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**Mechanics for systems of particles and extended bodies
**

PHYS1121-1131 UNSW. Session 1 2010

Left: trajectory of end of rod.

Right: parabola is the trajectory followed by the

Centre of mass

In a finite body, not all parts have the same acceleration. Not even if it is rigid. How to apply F = m a ? _ _

Total mass M = Σ mi

mi mj r cm ri r j origin

Define the centre of mass as the point with displacement _ cm = r

Σ mi _i r

M

Why this definition? Consider n particles, mi at positions _ i, F i acts on each. For each r _ particle, N2 gives F i = mi a i Add these to get total force acting on all particles: _ _

Fj mj r j origin

ΣFi _

=

Σ mi a i _

definition of acceleration

mi

Fi ri

d2 = Σ mi dt2 _ i r if masses constant, can change order of d/dt and multiply: = d2 r dt2 mi _ i

Σ

d2 = dt2

Σ mi _ i r

multiply top and bottom by M

r d2 mi _i = Mdt2 Σ M

But we defined

_ cm = r

Σ mi _i r

M

Then

Σ

d2 F i = Mdt2 _ cm = M a cm _ r _

(total force) = (total mass)*(acceleration of centre of mass)

int mj Each F i is the sum of internal forces (from other _ particles in the body/ system) and external forces (from outside the system) ΣFi _ = Σ F i.2 Look at forces in detail: F j F j.ext Fi F i. external Newton 3: All internal forces F ij between ith and jth particles are Newton pairs: _ F ji = − F ij _ _ ∴ ∴ ∴ Σ internal forces = 0 Σ F i = Σ F i. external = _ _ F external = M a cm _ _ F external _ total external force total acceleration of = mass * centre of mass .int F j.internal+ Σ F _ _ i.ext m i F i.

experimentally. Three boys with equal mass m: . we'll consider which is a useful way to find c. centre of mass at _ cm = r Σ mi _i r Σ mi ⌠_ dm ⌡r = Σ mi _i r M (i) For a continuous body. Really. Can rearrange (i): 0= Σ mi _i − mi _cm r r −> M − _ cm) = 0 r law of the see-saw Σ mi (r i _ (ii) −> ⌠ (r i − _ cm)dm = 0 r ⌡ _ body N cm W Later.3 For n discrete particles. elements of mass dm at _ r ⌠ _ dm ⌡r body body _ cm = r ⌠ dm ⌡ body = M (ii) This is the same equation. when doing rotation.m.

Where is the c. recall: when doing Newton's 3rd.5i + 1. we derived the centre of rotation of the system Example m1 m2 r plate O On a square plate (mass mp). m1 = 100 g and m2 = 50 g Where is the cm of the system? _ cm = r = = Σ mi _i r Σ mi mp(1.0j) + m2(2. of the earth moon system? _ cm r = Σ mi _i r Σ mi mexe + mmxm me + mm Take origin at centre of earth. we place m1 and m2 as indicated.0i + 2.0j) mp + m1 + m2 (303g)i + (503g)j = 1. inside the earth. mp = 135 g.m.600 km i.4 Example. x cm = mmd = me + mm = 4.1 i + 1.e.8j 285g Check? check that Σ mi (r i − _ cm) = 0 _ r .5j) + m1(2.

Rod. . and a = 2b. Where is c.m. _ Where does energy come from? Obvious: arms! Fext = Macm dvcm dxcm Fext dx = Macm dxcm = M = Mvcmdvcm dt "Centre of mass work" Wcm = ⌠ Fext dx = ⌡ i f (2 Mvcm2) f − (2 Mvcm2) i 1 1 Work done = that which would have been done if Fext had acted on cm. cross-section A.5 Example. where is cm? _ cm r dm x cm ! = " " r i dm dm How am I going to integrate dm? and over the whole body? = ρdV = ρAdx = " xdm " dm Put origin at join and ρ is constant for the integrations ! 0 a ⌠ ⌠ ⌡ ρ1Ax dx + ⌡ ρ2Ax dx -b 0 = 0 a ⌠ ρ1A dx + ⌠ ρ2A dx ⌡ ⌡ -b 0 messy? But it's only four easy integrations − 2 ρ1b2 + 2 ρ2a2 = ρ1b + ρ2a a2 − rb2 = 2(a + rb) Internal vs external work. Problem. made of length a of material with density ρ2 and length b of material with density ρ1. but K changes. ∴ normal force does no work. Skateboarder pushes away from a wall F F v 1 1 ρ1 where we define r = ρ2 Point of application of F does not move.? If ρ1/ = 2ρ2.

momentum of whole system is conserved _ Note that momentum is a vector.you choose: draw a boundary around it. so we have a conservation law that can apply in one or more directions. . System of particles: P _ P _ = Σp i _ and M = Σ mi d = Σ mi v i = Σ mi dt _ i _ r r d d Σ mi _ i = dt Σ mi _ i = M dt M r P _ = Mv cm _ d _ _ dt P = Ma cm If M constant: d d Σ F i = Σ dt p i = dt P _ _ _ All internal forces are in pairs F ji = − F ij _ _ ∴ d F ext = dt P _ _ two very important conclusions: i) ii) Motion of cm is like that of particle mass M at _ cm subjected to F ext. use the general expression What is system? . ΣF = ma _ _ but for the general case.v2/c2 and also that Generalised form of Newton 2: d Σ F = dt p _ _ K = (γ – 1)mc2 d d Σ F = m dt v + v dt m _ _ _ If m constant.6 Momentum Definition: p ≡ mv _ _ In relativity. we’ll find that this is a low v approximation to mv _ p = _ 1 . r _ If F ext = 0.

what F required to maintain constant speed of 10 ms-1? 10 litres has mass 10 kg d d d Fx = dt (mvx) = m dt vx + vx dt m 10 kg.m-2. What is their final speed? (Neglect friction.) vi mm vf md No external forces act in horizontal direction so Px is conserved. Pi = Pf man dinghy man dinghy mmvj + 0 = (mm + md)vf mm vf = mm + md vj Example Rain falls into an open trailer (area 10 m2) at 10 litres.min-1.7 Example 90 kg man jumps (vj = 5 ms-1) into a (stationary) 30 kg dinghy. Neglecting friction. .m-2 = 10 ms-1 x 60 s 10 m2 = 17 N.

What is the acceleration of the rocket? dm rate of increase of dt = mass of rocket < 0 No external forces act so momentum conserved.vi = u ln ⌡ mf i need high exhaust velocity u (c?).(−u) = 0 dm dv = − u m a a dv u dm = dt = − m . which decreases as it ejects exhaust at rate r = − dt and at relative velocity u. else require mi >> mf . dt ur = m 1st rocket equation dm dv = − u m = dv = − u d(ln m) 2nd rocket equation f mi ⌠ dv = vf .8 dm Example. forwards direction: dprocket + dpexhaust = 0 m. In the frame of the rocket. Rocket has mass m = m(t).dv + (−dm).

Average a = 58 ms-2. va Fab = Fba = 0 vb F ab Fab = Fba = large! Fab = Fba = 0 F ba forces that crumple cars during (brief) collision are much larger than friction force (tires .road).9 Collisions time. In previous example: car decelerates from 30 kph to rest in a 60 cm 'crumple zone'. compared with friction at ~ 10 kN. ∴ neglect Fext. we shall often neglect the momentum change due to external forces. In practice. "large" forces act between bodies over a "short" In comparison. normal cars would crumple much less so forces would be much greater . so force on car during collision ~ ma ~ 58 kN. Example 1: Definition: in a collision.

02 m2 ~ 1 kN . However. Fab = Fba ≅ 0 During collision (fly-by). Impulse (J ) and momentum _ Newton 2 ⇒ ∴ Definition: I dp = F dt _ _ f f ⌠ F dt ⌠ _ ⌡ dp = ⌡ _ i i f ⌠ F dt ≡ pf−pi = ⌡_ _ _ i so Camera flashes at equal times When is head of club travelling fastest? Speed of ball compared to speed of club? Ball is inflated to normal pressure. start and finish of collision not well defined At large separation before and after.10 Example 2 Jupiter doesn't "hit" Examples: deep space probes spacecraft Here. Fgrav ∝ 1/r2. Can get an underestimate of force: pressure F > in ball * deformed area ~ 70 kPa* 0. forces are considerable. so much smaller at large distances.

then the momentum of the system is conserved (in that direction). travels at 45 ms-1.. = . vi = 45 m..vi) to right vf = 0. Cricket ball. = 7. I ⌡_ = ⌠ F dt i f if F constant.0 ms 7 kN 2 cm s = vavΔt.11 ⌠_ Usual case: external forces small. Example.156 kg.7 kN 20 cm ouch! vav = 23 m.s-1 .s-1 I ≡ pf−pi _ _ = m(vf . 10 ms 0. act for small time. i F1 m1 m2 F 2 f ⌠_ Δ p 1 = ⌡ F1 dt ≡ F 1 Δt _ _ i f f ⌠ F2 dt = − ⌠ F1 dt ⌡_ ⌡_ i i f - Δp2 = _ ∴ ∴ Δp1 = −Δp2 _ _ ΔP = Δp1 −Δp2=0 _ _ _ If external forces are negligible (in any direction). Δt F s 1. therefore ⌡ Fext dt is small. ∴ Fav = I/Δt. If const F ⇒ const a. m = 156 g. what average force would be required to stop it in 1 ms? in 10 ms? What stopping distances in these cases? vi vf= 0 m = 0.0 kgms-1 to left. What impulse is required to catch it? If the force applied were constant.. _ I = FΔt.

However. Ki = Kf . external forces do act. Conclusion: Ui = Uf . (A common method to measure speed of bullet. not conserved b-c): during this phase. no horizontal external forces ∴ momentum conserved. heat is produced.deformation of block is not elastic. / Mechanical energy is not conserved . so mechanical energy is lost. Friction does work.12 Example. so mechanical energy conserved. Let’s look in more detail: little digression about elastic and inelastic collisions . there are no non-conservative forces.) Bullet (m) with vb fired into stationary block (M) on string. a) b) vb m M M+m vt Analyse a) to b) No horizontal ext forces during collision ∴ momentum conserved i) Pxi = Pxf mvb = (m + M)vt m vt = m + M vb ii) Kb = 2 mvb2 1 m 2 1 1 iii) Kt = 2 (m + M) vt2 = 2 (m + M)m + M vb 1 m2 = 2 m + M vb2 < Kb. (i) What is their (combined) velocity after the collision? (ii) What is the kinetic energy of the bullet? (iii) of the combination? (iv) How high does the block then swing? a) b) c) vb m M M+m vt v=0 h Note the different stages and three diagrams: a-b):collision. not conserved. so momentum is lost.

. Greatest possible loss of K: if all final velocities = v cm. i.13 During a collision with negligible external forces. Called completely inelastic collision.. = 2 g(m + M)2 vb2 so we can rearrange and get vb from Δh . P = Mv cm is conserved _ _ M constant ∴ v cm is constant ∴ 2 Mvcm constant _ _2 K of c. is not lost.m.e. if all objects stick together _ after collision. Part (iv) of previous example (b-c): b) c) M+m vt v=0 h here the external forces (gravity and tension) do do work and change momentum.m. Completely inelastic collision. v 1i v 2i 1 v m1 m2 m1 + m 2 Completely elastic collision is one in which no non-conservative forces do work. so mechanical energy is conserved. But there is no non-conservative force and so in this part of the process conservation of mechanical energy applies: ΔU + ΔK = 0 (M + m)g (Δh – 0) + (0 – Kt) = 0 m2 1 Δh = . But the K of components with respect to c. can be lost.

2vv1f) ∴ Either: or: 0 = v1f 2 − vv1f 0 = v1f (v1f − v) v1 f = 0 and (iii)−> v2f = v i. all p and K transferred to m2 v1f = v and (iii)−> v2f = 0 . Two unknowns (v1f. 1st stops dead. can simplify the algebra Example. Or: Or: transform to frame where (e.g. v v 2i= 0 v 1f v 2f m m m m pi = pf (i) (ii) neglect external forces ⇒ mv + 0 = mv1f + mv2f 1 1 1 2 mv2 + 0 = 2 mv1f2 + 2 mv2f2 (i) −> v2f = v − v1f (iii) substitute in (ii) −> 1 1 1 2 mv2 + 0 = 2 mv1f2 + 2 m(v2 + v1f2 .14 Elastic collision in one dimension v 1i v 2i (bang) v 1f v 2f m1 m2 m1 m2 note the before and after diagrams again Collision: neglect external forces ⇒ pi = pf m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f elastic ⇒ Ki = Kf (ii) 1 1 1 1 2 m1v1i2 + 2 m2v2i2 = 2 m1v1f2 + 2 m2v2f2 (i) usually know m1. m2.e.e. v2i = 0. v1i = v.) v1 = 0 transform to centre of mass frame. missed it. v2i. ∴ we can always solve. 2 solutions i. v2f). Take m1 = m2. v1i.

v2i = − v. (v1f – v1i) = 0.e. the relative velocity is unchanged. for an elastic collision in one dimension.v2i = v2f . mv1i + mv2i = 2mvf What energy is lost in each case? p conserved −> vf = v1i + v2i 2 1 1 1 ΔΚ = Kf − Ki = 2 (2m) vf2 . mass m.v1f p and K conservation gave: (i) m1(v1f – v1i) = – m2(v2f – v2i) 1 1 (ii) 2 m1(v1f2 – v1i2) = – 2 m2(v2f2 – v2i2) If they hit. collide completely inelastically. case 1: case 2: v1i = v. rugby etc . v1i = v. (v2f – v2i) = 0 / / (ii)/(i) ⇒ ∴ v1i + v1f = v2i + v2f v1i – v2i = v2f – v1f use a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b) i. show v1i .2 mv2 .m1 v2f = m1 + m2 v1i + m2 + m1 v2i Solve −> Example Two similar objects.15 Example Show that. i.2 mv2 1 = − 4 mv2 case 2: 0 + 0 2 1 1 1 ΔK = 2 (2m) 2 .2 mv2 = − mv2 4 times as much energy lost Remember this if you have the choice in traffic.e. v2i = 0. relative velocity the same before and after 2m1 m2 .2 mv1i2 .2 mv2i2 case 1: v + 0 2 1 1 ΔK = 2 (2m) 2 .

v2f. but not after) b !2 b θ2 = sin-1 2R (R + R) sin θ2 = b i) ii) Note that as θ −> 90°. v1i in x dirn b is called impact parameter (distance "off centre") px conserved m1v1i = mv1f cos θ1 + mv2f cos θ2 py conserved K conserved 1 1 1 2 m1v1i2 = 2 mv1f2 + 2 mv2f2 + ΔK 0 = mv2f sin θ2 − mv1f sin θ1 (iii) where ΔK = 0 for elastic case 3 equations in v1f. neglecting rotation and friction (reasonable during collision. θ1 and θ2: need more info (often given θ1 or θ2) Incidentally: for hard spheres. small error in b gives large error in θ2. rotation ignored .16 Elastic collisions in 2 (& 3) dimensions y b v 2f !2 !1 v 1i v 1f x Choose frame in which m2 stationary. Experiment on billiard table: Does b = R give θ2 = 30°? friction.

orientation of wheels etc) . They then slide to rest in positions shown. mass m1 strikes stationary car m2 at point C. a for both = m = – µ m = – µg vf2 – vi2 = 2as = – 2µgs 0 – v12 = – 2µgs1 v1 = 2µgs1 v2 = 2µgs2 (i) Neglect external forces during collision: ΔP = 0 Px: m1v = m1v1 cos θ + m2v2 cos φ Py: 0 = m1v1 sin θ − m2v2 sin φ (ii) 2µgs1 cos θ +(m2/m1) 2µ2gs2 cos φ (i) ⇒ v = Note the "spare" equation—we can use it to check the model or assumptions: (ii) ⇒ m1 2µ1gs1 sin θ = m2 2µ2gs2 sin φ s1m12 sin2 θ µ2 µ1 = s2m22 sin2 φ (The µ may not be the same for the two: surfaces different. Given µk = µ (assumed same for both) find the initial speed v of m1. Can you check assumption? (real example) Ff W After collision.17 v m1 C v1 ! s1 " m1 v2 s2 m2 Example. Police report of road accident. Car 1.

It is falling vertically at 40 m.s-1 down _ _ _ Neglect ext forces ⇒ momentum conserved. Δp = W Δt = . mb v bi + mZ v Zi = m(Z+b) v(Z+b) f _ _ _ 1(-40 _ ) + 50(1 cos 45° _ − 1 cos 45° _ ) = 51(vx _ + vy _ ) j i j i j 50 i dirn: vx = cos 45° .6 ms-1 |vf| vy θf = tan-1 vx ⇒ 67° to horizontal iii) Ib ≡ p bf − p bi = 1x(vx _ + vy _ ) . what is Δp for Zelda over 10 ms ? Neglecting ext forces during collision.s-1 Δ pZ |IZ| _ = Δt = .1(-40 _ ) i j j _ _ = (1.51 x1 = 0..6 _ + 38 _ ) kgm.18 y x vb vz ! vf Balloonist Albert writes message on a bottle (1 kg) and drops it over the side. = 380 N Δt - F Z= _ . what is the velocity of (Zelda+bottle) after collision? iii) What impulse is applied to bottle during collision? iv) What is the impulse applied to Zelda? v) What is the average force during collision? vi) Will Albert and Zelda live happily ever after? i) ii) due to W .. = 5 kgm. travelling at 1 ms-1 at 45° to vertical.s-1 i j |I Z | = v) 1.6 _ + 38 _ ) kgm. Collision (bottle—Zelda's hand) lasts 10 ms.5 ms-1 51 = vx2 + vy2 = 1.62 + 382 = 38 kgm.s-1 i j iv) IZ= − Ib = − (1.s-1 when caught by parachutist Zelda (m = 50 kg).7 ms-1 _ n j _ dir : vy = ∴ − 1x40 − 50 cos 45° = −1. i) ii) If only gravity acted.

Inelastic collision with next floor gives speed v where: (S−n)mvn = (S−n+1)mv Let the falling mass after any collision have initial speed v0 and speed before the next collision be vc. To get the lower estimate on falling time. n 2 1 G (S−n) floors have mass (S−n)m. falling vertically? Assume that the building remains intact above the explosion and inelastic collisions with the lower floors. How long before (n+1)th floor hits ground. each of height h. assume no strength in the demolished floor. assume negligible strength between lower floors. To obtain a lower bound. So they strike the next floor with speed vn = 2gh . vc2 − v02 = 2gh vc = 2gh 1/2 2gh + v02 = v01 + v 2 0 For ith collision (S−n+i−1)mvc(i) = (S−n+i)mv0(i+1) vc(i) = 2gh + (v0(i))2 S−n+i−1 2gh + (v0(i))2 = v0(i+1) S−n+i 1 v0(i+1) = 1 − S−n+i 2gh + (v0(i))2 1 h = v0t + 2 gt2 1 0 = 2 gt2 + v0t − h −v0 ± v02 + 2gh t= g . Explosions destroy the strength of the nth floor. A building has S stories. s the upper floors are in free fall (as a rigid body) for a distance h with acceleration g.19 S h Example Controlled demolition.

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