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Background of the Study Language planning is generally defined as an intervention intended to influence language or language use. Cooper (1989:45) defines language planning as "deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of their language codes". Blommaert (1996:207) considers language planning "to cover all cases in which authorities attempt, by whatever means, to shape a sociolinguistic profile for their society". The objectives are usually social, political, or economic in character. Language policy and planning decisions arise in response to sociopolitical needs. Language planning decisions may be required, for example, where a number of linguistic groups compete for access to the mechanisms of day-to-day life, or where a particular linguistic minority is denied access to such mechanisms. Both governmental and social institutions must effectively and equitably meet the needs of the population so that groups varied in linguistic repertoire have an equal opportunity to participate in their government and to receive services from their government. Language planning decisions typically attempt to meet these needs by reducing linguistic diversity, as in instances where a single language is declared a national language in a multilingual country or where a single variety of a language is declared "standard" to promote linguistic unity in a country where divergent dialects exist. Practically, each nation have language policy that manages about the uses of language. In nation overall, this policy is stated explicit ala, even constitution temporary names severally therewith role language it each. This policy among those prevailing at Indonesia, India, Ireland, Canada. In the other country government decide language are in jurisdictional, as language that used by France. Other nation as United States of America, largely lingual policy to be declared for implicitly.
Lingual policy can be divided into three approaches: monolanguage, multi-language equation, national/ regional language system. France follows first approach since 17th century, Belgian adopts second approach on 20th century, meanwhile India use third approach since independence. In whole approach, only the first approach is declared for implicitly, meanwhile both of another approaching to be formulated deep legislation. Indonesia is widely known as a country which has many ethnics, cultures and also language. ndonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant. Also in language, Indonesia has many languages that used in each culture although that culture in same area or province. For example in Bali use Balinese, Bali use Sasak language, Java use Javanese, Java use Sundanese, Java use Maduranese, Kalimantan use Bahau Language, etc. So with this condition, will cause a lot of misunderstanding when people from different ethnic groups meet and use their respective local languages, so to reduce or eliminate this misunderstanding government raise a language as the national language and the uses of Indonesian as national language is called as Language Planning. But language planning here is not only in that case, for example the government’s policy in the Study of Javanese Language in Indonesian School. Government has policy that before 1994 (Pelajaran Bahasa Jawa) Study of Javanese Language is an obligation in all education (elementary and junior high school). But after 1994, Study of Javanese Language is removed from educational sector. And now Study of Javanese Language is raised again by government, but it is as Muatan Lokal.
To know the reasons why the government raise this policy.Based on explanation above the writer make this paper under the title ”Government’s policy in Pelajaran Bahasa Jawa”. Problem of the Study. Objective of the Study. What is Javanese Language? 2. the writer would to investigate the following problems: 1. To know Javanese Language. the writer has following objectives of the study: 1. 2. B. Why does the government raise this policy? A. . Based on the problem of the study above. Based on the background of the study above.
It also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language. structure. language usage varies among social classes.CHAPTER II THEORY OF FRAMEWORK In this chapter. Language Planning. B. As the usage of a language varies from place to place (dialect). or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech . Sociolinguistic. Seven Criteria according Bell A. level of education age. e. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently. while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. on the way language is used. Sociolinguistic Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society. 3. including cultural norms. and context. expectations. status. 2. and the effects of language use on society. and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. the researcher will discuss the opinion from some expert. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. gender. etc. ethnicity.g. and it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies. Language Planning Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function.. religion. Some points that will be discussed are: 1.
by whatever means. A quintessential example is the Englishonly movement in the United States. Language engineering involves the creation of natural language processing systems whose cost and outputs are measurable and predictable as well as establishment of language regulators. to shape a sociolinguistic profile for their society". such as formal or informal agencies. structure. but is also used by a variety of non-governmental organizations. Italian. function and acquisition of languages. The goals of language planning differ depending on the nation or organization. Examples include the coexistence of French. Planning or improving effective communication can also lead to other social changes such as language shift or assimilation. and Romansh in Switzerland and the shared status of . A recent trend of language engineering is the use of Semantic Web technologies for the creation. Language planning is generally defined as an intervention intended to influence language or language use. should learn and use the dominant language of the society in which he lives. such as grass-roots organizations and even individuals. or functional allocation of their language codes". German. societies or academies as language regulators to design or develop new structures to meet contemporary needs. linguistic assimilation. is the belief that every member of a society.the recognition and support of multiple languages within one society. Language planning and language ideology Four overarching language ideologies motivate decision making in language planning. 1.community It is often associated with government planning. but generally include making planning decisions and possibly changes for the benefit of communication. Linguistic assimilation stands in direct contrast to the second ideology. archival. irrespective of his native language. linguistic pluralism . thereby providing another motivation to plan the structure. Blommaert (1996:207) considers language planning "to cover all cases in which authorities attempt. It is a distinct field contrasted to natural language processing and computational linguistics. Cooper (1989:45) defines language planning as "deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition. processing. The first. and retrieval of machine process able language data. committees.
or standard language. such as the use of English in Singapore. 2. Malay. Terminology Unification – development of unified terminologies. spelling. Examples include Hebrew in the state of Israel and Quechua in Peru. internationalization. and Chinese in Singapore. Interlingual Communication – facilitation of linguistic communication between members of distinct speech communities . India. Language Purification – prescription of usage in order to preserve the “linguistic purity” of language. denotes the restoration and development of an indigenous language along with its adoption by the state as an official language. the Philippines. and style 9. protect language from foreign influences. is the adoption of a non-indigenous language of wider communication as an official language or in a particular domain. like orthography. and guard against language deviation from within 2. Lexical Modernization – word creation or adaptation 7. The final ideology. but rather from the efficiency in communication of a common language. and Papua New Guinea. Language Reform – deliberate change in specific aspects of language. Stylistic Simplification – simplification of language usage in lexicon. Language Spread – the attempt to increase the number of speakers of one language at the expense of another 6. Language Standardization – the attempt to garner prestige for a regional language or dialect.English. Tamil. Language planning goals Eleven Language Planning Goals have been recognized (Nahir 2003:6) 1. grammar. of a region 5. The coexistence of many languages may not necessarily arise from a conscious language ideology. vernacularization. Language Revival – the attempt to turn a language with few or no surviving native speakers back into a normal means of communication 3. transforming it into one that is accepted as the major language. in order to facilitate use 4. primarily in technical domains 8. The third ideology. or grammar.
of a language. language status is the position or standing of a language vis-à-vis other languages. Heinz Kloss and William Stewart. Auxiliary-Code Standardization – standardization of marginal. described in the same year. they emphasize four common attributes: 1. thus affecting the status. A language garners status according to the fulfillment of four attributes. Sole official language (e. Both Kloss and Stewart stipulated four qualities of a language that determine its status. 1968. Language status Language status is a concept distinct from.g. language prestige and language function. Juridical status i. Language origin – whether a given language is indigenous or imported to the speech community 2. Status planning Status planning is the allocation or reallocation of a language or variety to functional domains within a society.10. Strictly speaking. or standing. place names. or rules of transliteration and transcription 1. Language Maintenance – preservation of the use of a group’s native language as a first or second language where pressures threaten or cause a decline in the status of the language 11. While Kloss and Stewart’s respective frameworks differ slightly. Types of language planning Language planning has been divided into three types: a. Degree of standardization – the extent of development of a formal set of norms that define ‘correct’ usage 3. by two different authors. auxiliary aspects of language such as signs for the deaf. French in France and Turkish in Turkey) . though intertwined with.
of users of a language to another variable. According to Kloss.g. Regional official language (e. 5%. degree of standardization. William Stewart outlines ten functional domains in language planning: 1. West African Pidgin English in Cameroon) v. Official . 3-19% and less than 3%.g. Kloss and Stewart both distinguish six classes of statistical distribution. However. Vitality – the ratio." Often. the six classes are determined by the following percentages: 75%. Tolerated language – neither promoted nor proscribed. According to Stewart. on the other hand. Native American languages in the United States) vi. Spanish in New Mexico. origin.An official language "function[s] as a legally appropriate language for all politically and culturally representative purposes on a nationwide basis. and vitality dictate a language’s status. and less than 5%. or percent. German. French. acknowledged but ignored (e. Proscribed language – discouraged by official sanction or restriction (e. 20-39%. Together. 10%. The five remaining classes in decreasing order are 70-89%. Joint official language (e. is demarcated by 90% or more speakers. Basque and Catalan during Francisco Franco’s regime in Spain.g. Macedonian in Greece) 4. Igbo in Nigeria. they draw the line between classes at different percentages. Italian and Romansh in Switzerland) iii. 50%. Promoted language – lacks official status on a national or regional level but is promoted and sometimes used by public authorities for specific functions (e.ii. 40-69%. like the total population. English and Afrikaans in South Africa. the first class. . the highest level of vitality. 25%. Marathi in Maharastra.g. the official function of a language is specified in a constitution. India) iv. juridical status.g.
g. Literary . Dutch and French in Brussels) 6.g. First. A statutory language is a language that a government has declared official by law.A capital language functions as a prominent language in and around a national capital (e.A religious language functions as a language for the ritual purposes of a particular religion (e. Arabic for the reading of the Qur'an) Robert Cooper. School subject . Religious . and a symbolic language is a language that is merely a symbol of the . Latin and Ancient Greek in English schools) 9. working. Hebrew amongst the Jews) 7.A language of wider communication is a language that may be official or provincial.An international language functions as a medium of communication across national boundaries (e. French in Quebec) 3. Group . English) 5.g.A school subject language is a language that is taught as a subject in secondary school or higher education (e. but more importantly.g.g.An educational language functions as a medium of instruction in primary and secondary schools on a regional or national basis (Urdu in West Pakistan and Bengali in East Pakistan) 8. in reviewing Stewart's list.A provincial language functions as an official language for a geographic area smaller than a nation. and symbolic. functions as a medium of communication across language boundaries within a nation (e. Provincial .A group language functions as a conventional language among the members of a single cultural or ethnic group (e. A working language is a language that a government uses as a medium for daily activities. Hindi in India.A literary language functions as a language for literary or scholarly purposes (Ancient Greek) 10. Latin for the Latin Rite within the Roman Catholic Church. he creates three sub-types of official functions: statutory. makes several additions. Wider communication . Swahili language in East Africa) 4. typically a province or region (e.g. Capital . International .2. Educational .g.
Unlike status planning. Linguist Charles A. In establishing a writing system for a language. First. the vocabulary. grammatical structures and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety. which is primarily undertaken by administrators and politicians. and speech is a corruption of it. Second. communication with larger numbers of people. The Ainu of Japan chose to adopt the Japanese language’s katakana syllabary as the writing system for the . selection and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language. Corpus planning activities often arise as the result of beliefs about the adequacy of the form of a language to serve desired functions. and modernization. Cooper also adds two functional domains to Stewart's list: mass media and work. However.state. whereby planning decisions are made to engineer changes in the structure of the language. Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language. which include easier transmission of material through generations. this view ignores the possibility that isolated relic areas of the language may be less innovative than the written form or the written language may have been based on a divergent variety of the spoken language. and a standard against which varieties of spoken language are often compared. standardization. Written language is viewed as more conservative. the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community’s repertory. the use of writing often leads to a folk belief that the written language is the ‘real’ language. while the spoken variety is more susceptible to language change. Ferguson made two key observations about the results of adopting a writing system. a. • Graphization Graphization refers to development. corpus planners have the option of using an existing system or inventing a new one. Corpus planning Corpus planning refers to the prescriptive intervention in the forms of a language. There are three traditionally recognized types of corpus planning: graphization. The use of writing in a speech community can have lasting sociocultural effects. corpus planning generally involves planners with greater linguistic expertise.
the original script distinguished Armenian from the Greek and Syriac alphabets of the neighboring peoples. and mass education led to the dissemination of this dialect as the standard norm for the English language. industrialization. urbanization. standardization generally entails increasing the uniformity of the norm. in which syllable-final codas are consonants by a subscript version of a katakana symbol that begins with the desired consonant. the rise of print capitalism. This variety comes to be understood as supra-dialectal and the ‘best’ form of the language. this variety became entrenched as the prestigious variety of English. without formally recognized language planning. as the print language. The history of English provides an example of standardization occurring over an extended time period. This was the accompanied by the adoption of the south-east Midlands variety of English. This often reinforces the dominance of the powerful social group and makes the standard norm necessary for socioeconomic mobility. Ainu uses a modified katakana system. Though the script was modeled after the Greek alphabet. and is imposed upon the less powerful groups as the form to emulate. Mesrop Mashtots. • Standardization Standardization is the process by which one variety of a language takes precedence over other social and regional dialects of a language. Because of the dialect’s use for administrative and literary purposes. spoken in London. Katakana is designed for a language with a basic CV syllable structure. The standard that is chosen as the norm is generally spoken by the most powerful social group within the society. An example on an invented script includes the development of the Armenian script in 405 AD by St. . as it confers privilege upon speakers whose spoken and written dialect conforms closest to the chosen standard. After the creation of grammars and dictionaries in the 18th century. as well as the codification of the norm. As a result. In practice.Ainu language. The standardization process began when William Caxton introduced the printing press in England in 1476. The choice of which language takes precedence has important societal consequences. but Ainu contains many CVC syllables that cannot easily be adapted to this syllabary.
acquisition planning is integrated into a larger language planning process in which the statuses of languages are evaluated. While Hungarian has almost exclusively used language-internal processes to create new lexical items. which allows the language to discuss topics in modern semantic domains. Acquisition planning Acquisition planning is a type of language planning in which a national. but it is more commonly associated with government planning. a change in methods of teaching an official language . This process of change can entail a variety of modifications. ranging from primary schools to universities. but technical vocabulary can be effective within a language. Modernization often occurs when a language undergoes a shift in status. state or local government system aims to influence aspects of language. Language planners generally focus on creating new lists and glossaries to describe new technical terms. Japanese has borrowed extensively from English to derive new words as part of its modernization. distribution and literacy through education. Issues of linguistic purism often play a significant role in lexical expansion. The most significant force in modernization is the expansion of the lexicon. a. While some languages such as Japanese and Hungarian have experienced rapid lexical expansion to meet the demands of modernization. Acquisition planning can also be used by non-governmental organizations. as well as frequent use among specialists. corpuses are revised and the changes are finally introduced to society on a national. state or local level through education systems. but it is also necessary to ensure that the new terms are consistently used by the appropriate sectors within society. Frequently. Rapid lexical expansion is aided by the use of new terms in textbooks and professional publications.• Modernization Modernization is a form of language planning that occurs when a language needs to expand its resources to meet functions. such as an alteration in student textbook formatting. such as language status. such as when a country gains independence from a colonial power or when there is a change in the language education policy. other languages such as Hindi and Arabic have failed to do so. regardless of whether it comes from the language’s own process of word formation or from heavy borrowing from another language.
dictionaries. For example. The varieties of a language are commonly known as dialects. published grammars.). Such institutional support may include government recognition or designation. These criteria consisting of standardization. There are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing language (standard) from dialects (nonstandard).T. This. it can establish a law that requires teachers to teach only in this language or that textbooks are written using only this language’s script. although a number of paradigms exist.or the development of a bilingual language program. As discussed above. and grammar. acquisition planning is often used to promote language revitalization. They differ at least in three aspects: pronunciation. and is widely used by the people in various areas of fields. if a government decides to raise the status level of a certain language or change its level of prestige. and an extensive formal literature that employs that dialect (prose. in turn. nonfiction. would support the elevation of the language’s status or could increase its prestige. presentation as being the "correct" form of a language in schools. A standard dialect also known as standard language is a dialect that is supported by institutions. vocabulary. Seven Criteria That May Be Useful In Discussing Different Kinds Of Language Based on Bell. Bell (1976: 147-57) who has listed seven criteria that may be useful in discussing different kinds of languages. historicity. . One attempt has already been proposed by R. which can change a language’s status or reverse a language shift. or to promote linguistic purism. A. poetry. etc. In a case where a government revises a corpus. there must be one that receives higher prestige than the others as it is used in governmental activities and education. vitality. which render sometimes contradictory results. and textbooks that set forth a "correct" spoken and written form. This higher dialect is called a standard dialect and the lower dialect is named as nonstandard dialect. Of the dialects. In this way. new dictionaries and educational materials will need to be revised in schools in order to maintain effective language acquisition. only to name a few. a language may have varieties used by people from a particular geographic area or social class.
A language can remain a considerable force even after it is dead. Governments sometimes very deliberately involve themselves in the standardization process by establishing official bodies of one kind or another to regulate language matters or to encourage changes which are felt desirable. religious. • Historicity refers to the fact that a particular group of people finds a sense of identity through using a particular language: it belongs to them. political. Classical Greek and Latin still have considerable prestige in the Western world. Social. Historicity can be long-standing: speakers of the . to reflect and symbolize some kind of identity.autonomy. Standardization is sometimes deliberately undertaken quite rapidly for political reasons. and to give prestige to the speakers marking off those who employ it from those who do not. knowledge of which is acquired only through formal education. or ethnic ties may also be important for the group. reduction. • Vitality refers to the existence of a living community of speakers. even after it is no longer spoken as anyone’s first language and exists almost exclusively in one or more written forms. so that the best one can say of their vitality is that it is flagging. The standardization performs a variety of functions that are to unify individuals and groups within a larger community while at the same time separating the community that results from other communication. but the bond provided by a common language may prove to be the strongest tie of all. nevertheless are palpably dying: the number of people who speak them diminishes drastically each year and the process seems irreversible. it is also obviously one which attempts either to reduce or eliminate diversity and variety. and speakers of many modern languages continue to draw on them in a variety of ways. that is. mixture. may be used to distinguish one type of language from another. Many languages while not dead yet. This criterion can be used to distinguish languages that are alive from those that are dead. Besides. • Standardization refers to the process by which a language has been codified in some way that usually involves the development of such things as grammars and dictionaries. and de facto norms.
Sometimes this means focusing on . • De facto norms refer to the feeling that many speakers have that there are both ‘good’ speakers and ‘poor’ speakers and that the good speakers represent the norms of proper usage.g. For example.g. However. that is. it partly explains why speakers of pidgins and creoles have difficulty in classifying what they speak as full languages: these varieties are. will admit that they are not ‘representative’ speakers of English. Speakers of Cockney will almost certainly say that they speak a variety of English. In contrast. This criterion appears to be more important to speakers of some languages than of others.different varieties of colloquial Arabic make much of a common linguistic ancestry. but rather are debased. • Autonomy is an interesting concept because it is really one of feeling. this is a very subjective criterion. Ukrainians say their language is not Russian. However. more important to speakers of French and German than to speakers of English. A language must be felt by its speakers to be different from other languages.. quite obviously ‘mixed’. as obviously do speakers of Chinese. e. e. Sometimes the reduction is in the kinds of opportunities afforded to users of the variety.. • Reduction refers to the fact that a particular variety may be regarded as a sub-variety rather than as an independent entity. or marginal varieties of some other standard language. in certain respects. there may be a reduction of resources. deficient. speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin deny that they speak different languages: they maintain that Cantonese and Mandarin are not autonomous languages but are just two varieties of Chinese. the variety may lack a writing system. Or there may be considerable restrictions in use. • Mixture refers to feelings speakers have about the ‘purity’ of the variety they speak. pidgin languages are much reduced in the functions they serve in society in contrast to standardized languages. Some speakers of Black English maintain that their language is not a variety of English but is a separate language in its own right. and the people who speak them often feel that the varieties are neither one thing nor another. degenerate. and will recognize the existence of other varieties with equivalent subordinate status.
Trying to decide whether something is or is not a language or in what ways languages are alike and different can be quite troublesome. so far as English is concerned. Concern with the norms of linguistic behavior may become very important among specific segments of society. Standards must not only be established (by the first criterion above). perhaps political. and so on. social. but they must also be observed. but is regarded as the language itself. When all the speakers of a language feel that it is badly spoken or badly written almost everywhere.variety as representing the ‘best’ usage. such a feeling is often associated with a language that is ‘dying’. or some combination of reasons. . For example. It is the variety that has been chosen for some reason. As a result. People’s feelings about norms have important consequences for an understanding of both variation and change in language. there is a quite profitable industry devoted to telling people how they should behave linguistically. Some people are also aware that the standard variety of any language is actually only the preferred dialect of that language: Parisian French and Florentian Italian. That is true even of the relationship of Cantonese and Mandarin to Chinese if the latter is given a ‘generous’ interpretation as a language.one particular sub. that language may have considerable difficulty in surviving. One consequence is that all other varieties become related to that standard in some way and may be regarded as dialects of that standard (Wardhaugh. There is usually little controversy over the fact that they are either regional or social varieties of something that is widely acknowledged to be a language. 1986: 32-6). what it is ‘correct’ to say. in fact. with Ukrainians insisting that what they speak is a separate language and Russians tending to downplay it as a dialect of Russian. the standard is often not called a dialect at all. to serve as either the model or the norm for other varieties. Notice though that it does not help us solve the Ukrainian— Russian problem. what to avoid saying. or economic.
Historicity of Javanese. Its contents concern the construction of a dam for an irrigation canal near the river Śrī Hariñjing (nowadays Srinjing). and to give prestige to the speakers marking off those who employ it from those who do not. This inscription is the last of its kind to be written using Pallava script. to reflect and symbolize some kind of identity. only this copy has been preserved. called the "Sukabumi inscription". 17th August 1945 language medium is Indonesians. Javanese performs a variety of functions that are to unify individuals and groups within a larger community while at the same time separating the community that results from other communication. The Analysis of Javanese Seven criteria according Bell that use to analyze Javanese Language: Standardization of Javanese. dated some 120 years earlier. Javanese is thought at SD and SLTP. In Javanese teaching history. and Javanese gets to be made by language medium at elementary school on brazes startup. 804. As subject.CHAPTER III DISCUSSSION A. Javanese teaching happened since before proclamation of independence. is dated March 25. all consequent examples are written using Javanese script. After proclamation of independence. This inscription. • Old Javanese While evidence of writing in Java dates to the Sanskrit "Tarumanegara inscription" of 450. Javanese was made as language medium in education and subject. located in the district of Pare in the Kediri regency of East Java. the oldest example written entirely in Javanese. On era before proclamation of independence. . is actually a copy of the original. From this explanation above.
a Javanese rendering in Indian metres of the Vishnuistic Sanskrit epic. which is an intermediate form between Old Javanese and New Javanese. Ironically. a Buddhist treatise and the Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa . The Javanese campaign in Bali in 1363 has had a deep and lasting impact. originally a vassal state of Majapahit. The oldest works. In fact. With the introduction of the Javanese administration. including Javanese script and language. began in 1293 with the eastward push of the Hindu– Buddhist East-Javanese Empire Majapahit. Rāmāyaṇa. the Mataram Empire rose as . Middle Javanese. Middle Javanese is so similar to New Javanese that works written in Middle Javanese should be easily comprehended by Modern Javanese speakers who are well acquainted with literary Javanese. such as the above mentioned Rāmāyaṇa.The 8th and 9th centuries are marked with the emergence of the Javanese literary tradition with Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan. Although Javanese as a written language appeared considerably later than Malay (extant in the 7th century). and a Javanese rendering of the Indian Mahabharata epic are studied assiduously today. Javanese replaced Balinese as the language of administration and literature. Though the Balinese people preserved much of the older literature of Java and even created their own in Javanese idioms. The expansion of the Javanese culture. Balinese ceased to be written until the 19th century. • Middle Javanese The Majapahit Empire also saw the rise of a new language. • New Javanese In the 16th century a new era in Javanese history began with the rise of the Islamic Central Javanese Mataram Sultanate. the Javanese literary tradition is continuous from its inception to present day. toward Madura and Bali.
Vitality of Javanese. the Sundanese language ceased to be written until the 19th century.an Islamic kingdom which sought revenge for the demise of the Hindu Majapahit Empire by first crushing Demak. Later. the first Javanese Islamic kingdom. After the Malays were converted. This is to be expected as these early New Javanese documents are Islamic treatises. The first Islamic documents in Javanese were already written in New Javanese. In the meantime it was heavily influenced by Javanese. intensive contacts with the Dutch and with other Indonesians gave rise to a simplified form of Javanese and influx of foreign loanwords. the 16th century saw the emergence of the New Javanese language. As in Bali. and Javanese became the dominant language in more than a third of this area. Javanese culture spread westward as Mataram conquered many previously Sundanese areas in western parts of Java. This is the reason why Javanese script is still in use as opposed to the writing of Old-Malay for example. although it is essentially still the same language as New Javanese. • Modern Javanese Some scholars dub the spoken form of Javanese in the 20th century Modern Javanese. In addition to the rise of Islam. Though Islamic in name. they dropped their form of indigenous writing and changed to a form of the "script of the Divine". the Mataram II empire preserved many elements of the older culture. . and some 40% of Sundanese vocabulary is believed to have been derived from Javanese. the Arabic script. although still in antiquated idioms and with numerous Arabic loanwords. incorporating them into the new religion.
. they should communicate by using Javanese (language) in kromo version.000. A. It is caused by the history of Majapahit kingdom. Because it showed a polite behavior in communicate with their parents.000 lives at all islands in Indonesia. Javanese (language) that used by Javanese (person) is different with the other vernaculars. and there is an abashment in using Javanese (language) by Javanese (person). If they use ngoko. madya. The Reasons of Government’s Policy about Javanese Language Javanese Language as subject in elementary and junior high school Javanese user is the greatest language user in Indonesia.The user of Javanese is falling off. Mixture of Javanese. So they bring Javanese language to their colony religion. This promise is known as Sumpah Palapa. Majapahit kingdom is a kingdom that from Mojokerto East Java. such as ngoko. Javanese has three strata which has not by the other vernacular. Autonomy of Javanese. When Javanese (person) use Javanese (language). that is caused by some factor. It is used by Javanese (person) to communicate with other Javanese (person) who is in same strata. Javanese teaching in family. and ngoko. They have a large colony region in Indonesia. The amount reaches 70. They are: krama. Javanese has three strata. they gave the cut direct and it show that they are a bad speakers . It is usually used in communication with our close friend. For example when child communicate with their parents. They have Patih Gajamada who has a promise to unify the archipelago. they know that there is good and bad speakers. De facto norms of Javanese.
5/01/2005 dated 23 february 2005. so the central government’s authority in local language and literature sectors become the local government’s authority automatically. they think that every region has own vernacular. So government removed Javanese language as subject of study in elementary and junior high school. The operated of the law no.895. .Government has plan and policy that Javanese language used as subject in educational sector especially in elementary and junior high school. Government removed Javanese language because. each region have authority to take vernacular in education sector as muatan local and in Java island. Because the user of vernacular in each region didn’t want to use Javanese and they want to keep their own vernacular. So. The government has a plan to keep up the Javanese culture and also Javanese language. The Governor of Central Java excrete decision letter of governor (SK Gubernur) No. Javanese language as Muatan Lokal in Java Island. dengan demikian diharapkan Bahasa dan Sastra Daerah dapat di lestarikan dan dikembangkan untuk memperkaya khasanah budaya Nasiona. So government removed Javanese language as subject in elementary school and junior high school. junior and senior high school. Those decision letter (SK) regulate about curriculum staring Javanese language subject in SMA/SMALB/SMK/MA. and gave message to keep up the Javanese Language and it’s taught in elementary. Javanese language removed as subject. kewenangan Pemerintah di bidang Bahasa dan Sastra telah menjadi kewenangan dan tanggung jawab daerah. This plan is raised to keep the vernacular in each region. Undang – Undang Nomor : 22 Tahun 1999 tentang “Pemerintahan Daerah. Javanese language become compulsory subject as Muatan Lokal.” The third Javanese congress at Yogyakarta raises some statement about the important of Teaching Javanese Language.22 year 1999 about local government.
.The purposes of this policy are to develop Javanese language competence in order to eternal the usage of Javanese language and to implant good attitude to the students so they are able to appreciate their own culture.
vitality. • R. Although there are Indonesian as national language. historicity. Bell (1976: 147-57) who has listed seven criteria that may be useful in discussing different kinds of languages. etc as foreign language. mixture. These criteria consisting of standardization.T. and English. reduction. Japanese. and de facto norms. • Javanese language is the identity of Javanese. autonomy.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSSION • Language planning is generally defined as an intervention intended to influence language or language use. may be used to distinguish one type of language from another. .
By: Indah Wafiroh Kristian Adi Candra Miftakhul Chasanah (0871) (087155) (0871) ENGLISH DEPARTMENT 2008-E SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN PERSATUAN GURU REPUBLIK INDONESIA JOMBANG 2011 .THE ANALYSIS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY ABOUT PELAJARAN BAHASA JAWA (THE STUDY OF JAVANESE LANGUAGE) SOCIOLINGUISTIC Lecturer: M.. Saibani Wiyatno. M.Pd. S.Pd.
(1996). Herriman. (1996).htm Blommaert.wikipedia. J.org/wiki/Language_planning www. E.wikipedia. Berlin: Mouton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 269-289. Haugen. B. . (1983). Progress in language planning.).org/wiki/Javanese_language http://en. (eds.com/kamus-jawa-6835. Language Problems and Language Planning. M. J. The implementation of corpus planning: Theory and practice.. & Burnaby. & Fishman.anneahira. 199-222. Language planning as a discourse on language and society: The linguistic ideology of a scholarly tradition. Language policies in English-dominant countries. (1989). R. England: Multilingual Matters. J.A.Bibliography http://en. Cooper. In Cobarrubias. Language planning and social change. Clevedon. 20(3).
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