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·The “unavoidable art” (Frank Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water, 1936-38) ·A physical record of human activity (Forum of Pompeii, Ancient Roman, c. 1st century CE) ·A non-verbal form of communication (Notre Dame de Chartres, Gothic Period, 1194-1230 CE) II. Elements of Architecture Roman Architect Vitruvius (25 BCE) established the basic elements of architecture which have remained essentially unchanged. These are referred to as the “Vitruvian Triad”: Notes:
Firmitas, Utilitas and Venustas’ (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio ‘The Ten Books of Architecture’ 1st C AD). These qualities may be translated as: ‘Technology, Function and Form’ (C St J Wilson ‘ArchitecturalReflections?; Studies in the Philosophy and Practice of Architecture’ or, in the
slightly more familiar but antique: ‘Firmness, Commodity & Delight’
A.) Vitruvian Triad #1-Function/Utility/Commodity: Does a building work by supporting and reinforcing its use? Floor plan Elevation Section 1.) Pragmatic Utility (Parthenon by Iktinos and Kallikrates, Ancient Greek, 5th century BCE) 2.) Circulatory Function (Paris Opera, by Charles Garnier, 1861-75 CE0 3.) Symbolic Function (Notre Dame du Haut, by Le Corbusier, 1951-55 CE)
Pragmatism is a philosophical movement that includes those who claim that an ideology or proposition is true if it works satisfactorily, that the meaning of a proposition is to be found in the practical consequences of accepting it, and that impractical ideas are to be rejected.
B.)Vitruvian Triad #2-Firmness: (The most apparent part of the building— what makes it stand up?) Physical Structure—literal “bones” of the building. Perceptural Structure—what we see, or empathetic analysis (Sainte Chapelle, Gothic, 1243-48 CE) 1.) Structural System: making sure that objects will not fall to earth, despite the incessant pull of gravity. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS: 1.) Post-and-Lintel (Nile Valley Temple, Ancient Egyptian, c. 2680-2550 BCE
Mr. 532-549 CE) 5. Wright referred to the rectangle on the southwest portion of the site. On the second floor are the entry hall at the top of the central stairway. 1330 BCE and Fallingwater) 4. The third floor overlaps the major and minor vessels in the center of the building.and the Parthenon) · Columnar Orders: Doric. barrel and groin vault (Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius.)behavioral space Nontes: Robie Hoise Interior In plan.) perceptual space c. and the servants’ sitting room. and a three-car garage. Corinthian.” the “place in command of beautiful views. the house is designed as two large rectangles that seem to slide by one another.) physical space b.) Truss and Space Frame (Saint’Apollinare in Classe. followed by a small workshop. A half bath is located on the north side of the entrance hall. Myceneaen.” The . the living room (west end) and the dining room (east end).Ancient Roman.)Vitruvian Triad #3-Beauty I (Delight): Space in Architecture 1. called "the minor vessel. and the eastern most bay contained equipment to wash and clean automobiles. Ionic. 118128 CE.)conceptual space d. The rectangle on the northeast portion of the site. (Frank Lloyd Wright’s Robie House. The western most bay of the garage originally contained a mechanic’s pit.) Tension C. These two rooms open through central doors to an enclosed garden on the south side of the building. Ancient Roman. East of the back stairway are the kitchen and butler’s pantry. and the Hagia Sophia. The west end of the living room contains the “prow” with art glass windows and two art glass doors that open onto the west porch beneath the cantilevered roof. On the second floor of the minor vessel is a guest bedroom above the entrance hall and an adjoining full bath.) Corbel and Cantilever System (Treasury of Atreus. the boiler room. Further east are a coat closet and back stairway. On the first floor is the main door and entrance hall (west end) from which a stairway leads to the second floor living and dining rooms. which contains the principal living spaces of the house.307-325 CE. c. Wright intended that the users of the building move freely from the interior space to the exterior space. The living and dining rooms flow into one another along the south side of the building and open through a series of twelve French doors containing art glass panels to an exterior balcony running the length of the south side of the building that overlooks the enclosed garden. half bath. laundry room. 532-37 CE) 3. Wright referred to the third floor as the “belvedere.) Arch System (Vault and Dome) · Tunnel. A door from the playroom opens into the courtyard on the east end of the site." contains the more functional and service-related rooms of the house. the Pantheon.) Space/Indoor Space: architectural space is a powerful shaper of behavior." On the first floor are the "billiards" room (west end) and children's playroom (east end). 1901) a. Two bedrooms and a full bathroom above the garage complete the quarters for the live-in servants. and Composite · Engaged column and pilaster 2. Byzantine. Byzantine. as "the major vessel. and coal storage room. An inglenook originally separated the entry hallway from the living room.
for Wright. . but the stairs to the second floor create a sense of anticipation as the visitor moves upward. and the chimney mass has an opening above the fireplace through which the rooms are visually connected. as well as soffit lighting in the prows of the living and dining rooms.9 m2). and textiles for most Prairie houses. The chimney mass containing four fireplaces—one in the billards room. dressing area. playroom. Two additional bedrooms and a full bathroom are located on the north side of this floor. The Wright-designed sofa has been on loan since 1982 from the Smart Museum to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and is on display as part of the furnishings in the reconstructed living room of the Francis W. Little House (1915) located in the museum. further tying the two spaces together visually. but the spaces are connected along their south sides. Architectural significance Interior window detail (1963) The Robie House was one of the last houses Wright designed in his Oak Park. According to the Historical American Buildings Survey. Robie’s financial situation following his father’s death may be the explanation for why the entire house was not furnished with furniture of Wright’s designs. Because these lights are all independently operable. the designs of the Robie House art glass are simply abstract geometric forms. Wright also designed the furniture. a balcony facing west. and the structurally expressive piers and windows. Wright designed the light fixtures for the Robie House. Illinois home and studio and also one of the last of his Prairie School houses. As with all Prairie houses. Although Wright occasionally designed art glass using stylized forms from nature. it is considered to be a quintessential example of Wright's Prairie School architecture and the "measuring stick" against which all other Prairie School buildings are compared. through a small closet. a Wright-designed table lamp with an art glass shade stood on a Wright-designed library table in the living room. which effectively create side tables on each side of the sofa. are covered with Wright-designed wooden grilles. As a result. established a new form of domestic design. The steel structure also eliminates the need for internal structural columns and walls. guest bedroom. the light filled living and dining rooms create a sharp contrast to the dark entrance hall making the living and dining rooms seem even more special. and. different effects can be created within these spaces. However. was a metaphor for the openness of American political and social life. and thus are filled with doors and windows containing art glass panels. echoing the cantilevers of the exterior roof of the building. All of the windows on this level contain art glass panels. and one bed for the third-floor bedrooms. One of the most striking pieces of the furniture designed by Wright for the Robie House is a sofa with extended armrests. living room and master bedroom—and the main stairway from the entrance hall to the second floor living and dining rooms rise through the center of the house. On the second floor living and dining rooms. a full bathroom. Wright-designed furniture in the Robie House was only constructed for the entrance hall. wall sconces can be found in the shape of a hemispherical shade suspended beneath a square bronze fixture. the city of Chicago's Commission on Chicago Architectural Landmarks stated: "The bold interplay of horizontal planes about the chimney mass. The front door and main entrance is partially hidden on the northwest side of the building beneath an overhanging balcony in order to create a sense of privacy and protection for the family. the living and dining rooms.062 square feet (841. The steel beams in the ceilings and floors carrying most of the building's weight to piers at the east and west ends. The entrance hall itself is low-ceilinged and dark. Throughout the house. creating an openness of plan which. Soffit lighting running the length of the north and south sides of the living and dining rooms. Most of the original furniture is currently in the collection of the Smart Museum of Artat the University of Chicago although only the dining room table and chairs are on display. from which the rest of the building radiates." Because the house's components are so well designed and coordinated. spherical globes within wooden squares are integrated into the ceiling trim. The entire building is approximately 9. The chimney mass is constructed of the same brick and limestone as the exterior. These features unite the two spaces. These two rooms are separated by the central chimney mass. carpets. the exterior walls have little structural function. Finally.south side of the third floor contains the master bedroom. Once upstairs. accenting the open plan Wright favored. The house contains 174 art glass window and door panels in 29 different designs.
)Interwoven spaces vs.)Positive Space vs. England. parallel. non-directional space (German Pavillion and Salisbury Cathedral. much of modern architecture as we know it today. none could rival Frank Lloyd Wright. the house introduced so many concepts in planning and construction that its full influence cannot be measured accurately for many years to come. press release from the National Park Service website announcing the nominations states that "[t]he preparation of a Tentative List is a necessary first step in the process of nominating a site to the World Heritage List. the U.a.)Directional Space vs.)Duality of Space a. By any standard his Robie house was the House of the 1900s--indeed the House of the Century. But. simplest and largest figure. -Visual Preferences: proximity. during his Oak Park years and brought them to the attention of European architects of 1920s. 1909-24) b. along with nine other Frank Lloyd Wright properties. 2008. repetition. Gothic Period. the Robie house is a magnificent work of art. Without this house. especially students of the Bauhaus school in Germany and the De Stijl school in Holland. with self-organizing tendencies."essence or shape of an entity's complete form") of the Berlin School is a theory of md brain positing that the operational principle of the brain is holistic. in addition. "The Wasmuth Portfolio"). and analog. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe among other great 20th Century architects. The 10 sites have been submitted as one entire site.)Personal Space D." 2. 1220) c.The house and the Robie name were immortalized in Ernst Wasmuth's famous 1910 publication "Ausgefuhrte Bauten und Entwurfe von Frank Lloyd Wright" (a.)Vitruvian Triad #3-Beauty II (Delight): “Seeing Architecture” (involves subjective responses) 1.k. Of these innovators. Above all else. Karlii. static spaces (German Pavillion by van der Rohe. but exerting more lasting influence. might not exist." In 2008. Venice) 3.)Space/Outdoor Space (Piazza di San Marco.S. Incia 100 CE) 4.)Visual Perception: -Gestalt Psychology—How the mind interprets forms and patterns presented to it. The Archectural Record selected the Robie House as "one of the seven most notable residences ever built in America. including those unbuilt. The January 22. to a tentative list for World Heritage Status. Negative Space (Pantheon and Cave. claimed Wright was a major influence on their careers. 1929 and Fahnestock House by Charles Platt. National Park Servicesubmitted the Robie house. particularly with respect to the visual recognition of figures and whole forms instead of just a collection of . This publication featured most of Wright's designs. figure/ground relationship notes: Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt . The architectural significance of the Robie House was probably best stated in a 1957 article in House and Home magazine: During the decades of eclecticism's triumph there were also many innovators--less heralded than the fashionable practitioners. The Gestalt effect refers to the form-generating capability of our senses. In 1956.
1549-64) 4. (Palazzo de Te by Romano. gestaltism is often opposed to structuralism and Wundt. Gestalt does not explain how images appear multistable. (Unite d’Habitation by Le Corbusier. Other examples include the 'three-pronged widget' and artist M. different lighting. The phrase "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is often used when explaining Gestalt theory Example: Invariance Invariance is the property of perception whereby simple geometrical objects are recognized independent of rotation. translation. and when depicted using different graphic elements as in D. have had more success in explaining how objects are classified.)Rhythm: The means of attaining ordered variety in architecture—the alternation between incident and interval. the objects in A in the figure are all immediately recognized as the same basic shape. and scale. 1444-60) -ashlar masonry . This is seen for example in the Necker cube. For example.)Proportion: The mind seeks out mathematical and geometrical relationships or proportions in patterns.)Scale: How large a building is relative to the size of the average human being. Emergence. C. and different component features. Computational theories of vision. 2. They are even recognized despite perspective and elastic deformations as in C. only that they do. In psychology.simple lines and curves. such as those by David Marr.) Texture: a. and invariance are not necessarily separable modules to be modeled individually. and in Rubin's Figure/Vase illusion shown here. between solids and voids. but they could be different aspects of a single unified dynamic mechanism Multistability the Necker Cube and the Rubin vase. Escher's artwork and the appearance of flashing marquee lights moving first one direction and then suddenly the other. which are immediately distinguishable from the forms in B. (St. as well as several other variations such as elastic deformations. multistability. 1946-52) 3.) Optical Texture-refers to visual pattern on the large scale (Palazzo Medici by Micheloozo. Again. Peter’s Rome. reification. two examples of multistability Multistability (or multistable perception) is the tendency of ambiguous perceptual experiences to pop back and forth unstably between two or more alternative interpretations. 1527-34) 5.
blogspot. 1436) 7.) Light: The most powerful element in our perception of architecture (Cornaro Chapel by Bernini. Cool Colors (San Vitale.) Color: The powerful evoker of moods and physiological responses -Warm colors vs.) Tactile Texture-refers to what can be physically felt with the hand 6. Byzantine and Santo Spirito by Brunelleschi.) Ornament: -absence of ornament and its importance -economic and social value of ornament -utilitarian ornament -didactic ornament More readings: http://the-lying-truth-of-arthictecture.com/ . 1647 and Notre Dame du Haut) b.-rusticated masonry b.) Light and Color: a.