
8 be added to the 14 15. Find the
:
Find two numbers
in the ratio 6
:
5 so that their
sum
is
to the
difference of their squares as 1:3.
17.* If the ratio a — x
find X.
:
6
—x
:
is
equal to the square of the ratio a
:
h,
^a.
If
2x+3?/
:
3x5i/ = 9
11, find
x
:
y.
WT
20.
If (5x72/)(2x32/)
If If
= (4x52/)(xj/),
%x+2y
: :
find x
:
y.
4x52/ = 2x+2?/, find
2x+32/.
^
21. 23.
24.
6x«+152/*=19x2/, find X
:
2/.
Ifx* + x+l 62(x+l) = x*x+l 63(xl), find x. and 7x+6z/92 = 0, find x:y,x:z and If 2x + 2/23 =
:
x.y.z
If

=
y
3
s.
find the value of
'^^^
•
3x+llj/
RATIO AND PROPORTION
267
If az + by 26. X to y.
X
27;
Find a mean proportional to
:
a;*
j
and y^
y
^
^
•
bx\ay=9
:
11
and a
:
6
=3
:
2,
find
the ratio of
If
r
=
J
=
7'
show that each
of these fractions
is
equal to
ma—nc—pe mb—nd—pf
j<?
Find two numbers whose sum, difference and product are 28. proportional to 5, 3, 16.
X
^
31. 32.
If
a
•.b
=c
:
d,
show that
{ab
a+b
c+d'
2o*36«
2a*
+ 36*
2c3d» 2c*+3d»'
+ cd)* = (a* + c*)(b* + d*).
7
u«^
If
=— ro\c—a
any number
c\a—o
= —T a\b—c
\
,
prove that
x(b
If
— c) \y{c — a)
z(a
— b) = 0.
show that each
ratio
is
of ratios are equal,
equal
to the ratio of the
sum
of all the antecedents to the
sum
of all the
consequents.
If 3x22/ + 42 = 2a;32/ + 2 = 0, find the ratios + 2/* + 2*= 150, find the values of x, y and z.
of x, y,
z.
If
also,
a;*
^[3'r
The hypotenuse
:
iide as 13
5.
If
of a rightangled triangle is to the shortest the perimeter is 120, find the sides.
and height of a room are proportional to each dimension be increased 2 feet, the area of the four walls will be increased in the ratio of 10 to 7. Find the dimensions of the room.
34.
3,
The
length, width
4,
2.
If
d
35.
If r
b
=

C
d
6 = ,
f
show that
CL
•\—
C^ — lC
rr
,r
b^
+ d^+P
r
=
CLC&
5r;
•
bdf
36. If the sides of a triangle are 6 and 8 and the base is 4, find the segments of the base when the bisector ot the vertical angle is
drawn.
37. 38.
If
yiZ^ = ^^P^,
zx+y
x\y+z'
show that
z*
= x*+yK ^
are Bf
6:7.
39.
If
The incomes of A and B are as 2 3 and their expenses ^ saves 25% of his income, what % does B save ?
:
Find three values of the ratio x
:
y
ii
3{x*ixh/ + 5xy*2y*) = 2{x'2xh/2xy* + 3y»).
CHAPTER XXI
THE GENERAL QUADRATIC EQUATION
186.
Type
of the General Quadratic,
The equation
is called the general quadratic equation, because every quadratic equation may be reduced to this form. If the factors of ax^\bz\c can be obtained, the roots of the equation can be found by solving the two equivalent
equations.
187.
Solution
the
of
Literal
Quadratics.
The
to
methoa
of
completing
square
may
be applied
the
solution of
quadratic equations with
literal coefficients.
Ex.
1.
—Solve
x*
root,
z^}'2mx=n.
side,
Complete the square by adding m' to each
+ 2mx{m* = n + m*.
x+Tn= ± Vn+m*,
Take the square
The two
roots are
x= —m+ Vnfw*. —m+Vn+vi*, —m—Vn^m*.
z^\pz\q^O.
Ex.
2.—Solve
p*
~ to each side, x*
Transpose the absolute term,
x*+px= —q.
p*
ir
Add
4
p* + px + ^ — — 9 + 4
4
—
'
p* — 4o
——
^
'
4
Take the square
root,
x
+
2=±
X
2
p = t:—
±
Vp*4q
;;
THE GENERAL QUADRATIC EQUATION
Ex. 3.—Solve
Divide by a to
26&
aa;2+6a;+c=0.
the
r*
first
make
term a square.
0.
+
a
r
+= 'a
Transpose,
X*
\
—X — —
r—z
Add
r—.
to each,
4a»
x* H
x
\
=
4a*
fe*— 4ac
4a«
a
4a^
Take the square
root,
^
+ 2^=±
.'.
v'62_4ac
2a
h
K
aJ
= —
2a
+ V6*— 4ac 2a
.
;j
'
_ 6±\/&2— 4ac ~
2a
The roots
of the general quadratic equation are
— &± V&^— 4ctc
2a
188. The roots bund by factoring
of the general
quadratic might also be
ax*[hx\c
as in art. 171.
=
0,
\
a
a]
(f
,
by^c
6M
a
is
Since the product is zero, one of the not zero, as the equation would not then
must be
quadratic.
zero.
But
^
+ 2^ +
270
ALGEBRA
eixbrcise: 127
Solve by either of the preceding methods
1.* a:»2aa:=3a2.
3. 6.
7.
:
2. 4.
6.
8.
a;2+46z56*=0.
x^+4:px—p^=(i.
z*— 6mxH3m2=0.
z*2az+6=0.
o«»+2ax=6.
x^^2bxc=0.
ax2i26x+c=0.
9.
az*— 6z— c=0.
Solving
10.
px'^—qx+r=().
roots
of
189.
by
Formula.
The
any particular
quadratic equation
of a, h
and
c
be found b}" substituting the values in the roots of the general quadratic.
may
Ex. 1.—Solve
6a;27a;+2=0.
Herea = 6, 6=7, c = 2.
„ Substitute these values in
,
.
,
,
.
x=
— 6+V6>4ac
»
^^
2a
••
^=
=
+ 7±V4948
12
7±1
12
=r2°'r2 = 3°'2
8
6
2
1
Verify by substitution.
Ex. 2.—Solve
Here a=5,
6
5a:2+6xl=0.
1.
•'•
= 6, c= — _ ^~ 6±\'36(20) _ 6+^56 ~ 10 10
'
~ 6±2Vl4 ~ 3±VIi
10 5
if
In this case the roots are irrational, but,
substitute for
necessary,
we may
Vli
5
its
approximate value 3742, when the roots become
742
3±3742
Note.
6742
or
z.
5
pupil
ia
5
to
,_ = HS
or
_. — 1348.
,
— The
warned
be
careful
of
the
signs
whoD
Rubatituting, particularly
when
c is
negative.
THE GENERAL QUADRATIC EQUATION
Ex. 3.—Solve
2a;2— 5x+6=0.
271
0=2,
•••
6=— 6, c = 6.
*
+ 5+V'2548 5+V^=^ = = "^4
^4
In the preceding result the numericannot be found even approximately, for there is no number whose square is negative. Such a quantity as 23 is called an imaginary quantity, and the roots in this case are said to be imaginary. This is merely another way of sajdng that there is no real number which will satisfy the equation 2x'^—6x\Q=0.
190.
Imaginary Roots.
cal value of the roots
V—
191.
Methods
of
Solving
Quadratic
Equations.
When
a
it
quadratic equation has been reduced to the standard form, may be solved
:
(1) (2)
By factoring, by inspection or by completing By substitution in the general formula.
is
is
the square.
The pupil this method
formula.
advised to try to factor by inspection,^ and if unsuccessful, then substitute in the general
As the general formula
absolutely essential that
it
will
be used very frequently, be committed to memory.
are
it
is
The
roots of
ax^+ox\c=0
2a
128
EXSRCISB
Solve, using the formula
1.*
:
3x25x42=0.
2.
24x246x+21=0.
^^.
5.
575x22x=l.
247x2+5x=12.
4.
2x26xl=0.
2x2 13x+ 10=0.
1200x2 10x=l.
^O
1
^
X
l^
i>a.
JJff 391x2+4x=35.
^
ft.
x^+x{3b2a)=6ab.
}y 6x^xl=0.
^
2x225x+77^0.
1800x«5xI=0
272
Solve by any method.
13. 16.
19.
ALGEBRA
Verify 1318
14. 17.
:
27a;2_24a:=16.
15x2+7a:2=0.
15.
12x2T6=0
526a;+5x2=0
2x22x=§.
1 * 2 3"'"9'"x"
2
4a;217a;+4=0.
460x23x=l.
3a;2+2=9a;.
18.
21.
9x+4=5a;2.
20. 23.
22.
4x24a;=79.
f2/=2/2
24.
25.
X
 ^ =0.
a;+2
26,
^41
2
^2 =
29.
w
ac+
X
a
2
27.
7
,
28.
30.
(x4)23(x9) = 15.
(x2)(x+3)=x(5x9)2.
2ax2+x(a— 2)=1.
2x(x2)=a22.
12
31.
=  + ex.
X
X
3
32.
33.
3
2^x
(x+2)2
+ x'
+ 3)2=(x+6)*.
x+1
^36.
^x+2
x+3'
^5.
(x
x'^—xy—^y^ 12.
n y=2,
,
find X.
^7.
38.
39.
n
£
x+1
,
„
x+1
find
X to three decimal places.
,
.,
,
,
2x
Find the sum of the roots of x^
3x=20.
40.
are expressed
41.
The area of a square in square feet and its perimeter in inches by the same number. Find the side of the square.
of a rectangular field exceeds the
The length
is
width by 16 rods
and the area
32 acres.
Find the length.
is
Find three consecutive even numbers whose sum 42. product of the first two.
43. A line 10 inches long square on the longer segment
is is
 of
the
divided into two segments so that the
equal to the rectangle contained by
the whole line and the shorter segment.
Find the segments to two
decimal places.
44.
Find two numbers whose difference
is
is
3
and the sum
of
whose
squares
45.
317.
of a square
The area
and 12 inches to the
other.
doubled by adding 5 inches to one side Find the side of the square.
is
TOJD QiUNERAL
46.
QUADRATIC EQUATION
27S
number by
47
A.D
48.
is
Three times the square of a number exceeds eight times the unity. Find the number to three decimals.
r^
Mr. Gladstone was born in the year a.d. 1809. he was x— 3 years old. Find x.
In the year
The area
of a rectangular field
sides.
is 8.
is
half
an
acre.
The perimetei
201 yards.
49.
Find the
One
root of x^—bx\d=(}
Find the value of d and the
other root.
50.
it
will
If a train travels 10 miles per hour faster than its usual rate, cover 480 miles in 4 hours less time. Find its usual rate.
51.
Divide 3 into two parts so that the
sum
of their squares
may
be 4§.
52. I buy a number of articles for $4'80 and sell them but 2 at 6 cents a dozen more than they cost.
I
for $5'95 all of
How many
C
did
buy?
53.
A
straight line
AB,
12 inches in length,
is
divided at
so as
to satisfy
one of the following conditions.
Find, in each case, the
length of
(1)
4C
to
two decimals
:
AC^=2BC\ 3^C2=44£ BG.
.
(2) (4)
in.
(3)
(5)
AC^=2AB BO. AC^+^BC^=2AB\
.
AC^BC^^IQ
s
[.
(6)
AC{AB^BC)=2
sq. ft.
54. I buy a number of books for $6, the price being uniform. li they had been Subject to a discount of 5 cents each, I could have bought 6 more for the same money. What did each cost ? 55. Solve the equation ax^\bx\c=^0 by multiplying by 4a and completing the square of 2ax\h. =^ 56.
3+2a; c 1 Solve
—
2— 3a;
2+a;
,
\^xx^
a;24
2x
1 =
.
3
Verify the roots obtained.
192. Equations Solved like Quadratics. There are certain types of equations of a higher degree than the second, which may be solved by reducing them to the form of quadratics.
T
»W4
ALGEBhA
x* 10x2+9=0.
it
ii
Ex. 1.—Solve
This
is ail
equation of the fourth degree, but we might write the form of a quadratic, thus
(x*)*10(2:«)
or
if
+ 9 = 0,
+ 9 = 0,
2/
we write y
for x*
it
takes the form
j/»102/
..
(3/9){t/l) = 0,
But
i/=aj*,
.".
x*
=9 =9
or
or
1.
1,
a;=±3
or
±
1.
We
see that this equation has four roots.
it is
This
is
what we might
expect, as
an equation
of the fourth degree in x.
Verify each of the four roots.
Ex. 2.—Solve (x2_5x)2+4(x25a;)12=0.
Here we consider x* — 5x as the unknown, whose value should
be found.
first
Let
THE GENERAL QUADRATIC EQUATION
w^ 4.Solve c bX. A.
1
271
^'4 2a;
3 . _^+^,^^ = 26
^
1
26
Complete Ex. 's 3 and 4 and verify the rational
roots.
Ex. 5.—Solve
Factoring,
..
z31^0.
(x—
l)(x*fx+
or x*
X— 1 = x= 1
1) = 0, + x+l = 0,
•
or X
=
1±V^ ^
We
degree,
thus see that
or
if
one root of an equation of the third
a cubic equation, can he found by factoring, the equation can he completely solved. This equation might be written x^ = l, and each of the thiee roots when cubed must give unity, which shows that unity has three cube roots. This is what we might have expected, as we have already' .seen that unity has two square roots.
+1
and —1.
BXERCISE
Solve and verify the rational roots
:
128
,^.
3.
x*5x2+4=0. V412=31y«.
^J..
^.
i.
(.H5.^6)(.«9.+ U)=0.
(x24x+o)(x24x+2) = 2.
.,
^9.
^
^t.
^
x« 13x2+36=0.
8i«65x3+8=0.
£!i^+_^ =
x»
2.
+ + =
a;
1
^^ a:2+x
.,«***
r
(*2+x4l)«4(x2+«+l)+3=0.
''!•.
,11.
x34x24x+16=0.
6/'x
+ l)^35/'x + lW50=0.
lA
(i+x+x2)(x+x»)=156.
t2
876
ALGEBRA
(Multiply
the
first
13.* (x+l)(«42)(a:+3)(a;+4)=120.
factors
and
last
and the second and
third.)
14.
a;(xl)(x2){x3) = 360.
Find the three cube roots of 8 by solving the equation x'— 8=0.
Find the four fourth roots of 16 by solving the equation
16.
16.
:fc4_16=0.
17.
^ 18.
Solve
x'— 19x430=0
being given that 3
^i^g
is
one of the roots,
Solve 12x3— 29x2+23x— 6=0 (ygg
It
is
factor theorem).
19.
evident that 4
is
a root of the equation
x(xl)(x2)=4.3.2.
Find the other two
20.
roots.
Find the
six roots of 8x«
— 217x3+27=0.
21. 22.
Solve(x2— x)2— 8(x2x) + 12=0.
Solve x2
1 + jL + + X = 4
a;
(^Add to x?
\
X^
+ i
the
x^
quantity
required to
make
it
the square of x H
) X )
BXERCISB
^\.
Illustrate
180
(Review of Chapter XZI)
Explain the different methods of solving quadratic equations them, by solving in full the equation 3x* — 4x— 15 = 0, by each method.
^.
(^
is
Solve 323x* + 2x=l.
The
104.
difference of two numbers Find the numbers.
is
8
and the sum
of their squares
V/C
5.
If
X
=
2( 1
+
j,
find.
X to two decimal pie
What
?
in the price
is the price of meat per lb. if a reduction of 20^ would mean that 5 lb. more than before can be bought
fo^ $3
sji.
Solve
10x»I9x9 = 0.
\^.
The
sides of a rightangled triangle are o,
?
o— 10
and o+lO.
What
are the sides
THE GENERAL QUADRATIC EQUATION
Solve
27'3
x—\
X—i
H
x— 5 = x—o
4.
The sum
9.
of two numbers Find the numbers.
is
45 and the sumi of their reciprocals
j/ioT
11.
Solve 6375x»10a;=l.
is
The length of a rectangular field The area is 3 J acres. Find the sides.
12.
5 rods
more than the width.
r——
What

miist be the values of n in order that —:
?
equal
when a = ^\
10n+21a
may ^
\13. The perimeter of a rectangle is 56 and the area is 192. Find the diameter of the circle which passes through its angular points.
14.
Solve
OOTox'+Tox^
150.
15.
By
solving
(x— 2){x— 3) = (a— 2)(a — 3),
3)
can be substituted for a in (a — 2)(a—
find a quantity whicL without changing its value.
,^.
17.
Solve x»  2a; »  89a; + 90 = 0.
Two
is
trains each run 330 miles.
One
of
them, whose average
speed
5 miles per hour greater than the other, takes ^ an hour less Find their average speeds. to travel the distance.
x+l a;»+2 ,» « Solve ^:jj+^j:p2 = 2*^
1
,
V.
9.
o Solve
,
^^^+^ = ^.
,
a;
x*+\
109
I sell a 20. cost in dollars.
horse for $96 and gain as WTiat was the cost ?
much %
as
the
horse
^.
22.
Solve {a;*3x5)* + 8(x*3a;5) + 7 = 0.
Divide 25 into two parts so that the sum of the fractions formed by dividing each part by the other may be 4 25.
The sides of a rectangvdar 23. Find the area. diagonal is 50.
72 Solve x» + a;+r— =18.
x'{x
field
are
x+17 and
a;—
17.
The
Solve (m» — n»)x» + 2x(m* + n*) + m* — n» = 0. Solve (x5j(xJ )(x+V)tx+
27.
3)
= 60.
x'= 1 25.
Find
all
the roots of the equation
Since x* — 8x+ 12 — (x— 2){x — 6), for what values of x will the 28. expression x* — 8x+12 be equal to zero, and for what values will it be negative ?
278
Solve
ALGEBRA
x—a
29. 30.
x—b
.
=
~
a\b
Solve adx — OCX* = hex — hd
The area of a square is trebled by adding 10 inches to one 31. side and 12 inches to the other. Find the side of the square.
32.
Solve x«(a«c*)a;(o6 + 36c) 262 = 0.
33. 34.
Solve (x* + 6x+8)= + 3x(x2 + 6a;(8) = 0.
A man bought a number of acres for S300. If he had paid S5 more per acre, the number of acres would have been 2 less. Find the number bought.
35.
Solve
1
x\ajo
/
,
,
=
a

X
i +a+
b
^ b
•
36.
o«
x—a « Solve —z
b
,
x~b = —
x—a
1
a = x—b
OX and OY are two roads at right angles. A starts at noon 37. along OX at 3 miles per hour. B starts at 2 o'clock along y at 4 miles per hour. Find to the nearest minute when they will be 20 miles apart.
38. 39.
Solve a*x»2o»a; + a*l Solve ax'
= 0.
+ 6 =cx
,
— 6x*.
is
40.
it is
A
gra%'el
path 2 yards wide
it
made round a square
field.
found that
Solve
8
of the field in
takes up j^^ of the area of the square yards.
ioT
t.
field and Find the area
41.
= vt+\(>t*
is
What positive integer is that, the sura of whose square and cube 42. nine times the next higher integer ?
43. 44.
Solve (x« + x2)«4(x* + x2) + 3 = 0.
The
side of a square
is
34 inches.
sides the vertices of an inscribed square
Find at what points in the must be placed so that it
may have
45.
an area of 676 square inches.
in .
Write the equation ox* + 6x2/ + C2/*=0 aa a quadratic
What
are the values of 
and
of 
y
X
?
What positive integral 46. nearly equal to 1000 ?
value of x will
make x*+10x moat
CHAPTER XXII
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
193.
and the sum
Let
Consider the problem The sum of two numbers of their squares is 74. Find the numbers.
:
is
12
.'.
a;*
= one of the = the other, + (12x)« = 74.
a;
numbers,
12 — a:
Solve this equation and find
If
.*.
x=7
7.
or
5.
x = 7 or
5,
then 12 — x = 5 or
7.
the numbers are 5 and
Here we have used only one unknown.
solved by using two unknowns.
Let X and y be the numbers,
..
We
might have
a:
and
a;*
+ t/=12, + 2/* = 74.
How
194.
can we obtain from these two equations the original equation
?
in the preceding solution
Type
I.
280
SIM ULTANSO US Q U ADRAT
BXERCISE]
Solve and verify
1
1
W8
181
6
:
x^y^l,
xy=12.
2/ xy='k,
xy=60.
/3.
x2y=Q,
x^y^=27.
ji.
xy=S,
a;2+y2=65.
^ xy=6,
a;22/2=60.
8/;
0.
2x+2/=9,
x^y'^=\b.
1* x+Zy=U,
^
\^tO
)
2x+Sy=l2,
a:2+2/2^13.
9^
'^
3a;4t/=2,
x2+2/=27.
V
3x^+2y^=U02x 3i/=]
x2+3a»/ '«/2_^2x=3''
Kll\
I
J
3:K2_2a;2/+5x?/=17
X— j/=3.
12.
If
x—3y=2
and x2— a;?/+2?/2=6,
of
tind the valu8»» of x
and
i/
to three decimal places.
13.
The hypotenuse
is
a rightangled
sides.
triangle
is
25
and the
of the
their
perimeter
56.
Find the
14. .4 is 10 years older than B. Eight years ago the squares of the numbers representing their ages was 148.
sum
Find
15.
is
The diagonal
of a rectangle
is
50.
The
difference of the sides
10.
Find the area.
16.
of the
The area of a rightangled triangle is 96 and the difference two sides about the right angle is 4. Find the hypotenuse.
Solve
17.
18.
3x+5y=2, 3x^l0y^xy+28=0.
the product of these the digits are
K each digit of a number be increased by 2,
is
increased digits will be the original number.
When
interchanged the resulting number
the original number.
19.
thirteen times the tens digit of
Find the number.
The sum
of the areas of
is
two squares
is
40 square inches.
The
side of the smaller
larger.
10 inches less than three times the side of the
Find their sides to three decimals.
Solve
20.
—+5^= 14, 2/l=a;.
y^
y
195.
and
y,
When both equations are of the second degree in x they can not always be solved by elementary methods.
282
ALGEBRA
in
/
•
There are special cases
difficulty.
which they can be solved without
^^,y ^^'
II.
•
'
^ ^\
\s<^
^^
^\J(j\JL
r^Cf"^
cUc^s*^
^
o:.
^
196.
Type
Solve
z^—5xy\4:y'^=0,
(1)
(2)
Factoring
(1),
(x4y)(xy) = 0,
x=ly or x = y.
We
are
now
required to solve
x»
:
+ 2/» + 3x=29\
x,
x=iyf
^^^ x*+y* + Zx = 2%\
x=y /
Substituting the value of
16y»
+ 3/*+12j/ = 29,
22/*
17i/»+12j/29 = 0,
(j/l)(17r/+29) = 0,
+ 3t/29 = 0,
3+V24I
y=\ x=4
or or
H. — Vt':
y
=
3+V241
3±V241
4
J^ or
Here there are four solutions
X
= =
4 or
— —
1/
1
or
3+^241
In this type the first equation contains only terms of the second degree. When that is the case the lefthand member may be factored and each of the resulting linear equations may be combined with the second equation, thus giving two
cases of
Type
I.
BXEROISB
Solve and verify 15
vl.
182
x2?/2=0,
2.
x2+xi/+y2=36.
,
x24xy+3y2=0, x2+y2=10.
x2+2/2+2x=12,
3a!»+2xy=y*.
3.
3x*2x2/j/*=0,
^
x+y+y*=32.
>
SI MULT Alii EOU 8
6.
QUADRATICS
283
4:c''+20a;y+V=0,
2ary+l=0.
(6>
^ + ^=14,
x—\=y^.
^'^
9.
x^—xy—y==\.
Find four solutions
6a;^+4i/2=ll2;y.
of the equations
{xy){x2)^(i, (a:+y6)(2/ + 3)=0.
197.
Type
III.
Homogeneous Equations.
Solve
x2— xi/=6,
y^+^xy^lO.
(1)
(2)
Multiply (1) by 5 and terms, and we get
(2)
by
3
and subtract, to eliminate the absolute
(3)
in
bx*UTyZy* = Q.
This equation
Tj^pe II.
(3)
is
of
the
(1)
Grouping
(3),
(3)
with
same form as the first equation we proceed as before.
Factoring
{x'iy){t.
284
ALGEBRA
The pupil should be on the look out for special methods of obtaining f'om the given equations an equation of the first degree. Here we might have done so by simply adding the equations and taking the square root. Solve it by this
method.
BXHRCISB
Solve and verify 19 ^^ (jC. 3a;25j/2=28, Q^.
:
188
3xyiy^^S.
3i/2a;2+l=0.
7.
2x^3y^=23, 2xy3y^^3.
C^.
G.'
x^xy+y^=2\, 2xyy^=15.
x^—xy=5^, xyy^=18.
x4y^^20, xy=\2.
32y^=^2xy+n, x^+iy^=lO.
A.^ 2z^—3xy=U, '^p' x^+xy=66,
x^y^=U.
)i
x^+2xy^Z2, 2y^+xy^\6.
x^3y^=i, x+xy+y'^=28.
3x^5zy+2y^=U,
2x^5xy+3y^=6.
)^.
^.*
13,
J^
x^+xy+y^=7, 3x^—l=xy.
14.
ht
^^
2x^—dxi/+9y^=5, ix^10xy+l\y^=3o.
x+xy+y^=l,
2x^{3xy+i:y^^2A.
15. 10,
3x^3xy+2y^=2x,
2x
+ 3y^xy=ix.
Find, to two decimals, the real values of x and y which satisfy
x^—xy=20 ana 3xy—y"=50. 17. When a number is multiplied by
is
the digit on the left the product
105
;
when
the
is
sum
of the digits
is
multiplied by the digit on the right
the product
198.
40.
Find the number.
Special Methods.
it
Since {x\y)^={x—y)^{'ixy,
of
follows that
if
the values
any two
of the quantities x\y,
x—y
and xy are given, the
remaining one can be found.
Ex. 1,—Solve
Squaring
Ftoxa. (2),
x+y=U,
xy=\%.
(1)
(2)
(1),
Subtracting,
+ 2xy\y^=\.2l. 4an/ = 72. x* — 2xy\y* = A9, x—y=±l. :.
x*
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
If
285
x
+ 2/=ll,
38<
ALGEBRA
(a;+?/)2— 5(x4i/)
Ex. 5.—Solve
— 6=0,
(1) (2)
Factoring
(1),
(x
+ 3/6)(xt2/+l) = 0, xf^ = 6 or — 1.
and
,
Now
solve
x + y=6, * xy = o.
x+" v=
'
xj/
— It = 8.
'
EXE3RCISE
Solve,
184
by finding
x+y
and x—y, and verify
J".
x+y=S, xy=
x—y=4,
xy=12.
{xy)^=l,
J^
x2+2/2=25,
X — j/=l.
1;">.
4.
x2+w2=61
J7.
j^
xy=30.
8
x2— x2/+2/^=57. xy^8.
x'^+xy+y^=19,
x^—xy+y^=19,
x+y=5.
9.
i
x+y=U.
10,
5x2
+ xy+ 52/2=23,
x+y=l.
x2+?/2=:89,
xy—iO.
^. x^lxy+y^=lOl,
xy=^30.
p.
l4.
2x2+3x2/+2y2=.8,
X2/= — 6.
x^y^=l9,
'J
x—y^l.
x^—xy+y^^Z9,
x^+y^=35l.
^
1©^
V'
x3+2/'=1064,
x+t/=.14.
X*
+ x2?/2 + y4 = 21,
x2+xy+t/2=7.
X*x2i/2 + y4^13^
17.
x«+x2j/2 + 2/<=133.
18.
x^~xy+y^=lt
{x+y)^S{x+y)28=0, xy^3.
(xi/)2»(x2/) + 12=0, X2/=12.
x22/2 27x^4 180=0,
xy=2.
x+y=8.
is
22j
The perimeter
Find the
of a rectangle
34 inches and the diagonal
is
[3 inches.
sides.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
The diagonal
sides.
287
300.
of a rectangle
is
25 and the area
is
Find the
(24/ The sum
is
725.
of two numbers is 12 and the s^m of their squares Find the numbers. *'**t*'*****^ 7Cm» .
_
The product
of
byB
26.
is
the product will be 180.
two numbers is 270. If each number is decreased Find the numbers. T/^^a^ /R.O
^^
A.
27.
The sum of two numbers is 10 and the sum of their reciprocals Find the numbers. 3
^
Solve (a;l)(i/+2)=9, 2xy=\5.
28.
A and B
.nore than B,
are two squares. and the perimeter
The area
of
of
A
is
63 square inches
A
is
12
inches
more than B.
Find the side of each.
29.
Find two numbers whose product
Is
is
1
and the sum
of
whose
reciprocals
2'i^.
30.
Solve x38!/3=56,
x2y=2.
31. The sum of the two digits of a number is f of the number. The sum of the squares of the digits is 4 less than the number. Find
the number.
32.
is
The area of a rectangle is 1161 square yards, and 140 yards. Find the dimensions.
Solve 1 X
its
perimeter
33.
+1=
y
of a
is
3,
i
 1=
y^
03.
x^
34.
The sum
reversing the digits
number of two digits and the number formed by 121. The product of the digits is 28. Find tlie
a rightangled triangle whose perimeter
is
number.
35.
Find the sides
of
is
24 inches and whose area
36.
24 square inches.
if
Prove, algebraically, that
two rectangles have equal
in all respects.
area.s
and equal perimeters, they are equal
37.
38.
Solve x^+xy\y^=l15,
x^—xy+y=52o.
What must
7^ acres, if any other point
be the dimensions of a rectangular field containing the greatest distance from any point in its boundarv to
is
50 rods
?
288
39.
ALGEBRA
The sum
is
?
of the radii of
two
circles
is
8 inches
is
and the sum
9 inches.
of
their areas
§ of the area of a circle
whose radius
What
are their radii 40.
What must
oe the length of a rectangular
field
that contains
a square rods
and which can be enclosed by a fence
b rods long.
199.
Graphical
Methods.
What
?
is
the
distance
of
the
point P(4, 3) from the origin
Since
..
OP^=OM'^\MP\ OP2^42+32=25,
..
OP
=5.
the same
If
any point
{x^y) is
distance from the origin that
P
is,
then the point {x,y) must lie on a circle whose radius is 5 and
whose centre
is 0. But the square of the distance of the point {x,y) from the origin is x^\y'^, :.
x2+i/2=25.
It
circle
is
thus seen that the equation x^\y^=25 represents a whose radius is 5 and whose centre is the origin.
Similarly, x*r2/*=16, x* + y* = 100, x* + y*=l8, represent circles with the origin as centres and whose radii respectively are 4, 10, Vl8.
It is seen that it is a simple matter to draw the graph of the equation of the circle in the form x^'ry^—r^. All we
require to do
jentre
is
is
to describe with the compasses a circle
is r.
whose
the origin and whose radius the radius
is
When
Here
a:
a surd as in x'^\y^=l8,
it
is
simpler
to find a pair of values of x
=3,
y=3
satisfies
and y which satisfy the equation. the equation, and the circle is then
(3, 3).
described through the point
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
289
290
ALOE BRA
BXSRCISB
/I,
"are
186
circles
On the same sheet draw the
graphs of the
whose equations
x^+y^=^'i,
2.
x^+y^=9, x^+y^=^lZ, x^+y^=3i.
Solve graphically x^{y^=l3,
x—y=l.
Find graphically the positive integral roots of a;2+2/*=25 and 2x+3y=l8; x^+y^^lO and 2x—y^5. Approximate to the
3.
other roots.
of two numbers is 8 and the sum Show, graphically, that this is impossible. the sum of the numbers is 7 instead of 8 ?
4.
The sum
of their squares
Is it impossible
is
if
25.
BXBROISB
186 (Review of Chapter XXII)
dy
2.
3.
is
Solve x + 2/ = 28,
X* 2/* = 336.
10
Solve 5x2i/=I2, 25x»42/* = 96.
of two numbers Find the numbers.
The sum
is
and the sum
of their squares
58.
4.
5.
Solve 2x3j/ = 4, x» + 2/* = 29. Solve 3x42/ = 4, 2x* +
3xi/
= 56.
5
6.
18 g.
The sum
of
two numbers
is
and the sum
x + y = 3.
of their reciprocals
Find the numbers.
Solve x*\xy+2y* —
7.
2x~7y + 5 = 0,
8.
Solve x* + xy—62/* = 0. x*3x)/ — 2/* = 36.
A field whose length is to its breadth as 3 to 2 contains 664 9. square rods more than one whose length is to its breadth as 2 to 1. The difference of their perimeters is 60 rods. Find the dimensions of each field.
10. 11.
Solve x* + 2x2/ = 55,
Solve 2x*+3x?/ = 8,
x2/
+ 2?/* = 33.
y'2xy = 20.
The area of a rectangle is 300 square feet. 12. If the length is decreased by 2 feet and the width by 3 feet, the area would be 216 square feet. Find the dimensions.
13.
Solve x(x4t/)
= 150,
2/(x
+
2/)
= 75.
14.
14. 15.
Solve x(x — 1/)= 15, 7/(x(y)=
Sodding a lawn at 9 cents a square yard coetB $108. If it had been 10 yards longer and 6 yards wider the cost would have been half a« much again. Find the dimensions.
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATICS
16.
17.
291
Solve x3i/»= 126, x»4a^ + j/» = 21. Solve x» + 3an/6y*42a;— 2/=12, x + 2/ =
7.
and x*t/*6x7/ + 8 = 0, find the (x4t/)*7(x4J/)+12 = values of x + 2/ and xy, and thus solve these equations for x and y.
18.* If
19.
The product
of
two numbers
is
28 and their difference
is
5
Find the
20.
sum
of their squares, without finding the
numbers.
Solve 8x3 + y» = 280, 2xfy=10. Solve
2/
21.
= x+ a/2,
x*
+ 2/«=l.
is
Find two positive integers whose sum multiplied by the greater 22. 192 and whose difference multiplied by the less is 32.
23.
Solve
— + y* = — X*
a*
fe»
ab
10,
xy
—=
3.
24.
If
12x»41xi/ + 3oj/* = 0, find the values of •
of two numbers Find the numbers.
is
25.
The product
is 5.
6
and the difference
of their
squares
26.
Solve
^+y= y*
6,
xw = 4. ^
\~.
Solve (x + 2/)(x+22/)
= 300,
y
+
^=
^
3.
A regiment consisting of 1625 men is formed into two solid 28. squares, one of which has 15 more men on a side than the other. What ia the number on a side of each ?
29.
Solve
1
(
2
X
y
292
Solve
ALGEBRA
36. 36.
+ =
,
—
.
4
—
i
=
xi/
Tr'
Solve (x + r/)»xy = 20,
= 6.
two consecutive odd numbers
37.
is
The
difference of the cubes of
218.
Find the numbers.
Solve x« — x«2/* +
162/*
38.
39.
= 28,
x*
+ 3x2/ + 42/»= 14.
Solve x'+2/ = ?/* + x=3.
40.
is
The diagonal
of a rectangle
s.
What
are the lengths of the sides
obtained to find the sides of and one side is 7 inches longer than the other.
and the difference of the sides Apply the formula thus ? a rectangle whose diagonal is 13 inches,
is d,
Solve 9x* + i/* — 21(3x + 2/)+ 128 = 0, xi/ = 4. (Make the first 41. equation a quEwlratic in 3x + i/, by adding to 9x* + ?/* what is necessary to make a complete square.)
42.
Solve x* + 4?/»18x36i/) 112 = 0,
xi/
=8
43.
Solve x»+3/3= 126,
x«2/
+ x2/* = 30.
CHAPTER XXIII
INDICES
BXERCISB
1.
137 (Oral)
?
What
are the values of 3 2, 2^, 1*, P", 0^
2. 3.
Simplify 3
X
22
;
3x10'; SxO";
03f4.
:
When x=10, what
x3, 6x2,
are the values of
200^x, 500^x2, Gx^fx^
?
4.
5. 6.
7.
Givethevaluesof(l)2, (1)3, (1)4, (1)37^ (1)'^
What
are the values of (—2)2, (—2)5,
(— 2)«
and
?
Find the difference between 2^ and
32, 2^
52.
What
does x*
mean
?
How many
factors are there in
x^xx*
1
8. 9.
is
Express in the simplest form a2xa3xa*.
How many factors will remain when x^
?
is
divided by x'
V
What
the quotient
10.
What
are the values of
X8
:
x*^x3, x^°^x*
^;.3
Trr
O20
0^°
?
a*b^^
a^b^
its
x'
11.
What does
(a2)3
mean
Read
value without the brackets.
12.
State the value in the simplest form of
(X2)2, (2/3)2, (^3)3^ (^3)4^ (^2)10.
13.
What
does
(06)*
mean
?
What
/a\3
does
(
t
)
mean
?
Read
their values without brackets.
14.
Express as powers of 10
:
100, 1000, 10,000, 10 X 100, 10^
x
IO2,
10«rlO».
298
29*
15.
to.
ALGEBRA
Simplify
(l)»x(l)3x(l)*; (a)V (a)*x(a)'
the value of x
if
?
What
is
lO'^lOOO, 2^=16, 5'= 125, 3'=8I
17.
Express 32,794
in
descending powers of
10.
202.
Definitions of a"'.
a,
As a^
is
the product of three factors
each equal to
to a.
so a'"
is
the product of
to
m
factors each equal
a^"
a.a.a
.
.
.
m
factors.
Here
203.
it is
understood that
m
is
a positive integer.
The Index Laws.
(1)
We
have akeady seen that
:
a^xa*=a^^^=a\
a'=^a^'=a'^'^^a^.
(2) (3) (4)
(a2)3=a2^3=a«.
{ah)*
= a*b*.
a'
/a\3
letters to
Let us now express these statements in general form, using denote the indices.
(1)
(2)
(.3)
n"'ya"=a"'*".
n"'
— a"=a"''".
{fi"')"
= (i'"".
(4)
{ffhy"^a'"b*>^.
These are called the index
than
in n), to
laws.
The
(2)
letters
m
is
and n
greater
represent any positive integers, and in
?n>n {m
make
the division possible.
The
laws, as stated
the general form,
may
be proved as in particular cases.
INDICES
204.
295
Law
I.
Law
for Multiplication.
a'"xa"=a'"^".
By
definition,
a'"
=a = (o =a
.
a a
.
.
a
,
.
.
to
m factors.
n
factors,
.
0:^=0
.
.
a
.
.
.
.
to
.
o"
Xo''
a
o
.
.
to
m factors)(o
a
.
a
.
.
.
to
n
factors).
.
a
.
a ... to (m + n^
factors,
= 0"*+",
Also,
a'"
by
definition.
xa"xai =0"*+" x a^,
205.
Law n.
a"*
Law
a a
. . .
for Division,
rf"^: re '*=«*«'»».
o"
a a
.
.
a
a
.
.
.
to to
m factors
n
factors
if
.
.
.
.
=a a = a™~".
Here the n factors
in the
a ... to (m — n) factors,
w>n,
in tiie denominator cancel with an equal number numerator, leaving factors in the numerator. If, however, n>m, the n factors in the numerator cancel with an equal number in the denominator, leaving n—tn factors in the denomi
m—n
oator.
when m>n,
and when n>m,
206.
a"':a"
a"*
:
= o'"",
a"
=
qh m
.
Law
(a"')''
in.
.
Law
o™
o
. . .
of Powers.
. . .
(«'")" =a"*~.
= a'^ = (a
=a
.
a""
.
to n factors,
.
.
to 7n factors) (a
o ... to
m
factors)
.
.
.
the
brackets being repeated n times,
a =0™".
Also, {(a"')"}p
.
a ... to
mn
factors,
= (a'"")^=o'"'v.
IV.
.
207.
Law
(06)"
Power
ab
.
of a Product.
(«&)'»=«"&'*.
= ab = (a
ab ... to n pairs of factors,
.
.
o
.
a
.
.
to
n
factors) (6
.
6
.
6
.
.
.
to
n
factors)
Also, (a6c)"=(o6)"
.
c"=o"6»c".
296
ALGEBRA
Law
V.
208.
Power
of
a Quotient.
,
,
_
{l)"
= lll^oniactors.
to 6
.
n factors
6
.
6
.
.
.
to
n
factors
have given five index laws. They are not ail The second and thirH laws jnay easily be deduced from the first.
209.
We
independent.
(1)
When m>n,
.'.
o"'^o"
o""
a" = a'^~" xa" by Law I. = o'"~", which is Law II.
(2)
xo'" = a"* "''" = o*'", by
xa'" = a"'+"'+'" = a'"',
• • •
Law
I.
Similarly,
a"'
xa™
n
and
a"*
.
a"'
.
a"*
.
.
.
to
factors =0"'+'"+"'
(a'")"
to
n ter'js=aM»
= o"'",
is
which
is
Law III.
called
For
this
reason the
first
law
frequently
the
fundamental index law.
EXERCISE
Simplify
1. 4. 7.
:
188 (118. Oral)
a^xa^xa^.
(a263)2.
2.
6. 8.
x'xx'fa;'.
(32)2.
3.
(x^)*^x^.
(33)2^(32)3.
6. 9.
(abf^a^b.
6'
5*^5*.
((2)2)3.
(oft)"
(1)7
13.
16.
oC'xxf'Xaf.
x«
+
14. 17.
a'.av.a'v.
(a263c*)2.
15. z"*"xa;2'» + ».
18.
a:"
*^x«^
+»
.
x* + '
.
a5
'
".
©'Ko^y^©*
^
2<'
+ *va;2*'*''x JC*"
•*"*
INDICES
297
t^
\b)
dTn + n y^
\c)
\a)
•
^'
7i>'^ TT^^ 7^^
a"*P
2^
26.
Express 4" as a power of 2 and 9' as a power
of 3.
3.
Divide 27^ by 9' by expressing each as a power of
^
a'"
2nx2"i X
.
22
Simplify
^
and
9"x3»
+6
•
g^„^i
28.
Solve
52x+i_5i+3. 41=2**'; 93**s__27^"S
210.
Fractional, Zero
;
2*. 4^
.
8^=16^=^"'.
and Negative
Indices.
We
have defined
This
to
mean
the product of
w
tell
factors each equal to a.
definition requires
m
to be a positive whole number.
Thus, the definition will
tell
us
what
a^ means, but will not
us what a^ means, nor what a~* meaas, nor
what
a°
means.
If
it is
we wish
it
to use in algebra such quantities as a^, a"*, a",
necessary that
we
define their meanings.
would be very inconvenient if we gave to these new forms of indices such meanings that the index laws, alreadj' established for positive integral indices, would not apply to them. We will, therefore, give to fractional, zero and negative indices such meanings as will make the index laws
valid for
211.
Now
them
as well as for positive integral indices.
of a Fractional Index.
if
Meaning
Since x^Y.x^=x^^'^, then
we suppose
it
a;.
that the same
law applies to fractional indices,
xi
follows that
X x^ = x^ "^ ^ = xi=
Thus, x' when multiplied by x^ gives the product x, or the square of x^ is x. But we have already represented the quantity whose square is X by Vx,
298
ALOE BRA
this
is
That
follows
a reasonable value to attach to x^
might appear
aa
We know
case.
If
under the root sign
x*= Vx^, x*= Vx*, x^= Vx*, the index of the quantity in each case being hiMpi the index in the preceding now we take half of the index on each side again, it wouIq
that
seem but natural that x should be equal to Vx.
Similarly, x^
X x^ X x^ = x*
*"
^
"*"
^
= x.
x^='^x
Also, x*
(the cube root of x).
= Vx (the
fourth root of
x).
and
x^= y/x
(the nth root of x), where n
is
a positive integer
Thus,
4^=v/4 = 2, 125^=^125 = 5, 32^=1^32=2.
III,
..
By Law
(x^)»
= x*,
x§=^x».
Similarly,
(x?) =xP,
E
.".
X
a
= V xP, where p and q are positive integers
9i
We
thus see that
if
as to positive integral
the same laws apply to fractional indices indices we are led to the conclusion
q are
the
that x^^^vx^,
when p and
is
positive
integers, that
is,
when
the.
index
indicates the root to
denominator of the fraction be taken arid the numerator the power.
a fraction,
By Law
III,
x«
p
= UV
=(xP)«,
?'
So that
x^
means that the
g""
p"'
power
of the
q'^
root
is tc
be taken, or the
Thus,
Of
root of the
j»"'
power.
8§=i?/8»=^6i = 4,
8^
= (^8)» = 2» = 4.
INDICES
It will
299
first
be seen that
it
is
simpler to take the root
and then the
power.
Thus,
212.
32'^
= (\/32)» = 2» = 8.
Meaning
I,
of a
Zero Index.
o''xa'"
By Law
= o°+'" = a".
Therefore,
positive
if
integral
the same law applies to zero indices as to indices, we are led to the conclusion that
index zero
is
any quantity
Thus,
213.
{zero excepted) to the
equal to unity.
30=
Meaning
I,
1,
(ox)''=l,
(2)»=1, (106)0=1.
of a
Negative Index.
a
By Law
Similarly,
We
to
thus see that, any quantity
to
a negative index
is
equal
unity divided by the same quantity to the corresponding positive
index.
Thus,
300
Thus.
ALGEBRA
^^
=
^ = 8; ^ = —
a^/8^x V^IG^
;
;
4xa3 = ^
.
Ex.SimpHfy
i^S'x
{^^J^
16» 9»a«6»
VW^ = 8^ X
16*
= (23)§ X (2«)^ = 2»x 25=32.
g
/ 9a* \'g
9"'
.
64
27ae6«
EXERCISE
What
1.
is
189 (182. Oral)
the meaning of
ai
INDICES
Simplify
301
^*
16" i
59.
Solve a;^=4, a;^=32, x*=27, x'^=Z, a;"2=8.
215.
Operations with Fractional and
Negative
Indices.
The
following examples will illustrate
applied to
the
multiplication,
the index laws may be division, etc., of quantities
how
involving fractional and negative indices.
The work will usually be simplified if all expressions are arranged in descending or ascending powers of some common
letter.
Thus, 5+x^+x^2_^ powers of x, thus
:
i__a;2
would be written
in
descending
Ex. 1.—Multiply 2x^ + 3— xi by Sx^ — 2— 5xi. Ex.
2.
—Divide
—
^x"^
a—b by
ah—h^.
(2)
(1^
3a;i_2
&x
a — a^b^
+9x^ 3 4x^ 6+
ix'^
1015x~^ + 5a;i
8a;
+5x^I913«"* + 5a;i
302
ALGEBRA
of 9.r— 12^*4
Ex. 3.— Find the square root
10— 4.ri4xi.
9a;12x* + 104a;"'^+a;i 9x
I
3x^2 + x'^
^2
I
12a;^+10
12x^+
6x^4 + x'^
4
64x'^ + x^
6
— 4x
^
^jx'^
Verify by squaring 3x^ — 2\x check by putting a;=l.
by the method"
of
art. 93.
Also
EXBRCISB
Multiply
1.* a;2+3, a;^2.
3.
5.
140
2.
4.
(J.
x+x^ + l,z^X,
3x2a;^+5, x~2x^
x^x+x^1, x^+l.
a^_lf2a~i o2 + l2a"i
{aa^ + l)^.
(x^
7. 9,
x+5xi+6xKx^lx~^.
8.
x+x^^+y, x—x^y^+y.
10.
+ 2)*. (a — 1)^.
Divide and verify
11. 12.
a+5aM+66
a;3— a;2+a;— 2
by a^+2bk
— 2a;
2— 2a;8 by
a;«+242a;•
*.
13. 14.
x^\x*y^^y^ by z^+^^^J/ +2/
1— 5a;"— X by 1— x^+3a;^,
1
1
"
as far as four terms.
Find the square root and verify
15.
a
+ 6a^+9
and 25x2— 10+a;
^
16. 17.
a2+4a2f6a+4o^+l.
4a;^'20a;3+37a;30a;^+9«i
INDICES
18.
SOJ»
4930x^24a;~^+25x34l6z"i
19.
Show
that
°'°'^^+^^
by x— a;
= (a^+fe^)'.
2.
^^
21.
•12.
'Divide x^—z~
Divide
10a3'"_32a"'— 27a2'" + 14 by 2a'"— 7.
SimpUfy (a;+xi+l)2+(a;a;^ + l)2.
Simplify
^3.
24.
(Vo+l)(\/ol)(\/3a+\/2)(V3aV'2).
Find the square root of
Contracted
x^—AxVx+\0x—\2\/x+9.
will
216.
illustrate
how
The following examples Methods. contracted methods may be employed.
Ex.
If
1.
—Multiply
x+z^—4 by
a;4x^+4.
x + x be considered as a single term, the product
= (x + x2)«4»,
= a;* + 2x^+x16.
Ex. 2.— Divide
Since a
2;3
[{a
+ b){ab) = a*~b*.'\
a+b by a^+bK
b of b^, this is similar to
is
the cube of o^ and
dividing
+
j/3
by x + y.
{x^
Since so
+ y^)~(xry) = x* — xy + y*, (a + b)^{a^ + b^) = a^nh^irbK
the cube root of
Ex.
3.
—What
is
is
This
last
.'.
is
evidently the cube of a binomial whose
first
term
is
2x' and
term
— 3t/^.
is
the cube root
2x* — Sy*,
if
the given expression
is
a perfect
cube.
Check when x = y=l.
Usir^ the method of art. 155, the cube root of complicated expressions may be found.
more
804
217.
ALQEBRA
Factors with Fractional or Negative Indices.
If
we
are
permitted to use fractional or negative indices, many expressions may be factored which were previously considered algebraically prime.
Ex.
1.
a — b 3iay be written as the difference of two squares, thun
(a^)«(6i)».
..
a6 = (a^ + 6^)(a^6).
by
cross
Ex.
2.
3a5—
1
The factors are
Ex.
It
.'.
(Sa;
— 2x~^ niay be factored + 2a;'^)(x* x').
is
multiplication
3.
x*\xy\y*
an incomplete square.
may
be written
{x\y)*
— {xy^)*.
\y){x
the factors are {x + x^y^
— x^y^ \y).
141
EXSRCISE
Use contracted methods
in the
foUowing
a^—l)^
yV'i.* Multiply
2.
x^2 by
x^ + 2
;
by J+fet
Multiply
a^—l+a"^ by
of
a^ + l+o~i
3.
Find the square
x— x — 1
and
l
of
2a— 2— o~^.
4.
Write down the cube of a
+
and
of
1— x.
5.
Multiply
z+xy^+y, x—x^y^+y, x^—xy\y\
11
11
6.
Divide x{y by x* —x^y^ \y^K Divide
7.
a+2aM+6— c
common
r
by a^\lh—c^.
8.
Find three factors of x^—y^.
Find a
factor of
9.
a+a^b^ —2b, a—b.
a'^+ab+b^
j^.
10.
^
Simpufy
— x—5xi+Q
x+x^6
ab
.
j
::z
a363
a+y/ab+b
INDICES
3
jL
306
11.
What
is
the cube root of a;2_6xi12a;^
— 8,
?
and of
12.
x33J + 6a:27a;^ + 6x3a;5 + l
What
is
the
square root
of
4x*fl2?3__ 93.2^
and
of
x2+4a:+24a;i+a;2>
EXERCISE
1.
2.
142 (Review of Chapter XXIII)
State the index laws.
Explain
how meanings
are
assigned
to such
quantities
as
/S.*
When x= 16, = 9,
t/
find the values of
:
jk.
Find the numerical values
8^, 9~',
of
:
i/\2b*, 32*, 16i«. 25"^ (64)"^.
Jb.
Show that
i'%*
X ^^8^=
108.
^6.
^/7.
Simplify 32"^i(^i.)J
^nd 812^^(iVrV
Find, to two decimals, the value of 10*
when
x= i,
1, i^ .
J&.
J9.
Simplify 2*+\0'>'^^{l)'^ + {)*^{y/J^)^.
Find, to three decimals, the value of (3*)~^x v'27.
710.
JlI.
yl2.
13.
Simplify
16^+ 16' 16"* 16"^ and 32=32*+32'» + 32~*.
Simplify 5^ X 5^
X
5^
x
16^''
X 16" x
16"".
Solve
a;^
= 8,
2^ .4^
= 64
^'3
SimpUfy 4^x 6'*x
eSimphfy —5 X
and
,
{83
+ 42)x 16"^.
^A 14.
15.
1*
2"+!
6"
jgr„
3.2''4.2"i
and
:
——^g^^.
a^+ab °**'
Reduce to lowest terms
o+SVof 15 3x^+5x^+2 a+7\/a4 12' j.*+l
'
506
16.
ALOEBKA
Multiply
x^y^2xy + ^x^y^ by x^ + 2y^

17.
Miiltiply x' y
\\\x~^y^
by x^y~^ —\\x~^y^.
4
18.
Divide
x*
— y*
by x^\x^y
38 ^
•
\y
'
and
19.
20.
o^+1f.a"^ by
Divide a*"'6*'" by a"'6'".
a^+]+a"i
The dividend
is
is
1.
J/+22/*
— St/— 2, + x~^)*
the quotient
is
J/— i/'l,
the remainder
21.
3i/^—
Find the
{x
divisor.
Find the square root of
4(x — x~ij.
j'fc^j'
22.
What
If
is
the cube root of ia»*ia»^6i' + §a^6*'
23.
x = a»+l and
2/
= a>+l,
show that
^ + ^~y = xy—x+y
o».
24.
Simplify 008^
If
1728^,
225»s,
0625'^.
25.
x + y = a^ and
x~y = a
26
^,
find the values of xy
and x*+v*
in terras of a.
26. 27.
If 2a
= 2^t2^
and
= 2^2"^
find a*b*.
Find the square root of (e*— e~')*f4 and of
x*'ix^y^+l0x*yl4:x^y^+l3xy*6x^y^+y'.
28.
Simplify
^
c
x
—rb
i
''
29.
Factor
x*
— y,
x — 5x
— 6, x— 1, 4a— 6* and
^nd
IQiBosii.
x»4x+1012xi + 9x».
30. 31.
If 1030103 If 7*<»i««
= 2,
find the value of IQsoJoe
= 50
and
7«<'6»«
= 55,
•
find the value of T*"'"'.
2n+l
32.
/2r.l)«+l
^„.;,
Simplify
y^^^^ x
INDICES
33
34. 36.
36,
307
Solve 3'+
1
+ 2" = 35,
3'^
+ 2''+« = 41.
Divide
x2{x^x'h + 2(x^^ x'^^'^ by x^x'K
is
Show
that x^'^^={xVx)''
satiafied
by x=2l.
Find the square root of
U2Vx)^2x^+x+4x*+ Vii
^.
'ii
2
CHAPTER XXIV
bURDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
218. In Chapter XVIII. we have aheady dealt with elementary quadratic surds It was there shown by squaring
that
VaxVb = Vab.
might now deduce
IV,
..
We
it
from the index laws.
From Law
Letn = i,
(afe)"
= a"6".
{ab)^
= ah^\ Vab=VaxVb.
Similarly,
..
L L L (a*)"=o"6",
\^ab=VaxVb.
219.
Orders of Surds.
We
have already defined a quadratic
is
is
surd as one in which the square root surd is one in which the cube root
to be taken.
to be taken.
. . .
A
n"",
cubic
When
they
higher roots are to be taken as the fourth, fifth n}^ orders. are called surds of the fourth, fifth
.
. .
may
Changing the Order of a Surd. A surd of any order be expressed as an equivalent surd of any order which is a multiple of the given order.
220.
n
Thus,
\/x=x^=x^=x^ = x^'\
\/x=\/x*='\/x^= Vx".
n
Similarly,
x^ = x'' = x^ = x^'',
•08
SURDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
221.
309
may
To Compare Surds of Different Orders. Any two surds be reduced to surds of the same order and their values
compared.
Thus, to compare the values of
v/2 = 2^
if/3
V2
and
"^3,
= 2« = •v/2» = v^8.
than V2.
= 3* = 3^ = V''3*=\5'9.
It is thus seen that ^3 is greater
222.
Changes
in the
Form
of Surds.
Any mixed
surd can
be expressed as an entire surd.
Thus,
2^5= ^2» X ^5= ^40.
TO
+
n).
— ^TO + n =
1
/m — n
I
/ 'V^
.
(to
+ n)*
,
..
.
m—n= —
TO
+n

Vto»
/—
^ — n».
Conversely,
^250 = ^125 x ^2 = 5^2.
^I'=^fil =
^^x ^Too=i^Ioo.
148
iJ^^^8T=^^^7x^3^ 3^3,
BXBRCISEl
Express as mixed surds
1.
:
\
V32^,
V363a«62.
^27", A/lOOa \/562, VSo^ft,
2.
^16,
^SaS^Six*; ^125^, ^"8la3,^^=^a*:
t^J^, ^^64, V8a;2+16xy+82/2.
:
3.
v'32, ^243;
y
Express as entire surds
4.
2V3, 10^2, 3Va, o\/5, a6V6, (o— 6)\/a— 6. 2^3, 3^7,
5.
2^16^
a^S^fe,
^^,
2v^5.
6.
(a+6)y«^. (TO+«)yzLi.
^y^.
310
1
.*
2
"^
Z^^ ALGEBRA
to surds of the
;
Reduce ^2, V^S
same
order.
V^S.
Also reduce
^2
8.
and V^S
\/2,
f3
and
Which
;
is
the greater:
;
3\/2 or 2\/3
Sv^G or 7\/3
V"^ or v'^lO
:
;
126 or \'/2
;
^^3 or y/51
Reduce
9.
to like surds
and simplify
\/8
+ \/l8+V98.
10. 12.
^500+^80^20.
'^l6^r28+v^^250.
11.
13.
15.
3V32+5\/50iV'r28.
1^96 2^ ^^12 + ^'324.
14.
^32+ 1^162^+ \/l250.
\/753\/l2+5V'300+2v/487Vl47+3\/i.
x\/x^yir\/x^+xhf\/{x\yfV{x^y^){xy).
Express as equivalent surds of a lower order
\/9, v/l25,
:
16.
17.
\/^,
\/l6^6,
A?^32.
18.
If
'^2=126 approximately,
find the values of
:
^l6. ^54, ^2000,
^9.
i^J, ^^002,
f^6^.
Show
that
2xV2xv^2xv^4=4.
223.
Rationalizing a Surd Denominator.
When
the numerical
value of a fraction with a surd
the value
is
denominator is required, more easily obtained when the denominator is
rational (art. 165).
When the denominator contains only two terms, it may be rationaUzed by multiplying by its conjugate (art. 164).
BXBRCISB
Multiply
1.
:
144
^'
t
r^j
2.
5.
Oa .^
_^^
"ff
2^3,
3\/5.
i/5.
^201,
N/3ai.
3. 6.
Vi, Vxy.
^
4,
^4,
6Vl4, JV21.
'^'""^^^
2,
^4.
7.
^^=^. ^^+6,
's/i+2,
^iH^.
8.
V«3, \/z2, ViH3.
SDMDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
9.
311
V2+V3V5, V2+V3+V5.
^'
'
'
10. 11.
12.
^1, ^a2,
i^a+3.
VeVIT, Ve+VTT.
(Vl8+\/l2+\/8)2.
is
What
each case
13.
the simplest quantity by which the following
?
must be
multiplied, to produce rational products
?
What
is
the product in
3V2.
312
39,
ALGEBRA
The three dimensions
to the nearest inch.
of
a
room
is
are equal.
If
the longest
diagonal from the ceiling to the floor
18 feet, find the length of the
room
quadratic surd, and the equation
equation contains a single is written with the surd alone on one side, the surd may be removed by squaring both sides of the equation (art. 166). If the equation contains three terms, two or three of which
224.
Surd Equations.
When an
are surds, the operation of squaring
must be performed
'
twice.
Ex. 1.—Solve
Squaring,
l\Vx=Vxh25.
lf2\/x+a;=x+25,
,.
2Vx=24:,
Vx=\2,
Verification:
x=\U. l+V'x=l + \/r44=13.
•v/a;+25=Vl69=ia
Solve by squaring in the form
l
Vx—Vx+2^—l
solutions.
and
in
the form
= \/x+26 — Vic,
Ex. 2.—Solve
Squaring,
and compare the three
1
\.
— \/x=a/x+25.
— 2^/x\x = x\2o, .2Vi = 24,
Vi=12,
x=144.
,p .P
\.y^
Compare, line by line, this solution with Ex. 1. The answer is the same to both, although the equations are different. We have verified Ex. 1, and we know that a;= 144 is the correct result.
Let us
now
verify Ex.
2.
Verification:
1— v/x=l ^144=  11.
\/x+25=V'l69=13.
seen that our attempt at verification shows that the correct root of the equation in Ex. 2.
It is
x=
144
is
not
If in verifying we could say tliat \/l44 is — 12, the equation would But this is not allowable, as the symbol \^~ always be satisfied. repreeente the positive square root (art. 63).
SUBDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
This
(1)
318
may
be explained as follows
\
:
The equation
is
— Vx=Vx\26
is
impossible of solution,
l
as Vz{25
a positive quantity, and therefore
— Vx
must
be positive, that is, x must be less than 1. But it is evident that no value of x which is less than 1 can satisfy the equation.
(2) If
we square both
is
sides of
an equation, the resulting
equation
not necessarily equivalent to the given equation.
is
A
simple example will show that this
the case.
Let
Squaring,
.'.
K=— 6.
x*
= 36.
—6, and
is,
the equation x* = 36 has two roots pB and therefore, not equivalent to the given equation.
Now
This
is
similar to the case in
which both
sides of
are multiplied Let
Multiply by
a;
by a
factor containing the
an equation unknown.
x = 2.
3,
..
x{x3) = 2(x~3),
..
cc*5x+6 = 0.
3, is
The equation a;*— 5x+6 = 0, which has the roots 2 and equivalent to the given equation.
225.
not
Extraneous Roots.
b}'
Roots which are introduced into
an equation
roots.
sTJimring or multiplying are called extraneous
Thus, 6 in the extraneous roots.
of
first
equation and 3 in the second equation are
Refer to Ex. 4, art. 145, where reference is made to the effect dividing both sides of an equation by a factor containing the
unknown.
have already seen the necessity of verifying the results In the case of surd equations there is an added reason for verifying, for although there may be no error in the work, the root which is found may not be a
in the solution of equations.
We
toot of the given eauatica.
^1.~7r ':3c— '=^—3c314
ALGEBRA
BXERCISB
146
:
Solve and verify 115.
1.
Reject extraneous roota
2.
\/2x^3=0.
3a;^=a;^+4.
\/3x2=2\/x^.
3.
^4. ^5x7=2.
fi.
5.
2x^
= Z.
2^3a;25+3=7.
7.
2(x7)^ = (x14)i
^.
JO.
12.
Vi+Vx+5=^.
l
9.
Vx+i5\Vz=9.
+ Vx+2==Vx.
11.
VxTi+V'^+T5=ll.
Va;
\/4a:2+3a;16=2a;+2.
13.
7== + 5 = Va;—
•
14.
—^
V4x—
= 4.
15.
Vi3^V5+1,
Vx+Z
a/52
(12+x)^fx^=6.
•
16.*
Vx+4V^4=4.
(x+8)^(x43)^=2a;i
17.
18.
^„
19.
Vx+16_Vx+29 —— — Vx+U Vx+4
rz:
"
*U.
6\/xll_2\/x+l —
77^
3Vx
22.
Vx+6
36
z=:
•
21.
Vx2— a2+62=x— 0+6.
\/53T5fV'x=,=^
Vx{Vx—9
Vx—
,
_
23.
vx— 15
24.
\/x+3+V'xHF8=2V'x.
25.
\/x+4a\/x=2\/6+x.
,
26.
^x36x2+llx5=x2.
1
„„
27.
5(70x+29)^=9(14x15)*.
28.
\/^+6+Vx=6_„ ^^__^^_3.
29.
V5x+1
^!r^
^1 + ^^^
2
30.
vg^+v^ ^c.
v/o+x— Va—
<1
SURDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
Surd Equations Reducing
to Quadratics.
^
315
226.
Ex. 1.—Solve
Transposing,
Squaring,
x\\/x+6=l.
«
Verification
:
•v/x+5 = 7 — x. /. a;+5 =49— 14a;+x^ a;»15a;+44 = 0, (x4)(xll) = 0, x = 4 or 11. When x = 4, xf Vx+5=4+ \/9 = 7, When x=ll, x4 \/x+5= 11 + VT6=15,
.*.
.'.
li€K>
..
.".
the correct root
11
is
is 4.
evidently a root of x
— y/x\o =7.
Ex. 2.—Solve
Transposing,
Squaring,
V8x+IVx+I=V3i.
..
\''8x+
1
= \/3x+ Vx\ 1.
'.
/.
8x+l = 3x+2V'3x* + 3x+x+l,
4x = 2\/3x» + 3x,
2x= V'3x» + 3x",
4x« = 3x* + 3x,
x»3x=0,
x = 0or3.
^ y^^^ ^_^i^ ^
^
zl
f^
^.^(^^i^ot'^
Here we
find on verifying that both roots satisfy the given equation.
Ex. 3.—Solve
2V2x+l=S3Vx^.
is
Solve as in the preceding and the roots are 4 or 364, neither of which satisfies the equation.
Of what equation
4 a root.'
Of what equation
is
364 a
root.^
Ex. 4.—Solve
If the
x^3x6Vx^3x—3=2.
to one side,
surd
is
removed
we get
x»3xL2=6v'x»3x— 3.
If
we now square both
sides to
remove the surd, we
will
obtain an
equation of the fourth degree which
we cannot
easily solve.
4
i ^0
316
ALGEBRA
from x
to
\ X*
,
We may obtain the solution by changing the unknown — 3x— 3. similar to the method employed in art. 192. Let Vx* — 3x—3 = y, X' 3x3 = y*, r*3x = y* + 3.
y*
:.
Substituting in the original equation,
+ 3~6y=2,
y = 5 or
1.
y*Gy + 5 = 0,
or
..
..
.".
x*3x3 = 25, x»3x28 = 0, x=7 or — 4.
have four roots:
7,
x*3x3=l, x*3x4 = 0,
x=4
—4,
;
or
— 1.
We,
therefore,
4,
—1.
each of these and show that they all satisfy the given equation. Here both values of y were positive if either of them had been negative it could at once be discarded as impossible.
V^erify
Ex. 5.—Solve
x{y—Vx\y=20,
(1) (2)
xy—2Vxy=l20.
From From
(1), (2),
Vx+y = 5
V'xy=
or —4.
12 or
 10.
Here the negative values of the surds are discarded,
..
Vx+2/ = 5, Vxy=^l2.
x + y = 2b,
x!/=144.
Solving these,
x = 9 or
16,
!/=16 or
9.
EXERCISE
Solve and verify 117.
1.
146
:
Reject extraneous roots
2.
4.
x+Vx=20.
x\/x=20.
3.
5.
V'3x^+V^»^=3.
3x4a/5x2+11+5=0.
2 7=
„ /= 5 — 2Vx.
\/3x5V'x2=3.
3x + 5=v/5x2+ll.
6.
7.
8.
3x2A/7a;+4=15,
SURDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
Vz+16
317
V4—X
10.
V4X
11
13. 14.
Vxfl6
12.
^
a;3_u 2x2—
10a;+5=il.
Vx+a+Vx+b=Va—b.
V2^+5\/x^=2.
4(x«+a;+3)^=3(2a;2+5a;2)^.
3(a;+\/2^^)=4{zV2^^).
15.
+ 4  \/2a;2 + V3x2 + 4 4 V2x2 + ^ 7'
VSx^
i 1 1
16.
2
18.
+
fx1
V
= 7.
2
17.
2Vx+3Vy=12,
3V'x+2V^=13.
xy— V a?/=30,
x+y=13.
19.
x+Vxy+y=28, z—Vxy+y=12.
20.
x+2/+V^+^=30,
a;— 2/+Va;— «/=12.
21.
x^+xy+y^=^\,
22.
x+Vxy^y=\^.
23.
24.
x^Zx^&^/x^Zx+%=2.
vx^
x_6=36.
X+2/10.
25.
Vi"^Vi~^'
227.
Square Root
of a
Binomial Surd.
(V3 + V2)2=3+2+2V6 =5+2\/6.
(V5\/3)2=5+32\/l5=82\/l5. (3^2)2=9+26^^2 =ll6\/2.
(Va+V6)2=a+6+2Va6.
(\/a\/6)2=a+62Va5.
The square of Va+V6 is made up of a rational quantity a+6, which is the sum of the quantities under the root signs, and a surd quantity 2\/ab, the ab being the product of the
quantities under the root signs
318
ALOE BRA
The form of the square of Va\\''h will show us how we can sometimes find, by inspection, the square root of a binomial surd.
>/ a\h\2Vab=y/a+Vh,
\^a\b—2Vab = Va — Vb.
Ex.
4 and
1.
— Find
the square root of 7
of 12,
+ 2\/l2.
is 7.
Here we want two factors
3.
whose sum
4
They
are evidently
7
..
+ 2V'l2
_=
+3+
__ 2V'4.
3.
'\/7
+ 2V'l2=\/4 + \/3=2+\/3.
 a/3.
Similarly,
V'l2Vl2 = 2
Verify by squaring
2+ VS
and
2— VS.
Ex.
2,
—Find
the square root of
form a + b — 2VcA,
14— 6V5.
first
To put
this into the
change
6^5 into
2\/46,
146V5=142\/45 = 9 + 52V45,
..
Vl4eV5=V9V'5 = 3\/5.
BXBRCISB
Oral)
147
?
(17.
Find the square root and verify
1.
_^
r^
SURUS AND SURD EQUATIONS
Ex.
1.
319
—Find the square root of 56— 24a/5.
5624V5 = 562\/720.
Here we require two factors of 720 whose sum is 56. When the numbers are large, as here, it may be difficult to obtain the factors by inspection. When this is the case we may represent the factors by a and b and find the values of a and 6 from the equations
o6 = 720,
a + 6 = 56.
Solve these equations by the method of obtain
art.
194 or of
art.
198 and
a=36
6
or 20, or 36.
= 20
The required
..
factors of 720 then are 36
and
20.
5624^/5=562^/720 = 36 + 202^36.
20.
..
\/5624\/5=\/36V'20=62\/5.
Verify by squaring.
Ex.
2.
—Find
the square root of
9
/g
f
+ VS.
4"^
the square root
^ 9 + 4\/5 ^ 9 + 2\/20 ~ 4 4
„
is
or ^
—
(
1.
Ex.
3.
—Find
the square root of 2V'lO+6V'2. and we get
First take out the surd factor y/2,
2VT0 + 6\/2=\/2(6 + 2V5),
the square root
=\/2(l +
\/5).
EXERCISE
Find the square root and verify
1.
4. 7.
:
148
9442\/5.
10724\/r5.
67
2.
38+12\/l0.
94 + 6V245.
3. 6.
9.
4712\/T5.
10128\/T3.
5. 8.
+
7v^72.
285\/l2.
xy^2yVxf^.
320
10.* Find the valve of
ALGEBRA
l^Vl6— 6a/7
to 3 decimal places.
11.
Find the value, to three decimals, of the square root
of
^I
.
7+4\/3
12.
By
first
removing a simple surd
factor, find the square roots of
:
7V2+4\/6, 10+6V5, 7V312, 59\/2+60.
13.
Showthat V'l7 + 12\/2 + \/l712\/2=6,
(2)
(1)
by taking the
square roots,
by squaring.
14.
Simplify
v
3+'v/i2+\/49+8a/3.
15
^ By changmg
.
2
— V/ into 42V3 3
z
,
find the square root of 2
— V 3,
also of S
+ V2
less
and
of
V+^Vl
1,
IG.
From
the result of Ex.
show that 94— 42\/5
is
a positive
quantity
17.
If
than unity.
a;2(146\/5)
sides
= 218\/5,
find
x to three decimals.
are
18.
The
of a rightangled
triangle
Vs
and 3f2V2.
Find the hypotenuse.
228. Imaginary Surds. When we solve the equation we obtain a;= ± 3, and we know that this is the correct
a;2=9,
result,
for the square of either
If
+3
or
—3
is 9.
x^=5, we say that the value of a; is ± Vs, and we can approximate to the values of the roots as closely as we wish bj'^ finding the square root of 5 by the formal method. If we are asked to solve a;2= — 9, we might say that the solution is impossible, as there is no number M'hose square is —9. This statement is correct, but we find it
solve
we
convenient to say
if
x2^9,
~
then
= ± V^^.
SUBDS AND SUED EQUATIONS
9 is called an imaginary Such a quantity as and must be distinguished from such quantities as
321
quantity,
5,
V—
— ^,
jV7,
is
etc.,
We may
which are called real quantities. define an imaginary quantity as one whose square
negative, or as the square root of a negative quantity.
have already seen how imaginary quantities sometimes appear in the solution of quadratic equations (art. 190). We will assume that the fundamental laws of algebra, which we have applied in using real numbers, apply also to imaginary numbers.
Thus,
We
V^^=V9xV^l = 3V^^.
\/
— a*=Va*x
V^=aV^.
These examples show that an imaginary quantity cau always be expressed as the product of a real quantity and the
imaginary quantity
V—
the
1
.
The quantity
V—
1 is
sometimes
called the imaginary unit.
229.
Powers
is real,
of
Imaginary Unit.
is
Any even power
of
v/— 1
and any odd power
imaginary.
definition,
Thu3,
..
(\/^)»=  1, by
(V^)3=v'^n[,
(V^^)«=(i)*= + i.
..
..
(\/^6_(V^n:)«x
v^=+a/i,
etc.
230.
Multiplication and Division of Imaginaries.
Ex.1.
V^^x V'^=V'2
.
V^X V3 V^,
.
= V2 V3x(V^^)*=V6.
.
Note that the product
iiere is
— VG,
not %/6.
322
ALOE BRA
Ex.2.
sV^xsV^^eV^xisV^i,
Ex.3.
Ex.
4.
^
V2
(x {a
= 90(v'^)*=90.
=.
^,?X yZ^ = y^l = V9^3. \/2 \/2xVl
+ 2/v'^)» = x* + 3/»(V^* + 2a;y\/^, = x» — i/* + 2a:n/\/^. + bV^l)(abV^^) = a*b*iV^\)* = a* + bK
3
.
Ex. Ex.
5.
6,
Rationalize the denominator of
1 f
Multiply both terms by
3{l
V — 2 and we get
3(1
+ V^^)_ ^
V2)
(l\/2)(l +
l(2)
+ V32) _
J
^32
BXBROISB
1.
149
(10,
Oral)
Express as a multiple of
V^
:
V—4,
V — \6, V— 81, V— a*
?
V^^Wd, V^^9x*,
2.
V^^b)\
What
is
the value of (V^l)^
:
(V^S (V^l)*, V^l)'
V^^, V^OOO, \/^^49. a + V—b\ a—bV—l.
9.
Find the sum of
3. 6.
V^, V^. 4+\/^, 2— V — 16.
V^l,
is
4.
6.
What
7.
the product of
8.
:
V^, V^.
^25, V^IOO.
V'^^^
V^P
Simplify
10.*
11.
3V^3+2V^^54:V^[2+5V'^^48.
(36\/^)(35\/^)+(53\/^)(5 + 3\/^).
(43\/i)2(2+6\/^)2.
12.
13. 15. 16.
2^(lV^).
14.
(l +
v/^)^(lV^).
{a+bV^)^+(ab\iy\
Show
that
i(
l
+ \/^)2=i(lV^).
SURDis
17.
is
AND SURD EQUATIONS
— + V—S),
l
323
this quantity
By
finding the cube of ^(
show that
a cube root of unity,
18.
(art. 192,
Ex.
5.)
?
Are
If
2± V^^,
the roots of
x^ix+7=0
19.
a=2+3V'^
Impossible
and
6=2— 3V^,
show that a+b, ab and
o'+ft* are real quantities.
231.
Problems.
We
?
obtained
question,
the
"
imaginary
is
number — 9 in answer number whose square is
V
to the
What
said,
the
is
—9
"
As we have
this
arithmetically an impossible problem.
When we obtain an imaginary result in solving may conclude that the problem is impossible.
Ex. 1. The sum Find the number.
Let x=the number,
a problem, we
—
of a
number and

its
reciprocal
is
1.
.*.
=
its reciprocal,
2a;»3a;+2 = 0,
3+\/9^=T6
3±V^^
Here the roots are imaginary, and we conclude that there is no number which answers the condition of the problem. In fact, it may be shown that the sum of a positive number and its
reciprocal
is
never
less
than
2.
Change IJ into 2^ and solve the problem.
per yard.
Ex. 2.— For $30 Find z.
I
can buy z yards of cloth at S(10— x)
The
total cost in dollars
..
= x(
1
— x) = 30.
10+ V'^=20 x=2
a;*iOa;+30=0,
What
conclusion do you draw
7
?
Would
it
be impossible
if
for $30
we substitute $25
$20
?
y2
324
ALGEBRA
BXBROISB
150
:
Solve and determine
1.
if
these problems are possible
is
A
line
which
is
10 inches long
divided into two parts so that
is
the area of the rectangle contained by the parts
40 square inches.
Find the lengths of the parts.
2.
The length
of a rectangle
is
twice
its
1
width.
If
the length be
is
increased 10 feet and the width decreased
foot, the area
is
doubled
1
Find the dimensions.
3.
it
Solve also
when the width
If
increased
foot.
A man
take him
has 20 miles to walk.
he walks at x miles per hour
?
will
4.
%—x
hours.
At what
rate does he walk
is
If it is possible
that
x(12— x) = 36+a, and a
?
not negative,
what must the value
of a be
BXERCISB
!.
2.
161
(Review of Chapter XXIV)
y/Qy/2.
•
Multiply Multiply
l
+ \/3V'2by
\/3+ \/2 by
—+—
—
Find the square roots of: 3. ll\/72, 126\/3.
4.
14+ V 180, 254\/21, 22+\/420,
Find to two decimal places the values of
1 + V3 VBVs' ^5+2v6. 2V3+V8'
/
:
7
3 \/8+V20
V5+V2
Solve and verify
5.
:
x+\/x^=\\.
6.
V4x+7+\/4x+3 = 6.
7.
\/z+\/z^=
Vx—
35
,
•
8.
V6x+7Vx+2=V2Vx+i.
9.
Vx+5+ VxIQ=V'l^+x
Vx+5
^^
10.

Vl6a:
=
Vl9+»
,
'
SURDS AND SURD EQUATIONS
11.
325
12.
V'2+V3+V5 by v'5+V3V'2 and x+y + 2Vx+y by x + y — 2Vx+y. When x = 2+V3, y=2—V3, find the value or
Multiply
2x+y
x2y
x—y
13.
result
x+y
Check the
Expand and simplify {V2a+Vb + V2a—Vb)*. by substituting a= 13,. b= 100.
Solve
14.
15. 16.
p + x—V2px+x* = q.
Fina the product of 2\/3 + 3v'2+
Find the continued product of
VSO and
^2+^3 VB.
xl + \/2, x\V2, x+l + VS and z+lVS.
,^ 17.
o
vf Simplify
7=—77=  77=—r + V6+\/3 V3+1
,
3\/2
2V6
Ve
V3+V2
,
18.
When
x = a\Va^—\, find the values of
1
,
,
1
,
1
X
19.
x'
:
x'
Express in the simplest form
A'27\/8 + A/l7f 12V2V'286V3
and
„^
20.
Vll + 6V'2+\/l94\/r2 + V5\/2i.
Simplify
o
.r
V 12+6\/3 and ,T
,
V3(l
21. 22. 23.
If
^ / TO— n
.
/m+n —
.
^
.
\ TO+n
/
/m— —7—'
x=lf2V'^,
find the value of
x«12x.
Find the square roots of
Solve 2x*f
T+ViS
and 2a— \'4a' — 4.
6x— 6\/x* + 3x— 3 = 45.
24.
SimpUfy (Vs^
^3+ V'2)« + (\/54\/3 a/2)»
+
(
V'5 a/3+ V2)* + C\/5 \/3giving
^/2)*.
26.
Solve
3x* —
9x+
11
=4Vx* — 3x + 5,
.
the
roots
to
two
decimal
26.
pleices.
^^t Simplify
„•
Va + b{Va—b
Vo+6— Vo— 6
.
—
Va + b—Va~b
Va+b^Va—b
, ,
326
ALGEBRA
Show Show
that
,
27.
—
V16 + 2V'63
28.
+
V162V63
,
^=
3.
unless a* — b
is
cannot be expressed in the form that a perfect square.
va+Vb
\
Vx+Vy
29. K
=' ''" Simplify
^ (^)+(^:^==)
'
I
\
<
30.
Simplify (32\/2)'^
+ (3 + 2\/2)'.
31.
Find the value
of
x^+x*4xii when
x= v'3trV.
CHAPTER XXV
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
232.
Sum and
Product of
the Roots.
Solve these equations
(1)
(2) (3)
x2lla;410=0.
2.r2 3.r
The
„ „
roots are 10,
„ „
11,
f,
2 6
1.
5=0.
„ „
f,
L
=
10.
15a;H26a;+ 8=0.
the
„
,,
, ^.
In In
Tn AiX
(1) (2)
sum
„
,,
of the roots
„
,,
„
,,
„
,,
= =
product
„
,,
=f.
j^.
8
CW \fJ
/
jg,
Examine the sum and the product in each case and state how they compare with the coefficients in the given equations.
Every quadratic equation may be reduced to the form
ax^{bx\c—0.
Ihe roots are
—b+Vb^'iac
^
2a
——
J and
6— V624ac
^
.
2a
For brevity represent these roots by
m\n
m and
n,
= b+Vb^4:acbVb^4MC
2a
26
2a
b
a
and
mn =
{b^Vb^4ac){bVb^4:ac)
4a2
(6)2— (\/62— 4ac)2
4a2
atf
~
6262+4ac
4a*
4ac
c
~4a=
328
ALGEBRA
results with the coefficients a,
:
Comparing these
equation,
b, c
in the
quadratic equation, in the standard form, is equal to the coefficient of x with its sign changed, divided by the coefficient of x^, and the product of the roots is equal to the absolute term, divided by the coefficient of x^.
we see that The sum of the roots of any
Sum
coefficient of
x
a;*
of the roots
coefficient of
Product of the roots
See
if
absolute term
coefficient of
a;*
efficients of the three
these two statements apply to the roots and coequations preceding.
The formulae for the sum and product of the roots furnish a convenient means of verifying the roots.
the roots of 3x*\x—2 = to be 5, —1, but the sum of and the product is — , which agree with the sum and product given by the formulae. Therefore, these are the correct
Thus,
I find
is
J
and
—1
—J
roots.
Are the roots of 14a;» 19x60 = 0, V,
233.
—?
?
Reciprocal Roots.
If the
roots of ax^\bx\c=0 are
is
reciprocals (like §
c
and
§),
their product
unity,
and therefore

a
=1
is
,
or
c=a.
the
coefficient
So that any quadratic equation, in which
x^
Thus, the roots of 6x*— 13x + 6 =
is f
of
equal to the absolute term, will have reciprocal roots.
are reciprocals, since their product
or
1.
Verify this by finding the roots.
234.
Roots equal
(like
in
Magnitude but opposite
their
in Sign.
If the
roots of ax'^\bx{c^=0 are equal in magnitude but opposite
in sign
3
and —3),
sum
will
be zero, therefore
_ =
a
or 6
= 0.
So that any quadratic equation in which the second term is missing will have roots equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
and ox*— c = 2a;* — 9 = Verify by finding the roots.
Thus,
have such
roots.
THEORY OF QDADRATIC8
EXERCISE
State the
1.
32^
152 (Oral)
:
sum and product
of the roots of
x2— 7a:+12=0.
a;2+6a;+l=0.
3a;212a;7=0.
2.
x2_5a._ii^0.
2a;2_i0a;+6=0.
3.
5. 7.
4.
6. 8.
4a;217x+4=0.
ax^—{b\c)x\a=0.
ax^—bx—c=0.
px^—q=0.
3x^4:z=6.
9.
10. 12.
ax^+a=0.
(aib)x^x+a^b^=0.
have reciprocal roots
?
V
11. 13.
Which
of
the
preceding
equations
Which have
14.
15.
roots equal in magnitude but opposite in sign
?
Are 4 and 5 the roots of x29a;+20=0 Are
S+V2, 3—V2
the roots of
x^—6x+7=0
?
In which
16. 18.
of the following are the correct roots given
5, 2.
:
x27a;J10=0;
a;213a;436=0;
17.
x2+3a;28=0
;
7,
;
4.
4, 9.
19.
x212x+27=0
2a;25a;+2=0
is
;
4, 8. 2, J.
20.
x24a;5=0
;
5, 1.
21.
In solving a;^— 2a;— 1599=0, one root must the other be ?
22.
23.
found to be
41.
What
How
roots of
would you show that x23293x+2439=0 ?
1125
and
2
168 are the correct
24.
of a
?
If the roots of
Qx^—lOx^a=0
are reciprocals,
what
is
the value
25.
If
the roots of
jnx^—{m^—9)x'rm^=0
is
are equal in magnitude
?
but opposite in sign, what the product of the roots ?
the value of
m
What would
then be
235. To form a Quadratic with given Roots. First Method. In the equation x^^px^q^O, the sum of the roots is —p, and the product is q. Since every quadratic equation may be reduced to the form x^}px]q=0, by dividing by the coefficient of x^, any quadratic equation may be written thus
;
X'^—X (sum
of roots)
+ (product of roots)=0.
330
If
ALOEBRA
the roots are given, the equation can at once be writi^a
down.
Thus, the equation whose roots are 3 and 5
is
x*
— a;(3 + 5) + 3
is
.
5
= 0,
orx»8x+15 =
The equation whose
roots are
2}
\/3 and
2— VS
is
x»x(2+V32V3) + (2+\/3)(2\/3) = 0,
The equation whose
roots are a
or
x*4x+l = 0.
+b
and a — b
x*
— 2axfa* — 6* = 0.
p and
q
is
Second Method. {x—p){x—q)=^Q.
The equation whose
The equation whose
roots
roots are
are
3
and
5
is
t^
— 3)(x — 5) = 0,
or
x*8x+15 = 0.
The equation whose roots are § and —J is (3x2)(4x+3) = 0. The equation whose roots are 2— \/3, 2— \/3 is
(x
— §)(x+) = 0,
or
(x2 V'3)(x2+\/3) = 0,
or
(x2)*3 =
or
x*4x 41 = 0.
Either method is simple enough to apply, but the first is probably easier when the given roots are not simple numbers. The second method may be applied to form an equation with any number of given roots.
Thus, the equation whose roots are
2, 3,
—5
is
(x2)(x3)(x + 5) = 0, or x3_
19a;
+30=0.
EXERCISE
7. 1.
153 (116, Oral)
State, without simplifying, the equations
1.
5.
3, 7.
whose roots are
7.
2.
6.
3, i,
3.
7.
3,
4.
3,
I, J. 0,
7
ii
a, a.
h\.
3, 0.
8.
9.
10, 14.
—a, —b.
11.
12.
16.
m.
13.
3,4,5.
2,3,1.
15.
a,b,c.
a, 6, 0.
:
Reduce
17.*
20.
23.
to the simplest form the equations
18.
whose roots are
19.
m+n, m—n.
1,
2a— b, 2o+6.
2, 4,
6.
3+V3, 3A/a
i, \, \.
2i.
21.
22.
Show
that 125 and 464 are the correct roots of
x00a;''589*+580==0.
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
24.
331
is
Construct an equation in which the
is
sum
of the roots
7
and the
difference of their squares
14.
25.
Form
the equation
whose roots are a and
b
where a^\b^=2bi
a\b=l.
26.
Form
the equations whose roots are
a\b
a—b
27.
(1) (3)
—;; ^, a^b
a—b
i(4±\/7).

,_
Find the sum and the product of the roots of
:
(x2)2=5x3.
x{xp)=p{xq).
Solve
If
(2) (4)
{xa){xb)=ab.
(2+a)2+(a;+6)2=(a;4c)2.
is 5.
28. 29.
x* — 21x2— 20x=0,
being given that one root
is
one root of a;^—
of a.
12x+a=0
double the other, find the roots
and the value
30.
If
one root of x^\px'ri&—Q
is
three times the other,
what are
the values oi
p
1
236.
Functions of the Roots.
b
,
When m and n
are the roots
of ax^\bx\c=0,
m\n=
Here
it
a
mn = 
c
•
a
the product of the
while the separate
will
be seen, that the
sum and
roots do not contain surd roots do.
expressions,
If we wish to find the sum of the squares of the roots, we can do so in the following way
:
m^+n^
= (m\n)^—2mn.
62
2c
62_2ac
It
and adding the results. the same result.
can also be found by taking the square of each root Find it that way and see if you get
332
ALGEBRA
1.
Ex.
— When
1
ni
and n are the roots

of a,r26.Tf c=0.
find the values of
1
m
_
+ .
n
b
_
n
c
'

— m
,
m^in^,
m~n.
_
m\n
_
b
c
m
f>^
,
n
''^
mn
a
a
6»_
n
2c
m
,
_ w* + n* _
mn
(m + n)* — 2mn
_
a*
c
a
b^
— 2ac
ac
mn
,
3 3 m^ + n^
=
/ N3 / (m4tiy — o 3m,n(m + n)
,
^
— = — fe»
a^
H
— „= 3a6c6»
36c
^
t
a*
a'
or
/
m,^^n^
= =
(7n4n)(m* — mn + n*) = {??!+ 'i)l(w
+ n) *—3mn} =
>
etc.
(m — n)'
.\.
(m + n)* — 4wn
/
V.
„
= —.
a*
6*
4c
a
=
6*— 4ac
a*
s
—
m—n = H ~
Vfc*
— 4ac
.
a
The same two values of the last expression might have been found by simple subtraction, the sign depending on the order in which the roots were taken.
Ex.
2.
—
If
m
equation whose roots are
Here m\n=
and n are the roots m^ and n^.
and mn=q.
of x^\px\q=0, find the
—p
The sum
of the roots of the required equation is
m* + n* = (m + n)*— 2mn=p*— 2g.
The product
.•.
of the roots
the required equation
3.
is
= m*n* = g*. x* — x{p*—2q)\q* = 0.
13x— 8=0.
3,
Ex.
— Find the equation whose roots are each greater by
—J.
'•
2 than the roots of 6a;2—
Solve the given equation and the roots are
.'.
.'.
the roots of the required equation are V, the required equation is
x*
— {i^+i)x+',*. = 0,
1
or
6x»37a;+42 = 0.
We
might have solved the problem without finding the actual roots
of th«) given equation.
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
Let
333
p and
g be the roots of 6a;*— iSa;— 8
Then
.'.
P + <1=V and pq=
= 0. — tis
the
sum
of the roots of the required equation
p+2 + g+2=p + g+4 =
and the product
i5»
+ * = V.
= (p + 2){q+2)=pq+2(p + q) + 4,= i + ^^+i = 7.
.'.
the required equation
is
x*^x+7 = 0,
When would the second method
Ex.
4.
or 6a;*37x + 42
= 0.
tirst ?
be simpler than the
— Find the equation whose roots
P
are the reciprocals
of the roots of mx^^7iz\k=^0.
Let p and q be the roots of the given equation,
then
+q=
n
m
and pq
,
k = — m
q
•
The
roots of the required equation are 
and
•
p
Find the sum and product of  and p complete the solution. Compare the new equation with the not write down, mentally, the equation
of the roots of q
 in terms of m, n and k and
given one and see if you could whose roots are the reciprocals
any given equation.
The following method will be found useful in solving 237. such problems as the three preceding.
Ex. 1. Find the equation whose roots are each greater by 5 than the roots of 4a;2— 5x+7 — 0.
Let y be the unknown
in the required equation.
—
Then
Substitute
y = x + o or x — y — x — y—5
in
5.
the
given
equation,
and
the
required
equation
or
is
Of
— 5)*— 5(i/ — 5)f 7 = 0, 42/»40y+1005y + 25 + 7 = 0, 4j/»45y+ 132 = 04(2/
S34
A
2.
WEBRA
Ex.
— Find
the equation whose roots are the squares of
the roots of ax^\bx{c=0.
Let y be the unknown
in the required equation.
Then
.'.
y — x* or
is
x=+Vy,
the required equation
a{±Vy)* + b(±Vy) + c = 0,
or or
ay\c= '+bVy,
a*y* + 2acy + c*
= b*y,
this
or
a*y*^y(2ac — b*) + c* = 0.
Solve Ex.'s
2, 3,
4 proceding,
by
method.
BXEROISE
1.* If
154
m
,
m

1
,

— n
1
m
,
—— m
I
and n are the n , ,
,
roots of a;^— 5x+3=0, find the values of
m^jmnjri'.
n
2.
Find the sum of the squares of the roots of
x27x + l=0 and
3.
li
of Sa;^— 4x+5=0.
p and
q are the roots of
3x^+2a:— 6=0,
find the values of
q
, V^'P'P?+9'+ p' p« g2
4.
Find the sum of the cubes of the roots of
2x2— 3a;+4=0 ^nd
6.
of
z^—x+a=0.
are
Find
the
equation
whose
roots
double
the
roots
of
a;*— 9x420=0, (1) by solving, (2) without solving.
6.
Find the equations whose roots are each
less
by 3 than the
roots of (1)
7.
x2llx428=0,
(2)
x2xl=0.
Find the equations whose roots are the reciprocals of the roots
of (1)
2x2+x6=0,
If
(2)
x^pz+q=0.
find the equationfl
8.
m
and n are the roots of 3z''— 2x+5=0,
:
whose roots are
(1)
n
i and

,
(2)
n
 and n

m
,
(3)
m' »ad
n».
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
9.
SP
Find the sura of the squares and the sum
of the cubes of the
roots of x'^\ax{h=0.
10.
Find the equation whose roots are the squares of the roots
of x^\px—q=:0.
11.
Find the equation whose roots are each greater by h than the
roots of ax^\hx\c=0.
12
Find the equation whose roots are the reciprocals of the roots
of x^\x=\.
13.
If
m
and n are the roots
of
x^—px\q=Q, show that m\n
and
mn
are the roots of x^—x{p\q)\pq=0.
14.
Form
the equation whose roots are
m
and
n,
where
m2+n2=20, w+7? =— 6.
If m and n are the roots of x'^\px\q=0, show that m{2n 16. and 2m\n are the roots of x^+3px\2p^+q=0.
16.
If
p and
q are the roots of ax^ibx'rc=0, find the value of
a, b
p*\p^q^\q* in
terms of
and
c.
238.
Character of the Roots of a Quadratic Equation.
:
Solve the equations
(1) (2)
x2— 6.r+ 9=0,
6a:2+ a: 15=0,
the roots are
„ „
3,
3,
„
,
».
10
(3)
5x^{lx 2=0,
7±V89
(4)
2a;23x+ 2=0,
the roots are equal.
3±V^
We
might say that there is two roots,
In
(1),
only one root, but
we
prefer to say that there are
to be equal.
which
In
in this case
happen
(3), the roots are irrational, but we can approximate to their values by taking the square root of 89.
In (4), the roots are also irrational, but we can not even approximate to their values. Here the roots are imaginary, while in each of the others the roots are real.
336
ALGEBRA
These statements might be written thus
In
(1), the roots (2), the roots
are equal, real
and
and
rational. rational.
In
are unequal, real
and
In
In
If
(3), the roots are irrational
(4), the roots
real.
are irrational
and imaginary.
we examine
the roots of the general quadratic equation
we
is
will see
the reason why, under particular conditions, there
this difference in the character of the roots.
The
roots of ax^\hx\c=0 are
— 6+v'62— 4ac
2a
and
^
— 6— a/62— 4ac
2a
:
From
(1) If
these roots
we may conclude
a, b, c
is
the particular values of
are such that
b^—^ac=0,
then the roots are equal, for each
In equation
(1),
evidently equal to
—^
a=\,
fe=
— 6, c = 9.
6»4ac = 3636 = 0.
its
..
(2)
If
b^—4:ac
is
a perfect square, then
square root can
be found exactly and the roots are rational.
In equation
(2),
a
..
= 6, 6= 1, c= — 15. 6*4ac=l + 360 = 361=l9*.
not a perfect square, but
is
(3)
If
b^—^ac
is
positive, the
roots are real but irrational.
Find the value of
(4) If
6*
— 4ac
in equation (3).
b^—4:ac
is
negative, the roots are imaginary.
Find the value of
6*
— 4ac
in equation (4).
Hence, the roots of ax^jbx+c^O are real and equal if b^— 4ac=0, real and unequal if b^— 4ac is positive, imaginary if b^— 4ac is negative, real and rational if b*— 4ac is a perfect
square.
THEORY QF QUADRATICS
^Sl
The Discriminant. We see then, that we can deter239. mine the character of the roots of a quadratic equation without actually finding the roots. All we require to do is to find the value of b^—4ac. This important quantity is called the discriminant of the
equation ax^{bx\c=0.
Ex.
1.
— Determine the character
3x^\5x—U^0. a;2 a;+ 3=0.
of the discriminant (6*
is
>i
the roots of
:
(1)
(2)
(4)
i2x^2ox\ 12=^0.
(3)
2a;216x+32=0.
The value
— 4ac)
in (1)
157,
49,
.".
the roots are real and irrational, the roots are real and rational,
the roots are imaginary, the roots are real and equal.
in (2) in (3)
is is
.'.
— 11,
0,
.'.
in (4) is
.'.
Ex.
The
that
is,
2.
— For
?
what values
if
of
k will 4:X^—kx]4=0 have
efqual roots
roots will be equal
if
6*— 4ac = 0,
or
if
^*64 =
i=±8.
if
Substitute these values for k and see
the roots are equal.
Ex.
Here
3.
—Show that the roots are rational of
3mx^—x(2m\3n)\2n=^0:
6*4ac = (2m+3n)*— 24/«.n,
= 4m*— 127/in+9n2 = (2/n— 3n)*.
Since 6* — 4ac is a square, the roots are rational. Verify by finding the roots.
EXERCISE
1.
155
(15,
Oral)
?
What What
is
the discriminant of x^{4iX\4:=0
?
What
? ?
is
the
character of the roots
2. 3.
4.
is is
the nature of the roots of x^ir3x{2—0
peculiar about the roots
if
What
What
If
6^— 4ac=0
kind of roots have
x^—5x+7=0, x^— 6xl9=:0,
a;2— 4a;— 6=0
is
?
x'—x—6^Q,
5.
the discriminant
is 25,
what
the character of the roota^
7.
J38
ALGEBRA
:
Determine the character of the roots of
6.*
8.
23H 5x43=0.
7.
3r2— 72— 5=0.
4x2+7a;+15=0.
abx'^+x{a'^+h^)\ah=0.
9.
9x212r+4=0.
x'^mx—\=^.
all
10. 12.
11.
Show
If If
that x^\ax\h=0 has real roots for
negative values
Jh.
13.
14.
9a;2412x+it=0 has equal
roots, find k.
a.
all
ax—\Qx+a=0
k.
has equal roots, find
16.
Show
If
that the roots of x^—x{\\k)\k=0 are rational for
values of
16.
17.
it
x*+2x( 1+0)40^=0 has equal
solving the equation x^
less
roots, find a.
By
— 4x45=t,
X
show that
if a;
is
real,
cannot be
18.
than
the
1.
Show
is
that
roots
of
—
 1
r
=
are
real
if
x4a
x4o
a^—ab + b^
19.
positive.
Eliminate y from the equations y=mx\c end?/*=4ax, and find the value of c if the resulting equation in x has equal roots.
20.
of
If
2mx24(57n42)x4(4m4l)=0 has equal
verify.
roots, find the values
m
and
240.
Factors of a Quadratic Expression.
When
m
and n are the roots
of ax^^bx\c=0,
m 4 n —
,'.
b
,
a
mn =
a;
c 
a
4 j
ax^]hx\c=a(x^ 4 
=a{x^— {m\n)x{inn} =a{x—m){x—n).
So that,
if
m
and n are the roots
of ax^\bx\c^O, the
factors of the quadratic expression
ax'^\bx\c
are a{x—m){x—n).
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
339
like
We
can,
therefore,
find
the factors of a trinomial
ax^\hx]c
by solving the corresponding equation.
Solving by formula,
Ex. 1.— Factor 6a;2+a;— 40. we find the roots of 6x* + a;40=0 are ^,
..
— .
6a;»+x40=6(a;5)(a;+f)
= (2a;5)(3a;+8).
Ex. 2.— Factor 12x247a:+40.
The
roots of the corresponding equation are
..
\,
,
12x«47x + 40=12(x)(x)
= (4x5)(3x8).
241.
Character
of
the
Factors
of
a
Trinomial.
it
Since
ax^{bx\c=0 has equal roots
when 6^— 4ac=0,
is
follows that
ax^+bx+c
.•.
has equal factors, or
a square, when
b^— 4ac=0.
factor 3
Thus, in 3x*30a: + 75,
3iC*
— 30a;+7o
ia
a perfect square
6*4ac = 900900 = 0. when the numerical
is
removed.
// 6'^— 4ac is a perfect square, the expression ax^\hx\c has two rational factors, for under this condition the corresponding
equation has rational roots.
Thus, in 20x« — x12,
6«4ac = 961 = 31».
Find the
factors.
2Qx* — x— 12 has rational factors.
242.
Surd
Factors
of
a Trinomial.
trinomial can be factored,
we
usually
\Mien we say that a mean that it can be
expressed as the product of rational factors.
As we have
is
seen, this can always be done when h'^—AiOC a perfect square. When there are no rational roots we may use the preceding
method
Ex.
to find surd factors.
of
— Find two surd factors
a;
x^— 6a;[4.
nx«6a;+4 = 0,
..
=
^^^^ = 3± Vs.
e2
a;»6x44 = (x3V5)(a;3+'\/6).
Verify by multiplication.
340
ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
156
Factor, by trial
if
:
you can, otherwise by solving the corresponding
equations and verify
1,
3x217x+10.
a;2_2.f1783.
2. 4.
6.
20a;2+3x108.
3.
5. 7.
lS00a5al.
221a:2458ax+221a2.
299^2+ lOx1.
Show
that 12x^— 15x+4 has no rational factors,
8.*
of
it.
x+4x— 3
If If
has no rational factors.
Find two surd factors
9.
X— 8x4Z;
is
a perfect square, find
is
k.
is
10.
find k.
ax^—kx'rQa
a perfect square, when the factor a
removed,
11. 12.
Express
Factor
x^— 6x— 11
as the product of
two surd
this
factors.
144a;*— 337a;2?/^ 1442/*.
When
expression
y.
is
equal to zero, find four values of the ratio of x to
13.
If
x—2
is
a factor of 120x3— 167x—ax+56, find the value of
a and find the other two factors.
14.
By
finding the square root of
a, b
ax^+bx+c,
is
find the relation
which
must connect
243.
and
c
when
this expression
a perfect square.
Equation cannot have more than two have seen that the equation ax^\bx{c—0 has two roots, and since this equation represents every quadratic, it follows that every quadratic equation has two roots. It cannot have more than two roots.
A
Quadratic
Roots.
We
Let
m and n be the roots of ax^{bx\c=^0.
ax^{bx\c=a{x—m){x—n)
(art. 240).
Then
a{x—m){x—7i)—0.
Since this product is zero, one factor must be zero. But a is not zero, for the equation woukl not then be a quadratic.
Therefore, either
x—m=0
or
X'
n—O.
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
But no values
of
.r
341
other than
m
and n
will
make
either of
these quantities equal to zero.
m
roots,
and n are the only
roots.
Since the quadratic equation ax^{bx\c=^0 has only two then the quadratic expression ax^+bx+c can be resolved
into linear factors in only one
way.
EXERCISE
1. 2.
157 (Review of Chapter
XXV)
?
What
is
the
sum and
the product of the roots of ax^ + bx\c =
reciprocals
When
3.
(3)
are they equal in
Under what condition are the roots of ax*ifea; + c = magnitude but opposite in sign ?
?
When
If
are the roots
(4) rational
?
of
ax*\bx
+ c = 0,
:
(1)
equal,
(2)
real,
imaginary,
4.*
p + 9 = 4 and pq=5,
find the values of
6.
Find the sum and the product
of the roots of
(3a;2)(a;3) = (xl)(a;5).
of
Find the equation whose roots are each onehalf 6. 4a;»20x+21 = 0.
7. 8.
of the roots
Find the sum of the squares of the roots of 3a;*— lla;+
1
= 0.
Find the equation whose roots are twice as great as the roots
of
24x*38a;+15 = 0.
9.
For what value of k
will
x*— I0x=k have equal
roots
?
10.
Find the equation whose roots are
m
and n when m^ + n^^l^
and mn=35.
11.
12.
Factor 5256a;*+a;l and 221a;* 8a;— 165.
Form
the equation whose roots are
m
and n where m' + ^'=28
and
m+w = 4.
Find the sum of the roots of {x—a)* + {x—b)* = {x—c)*.
13.
Construct the equation whose roots are the reciprocals of the 14. roots of 17x* 53x— 97 0.
+
=
16,
Express x* + 6a;f7 as the product of two linear factors.
342
ALGEBRA
16. Construct the equation whose roots are each greater by 7 than the roots of 2x*+ llx21 = 0. 17.
of ax*
Find the equation whose roots are each three times the roots
+ 6x + c = 0.
If
18.
m
and n are the roots
of ax*^bx
+ c = 0,
find the equation
19.
roots.
Show that {a + b + c)x* — 2x{a + b) + a + b — c = What are they ?
has
rational
If one root of 20. 2p* = 9q.
x*—px+q =
is
double of the other, show that
If and n are the roots of x*+/)x g = 0, 21. are the roots of x* + x(m + /i — mn) — mn(m + n) = 0.
m
+
show that p and
q
22.
all
Show
that the equation (mx\
j
=4ox
has equal roots for
values of m.
23.
Find the values of k
x*
for
which the equation
+
x{2 + k) + k + 37
=
has equal roots.
Since x* — 8x20 = (x 10)(x+2), for what values of x is the 24. expression x* — 8x— 20 equal to zero ? For what values is it negative ? For what values is it positive ?
Show that it is impossible to divide a line 6 inches in length 25. mto two parts such that the area of the rectangle contained by them
may
26.
be 10 square inches.
Verify
For what values of k your result.
Find the sum
is
4x* — x(i+8) + A; + 5 a perfect square?
27. 28.
of the cubes of the roots of x*
+ mx + n = 0.
Find the sum of the squares of the roots of
x»x(l4o) + J(l+a + a*) = 0.
29.
Find the
sum and
a
the product of the roots of
^
X
30.
find a
If
—a
_
b
'^
X

X
—c
equals their product,
the
sum
of the roots of a*'
— 6x+ 12a =
(x
and
verify.
31.
It is evident that a is
one root of
—
c)
(x— 6) = (a— c) (o— 6).
Find the other root.
THEORY OF QUADRATICS
343
If a;* — 5x— 3a and x*— lla;+3a have a common factor, it must 32. be a factor of their difference. Make use of this; to find the value of a for which x'' — 5.t— 3a = and x*— lla;+3a = will have a common Verify by finding the roots. root.
The absolute term in an equation of the form x*\px + q = is 33. misprinted 18 instead of 8. A student in consequence finds the roots to be 3 and 6. What were the roots meant to be ?
34.
If
1
m
and n are the roots of
ax^\bx\c
— 0,
show that
m+n
and
m
— n
are the roots of aca;* + 6x(a4c) + 6* = 0.
35. Two boys attempt to solve a quadratic equation. After reducing it to the form x^\px\q = Q, one of them has a mistake only in the absolute term and finds the roots to be 1 and 7. The other has a mistake only in the coefficient of x, and finds the roots to be — 1 and — 12. What were the corrnct roots ?
36.
Express x*\2hx\c ae the product of two linear factors
in x.
CHAPTER XXVI
supplementary theorems and exercises
Additional Examples in Factoring
244.
Product of two Trinomials.
If
we multiply
the product
a2b3c by 2a— &4c may be written 2a^5ab+2b^5ac+bcZcK
three terms of the product, which do not contain
The
first
c,
are evidently the product of a— 2b and 2a— b. The last term, — Sc^, is the product of —3c and c. If we wish to factor the product of two trinomials, we may do so by the method of cross multiplication, which we used to
the letter
factor a trinomial.
Ex. 1.—Factor 2a^  5ab{2b^— Sac \bc3c^.
First factor 2a*—5ab{2b*, and then choose such factors of —3c* as will give the remaining terms in the product when the complete
miiltiplication is
performed
2a*5o6426«5ac{6c 3c» —26 —3c a
— b 2a + r,. the terms of the factors are written under the terms from which they are obtained, it is not difficult to obtain by trial the factora of an expression of this type.
If
Ex. 2.—Factor 4a2+362_l2c28a68ac.
Arrange the expression thus
2a 2c
:
4o«8a6 + 36*8ac12c*

6
I
2c
36

6c
Show by
multiplication that these factors are correct
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
BXBRCISE! 158
Write, mentally, the products of
1.
r
346
a26ic
2.
Zx—y\\
8.
a~ bc
4.
3x
3x+y—2
5.
3^—46+ c 2a b2c
2x— 5y+
z
y—
o— 6+4
2a—
6.
2x—3y+3
7.
3x~2y—Sz
2a~3b5c 2af36
8.
3m— 2n+l 2m— 3»+4
9.
a^—2a+3
a^\3a—2
Factor and verify
10.
a^~^abr4:b^a+2b12,
2x'^ixy—6y^+2xz+llyz~4z*.
11.
12.
2a2+662~3c2+76c— 5ca— 7ao.
2a;27a;t/222/25a;+35i/3.
13.
14.
15.
6a^+at>l2b^2a+3lb20.
a;2— a;z— 6z2— 2xy+&y3.
16.* Divide the product of 6a^—5abib^ina—4:b+3 and
!ii62
by 3a2f 2a6— 62_5af 362.
17.
Reduce to lowest terms
4p'^+2lq^ 18r^+33qr+Qrp~3lpq
^p^—7pqr3q^~2pr+3qrQr^
18.
If
3x\2y—5z
is
a factor
of
3x2faa;?/— 6i/2t6a;z4cy3— lOz*,
tt^hat
are the values of a, b
and
c
?
19.
z'^{x{y—l)—{2y^—10y\12).
Write the expression x^4xy—2y^—x{l0y~l2 in the form Solve the corresponding equation for
X and thus find the factors of the given expression.
20.
fche
Solve
x2—5ax+6a*+7a;17a+ 12=0. (W bv
factoring. {2\
by
general formula.
346
21.
ALOmBRA
Express, in the factor form, the L.C.M. of
6a2— 5a646(ac— c^
and
245.
6«2ffl6_262— oc+46c— 2c2.
Sum and
aS + 63
Difference of Cubes.
We
have seen that
= (a + 6)(a«a6 + 6*),
(a
a^b'' = (ah){a'^\ab\b*).
Similarly,
+ 6)» + c» = (a + 6 + c){(a + 6)*c(a + 6) + c*;
and
(a6)3cS = (ofec)(afe)« + c(a6) + c*J.
Ex. 1.— Factor a^+h^^c^—Zabc. Add to a' + 6' sufficient to make the sum
add 3a»6 + 3a6^
the cube of a + 6, that
is,
Then
a^ + b^ + c^ — Zahc, = a3 + 63 + 3a»6_^3oj»4.cS_3aJft_3a5i_3a6c, = (a + fc)» + c»3a6(a + 6 + c), = (o + 6 + c)!(a + 6)*c(a + 6) + c*3afe}, = (o + 6 + c)(a« + 6* + c*a66cca).
The factors of this expression are important, and the pupi' should endeavour to retain them in memor3^
The expression
is
the
sum
of the cubes of three
quantities
diminished by three times their product.
One
the
factor is the
sum
of the three quantities,
and
the other is
sum
of their squares diminished by the
sum
of their products
taken two at a time.
We
form as
should recognize expressions which are of the same this type expression.
Thus, a' + 6' — c' + 3a6c
a''
may
be written in the form
of a, b
+ 6' + (c)S3a6(c),
and
and it is now seen to be the sum of the cubes by three times their product.
— c, diminished
The factors of a^ + ^^ — c' + 3afec may at once be written down from the factors of the type form by merely substituting — c for c.
..
a* + b^c^ + 3abc = {a + bc){a* + b' + c*cih + bc + ca). o»_fe3c83a6c = o« + (6)' + (c)»3a(6)(c), = (abc){a* + b* + c* + ahbc + ca).
8x'
+ 27!/»2» + 18a^2 = (2a;)» + (3j/)» + (2)33(2a;)(32/)(z), = 'Zx+3y—z)('ix* + 9y* + z* — 6xy + dyz42zx.
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
Ex. 2.~Factor
a^\h^^l — '6ah.
34T
= (a + 6+l)(a*+6»+ia&a— 6V
Ex.
3.
—Find one factor of
same form
as a*
(a:+t/)H(y+2)3+(z+a:)33(a;+2/)(y+2)(3+a:).
This
is
of the
+ 6' + c^ — 3o6c, where a = x\y,
is
b=y\z,
c—z+x. One factor is x\y\y^z\z\x The other factor is lengthy, but
or 2{x\y\z). easily written down.
Ex. 4.— If
This
is
a+6+c=0, show
that
a^+h^+c^=Zahc.
if
equivalent to showing that a' + 6^+c' — 3a5c = 0.
Now
to zero,
this quantity will be equal to zero,
is
one of
its factors is zero.
it is
But a\b+c
already seen to be a factor, and since
a3 + 6» + c»3a6c=0, or
given equal
.,
a3+6»+c' = 3a6c.
We
have thus shown that
zero, the
sum
if the sum of three quantities is of their cubes is equal to three times their 'product.
Prove
this also
by substituting —h — c
for a.
Ex. 5.—Show that
(a6)3^(5c)3+(ca)3=3(a6)(6c)(ca).
Here the sum
result follows at
of a — h, h — c, c — a is zero, and therefore the once from the preceding theorem.
Similarly, (a
since the suro
+ 26 3c)3 + (6 + 2c 3a)' + (c + 2a 36)» = 3(a 26  3c)(6 + 2c  3a)(c + 2a 36 of a + 26 — 3c. 6 + 2c 3a, c + 2a — 36 is zero.
f
),
EXERCISE
Factor
1.
159
(a+26)9c3. (a+6)'+8c'.
2. 4. 6.
8.
a'^{hc)\
(aJ6)3t(c+i)'.
3. 6.
7,
{xy)^~{ah)\
(3a6)'(a36)».
a*—b^\c*+Zabc
[2xyY\{x2y)K
8(3a6)327(2a3i)s.
%i^iry^\^z^~%xyz.
9,
tO.
348
11.
ALGEBRA
a3+6»l+3a6.
8x31/31 253=' SOxyz.
is
12.
l+c»rf3+3c<f.
13.*
14.
(a46)HcH'3c(a46l
What
15.
16.
the product of
:
a—b—c 1ab
and a^\b^+c^{ab+ac—bc.
2xy+3z and 4xH2/^+922+2Ti/6xz+32/a.
and l+a^+fts+a+fiaft.
17. 18.
2a364 and 4a2+6a6+962126+8a+16.
is
What
19.
the quotient of
1—a^+b^+Zab by l—a+b.
20.
21.
27m3— n^ 1— 9mn by 3w— n— 1.
a3+ 12563 l + l5o6 by a24.2562+l5a6+a+56.
is
What
22. 23.
one factor of
:
(4a+36)3(a+26)3.
(a:23x+7)3+8.
24. 25. 26.
(o23a+2)3(a25a+7)3.
{a+b)^+{c+d)^l+3{a^b){c+d).
Prove that the
is
difiference of
the
of
cubes
of
4a2+a+l and
2a2_2af3
27.
divisible
by the product
is
2a—
1
and a+2.
Show
that
a^+b^+c^ — 3abc
equal to
^{a+b+c)>{ab)^Mbc)^\{ca)^\.
28.
Write down a quantity of the type a^ \b^{c^—3abc, of which
is
^x—2y+z
29.
If If If
a factor.
What
is
the other factor
?
aH6— c=0, show that a^+b^i3abc=c\
30. 31.
x=y+z, show
that x^=y^'^z^+3xyz
a+b+c=0, show that
that
(o+26)3+(6 + 2c)3 + (c+2a)3=3(a + 26)(6+2c)(c+2a).
32.
Show
Show
(xy)3l(y2)3+(zx)33(xJ/)(i/2)(zx)=0.
33.
that
(a+364c)3+(6 + 3c 4a)3+{c+3o46)3 =3(a+364c)(6 + 3c4a)(c+3a46).
STTPPLJfl,f^fJ7TARY
34.
If
THEOREMS
that x'^\y^^Zxyz=^z^.
349
z^a—h, y=a+b, z=2a, show
35.
Find the value of
a^h^>rC^\'ioiic.
when a=32,
6=46, c=14.
36.
Reduce
to lowest terms
2a25a6+3624a«3c2
37.
^°
(a:2?/)2+(22/z)2+(3a;)3*
Find two factors of the
first
degree of
{ax\hy\azY\{hx+ay+bzY.
38.
When x=h\c, y=c+a,
z=a\b, prove that
x^\y^+z'^—Zxyz=2{a^\h^+c^—Zahc).
39.
increased, or each decreased
Prove that a^+h'^+c^—ah—ac—hc is unaltered by the same quantity.
if
a, 6, c
be each
40.
Solve (a;a)3
+ (6.T)3+(a— &)^=0.
246.
Grouping Terms.
We
have
already seen
(art.
91)
that
we can
frequently obtain a factor of an expression
by
8
suitable arrangement of the terms.
The
this
following examples will give further illustrations oi
method.
Ex. 1.— Factor a\hc)\h'^{c~a)+c\ah).
Arrange in descending powers of
a,
and the expression
'
= a2(6c)a(62c2)~L6c(6c), = (b — c){a^ — ab — axi{bc), =^{b—c)a{a—h) — c{a—b)\, = (6— c)(a — 6)(o— c).
When
the factors are written in cyclic order
(art. 140),
o*(6c) + fe^(ca) + c*(a6)=(a6)(6c)(ca).
This expression may also be factored by writing it in the equivalent form {ah^){bc){a~b){b^~c^). In this form a — b and b — c are seen to be factors. Complete the factoring by this method.
The expression
..
cr(6*
— c2) + 6(c^ — a^) + c(o* — 6^)
differs
on.y in sign
from a2(6c)+fc»(C"a) + c2(a6), a(62— c2) + 6(c2a2) + c(a«62) = (a6)(6c)(co).
o6(o — 6) + 6c(6 — c) + ca(c— o)=
Also,
— (a — 6)(6 — c)(c— a).
350
ALGEBRA
=a^(6 — c) — 0(6' — c') + 6c(6* — c*),
Ex. 2.— Factor a\h — c)+h^{ca)^c^{a—h).
The expression
= (6 — c)(a3 — afe*aAc — ac* + 6*c + 6c*).
Now
arrange the second factor in powers of
b,
and proceed as before
and obtain
— (a — 6)(6 — c)(c — a)(ar^ + c).
Factor also by using the second method of Ex. 1, writing the expression in the form (a' — 6^)(6 — c) — (a fe)(6' — c*). What are the factors of 0(6^ — c') + 6(c* — a')+c(a* — 6^), and of a6(a'6«) + 6c(6*c*) + ca(c«a«) ?
—
Ex. 3.— Factor a2(6+c)462(c+a)+c2(a+6)+2a5c.
Arrange
in
descending powers of
a,
and the expression
= a*(6+c) + a(6* + 26c + c*) + 6c{6 + c), = {6+c)(o»+o6+oc+6c), = (6+c)(a + 6)(a+c) = (o + 6)(6 + c)(c+a).
Ex. 4.— Factor
are easily factored
{a'^—h^)x^{{a'^{h^)x+ah.
Expressions of this kind,
when
written in descending powers ot
Z.
by
cross multiplication in the usual
way.
(a»6«)x* + (a*6*)a; + a6
(o
(a
+6 )x —b)x
and
(a
+a +6
— 6)x+6.
160
The
factors are (a
+ 6)x4a
BXERCISB
Factor and verify 18
1.
:
acx'^+x{ad{bc)\hd.
2.
3. 4. 5.
mpx*\xy(qm—pn)—nqy*.
a;2(o«62)+4a6a;(a2_62)_
(p*g')y*+22/(p2+g2)+l)2g2.
z*(a+6)+a;(a+26+c)+6+c.
a;*(a2_a)^a.(2a2_3a^2)+o22a.
o«{6+c)+a(6«+36c+c«)+6c{6+c).
o6(a+6)+6c(fe+c)+co(c+o)+3a4*'
6. 7.
8.
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
9.*
10. 11.
351
xHyz)+y^zx)\z^xy).
xy{x—y)+yziy—z)+zx{z—x).
x{y^z^)+y{z^x^)+z{z^y^).
a(b^c^) + b{c^a^)+c{a^b^).
12.
13.
a^b*c*)+b\c*a*)+c^{a*b*).
Divide
14.
a^bc)^b^{ca)+c^ab) by a2(6c)+62(ca)+c2(n6).
Solve and verify
15.
abx^—x{ad\bc)\cd=0.
16.
17.
18.
{a^b^)x^Aabx=a'^b\
x2(c6)+a2(6a:J+62(xa)=0.
a6x2x(a2+62)+a262=0.
{a^ab)x^+{a^+b^)x=^ab+b\
Find a
19. 20.
common
factor of
abx^\x{a^—2ab—b^)—arb^ and
a^x^—a^x—ab—b\
The Factor Theorem. Ws have already seen that 247. any expression is divisible by x~a, if the expression vanishes when we substitute a for x (art. 101). Any expression whose value depends on the value of a; is
called a function of x (art. 114).
Any function of x may be conveniently represented by the symbol /(a:), which is read " function x." The factor theorem might be stated thus
f{x)
Thus,
if
is
divisible
f{x) /(2)
by
oc—a
if
f{a)=0.
= x^lx^+nx2, = 828+222 =
2,
.'.
«'— 7x*+ 11a; — 2
If
then
,*,
T*— 4x*a

by x— — 4x«a+5xa*+10a', /(.c) = x3 /(o)=a34as5a3+10a3 = 0, 5xa* + 10a* is divisible by x\a.
is
divisible
362
248.
ALGEBRA
Factors ol x'^
± a**.
We
nave already seen that
x* — a'^ = {x—a)[x{a^,
a;*o*={x*a»)(x* + a2)=(x— a)(x+o)(x»+a«>
Here we see that x— a is a factor of each. Is x — a& factor of z^ — a^ ?
»Vhen we substitute a for
x,
a;—o
(1) Is
is
a factor of a;^—o^
?
x—a
When we
a factor of x"— o" substitute a for x,
a;"
— a" — a" — a"
?
ST!
U
«"— a"
(2) Is x\a
is
divisible
by a;— a,
a;"
a factor of
— o"
When we
substitute
~a
for x,
a;"— a"
= (— a)"— o".
(— o1" = cf", and
tins
Now (—a)"— a"
J9
will
true only
when
is
be equal to zero only when n is even,
X"—a^
Thus.
*"
divisible
by x+ct when n
is
even
a;*a*, re*— a*, a;*— a*, etc., are divisible
etc.,
by x+a, but a:*— o*.
— o*,
are not divisible by x\a.
(3) Is x\a
a factor of
x"{a" ?
it is
Examine
* is
this, as in
the preceding, and show
a
factor only wiiOD
odd. a;— a a factor of a;"+o"
?
(4) Is
We thus conclude that, when w is a positive integSK, (1) x°— a° is always divisible by x—a (2) x"— a" is divisible 6y x+a when n is even. (3) x°+a" is divisible by x+a when n is octd. (4) x°+a" is never divisible by s— a.
249.
1)
Quotient on dividing
a?"±«"
a:*— a*
by act©.
,
,
^2— o»
x—a
— = xfa.

x—a
^^^^
, » , =sx'\x'aA!ea*+a*.
. ,
~
=a*4ir'Cia*
— — =af* Ja?"o+a;*o*+a»'i<**
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
353
Verify these results by division or miiltiplication. Notice that the signs are all positive, and that the powers of x are descending and those of a are ascending.
Similarly,
= x^ + x^a\x*a*\x^a^{x*a*\xa^+a*,
X— a
and
(2)
— a;"~^+a;"~*a+a;"~*o*f
x\a
.
.
.
+xo""*+a"~*.
—
;
xja
=x—a.
— — =x^—x^4xa*—a\
Verify and note the peciiliarity in the signs.
Write down the value of
— — and

of
;
•
x\a
x\a
(3)
—^— = x* — x+o
xa\a*.
——— =«* — x'a+a;*o* — xa'+a*.
x\a
Write down the value of
x'
+ a'
x\a
—
and
x*"+^
of
+ o'"+';
•
x\a
EXERCISE
1.
If
161
/(a;)=a;38a;2+19x12, find the values of
/(I), /(2), /(3), /(4), /(5).
What
2.
are the factors of
x^— Sx^+lGx— 12
?
If
/(x)=x*— 2x3— x2+2x,
find the values of
/(2), /(I). /(O).
/(I), /(2).
?
What
3.
are the factors of /(x) in this case
is
Prove that x^*— ?/^*
divisible
by
x—y
and x+y.
4.
5.
Prove that x^ 2—1 Prove that
is
divisible
by x—1, x+l> a^^+l» ^j'+l*
by
x\y
x^'jy^' is divisible
and that x^+32
is
fivisible
by x+2.
:
Write down the quotients in the following divisions
a;3i«3
6.
^^
.
7,
a*— 6* ^.
xjy
a—b
a:*81
'
8.
a*—b* —
a\b
9.
x'—\ =.
x—
10
*
*i+32 a;+2
^'°"'
^^
'
j^
'
13
'
(«+fe)^l
(o+ft)
x\Z
x^—a'
+r
A A
364
14.
ALGEBRA
State one factor of
;
x^b^, a'+b\ x364,
m''+—,, {x+y)^l.
What
15. 16. 17. 18. 19.
is
the product of
:
o^4a*+o+l and
a— 1. — in^^m^—m\l and m*
m\l.
a^+a*b^+a^b*+b'^ and a^—b\
Prove that x^+3x*+ix^+224L
is
divisible
by x'+l.
Show
If
that
x+y,
x^+y^, x^+y^, x*
+ y*,
x^+y^ and a;i»+y"
are factors of x^*—y^*. 20.
X— a
is
a factor of a;^+pa;+?» find the relation between
o,
p
is
and
g
If
21.
f{x)=Tnx^+nx]r,
find
/(a)
and show that f(x)—f{a)
divisible
by x—a.
a;— 1
is
22.
If
a factor of x^—k^x^
+ lOkx—10,
find the values of
k and verify.
23.
Write down the quotient when
(1) (2)
(3)
(4)
x—a x+a x—a x+a
is is is
divided by x^—a^. divided by x*+a*. 1 1 divided by x^—a^. divided by x^\a".
is
250.
Symmetrical Expressions.
An
expression
if
is
said to be
symmetrical with respect to any two letters when those two letters are interchanged.
it is
unaltered
Thus, x + y and x* + 2/* are symmetrical with respect to x and y, but x^ + xy is not symmetrical. Similarly, a + b + c and ab + bc + ca are symmetrical with respect to a and b, b and c, c and a, for if any two be interchanged the expressions remain unaltered.
An expression is said to be Symmetry. Cyclic 251. symmetrical with respect to the letters a, b and c, if it U unaltered when a is changed to 6, 6 to c and c to a, that is, when the letters are taken in cyclic order
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
Thus,
a,
366
a* \b^\c*
c,
— ab~bc — ca
6*
6
and
for wh"'n the letters
symmetrical with respect to are changed in cyclic order the result is
is
+ c*+o* — 6c — ca — a6,
which
a,
equal to the given expression. The expression a^ + 6* + c' — 3o6cd is symmetrical with respect to b and c, but not with respect to a, b, c and d.
is
with respect to
k{a\b\c).
The only expression of the first degree which is symmetrical a, b and c is a~\b\c or some multiple of it as
of the second degree, a^\b^\c^ of
There are two expressions and oi + 6c +ca,. and the sum
any multiples
of these, such as
k{a^\b^ic^)+l{ab{bc+ca),
which are symmetrical with respect to
252.
a, 6, c.
Symmetry
be
applied
to
Factoring. of
The
factor theorem
may
applied to
the
factoring
many symmetrical
expressions.
Ex. 1.—Factor a{b^c^)+b{c^a^)^cia^b^).
If
we put a = b, the
expression equals zero,
a—6
is
a factor.
Since the expression is symmetrical and a — b is shown to be a factor, it follows that b — c and c — a must be factors. We have thus found three factors each of the first degree. But the given expression is of the third degree, and, therefore, there cannot be another literal factor. There may be a numerical factor.
Suppose
..
A;
is
a nimaerical factor,
a(6*c*) + 6(c*a«) + c(a2fe*) = t(a6)(6c)(co).
is
Since this relation
let
true for
all
values of
6
a, b, c,
then
:.
= 2, c = 0, l(40) + 2(0l) + = Jfc(l2)(20)(0l), 2 = 2k, or k=\, a(6*c*) + 6(c«a«) + c(a*65i) = (o6)(6c)(ca).
a=l,
..
In finding the vaUie of k, any values of a, 6, c may be used provided they do not make both sides of the identity vanish on substitution.
A A 2
366
ALGEBRA
(a+6+c)3+(a6c)3+(ftco)34(ca6)3.
Ex. 2.— Factor
If
.".
we put a = 0,
o must be a
the expression vanishes,
factor, and, therefore, b
and
c.
Complete the solution aa before, and show that the expression equals
24a6c.
Ex. 3.— Factor a^{hc)+h\ca)^c^{ah).
in Ex. 1, show that a — b, b — c, c — a are factors. Since the expression is of the fourth degree it must have another factor of the first degree. The remaining factor must be of the form A(a + 6 + c).
As
..
a^bc) + b^(ca) + c^ab)=^k(ab)(bc){ca){a + b + c).
a, b
Substitute numerical values for
and
c
and show that the
factors are
(a6)(fec)(c a){a + b + c).
Ex.
4.
—Simplify
26)2+(a+6+c)2.
(a62c)2+(6c2a)2+(ca
This expression is symmetrical with respect to a, b and c and is of the second degree. In the simplified result there can be only two kinds of terms, squares like a* and products like ab.
1+4+1 + + fe*+c*). The coefficient of ab is 24+4 + 2 = 0, the complete result is 7(o* + 6*+c*). Check by letting o = 6 = c=l.
The
/.
coefficient of a* in the result is
is
1
or
7,
one part of the result
7(o*
.*.
Ex.
5.
—Simplify
1
(a+6)(a+62c)+(6+c)(&+c2a) + (c+a)(c+a26).
The
/.
coefficient of a* in the result is
one part of the result
The
.*,
coefficient of ab is 2
the
;.
the
+ — 22 or —2, other part of the result is — 2(a6 + 6c+ca), complete result is 2(o*i 6* + c* — o6 — 6c— ca).
is
2(a*
fe*
+ 1 or + c*).
2,
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
FIXBRCISB
With
1.
S5l
162 (112, Oral)
respect to
what
letters are these
2.
symmetrical
3.
•.
a+b.
a+c—b.
5.
x'^+y''rxy.
4.
6.
ab+bc+ca.
a^+b^+c^^3abc.
x^+y^+xy.
7.
3{p^+q^+r^)2{pq+qr+rp).
first
8.
What
is
the simplest expression of the
1
degree which
a, b, c
is
symmetrical with respect to x and y
9.
a, b
and
c
?
and d
1
What
expression similar to a^\b^\Zab
?
is
symmetrical with
respect to o, 6 and c
10.
Simplify
{a^by+{b+cy+(c+a)^
11.
to a, 6
li a{b is
a,
and
{ab)^+ibc)^+{ca)\
factor of
and
c,
what other
factors
any expression, symmetrical with respect must it have ?
is
12.
of a^
When
is
{a\b)^\{b{c)^+{c+a)^
is
simplified,
the
coefficient
2,
?
of a^b
3 and of abc
is 0.
What must
the simplified
form be
Simplify
13,*
14. 15.
:
{ab+c)^+{bc+a)^+{ca+b)\
{a+b){a+b—c) + {b+c){b+c—a) + {c+a){c+a—b).
{x—y){px\py—z)^{y—z){py+pz—x) + {z—x){pz+px—y).
16.
(a6)H(6c)^+(ca)3.
Factor
17.
x^{yz)+y^{zx)+z^{xy)
xy{x—y)+yz{y—z)+zx{z—x).
18.
19.
a'^{b+c)+b%c+a)+c\a+b)+2abc.
20.
21.
(a+6+c)3(a+6c)3(6+co)3(c+a6)3
(xy)3+(2/2)3+(3a;)3.
a(6c)2+6(c+a)2c(a+6)24a6c.
22. 23.
ab{a^b^)+bc{b^c^)+ca(c^a^).
24.
a2(6*c«)6Va*)+c^(a*6*).
358
Simplify
25.
:
ALGEBRA
^(y+g) {xy){zx)
y(8+a^)
, ,
2(a:4y).
(y—z){xy)
{zx){yz)'
26.
^
(a:y)(xz)
?^
+
+
'
y"
{yz)(yz)
+ +
!!
izz){z—y)
"^
27.
^
+
(ca)(c6)
28.
{ab){ac)^ {bc){ba)
bc{a—b){c—a)
29.
4
J
c^—ba
"^
ca{b—c)(a—b)
+
ab(c—a){b—c)
b^—ac
(ab){bc)
"^
(bc)(ca)
cajc+a) {b—c){b—a)
a^—cb {ca){a—b)
ab{a\b)
30
bc(b+c)
(a—b)(a—c)
(c—a){c—b)
31.
, .:. ^. ... 1^ (x— j/)(z— a;) + («/— 2)(a;— .. +; (z— a;)(?/— z) t/)
.
32.
(a6)''+(&c)^+(ca)' a(62_c2)+6(c2a2)+c(o262)
*
33.
SimpUfy
(a+b+c)'^{b+c)^(c+af(a+bf+a^+b^+c',
is
being given that a
a factor of
it.
34.
Sliow that
a—b
is
a factor of
o"(6— c)+6"(c— a)+c"(a— 6).
What may
35
.
be inferred regarding other factors
expression
is
?
An
symmetrical
in x,
y and
z
two dimensions. x=l, y=2, z=3,
When x=t/=z= 1,
it
the expression equals 15, and
and each term is ol when
equals 64.
it is
Find the expression.
obviously impossible for the following
•
Point out wherein 36. statements to be true
:
(1)
(2)
(a*+6*+c2)(a+6+c)=o3+6'+o2(64c)+62(c+a)
a^+b^+c'Sabc=(a+b+c){a^+b'^+c^3ab).
(a6)(6c)(co)=o6«+6«c+ca*ac2_6c*6a*.
(3)
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
253.
Identities.
359
of
is,
We
all
algebraic
expressions
have already had many examples which are identically equal, that
values of the letters involved.
which are equal for
Thus,
(.Tf ?/)(x
— 2/) = a;* — .V*,
(o+6)3=a3+3a26 + 3a6* + ft',
a3
+
6«
+ c33a6c = (a + 6+c)(o*462 + c2a66cca).
Any of these may be shown to be identities by performing the operations necessary to remove the brackets on one side, when the result is the same as the other side.
Ex.—Show
that (a+fe+c)^
=a3+&3^c33a6c+3(a+6+c)(a64&c+ca).
Here the cube of a\h\c may be found by multiphcation or by any other method. The brackets are then removed from the right and the terms
collected.
The two
is
sides are
also
:
now
the same, which shows that the given statement
first
an identity. We might
have changed the second side into the
by
factoring, thus
(a3 + 63[c3 — 3a6c) + 3(a + 6 + c)(a6 + 6c + ca), = (o + 6 + c)(a« + 62jc*a66cca) + 3(a + 6 + c)(a6 + 6c + co), ==(a+6 + c)(o* + 6«+c* + 2a6 + 2ac+26c), :=^(a + + c)^, which proves the proposition.
fe
254.
result
When two expressions are to be shown may frequently be obtained by showing
is
equal, the
that their
difference
zero.
The
(1) (2)
diflference
may
be zero,
because because
all
it
of the terms cancel, or
has a factor which
is
equal to zero, identically,
or which is given equal to zero.
.iGO
ALGEBRA
1,
Ex.
—Prove
(a6)3 + (6c)3 + (ca)'3(a6)(6c)(co) = 0,
(aft)3+(6c)3+(ca)3=3(a6)(6c)(ca).
Here we may prove that
by removing the brackets when
all
(1) (2)
the terms cancel,
factor
245).
by observing that (a — 6) + (6 — c) + (c — a) is a expression and this factor is identically equal to zero (art.
of
the
Ex.
2.
—
If
a^h=^c, show that a'^\hc=h'^+ca.
Here, as in the preceding, we may show that a* + 6c — t* — ca = 0. by showing that a\h — c is a factor of it and this factor is given equal to zero, or by substituting c = a\b in each side or in the difference. Solve this problem both ways.
Ex. 3.— If
a+6+c=0, show
— c,
for
that
{a\b)(b+c){c\a)\abc=0.
For
a{b
substitute
b\c
substitute
—a, and
for
c+a
substitute
—b and (a + b)(b\c){c + a) + abc = {c){a){~b'+abc = 0.
Ex.
4.
—
If 2s=a\bjc,
prove that
s2+(sa)2+(s6)2i(5c)2=a2+6Hc2.
When
the
first
side
is
simplified
it
= 4«» — 2«(a + 6 + c) + o»+6* + c*, = 4s«2«(2s) + a* + + c*, = o*+6* + c*, which was required.
i'*
Of course,
s
this could
is
have been proven by substituting the value
eeisier,
ol
at once.
It
usually
however, to substitute in the last step.
BXBRCISB
Prove the following
1. 2.
identities
:
les
a(6+c)2+6(c+a)24c(a+6)2— 4a6c=(a+6)(6+c)(c+a).
{x+y)*+x*+y*=2{x'+xyhy^)''.
3.
(o+6)3+(a6)3+6o(o+6)(o6)=8a».
StTPi'LEMENTABY THEOREMS
4.
5.
If
361
2(a3+6'+c33a6c)=(a+6+c);(a6)2+(6c)2+(ca)2.
a(bc)^4b{ca)^+ciab)^={ab){bc){ca){a+b+c).
that
a+6+c=0, show
6.
7.
(3a26+4c)2(2a36+3c)2=0.
a2^62_c2^2a6=0 and c^— a6=62— ac.
(a+6)(6+c)+(6+c)(c+a)+(c+o)(a+6)=a6+6c+co.
a*+6*+c*=2a262+262c2+2c2o2.
8.
9.
10. 11. 12.
13.
(3a6)3+(36c)3+(3ca)3=3(3a6)(36c)(3ca).
a(62+6c+c2)+6(c2+ca+a2)+c(a2+a6+62)=o.
If
a+6=l,
prove that {a^b^)'^=^a^]b^ab.
If
a;+«=23, prove that
a;— z
14.
If
^ + y— = ^
—
z
,
2.
a
= ^^—, b =
X
y
,
c
show that a{b+c\abc=0.
15.
If
H a a
a;
— c a—b
2/»
=
r,
prove that a
\
+  = . c b
x^
\
16.
If
+—
show that x^
— = y^—2
^
— = y^ — 3y
;
x*^=y*4:y^\2.
X*
If 2s=:a\b\c,
show that
17. 18.
19.
s{s~a)+{s—b){s—c)=bc.
a(sa)+6(s6)+c(sc)+252=2(a6+fic+ca).
(sa)2+(s6)2+(sc)2+2(sa)(s6)+2(s6)(sc)
+ 2(s— c)(5— a)=5*.
20. 21.
(2a5+6c)(26s+ca)(2c5+a6)==(a+6)2(6+c)2(c+a)2
J_ + L + L_l=
s—a
s—b
s—c
s
'^
s{s—a){s—b){s—c)
22.
I6s(sa){s~b){sc) = 2bh^2c^a^+2c^a^a*b*c\
23.
If6
+ =l5C +  = l, prove « + r =
1
and a6c
=
—1.
362
ALUEH HA n
If
24.*
a 4 
= 3,
find the value of a^
+1
26.
a=a;(6+c), h=y[c\a), c=z{a\h), show that
xy\yz\zx^1xyz=^\.
26.
in
If
«4y=o and xy=b^,
6.
find the values of
x^+y^ and x'+y^
terms of a and
27.
Eliminate
x
and
?/
from
the
equations
x{y=a,
xy=b^,
28.
Eliminate x and y from z+2/=a, x^+y=6^, x^+!/^=c'.
If
29.
x=a+6— c, y=6+c— a,
z=c{a—b, show that
xH2/3^z33x2/2=4(o3+fc^+c^3a6c).
EXERCISE
1.
164 (Review of Chapter
is
XXVI)
x\y\z,
Show
that x' + y' + z^ — 3xyz
divisible
by
and hence
show that
2.
(fec)'
+ (ca)3 + (o6)» = 3(afc)(6c)(ca).
Prove that
3.
If
o + 6 + c + d = 0, prove that
4.
Prove
is
+ b){a + c){a + d) = {b + c){b + d)(b + a). that (a — 6)" + (6 — c)" + (c — o)" is divisible
{a (o
by
— 6)(6 — c)(c — a),
I
when n
an odd
integer.
is
If 6. 23»»+i.i
n is a positive integer prove that 12"— by 24, 7«"l by 48.
of the
divisible
by
11,
6.*
Write down a quantity
same typa
is x^
of which
7.
^x+}y — ^z
that
a,
+ y' + z' — 3xyz
is
a factor.
Show
a — x and a — 2x are factors ot
(a6)(o6x)(o + 262x) + 6(6x)(3c262r>;}.
8.
Show
is
that {x + y)'' — x" — y"
is
always divisible by xy{x + y),
find x in terms of a
when n
9.
an odd integer.
If (^
— o)(l— a) = (^ — 6)(1— 6)^x,
and
I
only.
SUPPLEMENTARY THEOREMS
10.
If
a;
363
f 2/
(1) x* (2)
+ 2 = 0, prove that + xi/ + ?/^ = .y^ f 2/2 + z* = 2* + 2a; + x'.
(3/
(a;+2/2)' +
+ 2a;)3 + {z + x2/)3 + 24x2/2 = 0.
b
c
11. 12.
13.
14.
Simplify
Solve
_ c) + ca(6  c)(6  o) "^ ab{c  a)(c  6)' (xa)3 + (x6)3 + (xc)3 = 3(xa)(a;6)(xc).
tc(„
a
—
fc)(a
Show
If 2s
(1)
(2)
(3)
that (o + 6)5a565 = 5a6(ar6)(a* + a6 + 6*). = o + 6 + c, show that s(5 — 6) + (5 — a)(s — c) = ac. s«+(5— o)(«— 6) + (5— 6)(sc) + (sc)(5o) = o6 + 6c+ca. (so)3 + (sc)3 + 36(so){sc) = 63.
is
15.
Prove that a''(62_c2) + 6«(c2 — o*) + c"(a262)
X
divisible
by
(a—b){b — c){c — a) and find the quotient when w = 3.
ifi
'
17.
18.
19.
x — c x— b  c) "^ 6(6  c)(6  a) "^ c(c  a){c  b) If x = a^ — bc, y — h^ — ca, z = c* — ab, prove that ax + by\cz = {a + b\c)(x\y{z). a«(6  c) + 63(c — a) + c3(o — 6) Simplify ^r .,. 'J, ^ ^ (6 — c)3 + (c — a)* + (o — o)' If a6 + 6c + co = 0, show that (1) (a + fe+c)« = o* + 6« + c*. (2) (a + 6+c)« = o»46' + c33o6c. (3) (o + 6 + c)* = a* + &* + c*4a6c(o + 6+c).
If *i"^P*"y
«?•
—
a
a{a

6)(a
'
^
,
^
•
20.
Show
that a;"+^— a;"— a;+
1
is
divisible
by (x—
1)*,
when n
is
a
positive integer.
21.
Write down the quotient on dividing
X* — a* by X — a, x* +
l
by x*+l, o* — 32 by a — 2.
22. 23.
Factor
,.,
x*l3(x«l) + 4{x»l).
o(fe*
Simplifv
^
^
f
b){a (a— Tv; — —r c)
+
6c
+ c*) + two similar fractions. ..,,..
,
24.
V
is
Show
If
that x(y*—z^) + y{z*—x*) + z{x* — y*)
x\a,
is
not altered when
changed to
y to
y\a, z to
z+a.
25.
r*=«+l, show
that x« = 5x+3.
364
26.
ALGEBRA
Find two
linear factors of
(ax+h)^\{hx+cy + {cx\a)3~3(ax\b){hxrC)(,cx+a).
27. 28.
If
x^+y^ = z^, show
that {x^{y^z*)^ + 21x^y^z*
= 0.
If a
+ b + c = 0, prove that a^ + b^ + c^ + 3(a + b)(b + c){c + a) = 0.
expression of two dimensions
is
29.
in X, y,
A homogeneous
z.
symmetrical
Its value is 42
it.
when x = y = z = 2 and
a;
is
16
when x=l, 2/= 2,
2=0.
30.
31.
32.
Find
Eliminate x and y from
If If
+ = o,
2/
xy = b, x^\y^ = c.
x+3/ = 3 and
x^\y
= b, find the values of x^\y^ and x*+y*.
a»+6»+c*
o + 6+c= 10 and a6 + 6c + ca = 31,find the values of
Bnd a' + ft'+c*— 3a6c.
ANSWERS
TO
HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA
ANSWERS
No answers are given to elementary examples, oral examples or examples which may be verified or checked without difficulty. In each exercise the number of the first example to which the answer is given is marked with a star.
Page 8
15. 108,
38, 10. 32, 60.
16.
3, 14, 39, 0.
17.
9, 29, 18.
19.
2.
21
.
25.
22.
44, 7.
23. 154, 616.
Page 10
9. 47.
10.
70.
12. lOz+10.
13. xft.E.
14.
15».
16. 2a8+2a2+3a.
17.
11,5a;.
Page 12
24.
37.
25.
17.
26.
34.
27.
1.
28.
1.
29.
^.
Page 14
30. (1
4
A^ hours.
31 . (5a;+20y72)
34. 1234, 4019.
20, 20.
cents.
32.
3,
^±^
ceata.
33. 5x+10y+5(K.
35.
24.
02. 2, 16, 05, 03. 2*.
36. X
+ . y
37.
38.
S67
39.
968
ALGEBRA
Page 38
7.
la+eb15c.
8.
lOx^Ux+9.
9. lOa76.
10. 4o+46+4c.
11. 'ia8b+3c5d. 14. 6a2+862_6c2.
12. 8a;— 62/+5«. 15. 3a436+3c+3jl
13. 8o4fe.
16. 2x+2y—z.
Page 40
18.
0.
19. 15x+5y.
20.
46c.
21. 10a2+o6.
22.
4.V*.
23.
2o— §6— ^.
Page 41
13. 3xy. 18.
0.
14. 19.
z.
0.
15. 4p2.
16. 10TO3n.
17. 6.V4?.
Page 44
15. 3a2b.
16. 2a+5c.
17. Sx^.
19. 4a2_4o15.
23. z^+GarS 26. 2a;3.
20.
26.
21. 13rp.
22. 36oc2a. 25. a+b+c.
24. 2a2+a12. 27. 10x»+2a;2+8x42.
Page 46
11. 3x+2y.
15. 3a+63c.
12. 2a36. 16. 3x23.
13. a+b. 17.
7.
14. 6a. 18.
y, 0.
11.
22.
6, 4, 4, 6, 10.
23. 4a+4615c, 4o46+4c4rf,
ANSWBBS
Page 47
1. 6.
o.
am
2. 4x46. 7.
3. 5n.
4. 8.
5c.
5. 46,8a. 9. 14,
6.
2a+26+6c.
— a;+y5z.
12.
3a2b—2c.
10. 7. 14. 18.
11. yx. 15. 4a;9.
31.
13. a2c, 2co.
9m2n.
16.
xU.
•2x.
17. 264c.
56— 5a, 0+36— 4c, 7a— 6— 6c.
22. 523a:.
29.
19.
20. 3a;— 6.
l
21. o^6+^c.
25.
20.
26.
+ 2x.
27.
7.
38. 7n+4a;2TO.
3o6c.
30. 5c36.
Page 52
19. 21.
1, 4, 5,
3, 1, 8, 9,
1,
7.
20.
22. 28.
23.
3, 16, 35.
a2,
o3, 8, 1,
81, 32.
30.
29, 81.
23.
24.
25.
90.
26.
6.
27.
29. 20.
30. 50.
31. 100.
Page 53
13. 8o+76+9c.
17. 4o+i6.
14. x4y. 18. 6x2+8x.
15. dm.
16. 9o6.
19. a^
20. x^9x^+10x.
28. 7a*5a.
21. 4a6. 29.
2as/,
27. 6x2 15a;.
3x^+xy+Zy^, x^+5xy+y^.
Page 56
19. 2af2+4x4.
20. 5a28a22.
23. 214.
24. 'ki^db\
25. 2x^+2y^, ^y. 28. x26x7.
26. a^+ab+4ib^. 29. 2x10.
31. 12x2+12.
27. 14a;+30.
32. 3x2+10.
33.
15a.
34. 3x2+12x+14.
B B
i70
ALOEBHA
Page 60
18.
1.
19. x^Zx+2.
20.
2y.
21.
5.
22. ob.
23. a\
24. x+13.
Page 60
2.
9, 16,
12,
25,
7,
27,
64,
91.
3.
1,
1,
1, 16,
27.
4. 4a2.
9. 12x2+12.
5. 8a29a.
6. Sa^Sft^.
8. 30a+406.
10. 4x2+12xi/9i/2. 18, 5a2_3ai_452.
13. 13m2+137i2_24TOn.
'20. 3a212arl4.
16. 4x2.
21. 6x22x!/6!/2.
22. 4a.
23.
8, 19.
24. x*16.
25. 8o29al, 6lOa, 3a4. 21. 20b^obc. 28.
0.
26. a^b\2,a^b\
Page 81
22.
27.
7,
2.
23.
8.
24.
5,
2.
25.
5, 6.
26.
^, 2.
6. 1.
Page 83 21
.
4, 5.
22. 3, 3.
23.
4, 9.
24.
5, 3.
25.
12, 12.
26.
19, 3
27.
15,
56.
Page 92
28.
2a.
29.
1.
30. x+1.
31. 3a;8.
32. x+5, a+b. 35. a:(x7)(a;l).
33. 2(x2)(x3). 36. ±5, ±1.
34. 3(a+4)(a3).
Page 93
17. 7,11. 18. 10,4.
19.
5.
20. 10
in.
21.
7 in.
22. 14
in.
23. 3^
in.
ANSWERS
Page 95
17. 2a;»+2.
371
18. 2a^+2b^.
19. 5ar«+5.
20.
4tah.
21. 5OT*10TOn.
24. a;2~4.
22. 5z^+24:xy5y^. 26.
23. 3x*+12a;+14.
25. 18a 15.
3x24a;2/46i/2.
27. 16z34.
28.
36a;.
29. 9a^8ab+%^.
31.
8.
Page 98
25. 5o«5. 26. 3a2862.
30.
15.
27.
0.
28. 19q'4:pq. 32. 5(x+2)(x2). 35.
5(l
29. x<a«.
31. S{x+y){xy). 34. m(xa)(a;+a).
33. a(o4l)(ol).
+ 3p)(l3p).
41.
2a;, 7.
36. {x+y){xy){x^+y^).
38. {x+l){xl){a+b).
37. 40. a22a6362.
;7(ii;+r)(i?r).
42.
4,
±8.
Page 102
22. a;(x+l)(a;l), 3(x2)(x42), a(al)(a2).
24.
2.
23. 8,2
;
2,
1.
26. 2(x2)(a;+2)(a;2+4), (a+2)(a2)(a+3)(a3), 27. 262+2c2^4.
31. 43,23,17,13.
2m(m+3)(m3), {x+y){xy){a+b){a—b).
28. 3x25i/2. 32. Sx+6y.
30. 12a63862.
Page 104
13. a + 2b.
18. a2.
23. 2(3a+26).
14.
a— 6.
15. tw— n.
16. x+y.
17.
m + 2.
19. x3.
20. j/1. 25.
21. a+b.
2, 3.
22. x5.
24. a(al).
Page 106
22.^+1.
X
23. J^.
y—^
24.^:^. X—
29. ^^1^
2
25.^^.
m
30. x^^l
26.^.
af46
27.
x+2y
^—^.
28. o+l. ^
BB
2
372
ALOE BRA
Page 107
10.?.
11.4.
12..
ay
13.^ 13.^
x\2
14.^^.
a—
IB.
1
Page 108
10. 14.
o«(a
+ l).
11 3x(x+2).
12. ab{b+c).
13. 2(a;«l). 16. aA(a6).
ar(x+j/)2.
15. (x4l)(a;l)(2;2).
17. (a+6)(a6)2.
18. x(xl)(x+l).
19. 4a:(x l)(x+l).
20. (t/_l)(j/+l)(y_2).
Page 109
22. ?^±^.
6
23.
^^^y
.
24.
^±^.
12
25.
?t^.
x^y^
26.
0.
8
21.^.
X
28.
2
"^
.
29.^^.
ah(a—h\
6(x+2)
30
^+^^
(o+l)(a42)(o+3)
31.
(al)(a+2)
—
Page 111
2.
X— 2,60(x— 2).
a—6
3. x+y,xy{x+y).
4.
x2, (x— 2)(x+4)(x— 5).
X
_
x3/i6
a
e^
"•
.yj
a
46'c
'•
•^
a
'
x42 2(x— 3)
a+&
9
13.
2a
64c
46c
18.
x2 x3
ANSWERS
Page 116
18. 7x+6.
373
19. 0+6.
20. 3~x—y. 23. 10x25a;+15.
21. 3z+3^+3z.
24. a;2+8x— 12.
22. 22x2 ^24xll. 29.
a.
30.
2.
31. 4f.
Page 119
17. 3a;212x+ll.
18.
0.
19. 2ad+2bc.
20.
0.
21. 12x2 + 12.
22. lx8.
23. x*10x3+35x250x+24.
26.
13.
24. x*10x2+9.
28.
0.
25. a6l.
l
27.
0.
^
29.
+ 3x+6x2+10x3.
30. 2x3+9x2+3xl.
33.
31. 28x^+x*yS3x^ij^+3lx^y^+20xy*12y\
2x+4x22x3
34.
195.
35.
5i.
36. abx*+x'^ib^ac)+adx^+x{bdc^)+dc.
37. p^x^+x{prq^)+qr, x3(a2_a)+x2(a2+a_i)_i.
38. 2a^y^2b^y+2bc. 39. px^+x{p^+Zp+3).
Page 123
30. x2+2x+l. 33. 2xy.
31. x3+9x2l.
34.
2a.
32. a^+a+1, a^a+1.
36. a2. 37.
35.
2aa;.
6.
a^+Sa— 2.
38. x^+xy+y^.
39.
40. x+c.
41. a:+p— 1.
42. ax—b—c.
43. ay+a+l.
Page 125
1.
4.
2.
5.
3. 22.
4. 2/+5.
5.
2j/'.
6.
2y\
7.\
1^.
l. + x+l
8.1+—. a—b
12.
9.2^.
a\b
10.
5x3+~^.
x+2
l+x+x2+x3.
1—x+x^—x^
16.
6.
13.
l
+ 2x+2x2+2x3
7,
14. l+2a+3o»+o'.
15. o3.
17. zi,
374
ALGEBRA
Page 126
15. a3+63+c3— 3aAc.
16. a» 256.
17. x24x+8.
19.
21.
7.
20. llx27x8. 26.
5!/«.
22. x^{ca) + x{db) + (fc).
27. a;+6i/22.
30.
9.
23.
28. 2(a6+6c+ca).
35.
29. bx^bcx^^x{aca+b)—bc. 32. 3x8. 37. 52. 33. 38.
3*.
4.
31.
G.
x*— 4a;2+12x.
36.
34.
35.
p^+p2.
41.
9.
40. x*+2x^+3x^+2x+l.
45. x*+x^(b+p)+x^q+bp+c)+x(bq+pc)+cq.
46. 3a+2b—c.
47. x*+x^+x^aa^)+x(l2a)l.
48. a^+2a^bc+iabh2+Sb^c^. 50.
49. a;3— x2(a)6+c)+x(a6+6c+ca)— aic. 51. 3a:5_10a;* + 3x314a;27x.
6— c.
52. x^+y^+xy2x'iy+i.
Page 129
21. 3(x2)(x2+l), a(xl){yl). 22. a+b, x1.
23. (2xyX5x32), aJ(a+c)(a36). 25. (6x7y)(8o456).
24. x3.
26. {x+y){x+y\A), {ab){2a2hl).
Page 131
34. 14x2+191/2.
35. 3a2+362+3c2.
36. 2x«+6x2+2.
37. 3a2f362+3c22a62ac26c.
45. 3(x+l)2, a(a+26)2.
38. 8{x^z^xy+yz).
46. (a+6+2c)2, (a+bcd)^.
48.
3.
49.
14.
0.
50. (x2+2/2)(a2+62+c2).
51. {ax+by)^+{aybx)\
52.
Page 134
11. a262c2+26c. 13. p^iq*9r^+l2qr.
15. a*62+c2d2_2ac26d.
12. 4x2+ 12xy+9j/ 2—25.
14. l+x2+x*
16. a^+Ab^c^4:d^4dab+'icd.
(ax)(a+x)(a2+x2).
44. 2(x+2)(x2),
o(o+l)(al),
46. 6{o6+2c)(o62c), (x3b){xb}{x5b).
AN S WEBS
Page 134 {continued)
376
46. {b+c){b—c){a+d){a—d), (a+b+c)(a+b—c){a—b+c){ab—c).
%7. {ax\c+by){ax'tc—by),
{7n—n+Smn){m—n—Smn)f
50. {x+y){x—y)(x+y+a){x+y—a).
48. (a;+l)(xl)(3a;2), x{xl)(x3)(x+3).
49. 2a2— 2a6+26c— 2c2.
51. 2a2_6afl,
12xz—24yz,
24o+9a2— Ga',
20a;2/2— 40a;3?/.
52. a«+6*+c*2a262262c2_2c2a2. 54. (a6)(ca).
53. (xy){yz)(zx).
Page 137
13. 2(x2+2x+2)(x22a;+2), x{x^+x+l)(x^^x+l).
14. {ab)(a+b)(3ab)(3a+b).
15. (a;2a;+l)(x2+2;+l)(a;*a;2+l).
16. (a+6+c)(a+6c)(a6+c)(a6c).
17. (a2+3)(3a2+l).
Page 139
31. 3(a;+8)(x9).
32. 2(a+l)(a+3).
33. a:(3a;l)(2a;l).
^4. (x+l)(a:l)(x+2)(a;2).
36.
(a
35. a(al)(a+l)(a3)(a + 3).
+ l)(al)(3a+l)(3al).
37. (a;+l)(x+3){a;l)(a;+5).
40. a;25a;+6.
38. (x2)(x7)(a;4l)(x10).
41. 4a;216a;+15. 43. 33a^38abSb\ 46. x^+l.
42. ±1, ±11, ±19, ±41.
44. (a;+2/)(a:+42/+l).
45. (3a+26)(a6+2).
Page 141
22. 2(a2)(o22a+4).
24. a{a+l){a^a+l).
23. 3(y+3)(y^3y+9).
25. 6(a46)(a2a6+62).
26. {a^+b^){a*a^b^+b*).
27. (a;+2/+a)(x2+2x2/+2/2aa:ai/+o2).
30. 2o(a2+362).
28. x(x26x+12).
31. x+y.
29. {2ab){a^ab+b^).
33. o2(a*6a26c+1262c2),
2/22(3a._2^2)(9a.2^3a;y2+t/222).
34. (a6)(a+i)(a2+62)(o2_o5^t2)(a2_,_(^^52)(„4_o2ft2^ft4). 35. (x+l)(x2)
36.
2.
376
ALGEBRA
Page 143
7. (xl)(2a;29x4). 9. (xl)(x2)(x+3).
8. {x\){x^\){x2).
10. (a;2)(x3)(xf5).
11. (al)(o2)(a+4).
12. ''?^/')2fa26;. 20.
8.
16. 12.
17. (a6)(a+26Ka.+ 36).
4
21
.
2, 3.
Page 147
4. 2a;2+2a2262.
7.
14a2
5. 4x3.
B. 4a2+462+4c^
8. 19997.
+ 1462+14c2+14a610'?/:22ftc.
10. 5.
!1
9. 14,860,000.
2a+19'7.
30. (x2)(4x9). 32. 8(a+c)(c— a— 6).
31. 3a(2a6)(4a2+2a6+6;
33. (3x4)(4x+5). 35. (x+2/)(xj/+l).
37. {x—y){x^—xy\ry^).
39. (a— 64c)(a— 6— c).
34. 4(3a5)(9a2+15a+25).
36. (x3)(x+3)(x2+2).
38. {x+Uy){x\2y).
40.
(x+2/)3.
41. (x36)(ax2).
42. (a+26)(a263).
44. (a+&)(a+6+c). 46. (xj/)(x2+xy+j/2+x+2/4iy
48. (2a+56)(2a56 + l).
43. {2xy){2x+y+a).
45. (o6)(a6l).
47. a6(a+6)(o6)2. 49. 96(4a2+2a6 + 62)
51. (a262+a3)(a262a + 3). 53. (al)(3a2_2a10).
50. (x2+4x2/2/2)(x24x?/!/2).
52. (xl)(x210x3).
54. (x4l)(xl)(c+l)(c2c^l;.
55.
(a
+ l)(al)(a+2)(a2+l)(a'*2tt^
1,
60. (a6)(6c)(ca).
61. (x2)(2x+3)(3x2).
62. (xl)(x2)(x3Kx4). (x4lHx+3)(x2Vx6).
63.
1,
5,
—6;
5.
0,
1,
6,
7.
65. x^—c\
66. o^ftM c^+2ac.
67. —4,
68. (xa)(2x+a+6).
69. (oi+cd)2(ac+M)2, {abcdf{acU)'^.
ANSWERS
Page 153
16. 21.
30.
16.
377
17.
13.
18. 1,3,10.
19.
29.
20. 1,3.5.
Page 155
6. 45. 7.
4.
8.
1.
Page 169
6.
About 2
h.
35 m. after
7. (a) At 10.55, 2 m. from
A started C towards
;
31 m. from Toronto.
D.
(6)
22 m., 17 m.
(c) 11.10.
Page 172
5. 13. 9. 54. 6.
A
square, 16.
5, 6i, 8.
7. Rightangled,
4.
8.
M.
10. 16;
11.
6.
Page 177
3. 5, 10, 13.
4. 6.
(5, 3).
5.
13.
6. 7,
4.
7. 30, 30.
24.
8.
(1,
7), (3, 17),
'
9. 112i.
10.
17.
24.
18.(4,4).
25.
(3, 2), 90°.
26. S1200,
12th.
Page 181
I. 4xyh, 24ax^y*z':
2. x—y,xy{x^—y^).
3. a\b,b{a—b){a+b)^.
4.
xZ,
(a;3)(a;4)(a;+3)(a;+5).
5. a+5, (a+5)(o+3)(a7)(a2).
7.
6. 3(a:2), 3(a:+l)(a;+2)(a;2)2. 8.
xy, y{xy){x+z),
m2, 4m^2(^_^2)(m2)2(m2+2m+4).
10. a+6c, a(a+6c)(a+6+c).
9. 2(a»+o6+62), ^{a^b^).
II. o+ft+c, (a+6fc)(a— 6c)(6c— a)(c— a— 6).
J78
ALGEBRA
Page 181 [continued)
12. r^3.v + y«, (rf yKx^+aVrJ'';
13. 3z2, (3a;2){a;+3)(a:3)(2a;3). 14. 5xl, (5xl)2(5z+l)(2o+3c).
15. a;3, a:(a;3)(x2)(a;«+5).
16. u — v, {u—v){u+v)(u^\v^){u^{uv\v^).
17. x28,
(a;2_8)(a;42)(a;43).
19. a.
20.
2;2_3a;y_^2?/2,
x^+xyB?/^.
Page 182
1. 3.
xl,(xl)(x2)(x2_5x43).
2. al,(al)(a5)(o''18ol).
x2, (x2)(x244)(2x23x6).
4. a1. (al)(a2+l)(3a2+a+6). 5. xl,x(xl)(xf4)(x2+x6).
7.
,
6.
(x2)(x2+5x+l)(x22xl).
a^+2ab\5b^
°7^,
. ,
1—.
2x44
8.
x36x2+llx6, x39x2+26x24.
Page 186
1.
x5.
2. (o3)(a4).
6.
3. 2(3x2+2x+2).
4. 2x9.
8.
5.
26265.
2xly.
7. a2.
x3.
9. 3a2(ol).
10. x1.
11. (x3)(x+l)(x+2){x2x+l). 13. {2x+3)(3x4)(x2f3xl). 15. (5x2l)2(4x2+l)(5a;2+x+l). 19.
11.
12. (x+l)(x+2)(x+3)(x+4).
14. (xl)(x2)(x3)(x4).
16.
3.
17.
35.
18. x2^5x14.
Page 187
1. 2.
xU,
(x9)(x10)(xll)(x13).
x3, (x3)(x12)(x22)(x243x+9).
3. ab, (a6)2(o+6)(o+a6f 62), 4. xf 3, x(x+3)(x+2)(x4)(x5).
^. (2a+l)(o3), (2a+l)(a3)(a+3)(2ol),
ANSWERS
Page 187 {continued)
6.
3T9
xb, {xa){xb){xc).
7. a;l, (a:l)(a;2)(a;3)(x+2)(a;+3).
8. (xl)(a;+3), (a;l)(a;+3)(a;2+a;+4)(a;26a;4). 9. (ar3)(2a+l), (a2)(2a+l)(a+2)2(a+3)2.
10. {xy)\ {xyf{x2yf{x\2y)'. 11.
a;2_a;y42/2, (a;2_a;2/+2/2)2(x'+a:2/+2/2).
13.
3.
14. a;*a:2a2+o*.
17.
1, 3.
18. a;23a;+2, a;26x+5.
19.
3a;+2 2a;+3
Page 191
""^^
o2+o+l
11
'
8.^.
a;2
°~^
9.
•
4o2+3a6
°'
'
10.
="+2
23?{x+\)
^^
x+1
12
'
=^'^
13
3
14
"
^3
2a; 1"
l2x^lx4:
a«2o3+2a5
Page 192
^
a'+b\ o«— 6*
g_
2y
a;2^2
3.1^.
a;2y2
4.
®
o«7a+10
.
5.
J^.
a«6*
6.^^.
1a*
3
7.^^. a;*?/^
^^
8.
^
(a;+T/)(2z— y)
9.0.
5^
10.
3x^5ry2y\
x2i/2
(x+^){x+5){x+l)
14.
^^
17,
a;25a;+6
13. iL..
x—y
a^—b^
19.
^„.
^5.^±^
x—y
16.0.
1
x^—Y
21.
2.
18.
—?— 2o36
0.
? (a;l)(a;2)(x3)
20.
0.
22.
23.
1.
24.
2(a+l)
26.
—^—
25 29 29.
^^
^^
30.
x'^y^' x*2/*
M,.
a4i_y8
27. •
81x*
^*^.
3' 28.
c»62"
^?L 44.
^
l_a;8
.
2.
8W
ALGEBRA
Page 196
1.
^~°
oa;(a+a:)
2.
^
3. J?_.
2a36
g
'
x2
4.
~^
x^V
g
'
g
26+3a
ab{a—h)
x»+ax
a{x—a)
_
^
'
a;'a:+2
_
_1_
x^—1
12.
x—2
20
9.
^..
x^y^
°'+^' ac{a—b)
10.0.
11.^. b3a
15.:
(c— o)(c— 6)
3a+2x,
„^.
16.
13.
x*l
14.
V
,•
(x— o)(a;— 6)
21.
0.
17.
_£±y_.
x{xy)»
18.
_1—
19x2
.
19.
0.
20.
0.
22.
1.
""^ 23. "
^" .^yy^^
_
24. 1.
25.
0.
(x— y)(y2)(z— z)
d.
26.
27.
,
.^\
.
.
28
^^"^
{a+b){a^+b^)
(x»9)(x»25)
29.
—^(ofl)(o+2)(a+3)(a+4)
30.
^^
(a;«l)(x»9)
Page 198
1.
1
2.
o»— 6*
J—.
8.
3.
'
^I^.
x+4
4 ?!±i'.
'
5
'
o
o»— 6*
^.
1.
6
y*
x*+y«
11.
7. x*+lfl. X*
o*+l.
a*
9.
1.
10.
'^.
X—
12. y(°~^)
13.
a+&—
14. ?
+ ??+l.
15.
^ll
+ g.
ANSWERS
Page 198 (continued)
16. ^+J!*.
381
17.
x^+y^
20.
<^. —
{a
2)^
18.?!^Z^».
a^
1.
19.i±2. x—2
24.
±.
o*— x2
21.
^.
o2
22.
23.
a—
J.
^(°+f a— 66
^
Page 200
1.
_?_.
106c
2.
Z^.
56 8.
3.
0^—62
9.
i.
1.
4.
^.
a:i/
5. 1.
6.
?.
6
X
7.
1^.
1.
10.
^y+\
16.
.
11. i'.
12.^^;.
13.?.
14. a+6.
15. a+6.
^,.
17. ^,
Page 201
___^a*— 6*
1.
i^.
8.
2.
«?^^
6c
3.?^.
»
4.0.
a;2— 9i/2
5. ^
?.
l—a*
6.2.
x
7.1.
2
1±^'.
2a;
9.
6+c
^—^
10.
^+^
x^+iar.+S
11.^+^
o«_oi+68
15.0.
,..«
12.
?!4\
0+6
,„
13.
5°+)
a*+ax+x2
•
14.
i±^.
^
16.1.
17.
^"^"^^
(2x+3)(3x2)
25.
^
18.
i. x1
32.
20.x.
21.1.
22.1.
*'
x+x^
26.
?.
27. 1.
6
"^ a+6
33.
(a+b){a^+b')
34.
0.
35.
4^^:10x
(«l)(a:2)(x3)(x4)
gg Q
^__
x+j/
38S
ALOBBRA
Page 210
13.
—
^^.
a+6
a2
.
a\h—c—d
14.
.
a\h
15. a—h.
16.
a\h—c
17
'
18
"''+°^+^^
a+b
19
'
^
'
20
' "
_^±^
2
'
21
'

2
6*
22. ^'.
23. ab.
24.
a6
?^.
2
'
25.
6+c
^,
^.
64c
26 ""+^ om— 6
TO+n' m{n
o/\
__
g 3a6— 3a^
_g
,
*
wn(a+fe)
a—h
o+3
^ 31.
mn—m—n
,
30.
oft— —— cd
.
afb—c—d
32.
8,r\rl,
a+l
2s ——
2s— In 28— an
,
n
n
^"+°
r
li:^.
a—
33.
?^=^, H^=^.
2t
fi
Page 213
13.
a,
h.
14. ^i:^, ^illjl.
a,
— Oj
.
Cj
— 0,
15.
2a,
b.
16.
o, 6
^^^
oAoA^ a^VoA
"2^1
— O1C2
O1C2
—
18. b+a, ba.
19.
^a.
ife.
fflaCj
22.
c, 0, a.
23. 4a 36.
Page 214
25.
°°
^'f — 36
.
26. 30.
afcc.
27. 5,5.
31. 3.
28. 21Jl, 27A. 32. $543, $457. 37. 1540, 880,
616.
a
29. 2,^. 33.
§.
J, 2.
36. $16400, $13600.
38.
??i::!^^,
2n
^±Z^.
n^—n
42. 182040.
39. 2a='+26^
40.
35,
41. $2100, $560.
ANSWERS
Page 219
18. a^fSa+l.
383
19.
6.
20. 4.
21. {z+l)(x+2)(x+3).
22. la:2T2, 23xa;2.
Page 221
19. ix+y)^2{x+y)\l.
22. a2+62.
20. x^3ax+a^.
.
21. 26.
13.
024.6?.
23.
x^
+2+
24. 6.
Page 223
21. 2a^+{iab\ 6a^b + 2b^
23. 2a^+2b^+6a^b+Qab^+6ac^+6bc\
27.
27.
28. 242.
Page 225
M.
x'+x+l.
18. l2a;+3a;2. 21.
la;^.
19. 22.
4c.
?_1J.?.
3
x
20. 3a24a4l
23. xl.
24. a3.
25. x—2.
Page 226
1. 3z2_4xy+22/2.
2.
x3+2x23x+l.
3. x«+3a;*2a;2+2. 6. 2x2 9.
4.
hx^lx+l.
5. 5a;22ax3a2. 8. (a;+l)(x5)(2x3).
+ 3a+7.
a;
7. (a:+2)(x+3)(a;+4).
2x25a:+2?.
12.
a.
10. 35a;. 13. la;^a;2,
18.
8a3.
11. 2x^x^l.
\^ala^ 2+^x^x^
0,
15. 7a;22a;3.
21.
81/3.
24. 2x^3x^+x2.
25.
16.
27. 6x4.
28. 7a;*2ar+l.
984
ALOEBRA
Page 230
32. Vl3.
37. 4\/2, 12\/2.
34. V2\.
35. 2\/2, 4\/2.
38. 5\/2.
Page 232
9. 10\/3.
10. 7\/2.
11. 5\/5.
12.
3V7.
17. 866.
13. 7^2.
18.
7*94.
14. 8VTT. 19.
1162.
15. 7a/5. 20.
520.
16. 4\/2.
21. 141.
22.
2546.
23. ±6083. 27. ±9592.
24. ±3873. 28. ±13711.
25. ±6782.
26. ±6481
29. 7483.
Page 234
13. 24\/3.
17, 30 + 12\/6. 14. 12\/7.
15. 5+2V6.
16. 274\/36.
19. 2+3\/2.
18.
a+6+2\/^
20. 12+V6. 23. 6+2\/l5.
21. 6 + \/l0.
22. 6a+6613\/^.
24. 4V64.
25.
a+66\/^.
26.
1.
27. 6+2\/3+2\/2+2V6.
28. 16+4Vl02Vi54\/6.
30.
29. 2a\2Va^^'^.
32.
nx5y\2^^^y\
34.
70.
31.
1.
12W2.
33. 6V6.
35. 305\/6'.
46.
36. V8+\/7. 40. 3092.
37.
42, 43.
38.
39. 9\/2.
Page 236
13. 14+8\/3. 17. Vl5.
18.
14.
6V2+W3.
.
15. 5+2^6.
577.
16.
°~_^
21.
817.
^^~^^
19.
20.
3636.
ANSWERS
Page 236 {continued)
22. 27. 32.
318.
072.
386
23.
1491.
24. 29.
084.
82.
25.
30.
1225.
139.
26.
31.
894.
28. 212.
315.
1171.
33. ±273.
34.
1008.
35. V2.
Page 238
1. 12a/2. 6.
2. 12\/6.
7.
3. 10V3.
4. 62.
5. 191. 9.
^.
4^2.
2212^2.
11.
1.
8.
12W62VZ+W2.
Vl2+Vl0.
17.
10. 94V/5.
14.
I.
12.
2VT3+2V2.
16.
13. 74+11V6.
1,
15.
1732.
2.
18. 2V2, ^V6, iV30,
^VU,
i(4v'22\/3).
1291, 518.
25. ±8661, ±7937, ±9899, 26.
817, 447, 414, 757, 337.
27. 25V3.
31.
30.
28. 2\/2.
6.
29. lilZ^, 4\/6.
30. 202.
32.
33.
483.
Page 241
1. a;2+a;132=0. 4. a;2+6a; 112=0. 7. 2. a;2a;156=0. 5. 5a;2 6a; 440=0.
6. 3. a;249=0.
x2+6x9400=0.
a;*19x+88=0.
Page 242
1. 5.
6,
1,
1, 22.
10, 19.
9.
2. 6.
6,
2,
25,
5,
21.
3.
8, 19,
1, 4,
15.
4. It, 11,2. 8.
6,
2.
7.
32.
0. 2, 7.
27,
0, 1,
28.
9. 9.
44.
10.
2,
6, 3.
11.
12.
1.
386
ALGEBRA
Page
2^
3. 1646, 3646. 6. 851, 2351.
I. 4236
236.
2. 7828, 2172.
5. 232, 3232.
4. 1916, ^9916. 7.
3±Vll.
5_±V157^
o
8.
4±3\/3.
,2. J±iV22.
9.
i±V2.
10. l±^vTl.
II.
Page 251
20.
1618.
14,
21.
4.
2^,
1.
25.
a;
22.
5, 12.
1.
23.
6,
2.
24.
6 or 16,
=
l
or
2,
t/=2 or
26. 540.
1449, 949.
27. 3236, 1236. 31. 35.
20.
28.
20c.
29.
33.
60, 90.
30. 34.
32. 3 m. perhr. 36.
8.
^, a—b
,
a+b
—
20, 30.
x=2
or
^.
37.
4.
Page 255
18.
254, 10936
:
19. 8
:
27.
20.
:
192, 1302,
21. 3937
6336.
22. 4:5, 11
27,
a+3 o+5.
:
23. 11:15,13:18,2:3.3:6. 33. 4:6.
34.
31
35.
10.
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«^^
c—d
39. 20fem
:
32.
an.
1±^ l+4a
.
b+c b+c
—
^
•
Page 259
29.
1155.
30.
10,
^.
:
31.
3.
AE=6l DE=1\.
35.
2,
32. 240.
,
33. 9899.
34. 2
a
—c m
^— n
,
^
p
ANSWERS
Page 259 (continued)
36. ior§, 5or 1. ^
^
387
37. = =
5
— 38
^.
.
38.
AC=20, AE=5, DE=i.
44. 47. 17^,
^
39. 147
ft.
40. 3 or
61, 5J
;
43.5:4:2.
46. 2
:
or
i.
48. 110
:
45.
15
:
^,.
b{c
b+c
^
.
3.
25, 30.
17.
Page 262
6. 6
;
7^
;
U^,
5,
4,%
;
5, 2f, 1*.
8. 2,
8.
9.
3, 6, 12.
Page 264
4.
H
5. 17^.
6.
Ih
14.
'^.
IB. V
17.
^.
18. 7:
16.
Page 266
17.^.
23. 1
18.^.
19.
2, .
20.
f.
21.
I, .
22.6.
26.
= 1 = 5.
24.
ft.
25.^,1.
39. 1,3,4.
i.
32. ±10, ±5, +6.
38. 41.
Page 270
1. 3a, a. 5.
2.
b,
5b.
6.
3.
Zm±mV6.
7.
4.  2p±^\/6.
o±V5236.
6±a/P+c.
fe±A/6''+4ac
.^^ '
l±^f
2p
1.
g^
b±V¥^ac^
a
Q
'2a
?±vg^^^
CO
2
M8
ALGEBRA
Page 271
1.
1.
§.
2.
I,
I.
3.
^,
7.
5»5.
4.
i±\Vn.
5.
A, T%.
6. i,3±^V89.
A. ^3.
i,
8. .^. j\j.
9. 2a, 36.
10.
7,
J^i.
11.
\.
^,
12.
:j>5,
jig.
19. ,%±Ti5\/l6l. 32.
20. 3±Jv/57.
33.
21.
^.
22. ^±2\/5.
1±2V2
3.
±V6.
618,
35. l±2\/6.
382.
38. 2'414, 414.
46. 2786 or 120.
39.
43.
63.
703, 878, 8, 229, 642, impossible,
Page 276
13.
15.
1,
6,
±^V^39.
16. ±2,
14.
6,
3, %±\y/^^l\.
17.
3,
2,
l±\/33.
I,
\,
.
±2\/^.
2,
5.
18.
1,
19. ±^V^=23. 21.
2, 3,
20. 22.
3,
i±i\/^, ft^v'^a.
l±\y/l.
1, 2.
1.
1,
Page 277
25. '*^^, !ii^29.
26. 4,3,
i±^V^^.
,
27.
5,
f±A/=^.
a+h±V'^^db+b\
30.
•
a
31.
12.
15.
32.
c
o— c o+c
—,
—
.
33. 1, 2, 4,
36. a+6.
8
34.
35. o, 6.
39.
«'+^*
0,
37. 5.10 p.m.
38. a±i.
a
af 6
0+6 o+6
^.
^.
ANSWERS
Page 277 (oorUintied)
40. 6076
nearly.
389
41.
»>^^^+64.
32
in.
^g.
46.
3.
43.
^±^V5I, ±iVl3.
44. 10
from a comer.
27.
Page 281
7.
(6. 2).
(V.
¥)•
8.
(3, 2), (J^, ^f).
9.
(6, 4).
(f^, ff ).
(5,
10.
(4, j.),
il ^).
(2275, 1425).
k)
11.
(2, 1),
^).
12.
(2525, 175),
19.
4196, 4732.
20. (2, 1), (1,
Page 283
8.
49±21\/5
(2, 1),
7 + 3\/5\
2
7.
(4, 3),
2/
(1,
3),(3^(I,
_§).
8.
9.
(1. 2).
(5, 10).
{'/'',
=^^y
(2, 4), (3, 3), (2,
3), (3, 3).
Page 284
/
23
II
\
12.
(±3.:p^),(±^,±^^j. 13.(±4.±l).(±13V,V±5^/^).
14. (±1. ±2).
(±^, +^).
17.
35.
15.
(0. 0). (1. 1).
(^. A).
16. ^±632, ±316).
»)•
ALGEBRA
Page 286
16. (±2, ±1), (±1, ±2).
18. (±2, ±1), (±1, ±2), (±'\/^l, 19. (5,2),(i, i).
17. (±3, ±2), (±2, ±3).
+2\/^),
(±2V^, tV=1).
40. ^b+^Vb^l6a.
20. (6,2),(2. 6),(±^\/57)(i±\/57).
39.
732, 68.
21
.
(5, 3), (3, 5), (6, 2), (2, 6).
Page 291
18.
(2,
2),
(2,
1),
(1, 2),
(2±\/2, 2 + V2), (3±i\/=7, i+iA/=7).
19.81.
21.
(^.^).
23
27. (±10, ±5), (±5V2, ±5V'2).
36.
(3, 2), (2, 3),
(2±V^. 2q:V^).
1),
39. (1,
2), (2,
{it^vTS, i±\/T3).
41,
(4^ 1)^ (2, 2), (J. 12), (f, 6).
40.
^+^^'^'', s+V2d^s\
43.
42.
(4, 2), (2, 4), (8, 1).
(5, 1), (1, 5).
Page 296
19.
be —
.
20.
x*"***.
21.
1.
22.
1.
23. a\
2,
24.
1.
25.
22", 312.
26. 3
27.
2, 9.
28.
7,
3, 2.
Page 301
45.
51.
J.
Tig.
46.
8.
47. 625.
32.
48.
4.
11 J.
§.
49.
55.
^.
125.
^.
50. 56.
J.
52.
53.
54.
16^ g^ gi,
J.
57. ^.
58. ^"53.
59.
1^
ANSWERS
Page 302
1. x\xi6. 5.
391
2. x2_i.
3. a;2_i.
4. 6.
3a;2_8x2+9x10xi
0—1+40^—401.
a2— 2a^ + 3a— 2a^+l
7. a;i+4xlla;^6a:^.
9. x^+xy+y'^.
8. a:2+8a;^+24x+32a;2
+ 16.
10. a'^— 3a+3a^— 1.
20. x^+x^l+x'^+x'^
21. 5a^"+4a"'2.
22. 2x2+6a:+2.
23. l2a.
24. a;2Vz+3.
Page 304
I.
3.
x4, a363.
2.
a+l+ai.
x^2x^x+2xi+l, 4a28a+4oi+o2.
a2+3a+3aJ+l, 1— 3x5+3xa;i
5.
4.
6.
x*+xy +
!/*.
x^+yK
7. a^\b^+ck
i
8. (x+2/)(x2— y2)(x^+2/5),
9.
Jbk
xx^ +
1.
10.
?^,
x2—
a^+oM+fti aVod+fc.
X+2X1.
II. x^2,
12. 2x2+3xi,
Page 305
3.
5, fo, 49.
4. 4, J^, 25, 4,
1333, 562.
^,
8,
,^5.
6. S^g,
2.
7. 3162, 1778,
8.
4.
9. 1732,
2.
10. 9f, lif.
11. 100.
15.
12.
4,
13.
i,
1^.
14.
I,
f.
Vo+4
^^,
3xi+2,
^p^o26— 62
.
16. x^y^Sx^y^
an
ALGEBRA
Page 305 {continited)
17. x^y^ + 1+x sy 19. o'"'+a2"'6"»+a"'62".__b3m
18.
z^—y~\ a^— l+a"i
21.
20. t/+2?/^ + l. 25.
*— 2— a;V
i/'o
22. ia'ift".
24.
OOie, 144, 3375, 8.
Vs lY
+l
a6c
2,
26. 30.
1.
27. e'+e',
32.
x^— 2a:2/^ + 3«^y— yl
32.
^.
M.
33.
4,
31. 2750.
3
34. x^ +2x^ + l + 2z~^ +x'^.
36. 2z+x,^a;"i.
Page 310
7. >^4,
^27;
V^16, ^27";
^64, ^8l, ^125.
9. 12\/2.
8. 3a/2, 5\/6, Vo, 126, ^5.
10. 12V5.
11. 33\/2.
12. 3^2.
13. 7^12.
14. 10v^2.
15. 9V3.
16.
0.
17. VS, V5,
126.
63,
xV^,
r^ix, V2.
18.
252, 378,
126, 126.
Page 311
25. 3\/iO.
26. i\/5.
27. ^VE. 31.
28. V2.
29.
U2V2V3).
30. ^02+6*46.
33. 2517,
1364.
Va+bVc.
34.
194.
32. (zVx«y2). 36. 37(V3V2).
39. 10
ft.
36. M(7V6), 2V5.
37. i\(1834V5).
6
in.
ANSWERS
Page 314
16. 21.
393
No
a.
root.
17. 22.
25.
4.
18. 23.
64.
f.
19.
root.
100.
20. 25.
•
9.
24. No
5^1^
2a—
26.
3.
27.
10.
28.
10.
29.
.
30.
C211
J^
Page 317
18.
(4, 9), (9, 4). (9, 1), (1, 9). (2, 8), (8, 2).
19. 22.
(4, 16), (16, 4).
20.(17,8).
2, 1.
21. 25.
(2, I), (, 2).
23.
24.
7,
6.
Page 320
10. 2823.
11.
196.
12. 2^(2+^3), 5i(\/5+l), 3^(2 V3),2i(5\/2+3).
15.
14. 1+VS.
^, ^. ^. VS V2 V2
,
17. 2309.
18. 2+3V2.
Page 322
•0. 25\/^.
14. 11.
68.
12. 25.
13.
1+V^.
ly^.
2
i5_ 2a2262.
Page 324
I.
5.
2+2v^2\/3.
9.
2. 2+\/6.
7.
7i.
4. 198, 315, 139, 355.
7,
6. IJ.
8.
1.
9. 20.
10.
13.
II. 6f2vl5, x^+2xy+y^Ax'iy.
12. V3. 15.
12.
13. 4a42\/4a26.
14. ^(i'*2p?+g2).
3M
ALGEBRA
Page 324 {continued)
16. x*lx^+2x+2.
17.
0.
18. 2a, 4.a^2, 8a^i
2m,
19.
ANSWERS
Page 338
6. Rational. 9. Real and equal. 7. Real and irrational.
396
8. Imaginary
10. Rational.
11. Real.
13.
4.
14. ±5.
16. i.
19. •
tn
20.
2,
?.
Page 340
8.
(x{2+Vl){x+2Vl).
9. 16.
10. ±6a.
11. (x3 + 2V5)(a;32\/5).
12. (3x4t/)(3a;+42/){4x32/)(4z+32/); ±, ±J.
13. 174; (8a;+7)(15x4)
14. 62^4a«.
Page 341
4.
6,
^,
, 4,
14.
5.
f,
A.
6.
16x240x+21=0.
7. 12^,
8. 6x219a;+15=0.
9. 25.
10. x2±12x+35=0.
12. x^'kc+3=0.
11. (72x+l)(73xl), (13x+ll)(17x15).
13. 2a + 262c.
15. (x+3+V'2)(x+3a/2).
17. ax^ + 3bx+9c=0. 19.
1,
14. 97x253x17=0. 16. 2x*17x=0.
18. acx^—x{b^—2ac)+ac=0.
°+^~^
a+ft+c
.
23. ±12.
26. ±4.
27.
3mnm^
32.
28.
a.
29. 33.
°t^ 0+6— c o+o—
»
^
1.
.
30.
i
31. c+6a.
o=8
or
8,
35.
6. 2.
36. (x+b{Vb^^){x+bVb*^).
SM
ALGEBRA
Page 345
16. 2a6+3.
M.Pllll±^. v—q+r
18.7,1,19.
20. 2o3, 3o4.
19. (xy+3)(a;+2!/4). 21. (2a6+c)(3o6c)(3a+262c).
Page 348
13. (2a;7/53)(4a;2+2/242522+2x?/+10xz5i/2).
14. (a+6+c+l)(a2+62+c2+2a6ac6ca6c+l).
15. a363c33a6c.
17. la3t33a6. 19. 16. 8x3?/3+2723+18x?/2.
18. 8a327fe36472a6.
l+a2+&2+a6+a*.
22. 3a+fe.
20.
9w2+n2+l+3TOn+3m».
24. 2a5. 35.
0.
21. a+561.
23. x23a;+9.
25.
a+6+c+dl.
2a36+3c
'
28. 27x38!/3+334.i8xj/z.
^®
40. a,b.
"l
^^ (+2/+^)(a+6).
Page 351
9. («2/)(t/3)(a;2).
10. {xy){yz)(xz).
12. (a6){6c){co)(o+6+c).
14. a+6+c.
a, 6.
11. (x?/)(yz)(zx).
13. {a6)(6c)(ca)(a+6)(6+c)(c4a).
15.
^,
^.
6
16. ?±^
^:::^
a
a— 6
17.
18.
b\a
^^ a
^=^.
b
19.
*,
*±^.
a
b—a
20. axab.
ANSWERS
Page 353
10. x*2x^i4x^Sx+l6.
307
11. r»3a;2+9a;27.
12. x^+x'>a+3^a^+x^a'^+a*. 14. a;— 6, a+6,
17. a86».
1
13. (a+6f(a+6)2+o+5l.
15.
o*
X— 4, m+, a;+y— 1.
m
— 1.
16. m*+l.
20. a2+ap+3=0.
22.
1, 9.
23.
II
'11
a;3
4a;3a3__a3^
x^— x3a3_^a3^
ii
2
4
5.1
a2
la
4
a;5__a;5a5_j_a;5a5_j_x5a5j_o5^
ai k I la 4 4 a;6— x%5+x5o6— ar^a^+os.
Page 357
13. 3(a*46^+c'^)2(a6+6c+ca).
16. 3(a26afe2_^62(,_jc2+c2aca2).
14. 2(a2+62+c«).
15.
0.
17. {xy){yz)(xz).
20. 24a6c.
18. (j;r/)(^2)(x2). 21. 3(x?/)(j/2)(zx).
19. (a+6)(6+c)(c+a).
22. {a+b){b+c)(c^a).
23.
— (afe)(6c)(c— a)(a+6+c).
25.
1.
24. {ab){bc)(ca){a+b){b+c){c\a). 27. 32.
1.
26.
1.
28.
4abc
29.
0.
30. a+b+c.
31. {x+y+z).
3.
33.
6abc.
35. 3(x2+?/2+z2) + 2(xy+2/z+zx).
Page 362
24.
18.
26. 02262, a^Sab^.
27. a«=c*+26«.
28. o»+2c»=3a6«.
808
ALGEBRA
Page 362
e. k^+ri\y^^iZ»{kxvz.
9. x=(al)(l6).
H
aoo
^
12. l(a+b+c).
15. {ab+bc+ca). 23.
16.
~ooc
18. i(a+6+c).
22. {x\){3^2x^+2xi2).
a6c.
26. (x+l)(a+6+c).
31. 9,17.
29. 3(a:*+i/2^z2) + (a;j/+j/2+2x).
32.
38, 70.
30. o2=26+c.
HR
3—805
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