This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# Ingo Gerth

1

st

year BSc Student

Aerospace Engineering

Calculus—2

nd

quarter

Summary of formulas

January 13, 2009

Disclaimer This document was prepared as a summary for myself. However, it might be useful for other

students as well, which is why it was published online. No rights can be claimed, the author is not responsible

for any wrong information spread through this document. Also, the author is not aﬃliated to TU Delft in any

other kind than being a student.

1 Sequences

1.1 Basics and notation

Sequences come in multiple diﬀerent notations. Here

are the most important ones:

¦a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , ¦ = ¦a

n

¦ = ¦a

n

¦

∞

n=1

with n ∈ N.

It is possible to plot sequences. For that, take the x-

axis for n and the y-axis for the resultant values of

a

n

.

If you want to calculate the limit of a sequence, the

following theorem holds.

lim

x→∞

f (x) = L, f (n) = a

n

, ⇒ lim

n→∞

a

n

= L

again, n ∈ N. In words: The limt of a sequence equals

the limit of the corresponding function.

1.2 Limit laws

Calculus is all about limits. Derivatives are limits, In-

tegrals are limits, limits are limits. So, ﬁgure that lim-

its are important. You should knowthe following laws.

For convinience’s sake, from now on, by lim it is actu-

aly referred to lim

n→∞

.

lim(a

n

+b

n

) = lima

n

+limb

n

lim(a

n

−c

n

) = lima

n

−limb

n

limca

n

= clima

n

lim(a

n

b

n

) = lima

n

limb

n

lim

a

n

b

n

=

lima

n

limb

n

, limb

n

0

lima

p

n

= [lima

n

]

p

, p > 0, a

n

> 0

limc = c

lim|a

n

| = L, then lima

n

= L

1.3 More about sequences

Another more confusing theorem is, that if you have a

term with variables inside of a function, it is possible

to solve only for the inner part of the function.

If lima

n

= L and f is continous at L, then lim f (a

n

) =

f (L).

An example will make this clear:

lim

sin

π

n

= sin

lim

π

n

= sin0 = 0

For solving limits, the following trick can very often

be applied. Pull out the highest exponential out of the

equation and simply solve the limit.

A special limit that you have to know is lim¦r

n

¦.

This limit is convergent for −1 < r ≤ 1, else, it is diver-

gent.

1

Check

r > 1 r will constantly increase

E.g. 1.05

2

+1.05

3

etc.

−1 < r < 1 will turn out to be zero.

E.g. −0.5

2

−0.5

3

etc.

r = 1 convergent, since lim1

n

= 1

r = −1 divergent, since lim(−1)

n

= ∅.

Some more terms concerning sequence. ¦a

n

¦ is called

increasing if a

n

< a

n+1

for all n ≥ 1, decreasing if

a

n

> a

n+1

for all n ≥ 1.

If one of these conditions is fulﬁlled, the sequence is

called monotonic.

For several checks, these terms are of utmost impor-

tance. So, to prove if a sequence is monotonic, simply

take the derivative of its correlating function.

Example:

a

n

=

n

n

2

+1

⇔ f (x) =

x

x

2

+1

(1)

f

·

(x) =

1−x

2

(x

2

+1)

2

< 0 (2)

for all x

2

>, so it will always become smaller and is

therefore decreasing, monotonic.

One last term for sequences:

A sequence is bounded, from above if a

n

≤ M for all

n ≥ 1 and bounded from below when m ≤ a

n

for all

n ≥ 1.

However, these terms have to be treated with care! Al-

ways remember that not every bounded sequence is

convergent. Also, not every monotonic sequence is

convergent. But, when both is the case, it must be con-

vergent.

2 Series

Now that we have set the base, we can talk about se-

ries.

2.1 Basics and notation

Sequences are nothing else but the sum of all elements

a

n

up to n, where n ∈ N. So, when adding all terms of

a sequence ¦a

n

¦

∞

n=1

, we get an inﬁnite series

∞

¸

n=1

a

n

.

For example

∞

¸

n=1

1

2

n

= 1 .

The sum of this series can be written as

s

2

= a

1

+a

2

[. . .]

s

n

= a

1

+. . . +a

n

=

n

¸

i=1

a

i

For calculating limits of series, we agree upon the fol-

lowing notation:

∞

¸

n=1

a

n

= lim

n→∞

n

¸

i=1

a

i

From now on, as in the previous section, the notation

¸

∞

n=1

will for convience’s sake be meant by

¸

.

2.2 Geometric series

Geometric series are a special case of series. In fact,

besides of another type of series, they are the only se-

ries we can calculate the sum of rationally.

Geometric series are series of the form like

¸

ar

n−1

=

a

1−r

|r| < 1 ,

a+ar

1

+ar

2

+. . .

which is convergent.

If |r| ≥ 1 the series would be convergent.

Geometric series occur quite often. In many cases, you

have to rearrange a series and such a way that a geo-

metric series is resulting. An example:

¸

2

2n

3

1−n

= (2

2

)

n

3

−n−1

=

4

n

3

n−1

= 4

¸

4

3

n−1

Because r = 4/3 > 1 the series is divergent. Don’t get

confused, also series like

¸

x

n

are geometric series be-

cause a = 1, r = x.

2

Also, the series

¸

1/x

n

is a geometric series with

a = 1/x and r = 1/x, because

1

x

1

x

n−1

=

1

x

x

x

n

=

1

x

n

3 Convergence Tests

3.1 Test for divergence

From here on, some test for the convergence or diver-

gence of series will be listed.

If

¸

a

n

convergent, then lima

n

= 0 .

This theorem might be a little bit confusing, because it

is not true in general! From the side of lima

n

= 0 we

can concluding absolutelty nothing about the conver-

gence or divergence of a series.

However:

If lima

n

does not exist or lima

n

0,

then

¸

a

n

is divergent.

3.2 Integral test

Necessary conditions: f must be continuous, positive,

and decreasing in [1, ∞).

a

n

= f (n),

∞

¸

n=1

a

n

is convergent if

∞

1

f (x)dx

and it yields a ﬁnite value.

Note that for the integral test as the lower integrating

boundary you have to take the start value of the series,

e.g. for

¸

∞

n=2

, take the integral from

∞

2

.

3.3 P-series

This is the same as we have learnt for integrals in the

ﬁrst quater.

∞

¸

n=1

1

n

p

is convergent for p > 1 and divergent for p ≤ 1.

3.4 Comparison test

Once you have grasped the concept of the comparison

test, it is quite nice.

You are given a function g(x). Nowconsider a function

f (x) that is larger than g(x). If this function g(x) con-

verges, then also f (x) converges. If it should turnout

that this test indicates that the function might be di-

vergent, you may not stop yet, but rather compare it

to a smaller function, because if a smaller function di-

verges, then the larger function also diverges.

Summarized:

• If a function g(x) is smaller than a function f (x)

which it is compared to, and that function is con-

vergent, then g(x) also is convergent.

• If a function g(x) is larger than a function f (x)

which it is compared to, and that function is di-

vergent, then g(x) is also divergent.

Thus, when trying to prove that a function is conver-

gent, try to replace the function in the numerator such

that it gets bigger or do the opposite in the denomina-

tor. For instance, if there is a function that is always

smaller than 1 (e.g. cos x), you can replace it by 1.

3.5 Comparison test

Suppose that

¸

a

n

and

¸

b

n

are series with positive

terms. If

lim

n→∞

a

n

b

n

= c

where c is a ﬁnite number and c > 0, then either both

series converge or both series diverge.

In general this means that if you have to comparable

series, you only have to test one series!

3.6 Ratio test

A series

¸

a

n

is called

• absolutely convergent if

¸

|a

n

| is convergent,

• conditionally convergent if it is convergent but

not absolutely convergent.

This fact can be exploited for some functions like

¸

cosn/n

2

as follows

cosn

n

2

=

¸

| cosn|

n

2

≤

1

n

2

Thus, the comparison test can be applied. The series

must be convergent since this is a p-series.

3

This is the base for the ratio test:

lim

n→∞

a

n+1

a

n

= L

If

L < 1 – absolutely convergent → convergent

L = 1 – divergent

L > 1 – inconclusive, choose other test

The ratio test should be applied if there are factorials

n! or functions raised to the power of n, e.g. 2

n

in the

series.

3.7 Root test

When there is a series with an exponential, the root

test can be applied:

lim

n→∞

n

|a

n

| = L

If

L < 1 – absolutely convergent → convergent

L = 1 – inconlusive

L > 1 or L = ∞ – divergent

3.8 Alternating series test

The alternating series test is the coolest of all. It can’t

get easier!

If the alternating series

∞

¸

n=1

(−1)

n−1

b

n

= b

1

−b

2

+b

3

. . . b

>

0

satisﬁes

(i) b

n+1

≤ b

n

for all n

(ii) lim

n→∞

b

n

= 0

then the series is convergent.

That’s it!

4 Strategy for testing series

• If it is obvious that lim

n→∞

a

n

0, test for diver-

gence.

• Is the series a p-series (1/n

p

)?

If yes,

p > 1 → convergent

p ≤ 1 → divergent

• Is the series a geometric series (a r

n−1

)?

If yes,

|r| < 1 → convergent

|r| ≥ 1 → divergent

• If the series is similar to a geometric- or p-series,

then choose the comparison test. Especially if

it involves an algebraic function of n (involving

roots or polynomials). For the comparing series,

choose only the highest power of n as the p in

the p series (1/n

p

). If there are positive and neg-

ative terms, only apply the test to

¸

|a

n

|.

For example

√

n

3

+2n

2

+n

3n

3

+6n

should be compared to

√

n

3

3n

3

=

n

3/2

3n

3

=

1

3n

3/2

which is a p-series.

• If the series includes a term like (−1)

n−1

, obvi-

oulsy use the alternating series test.

• In case a series includes factorials or products

involving a constant raised to the power of n,

then the ratio test should be useful.

• Should there be something of the form like

(b

n

)

n

, then apply the root test.

• If a

n

= f (n), where

∞

1

f (n)dn can be easily

evaluated, then the integral test should be ap-

plied.

5 Power series

Power series have the form:

¸

c

n

x

n

= c

0

+c

1

x +c

2

x

2

+. . . +c

n

x

n

Where x is a variable and all cs are coeﬃcients. The

domain of a power series is all the x for which it con-

verges.

There are only three possibilities for a power series:

∞

¸

n=0

c

n

(x −a)

n

1. converges only when x = a

2. converges for all x

3. there is a positive number R such that the the

series converges if |x − a| < R and diverges if

|x −a| > R

4

This number R is called the radius of conver-

gence.

Always take the ratio or root test to ﬁnd the radius of

convergence. If there is an endpoint, the test will al-

ways fail; in that case, take another test.

Example: When you ﬁnd the series to be convergent

for |x −5| < 1 and divergent for |x −5| > 1, the interval

of convergence is from 4 to 6, the radius of conver-

gence therefore is 1. Now, plug in the numbers into

the function and check how the series behaves. If it

the test diverges the bracket is (, for convergence [,

e.g. (4, 5]

5.1 Representation of functions as power

series

A function of the form f (x) = 1/(1 − x) can be ex-

pressed as a power series:

f (x) =

1

1−x

=

¸

1+x +x

2

+. . . +x

n

=

∞

¸

n=0

x

n

Note that this is a geometric series with a = 1, r = x.

Example . . .

x

3

x +2

= x

3

1

2

1

1+

x

2

= x

3

1

2

∞

¸

n=0

−

x

2

n

∞

¸

n=0

(−1)

n

x

n+3

2

n+1

It is possible to integrate/diﬀerentiate such a function.

For this, simply integrate/diﬀerentiate every single el-

ement of the series. This makes it possible to integrate

complicated functions.

(i) f

·

(x) = c

1

+2c

2

(x −a) +3c

3

(x −a)

2

+. . .

=

∞

¸

n=1

nc

n

(x −a)

n−1

(ii)

f (x)dx =

c +c

0

(x −a) +c

1

(x −a)

2

2

+c

2

(x −a)

3

3

+. . .

= c +

∞

¸

n=0

c

n

(x −a)

(n+1)

n+1

..

Example . . .

ln(1−x) =

1

1−x

dx =

(1+x +x

2

+. . .)dx

= x +

x

2

2

+

x

3

3

+. . . +c =

∞

¸

n=0

x

n+1

n+1

+c

=

∞

¸

n=1

x

n

n

+c

To obtain a value for c, put x = 0. ln1 = c = 0. The

same works for arctan(x).

6 Taylor and McLaurin series

With Taylor and McLaurin series, it is possible to ex-

press a function in terms of a series. This makes it pos-

sible to approximate functions up to a wanted degree

of accuracy. To obtain a Taylor series, the following

formula should be used:

f (x) =

∞

¸

n=0

f

(n)

(a)

n!

....

This is the coeﬃcient!

(x −a)

n

For instance

f (x) = f (a) +

f

·

(a)

1!

(x −a) +

f

··

(a)

2!

(x −a)

2

+. . .

A McLaurin series is nothing else but a Taylor series

centred at 0.

f (x) =

∞

¸

n=0

f

(n)

(a)

n!

x

n

If a series is centred at a position other than 0, the

approximation of the values will be more accurate

around that point.

5

Example . . .

Finding Taylor series is extremely important. That

is why this long example is devoted to it.

Find the McLaurin series for f (x) = sin(x)

f

·

(x) = cos x

f

·

(0) = 1 f

··

(0) = 0 f

···

(0) = −1

f

····

(0) = 0 f

·····

(0) = 1

∞

¸

n=0

f

(n)

(0)

n!

x

n

= f (0) +

f

·

(0)

1!

x +

f

··

(0)

2!

x

2

+. . .

= 0+

1

1!

x +

0

2!

x

2

−

1

3!

x

3

+

0

4!

x

4

+

1

5!

x

5

= x −

x

3

3!

+

x

5

5!

−

x

7

7!

∞

¸

n=0

(−1)

n

x

2n+1

(2n+1)!

= sin x

Note that when trying to ﬁnd such series, it is still of-

ten useful to use the “integration trick”. For instance,

when trying to ﬁnd the series for cos x, it is smart to

seize that fact that cos x is (sin x)

·

, because

cos x =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

∞

¸

n=0

(−1)

n−1

x

2n−1

(2n−1)!

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

·

= 1−

3x

2

3!

+

5x

4

5!

−

7x

6

7!

= 1−

x

2

2!

+

x

4

4!

−

x

6

6!

+. . .

=

∞

¸

n=0

(−1)

n

x

2n

(2n)!

Taylor series can also be used for approximating inte-

grals.

Example . . .

To approximate the integral, after writing down the

series as a binomial series, you only have to integrate

that series:

1/2

0

x

3

+1dx =

,

x +

1

8

x

4

+

1

56

x

7

+. . .

¸

1/2

0

7 Binomial series

Binomal series are just a special case of taylor se-

ries.

If k is any real number and |x| < 1, then

(1+x)

k

=

∞

¸

n=0

¸

k

n

x

n

=1+kx+

k(k −1)

2!

x

2

+

k(k −1)(k −2)

3!

x

3

+. . .

8 Vectors

8.1 Dot product

“Multiplying” two vectors leads to a scalar. If the re-

sult is 0, the vectors are perpendicular to each other.

a

b = a

1

b

1

+a

2

b

2

+. . . +a

n

b

n

a a = |a|

2

It can also be used to evaluate the angle between two

vectors.

a

b = |a||

b| cosθ

The scalar projection of a vector

b onto another vecot

b is:

comp

a

b =

a

b

|a|

The vector projection is the scalar projection times the

unit vector of a.

proj

a

b =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

b

|a|

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

|a|

8.2 Cross product

Sometimes also referred to as “vector product”, this

product gives you a vector perpendicular to both other

vectors.

a×

b =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

2

b

3

−a

3

b

2

a

3

b

1

−a

1

b3

a

1

b

3

−a

3

b

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

It can also be used to ﬁnd the sine of two vectors.

|a×

b| = |a||

b| sinθ

If a|

b, then a×

b =

0

6

The length of the cross product is equal to the area of

the parallelogram determined by a and

b. In the same

manner, half of it is equal to the the are of the trian-

gle.

A

∆

=

1

2

|a×

b|

8.3 Tripple products

These kind of products can be used to calculate vol-

umes. The volume of a parallel piped is:

V = |a (

b×c)|

Note

a×

b

b×

b

a×

b = −

b×a

9 Vector functions and space curves

9.1 Deﬁnitions for vector functions

A vector function can be written in the form of

r(t) = ( f (t), g(t), h(t)) = f (t)

ˆ

i +g(t)

ˆ

j +h(t)

ˆ

k

To compute the limit of such a vector function, one

simply has to take the limit of the separate functions

f , g, h.

A vector function is continuous at a if

limr(t) = r(a)

That means, if all functions of the vector function are

continous at a.

The set of points

x = f (t), y = g(t), z = h(t)

is called a “space curve”.

Example . . .

r(t) = (1+t, 2+5t, −1+6t)

Note that this is the equation of a line. The following

notation might be more familiar for you:

r(t) =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

2

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+t

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

5

6

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

9.2 Types of curves

A circle/spiral can be expressed as in the following ex-

ample:

r(t) = (cost, sint, t)

This is a spiral because

x = cost, y = sint

x

2

+y

2

= sin

2

+cos

2

= 1

So that all points lie on a circular cylinder with a radius

of 1.

A sphere is a set of points P(x, y, z) whose distance

from C is r. If P is on the sphere, then |PC| = r.

(x −h)

2

+(y −k)

2

+(z −l)

2

= r

2

where h, k, l, are the coordinates of the centre.

To ﬁnd cutting points or functions of curves that

cut each other, simply plug the functions into each

other.

9.3 Derivatives and Integrals of vector

functions

Simply take the integral/derivative of all the func-

tions.

A tangent vector is the derivative of a vector function.

Often, it is looked for a unit tangent vector.

T(t) =

r

·

(t)

|r

·

(t)|

7

9.4 Arc length and curvature

The length of a space curve in an interval a, b is de-

ﬁned as:

L =

b

a

,

f

·

(t)

¸

2

+

,

g

·

(t)

¸

2

+[h

·

(t)]

2

dt

Which can shortly be written as:

L =

b

a

r

·

(t)

dt

A curve is called “smooth” if r

·

is continous and

r

·

(t) 0. The curvatured is

κ(t) =

T

·

(t)

r

·

(t)

**Sometimes, the following formula is more con-
**

vinient.

κ(t) =

|r(t) ×r

··

(t)|

|r

·

(t)|

3

A Some tricks

Algebraic relation:

1

x(x +1)

=

1

x

−

1

(x +1)

To Solve integrals like

1/(n

2

+4), substitue x = 2t,

dx = 2dt,

2dt

4t

2

+4

=

1

2

dt

t

2

+1

=

1

2

arctan x

Factorials:

(n+1)! = n!(n+1)

x

x!

=

1

(x −1)!

e.g.

4

4!

=

1

3!

Expression of e:

¸

1+

1

n

n

→ e as n → ∞

Useful substitutions

The following substitution works well if there is a log-

arithmic function in the integral, because an e func-

tion can pretty well be integrated using integration by

parts.

ln x = u → e

u

= x

For square roots:

√

x = u → x = u

2

And never forget to diﬀerentiate the substitution!

In the exam, when they give you a “hint”, it is very

likely that you have to diﬀerentiate or integrate a se-

ries to obtain a result.

8

One last term for sequences: A sequence is bounded. So. we get an inﬁnite series n=1 ∞ an . For example 1 =1. Also.g. n=1 Because r = 4/3 > 1 the series is divergent.2 Geometric series for all x2 >.052 + 1. so it will always become smaller and is therefore decreasing. E. decreasing if an > an+1 for all n ≥ 1. .Check r>1 −1 < r < 1 r=1 r = −1 r will constantly increase E. also series like xn are geometric series because a = 1. the notation ∞ n=1 will for convience’s sake be meant by .53 etc. it must be convergent. where n ∈ N. {an } is called increasing if an < an+1 for all n ≥ 1. Geometric series are a special case of series. which is convergent. from above if an ≤ M for all n ≥ 1 and bounded from below when m ≤ an for all n ≥ 1.] n ∞ Some more terms concerning sequence. In fact. sn = a1 + . you have to rearrange a series and such a way that a geoNow that we have set the base. will turn out to be zero. + an = i=1 ai If one of these conditions is fulﬁlled. we can talk about se.g. the sequence is called monotonic. convergent. 2n n=1 The sum of this series can be written as s2 = a1 + a2 [. Example: x n ⇔ f (x) = 2 an = 2 n +1 x +1 1 − x2 <0 f (x) = 2 (x + 1)2 ∞ n an = lim n=1 n→∞ ai i=1 (1) (2) From now on. monotonic.053 etc.lowing notation: tance. r = x. 2. we agree upon the folFor several checks. not every monotonic sequence is convergent. . In many cases.52 − 0. when adding all terms of a sequence {an }∞ . . Don’t get confused. when both is the case.metric series is resulting.1 Basics and notation 22n 31−n = (22 )n 3−n−1 = 4n 4 =4 3 3n−1 n−1 Sequences are nothing else but the sum of all elements an up to n. An example: ries. For calculating limits of series. as in the previous section. besides of another type of series. . But. convergent. they are the only series we can calculate the sum of rationally. simply take the derivative of its correlating function. . −0. these terms have to be treated with care! Al1−r ways remember that not every bounded sequence is a + ar1 + ar2 + . So. . However. If |r| ≥ 1 the series would be convergent. Geometric series are series of the form like a arn−1 = |r| < 1 . 2 Series Geometric series occur quite often. these terms are of utmost impor. since lim(−1)n = ∅. 1. 2. to prove if a sequence is monotonic. 2 . since lim 1n = 1 divergent.

3 Convergence Tests 3.Summarized: gence of series will be listed. This is the same as we have learnt for integrals in the This fact can be exploited for some functions like ﬁrst quater. lim an 0. n=1 an is convergent if 1 f (x)dx where c is a ﬁnite number and c > 0.2 Integral test • If a function g(x) is larger than a function f (x) which it is compared to. it is quite nice. n=2 A series an is called • absolutely convergent if 3. then also f (x) converges. Note that for the integral test as the lower integrating boundary you have to take the start value of the series. when trying to prove that a function is convergent.6 Ratio test ∞ e. the comparison test can be applied. • conditionally convergent if it is convergent but not absolutely convergent. positive. The series must be convergent since this is a p-series. Suppose that terms. vergent. the series 1/xn is a geometric series with a = 1/x and r = 1/x. If it should turnout that this test indicates that the function might be divergent. if there is a function that is always smaller than 1 (e. • If a function g(x) is smaller than a function f (x) which it is compared to. for ∞ .Also. However: If lim an then an does not exist or is divergent.1 Test for divergence From here on. because if a smaller function diverges. This theorem might be a little bit confusing.g. cos n/n2 as follows 1 np n=1 is convergent for p > 1 and divergent for p ≤ 1.g. then lim an = 0 . you can replace it by 1. ∞ cos n = n2 | cos n| 1 ≤ 2 n2 n Thus. If this function g(x) converges. ∞ ∞ lim an an = f (n). You are given a function g(x). and that function is conIf an convergent.4 Comparison test Once you have grasped the concept of the comparison test. 3. but rather compare it to a smaller function. and decreasing in [1. then the larger function also diverges. then either both series converge or both series diverge. In general this means that if you have to comparable series. because 1 x 1 1 1 = = x xn−1 x xn xn 3. then g(x) also is convergent. 3 . 3. cos x). because it is not true in general! From the side of lim an = 0 we can concluding absolutelty nothing about the convergence or divergence of a series. some test for the convergence or diver. If n→∞ bn an and =c bn are series with positive Necessary conditions: f must be continuous. you may not stop yet. and that function is divergent. ∞). then g(x) is also divergent.5 Comparison test 3. Now consider a function f (x) that is larger than g(x). take the integral from 2 . you only have to test one series! and it yields a ﬁnite value. For instance.3 P-series |an | is convergent. Thus. try to replace the function in the numerator such that it gets bigger or do the opposite in the denominator.

. For example √ n3 + 2n2 + n 3n3 + 6n should be compared to √ n3 n3/2 1 = 3 = 3/2 3 3n 3n 3n which is a p-series. then choose the comparison test. . converges for all x 3. • If an = f (n).g. . converges only when x = a 2. n=1 b> 0 5 Power series Power series have the form: satisﬁes (i) bn+1 ≤ bn (ii) lim bn = 0 n→∞ for all n cn xn = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + . then apply the root test. where 1 f (n)dn can be easily evaluated. • Is the series a p-series (1/n p )? p > 1 → convergent If yes. – inconlusive • In case a series includes factorials or products – divergent involving a constant raised to the power of n. For the comparing series. the root test can be applied: n→∞ lim n |an | = L L<1 If L = 1 L > 1 or L = ∞ • If the series includes a term like (−1)n−1 .7 Root test When there is a series with an exponential. That’s it! 4 Strategy for testing series • If it is obvious that limn→∞ an gence. test for diver- cn (x − a)n n=0 1. ∞ 3. There are only three possibilities for a power series: ∞ then the series is convergent. 3. choose only the highest power of n as the p in the p series (1/n p ). obvi– absolutely convergent → convergent oulsy use the alternating series test. 2n in the series. + cn xn Where x is a variable and all cs are coeﬃcients. The domain of a power series is all the x for which it converges. Especially if it involves an algebraic function of n (involving roots or polynomials). p ≤ 1 → divergent 0.or p-series. then the integral test should be applied. |r| ≥ 1 → divergent • If the series is similar to a geometric. e. It can’t get easier! If the alternating series ∞ (−1)n−1 bn = b1 − b2 + b3 .8 Alternating series test The alternating series test is the coolest of all. choose other test • Is the series a geometric series (a · rn−1 )? |r| < 1 → convergent If yes. there is a positive number R such that the the series converges if |x − a| < R and diverges if |x − a| > R 4 . If there are positive and negative terms.This is the base for the ratio test: lim an+1 =L an – absolutely convergent → convergent – divergent – inconclusive. then the ratio test should be useful. • Should there be something of the form like (bn )n . n→∞ L<1 If L = 1 L>1 The ratio test should be applied if there are factorials n! or functions raised to the power of n. only apply the test to |an |. .

. 5. 2 3 ∞ (x − a)(n+1) = c+ cn n+1 n=0 . To obtain a Taylor series. This makes it possible to integrate approximation of the values will be more accurate complicated functions. . If it the test diverges the bracket is (. . 5 . Example .This number R is called the radius of convergence. the following formula should be used: ∞ A function of the form f (x) = 1/(1 − x) can be expressed as a power series: f (x) = 1 = 1− x ∞ 1 + x + x2 + . ncn (x − a)n−1 n=1 = (ii) f (x)dx = c + c0 (x − a) + c1 (x − a)2 (x − a)3 + c2 +. x3 x 1 1 31 − = x3 x =x x+2 2 1+ 2 2 n=0 2 ∞ ∞ n f (x) = n=0 f (n) (a) n! This is the coeﬃcient! (x − a)n For instance f (a) f (a) f (x) = f (a) + (x − a) + (x − a)2 + . f (n) (a) n x n! (i) ∞ f (x) = c1 + 2c2 (x − a) + 3c3 (x − a)2 + . Always take the ratio or root test to ﬁnd the radius of convergence.g. the radius of convergence therefore is 1.)dx ∞ x2 x3 xn+1 + +. + xn = n=0 xn Note that this is a geometric series with a = 1. . Example: When you ﬁnd the series to be convergent for |x − 5| < 1 and divergent for |x − 5| > 1. ∞ (−1)n n=0 xn+3 2n+1 f (x) = n=0 It is possible to integrate/diﬀerentiate such a function. 5] Example . plug in the numbers into the function and check how the series behaves. .1 Representation of functions as power series 6 Taylor and McLaurin series With Taylor and McLaurin series.+c = +c 2 3 n+1 n=0 xn +c n = n=1 To obtain a value for c. . . around that point.. For this. r = x. (4. the test will always fail..If a series is centred at a position other than 0. 1! 2! A McLaurin series is nothing else but a Taylor series centred at 0. the interval of convergence is from 4 to 6. The same works for arctan(x). . take another test. This makes it possible to approximate functions up to a wanted degree of accuracy. for convergence [. . . . ln(1 − x) = = x+ ∞ 1 dx = 1− x (1 + x + x2 + . simply integrate/diﬀerentiate every single el. ln 1 = c = 0. in that case.. Now.. .. put x = 0. the ement of the series. it is possible to express a function in terms of a series. e. If there is an endpoint.

. If k is any real number and |x| < 1. Note that when trying to ﬁnd such series. |a × b| = |a||b| sin θ If a b. . That is why this long example is devoted to it. .. If the result is 0.. when trying to ﬁnd the series for cos x. a · b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + . Example . this product gives you a vector perpendicular to both other vectors. . Example . the vectors are perpendicular to each other.2 Cross product Taylor series can also be used for approximating integrals. a2 b3 − a3 b2 To approximate the integral.. because b is: ∞ x2n−1 a·b cos x = (−1)n−1 compa b = (2n − 1)! |a| n=0 3x2 5x4 7x6 + − 3! 5! 7! x2 x4 x6 = 1− + − +. 2! 4! 6! = 1− ∞ = n=0 (−1)n x2n (2n)! The vector projection is the scalar projection times the unit vector of a. . .. it is smart to The scalar projection of a vector b onto another vecot seize that fact that cos x is (sin x) . For instance. then ∞ (1+ x)k = n=0 k(k − 1) 2 k(k − 1)(k − 2) 3 k n x = 1+kx+ x + x +. + an bn a · a = |a|2 It can also be used to evaluate the angle between two vectors. . . Find the McLaurin series for f (x) = sin(x) f (x) = cos x f (0) = 1 f (0) = 0 f (0) = −1 f ∞ n=0 7 Binomial series Binomal series are just a special case of taylor series. 8 56 0 1/2 0 It can also be used to ﬁnd the sine of two vectors. . a·b a proja b = |a| · |a| 8. .1 Dot product 1 0 1 0 1 x + x2 − x3 + x4 + x5 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! x3 x5 x7 = x− + − 3! 5! 7! ∞ (−1)n x2n+1 = sin x (2n + 1)! n=0 = 0+ “Multiplying” two vectors leads to a scalar. then a × b = 0 6 . n! 1! 2! 8 Vectors 8. Finding Taylor series is extremely important. you only have to integrate a1 b3 − a3 b1 that series: 1/2 1 1 x3 + 1dx = x + x4 + x7 + . it is still ofa · b = |a||b| cos θ ten useful to use the “integration trick”. n 2! 3! (0) = 0 f (0) = 1 f (0) f (0) 2 f (n) (0) n x = f (0) + x+ x +. after writing down the a × b = a3 b1 − a1 b3 series as a binomial series. Sometimes also referred to as “vector product”.

f. y = sin t A vector function can be written in the form of ˆ r(t) = f (t). 2 + 5t. To compute the limit of such a vector function. If P is on the sphere. The volume of a parallel piped is: V = |a · (b × c)| 9. T(t) = r (t) |r (t)| 7 . y.2 Types of curves Note a×b b×b a × b = −b × a A circle/spiral can be expressed as in the following example: r(t) = cos t. are the coordinates of the centre. −1 + 6t Note that this is the equation of a line. 1 A∆ = |a × b| 2 8. h(t) = f (t)ˆ + g(t) ˆ + h(t)k i j x2 + y2 = sin2 + cos2 = 1 So that all points lie on a circular cylinder with a radius of 1. . if all functions of the vector function are To ﬁnd cutting points or functions of curves that continous at a.3 Tripple products Example . h. r(t) = 1 + t. k. Simply take the integral/derivative of all the functions. The set of points x = f (t). A vector function is continuous at a if lim r(t) = r(a) (x − h)2 + (y − k)2 + (z − l)2 = r2 where h. one A sphere is a set of points P(x. z) whose distance simply has to take the limit of the separate functions from C is r. then |PC| = r. sin t. A tangent vector is the derivative of a vector function. . it is looked for a unit tangent vector. l. g(t). Often. g. y = g(t).The length of the cross product is equal to the area of the parallelogram determined by a and b. cut each other. In the same manner.1 Deﬁnitions for vector functions This is a spiral because x = cos t. simply plug the functions into each other. t 9 Vector functions and space curves 9. half of it is equal to the the are of the triangle. That means. z = h(t) 9. The following notation might be more familiar for you: 1 1 r(t) = 2 + t 5 −1 6 These kind of products can be used to calculate volumes.3 Derivatives and Integrals of vector functions is called a “space curve”.

it is very likely that you have to diﬀerentiate or integrate a series to obtain a result. because an e funcSometimes. κ(t) = |r(t) × r (t)| |r (t)|3 ln x = u → eu = x For square roots: √ x = u → x = u2 And never forget to diﬀerentiate the substitution! Algebraic relation: 1 1 1 = − x(x + 1) x (x + 1) In the exam. substitue x = 2t. the following formula is more con.tion can pretty well be integrated using integration by vinient. 1 2dt = 4t2 + 4 2 Factorials: (n + 1)! = n!(n + 1) 1/(n2 + 4).g. parts. The curvatured is T (t) κ(t) = r (t) Useful substitutions The following substitution works well if there is a logarithmic function in the integral. b is deﬁned as: b dt 1 = arctan x t2 + 1 2 L= a f (t) 2 + g (t) 2 + [h (t)]2 dt Which can shortly be written as: b 1 4 1 x = e. when they give you a “hint”. A Some tricks 8 . = x! (x − 1)! 4! 3! Expression of e: 1+ 1 n n L= a r (t) dt → e as n → ∞ A curve is called “smooth” if r is continous and r (t) 0.4 Arc length and curvature To Solve integrals like dx = 2dt.9. The length of a space curve in an interval a.