/-

BLACKWELL'S
Oxford,
I

I

IRJ

'j
.

INNOCENT THE GREAT

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in

2011 with funding from
University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/innocentgreatesOOpiri

INNOCENT
THE GREAT
AN
ESSAY

ON

HIS

LIFE

AND TIMES

BY
C.

H.

C.

PIRIE-GORDON, B.A

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND
39

CO.

PATERNOSTER R0W, LONDON
NEW
YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTrA
1907

All rights reserved

PATRI

COMI ADMIRABILI MATRI INDEFESSAE AMABILI HAS PRIMITIAS
:

:

D.D.D.

FILIUS

Nos,

Fridericus,

Congr.
et

Human,
ut
in

propraef.

Ord. SS.
propraef.

Soph,

Michael, Congr. Indie,
typis

Ord.

SS. Soph,

ex-

primatur liber appellatus Innocent the Great,
auctore C.

H. C. Pirie-Gordon, postulamus.

Conceditur

Harricus, Magnusmagister Ord. SS. Soph.

CONTENTS
PAGE

Author's Statement concerning Authorities
Principal contemporary Princes and Prelates
CHAP.
I.

.

ix

.

xv

Concerning Third

the

Period

of

Innocent
di Segni

the
i

.

II.

Concerning Lothario Concerning Empire
Innocent
.

de'

Conti

.

10

III.

the Third and the
.
.

.

.

.

.21
56
82

IIII.

Concerning Innocent the Third and the Fourth Crusade
Concerning Innocent the Third and Sicily
Innocent the Third and the
.
.

V.

VI. Concerning

Albigensian Syncretism
VII.

.

.100
129

Concerning Innocent the Third and England

VIII.

Concerning Innocent the Third and the
City
151

Villi.

Concerning Other Acts of Innocent the Third .179
.

X. Concerning the Character of Innocent the

Great

........
APPENDICES
.
.

200

I.

The College of Cardinals at the Election
of Innocent the Third
.

.211
214
218

II.

III.

The Creatures of Pope Innocent the Third. The College of Cardinals at the Death of
Innocent the Third

.PU

Vlll

CONTENTS
Sermon of Innocent the Third, preached at
His

IIII.

Own
of

Consecration

.

.

.

-

.

220

V. Writings

Cardinal Lothario de' Conti, AFTERWARDS POPE INNOCENT THE THIRD
.

.

230
235

VI.

Correspondence of Innocent the Third

.

MAPS
1.
2.

3.

4.

Of Of Of Of

the Toulousain

.

To face page 102

the Patrimony
Spain

....
.

the Empire and Sicily

at the end

GENEALOGICAL TABLES
The B. The C. The D. The E. The F. The G. The H. The
A.

House

of-

Conti
. .

To face page 10
.

Byzantines

66
7o
72

Emperors of Romania

.

House of Montferrat
Plantagenets

.

Empire, Sicily and Antioch
.

92

...

130
184 190

Kings of Jerusalem

Houses of France and Spain

AUTHOR'S STATEMENT CONCERNING AUTHORITIES
The Eminence of Cardinal Raphael Merry Del Val, (Cardinal-Presbyter
By
the courtesy of

of the Title of Santa Prassede, and Secretary of

State to
of

The Holiness

of Pope Pius the Tenth,)
of

Mr. A. E. Cowley, M.A. (Fellow

Magdalen

College, Oxford, and

Bodley's Sublibrarian,) and

of the

Reverend
Vatican

F. S.

Ehrle,
the

S.J.,

Hon. D.C. L.
manu-

Oxford, Hon.
of

Litt.

D. Cambridge, (and Subprefect
following

the

Library,)

scripts

of prime importance have been consulted
for this

by

me
i.

monograph

:

Codices

Ottobonianiac

(Altemps)
III.

IV.

27,

433

(in

the

Vatican Library).
2.

Regesta Innocentj
Archives).

PP.

Tom.

i,

viii.

(in the

Vatican

As

far

as

I

have been able to discover, the
to the period of Innocent the
in

documents relating

Third have been published

extenso by the Abbe*
Epistles

Migne
I

;

and the Bulls and
by Potthast
in

have been
But,

collated

his* Regesta.

when

compared the mss. of the Ottoboni. collection (two of which are early XIII century) in the Vatican Library, and the Regesta of the reign of

x

AUTHOR'S STATEMENT
in a series of

Innocent the Third, (contained

vellum
illus-

volumes, beautifully written and marginally

trated with beasts and quaint conceits, which constitute the Official

Records or duplicates of Bulls
with the

and Epistles
Abbe" Migne,
edition,

in

the Vatican Archives),

printed writings of this pontiff as published by the

who

reprints Baluze's
to

XVII

century
textual
in

there

appeared

be frequent

differences,
print.

and not a few interpolations
Codex Ottoboniana IV)
is

the

A
as

portion of the Altemps ms. (officially

known
lineally

here inter-

compared with Migne. According to the Rev. H. M. Bannister, a Vatican palaeographer, this Codex dates from the first half of the XIII
century,

with

corrections

of the
is

second half of
;

the

same.

The

author

name

of the library

unknown and whence the ms. came into

the

the

Altemps

collection has

been very carefully erased
It
is

with a knife, (excepting " Libr. de San").
also further defaced with a

XVII
headed

century script.
:

The

ms.

is

thought to have been stolen
is

is

un-

doubtedly authentic; and

in red

"

Incipit

Liber de Sacramtis Ecclie a dno Innocetio
tertioT
It
is

PP

divided into sections, by big subin

headings

written

red

;

but

Migne's

printed

enumeration of these does not coincide with that
of the ms.

As

is

natural in a

work of the
e.g.

period,

abbreviations are

much used

:

the scribe has
initial

the disconcerting habit of inserting only the
letter of

each word in quotations from Holy Writ.

AUTHOR'S STATEMENT
The
following are specimens of the
inaccuracies

xi

Abbe Migne's

and

interpolations.

1

Altemps MS. 433 De Sacramentis.
MlGNE. Quare non Codex. „ „
fit

Liber

III.

Caput
canone

X.

commemoratio confessorum

22.

in

fiat

»


ccccxxxiii

Altemps MSS. No.
(late

Ottobonianiae XI I II century.)

Migne. Codex.

Lib.
Lib.

I. I.

De Contemptu Mundi. De Viciiset Virtutibus.

Caput xxv De Tenor Caput xxiv „ „

M. Somniorum. Est non conceditur C. Sompniorum. „ „ „ M. somnia
M.
V"

esse quietum

sint in

nam

terrant

visiones conturbant et licet

non

C. sompnia

veritate tristia vel terribilia seu laboriosa quae.
»>
>>

ct

,,

,,

n

}|

M. somniant somniantes tamen
C. „

in veritate

Mistantur Mistentur

M.
*"

terrentur et fatigantur in tantum ut aliquando
»
11

»

»

jj

)>

\

/

M. dormientes lacrymentur

et evigilantes saepissitne

C. lacrymentur dormientes „

vigilantes

(

)

M. conturbentur
C. conturbantur

si
(

vero jucundum quid viderini nihilominus
)

M.

evigilantes tristarentur
(

tanquam illud a??iiseri?it
)

C
C.

M. Adverte quid super hoc


(

dicat Eliphas
)

Themanites

in
,,

eliphatemanites
solet

M. horrore
C. terrore

visiones nocturnae

sum
quae

,,

sopor occupare occupare sopor

M. homines pavor

tenuit »

me
»J

et

tremor
55

et
5)

omnia ossa
55

r" V
M. me
C.

»

))

»

J5

perterrita sunt et

cum

spiritus

(...) me
meus

praesente

perterita

-

M.
C.

tr.msiret inhorruerunt pili carnis
,,

meae

considera.


si
J5
1

,,

carnibusmei considerabantur

M. Job dicentem

dixero consolabitur
55
55

me
55

rectus
55

meus
55

C ***

55

5)

Interpolations are italicized.

xii

AUTHOR'S STATEMENT
et relevabor
j>
>>

M.
^*

loquens
»>

mecum
>>

in strato
?>
)>

meo
n

terrebis
>)

me

M. per somnia txper
C.

visiones horrore concuties.
,,

sompnia

(

.

.

)

terrore

meo concu
(
. .

f

iens.

M. Nabuchodonosor somnium C. Nabukodnosor sompnium M.
C. perteruit

videt

quod
(
. .

)

)

et

eum eum

valde

perterruit et visiones capitis ejus conturbaverunt eum.

eius
et ubi

M. Multas curas sequuntur somnia sompnia C. „ „ „

multa somnia
sunt sompnia

M.
M.

vanitates plurimae.

C. multe sunt vanitatus.

Multos errare facerunt somnia sompnia „ „ „
illis.

et exciderunt sperantes in

Regarding printed authorities
chief
i

for

the reign of

Innocent the Third, the following represent the

works which
Acta Concilia
:

I

have found
I,

useful.

.

Tom.

pars

ii.

2.

Buchon
Moric.
:

:

Recherches Historiques sur la Principaute Fran-

faise de
3.

4.

&

S.
5.

Annotated edition of Gibbon. (See below.) Vitae Pontificum Romanorum Ciacconius and Oldoinus R. E. Cardinaliu?n. Conybeare Key of Truth. App. VI.
: :

Bury

6.
7.

Cristofori

:

Storia dei Cardinali.
:

De Montot
Devic

Histoire des Souve rains Pontifes Romains.
:

8.

&
:

Vaissete

Histoire

Generate

de

Languedoc.

Tom. VI.
9.

Edition 1876.
Series
:

Gams

Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae.

10.

Gibbon

Decline

and Fall of the Roman

E7npire^ edited by

J. B. Bury.
11.

Tom. VI, VII.
:

Gregorovius
,,

Geschichte der Stadt Athen Geschichte der Stadt
:

12.

Rom

im Mittelalter. im Mittelalter.
Friderici Secundi,

13.
14.

Guldencrone
I,

EAchaie
:

Feodale.

Huillard-Breholles
II.

Hi storia Diploma tica

Tom.

..

AUTHOR'S STATEMENT
15.

xiii

Hurter

:

Geschichte des Papst Innocenz des Dritten

und

seiner Zeitgenossen,
16.
1

Tom.
:

I, II,

III.

Labbe
Lavisse

&
:

Cossarti

Sacrosanda Concilia, Tom. XI.
Histoire Generate,

7

Histoire de France.
:

18.

Lavisse

& Rambaud
'

Tom.

II.

19.

Luchaire: Les premiers Capetiens, (1883) Z' Universite de Paris sous Philippe Auguste,(iSgg). 20. ,, Les Regis tres d'Innocent III, (1904). 21. ,,
22. 23.

24.
25.

Rome 6° Pita lie, (1905). Innocent III, La Croisade des Albigeois, (1905). Innocent III, La Papaute 6° V Empire, (1906). Marangoni Chronologia Romanorum Pontificum.
,,

Innocent III,

,,

,,

:

26. 27.

Michaud Histoire des Croisade s. Migne Patrologia Latina, Tom. 214-218.
:

:

28. Muratori

&
:

Baluze

:

Script.

Rer. Ital.

(Gesta Innocentj

III)

Tom.

III.

29. Potthast

Regesta,

Tom.

I.

30.

Rodd

:

The Princes of Achaia and
:

the Chronicle

of the

Morea.
31
32.

Rolls Series

Itinerarium Regis Ricardi.

Rymer

:

Foedera,
:

Tom.

I.

33. Sismondi
34. Stokvis
:

Histoire des Franfais.
Genealogie.

Manuel de
:

35. Stubbs: Regis trum Sacrum Anglicanum. Codex Diplomaticus Domini Temporalis Sanctae 36. Theiner
Sedis.

Tom.
Tout
:

I.

37.

Art.

on Pandulf

in

Die. Nat. Biog.

I

wish to express

my

thanks to the Professor of

History at the

Owens

College, Victoria University,

Manchester, (T. F. Tout, M.A., formerly Fellow
of

Pembroke
;

College, Oxford,) for his kind sugto

gestions

and

the

Reader

in

Diplomatic

at

Oxford, (R. L. Poole,

M.A., Ph.D., Fellow of

Magdalen College) for much good advice. I have only to add that, in the matter of assigning capital
letters

to

the

pontifical

pronouns,

I

xiiii

AUTHOR'S STATEMENT
Names
in

have followed the traditional usage, now happily
reviving.
of foreigners are given, as far
:

as possible, in the forms which were actually used

excepting

the

cases
are

of

the

more renowned
the

among

them,

who

better

known under

English equivalents.
C. H. C.

Pirie-Gordon.

Oxford, Saint Peters Day

1907.

PRINCIPAL

CONTEMPORARY PRINCES AND PRELATES MENTIONED IN THE TEXT
THE WESTERN EMPIRE
Succ. as King.

Frederick

I

Barbarossa

1152

Crowned as Emp. Died. 1190 "55
1191

Henry VI
Otto IIII
Philip II

1190 1201 1198

"97
1218 1208
1250
Died.

]

1200

Frederick II Stupor

Mundi

1

197
Succ. as

1220

Bohemia. Jupans.
Frederick

Konrad-Otto

King 1179 1189
1191

1189
1191

Waclaw

II

1192

Kings.

Premysl Ottokar

I

1192

Bretislaw Jindrich

"93
1197
1197

"93 "97
1230

Wladislaw III Jindrich Premysl Ottokar I (rest.)

Austria.

Dukes.

Leopold

V
I

Frederick

Leopold VI
Bavaria. Otto I
Dukes.

House of Babenberg. 1177 1194 1198 House of Wittelsbach 1180
1183

"94
1198

1230
1 183 1231

Ludwig

I

Swabia. Dukes. Frederick V

House of Hohenstauffen.
1 167 1191

1191
1

Konrad
Philip

II

196

(Emp.) Frederick VI
1

1196 1208
:

1208 1216
in

Date of Papal recognition

he was "elected"

May

1198.

xvi

PRINCES AND PRELATES
n8o
1212
Dukes.

Saxony. Dukes. Bernard III
Albert
I

1212

li6o

Lorraine. Simon II
Frederick

II76
I

Frederick II

I205 I206

1205 I2o6

Dietbald

I

1213

1213 I220

EASTERN EMPIRE.
Greek
Basileis of Byzantion.

Komnenos Andronikos II Komnenos
Alexios II

1180
1183
1185
ir 95

1183
1185
JI 95 1203

Isaak II Angelos
Alexios III Angelos

flsaak II Angelos (rest.)\
lAlexios IIII Angelos
Alexios

V

Dukas.
I

1203 5" " Murtzouphlos "

/

1204
1204 1222

Theodoros

Laskaris (at Nikaia)

1204

Greek Basileus of Trebizonde. Alexios I Komnenos

1204

1222

Greek Despots of
Mikhael I Angelos Theodoros Angelos

Epiros.

1204
12 14

12 14

1230

Latin Emperors of Constantinople (Romania). Baldwin I (viiii as Count of
Flanders)

Henry
Latin Kings of Thessalonika.
Boniface (Marquess of Montferrat)

1204 1206

1205
12 16

1

Demetrios

I

204 1207

1207 1222

Feudal Lord (Megaskyros) of Athens. Othon de la Roche 1205
Feudal Princes of Akhaia.
William
I

1225

de Champlitte

1205

1209
12 18

Geoffrey I de Villehardouin

1209

Feudal Duke of Naxos. Marco I Sanudo

1207

1227

PRINCES AND PRELATES
Admirals (Megadux) of Lemnos.
Filocalo Navigajoso Lionardo

xvii

1207

1214

1214 1260

THE BALKANS.
Servia.
Stefan

Grand Zupans.

Nemanya
I

1186
1195
Succ. as King.

"95
1224
Died.

Stefan Vencian Prvovencani

Nemanyic

Bulgaria. Kings. Iovan Asen I
Petar II

1186
1196

1196
1197 1207 1218

Ioannike-Kaloyan (Kalojohannes) 1197 Boril 1207 Bosnia. Bans. Kulin 1180
Stefan I

1204

1204 1232

ENGLAND.
Kings.

Henry

II Fitzempress
I

Richard

Lionheart

House of Plantagenet. 1154 1189
1199
1171

1189

John Softsword North Wales. Princes. Dafydd I ap Owain
Llewelyn II ap Iorwerth

1199 1216

1194

1194 1240

SCOTLAND.
Kings.

William the Lyon

1

165

1214 1249

Alexander II

1214

FRANCE.
King.
Philip II the

August

1180
1

1223

Brittany. Dukes. Constance Arthur Guy de Thouars Peter I Mauclerc

186

1196

1196 1203
1213 1237

1203 1213

xviii

PRINCES AND PRELATES
Dukes.
III

Burgundy.

Hugh

1162

1192

Eudes III Champagne. Henry II
Thibaut III Thibaut IIII

1192
Counts.

1218

1181
1

197 1201

1197 1201
1253
1209
1245
1

Provence.
Alfonso II

Counts.

1185
IIII

Raymond Berenger
Toulouse.
Counts.

1209
1 1 48

Raymond
Alfonso II

V

194

11 94
1

Raymond VI

194

1222

Simon de Montfort received

investiture

from

the

King of France x Apr. 1 2 1 6, after holding the county by right of conquest and papal permission since 12 13.
SCANDINAVIAN STATES.
Norway.
Sverri

Kings.
11 77

1202

(Three Usurpations 1185, 1202)

Haakon IIII Guthorm
Inge II (Two Usurpations 1205, 1208)

1202

1204
1205
1207
Died.

1204 1205

Denmark. Knut VI Waldemar
Sweden. Knut I

Kings.
II

Succ. as King.

1182 1202

1202
1241

Kings.

Sverker II

1

ErikX
Kings.

1167 96 1 1208

1196 1208 1216

HUNGARY.
1174 1196 1204
1205

Bela III

Imre
Laslo III

1196 1204
1205
1235

Endre II

1

PRINCES AND PRELATES
POLAND.
Kings.

xviiii

Kasimir II Mscislaw III Leszek II
Mscislaw III (rest.) Wladtslaw III Leszek II (rest.)

1177 1200
1201

1200 1201
1202

1201

1202 1206

1206 1227

THE
Armenia.
Kings.
III

EAST.
ii75
1

Rhupen
Levon
Cyprus.

II

185

1185 1219

Kings.

Guy I Amaury Hugh I

House of Lusignan. 1 1192 94 (Jerusalem)

I

"95
1205

1205 (Jerusalem) 1218
1 192 (Cyprus) 1192

Jerusalem. Kings. Guy I de Lusignan Konrad de Montferrat Henry de Champagne Amaury II de Lusignan Isabelle d'Anjou Marie de Montfort Jean de Brienne
ANTIOCH.
Princes.

1186
1191
1192

1198
1205 1208

1197 1205 (Cyprus) 1208

1210
1225
1201

1210
1163 1201
1205 1208

Bohemond III Bohemond IIII Raymond II Rupin Bohemond IIII (rest.) Raymond II Rupin (rest.)
Tripoli.
Counts.

1205 (Tripoli) 1208

1216 1219

1216
1187 1200

Raymond III Bohemond I (IIII The Saracens.
Malek en Nasr
(Saladin)
I

of Antioch)

1200 J233

Salah ed din

Abu PModhaffer
Malek
el

Yusuf
1173

^93
1198

AH

Afdhal Nur ed din (Nureddin)

1193

XX

PRINCES AND PRELATES
Malek el Adel Abubekr
(Saphadin)
Seif

ed

din

Muhammed
1198 1218

THE IBERIAN PENINSULA.
A r agon.
Peyre II
Kings.

Alfonso II

1162

1196
1213
Kings.

Jayme
Castile.

I

1196 1213 1276

Alfonso Villi

Enrique

1

1158 1214

1214 1217

Leon. Kings. Fernando II Alfonso Villi

ii57 1188

1

188

1229 (Castile 1217-1229)

Navarre. Kings. Sancho VI Sancho VII
Portugal. Sancho I
Affonso II
Kings.

1150
1

1

194

194

1234
1211

1185
1211

1223

ITALY.

The Holy

See.

Alexander P.M. Ill Lucius P.M. Ill

ii59 1181
1185
i] [87

1181

1185

Urban P.M.

Ill

1187
1191
1

Gregory P.M. VIII Clement P.M. Ill
Celestine P.M. Ill

1187
1191

198

Innocent P.M. Ill

Honorius P.M. Ill
Sicily.

1198 1216

1216
1227

Kings.

William II

1166

1189

Tancred (Roger II
William III

1189
1191

1194
1193)

1194

^95

PRINCES AND PRELATES
Sicily.

xxi

Kings.

TConstance iHenry, Emperor
Frederick II, Emperor

"95 "95
1

"98]
1197/ 1250
1192 1205 1229

198

Venice. Doges. Orio Malipiero
Enrico Dandolo
Pietro Ziani

1178
1

192

1205

Savoy.

Counts.

Umberto

III
I

Tommaso
Conrad
Boniface

149 1188
Marquesses.

1

1

188

1233

Montferrat.

1183

1

192

K. of

1192
1207

Jerusalem 1207 K. ofThessalonika

William IIII

1225

SPOLETO.

Dukes.

Konrad von Urslingen
Pandolfo II

1183

1190

1190
(rest]
1

"95
1198 1222

Konrad von Urslingen
Papal Domination

"95
1198
Marquesses.

Ancona and the Marches.
Gotibald

1191

"95
1198
1208)
2

Markwald von Anweiler (Papal Domination Azzo VI d'Este
Tuscany.
Heinrich Testa

"95
1198 1208

1190

Konrad von Lutzelhard
Philip of Swabia

"93 "95
1206
1205

"93 "95
1208

Ferrara.
Salinguerra I Torelli

1208
1209

Azzo VI d'Este
Salinguerra I Torelli
(rest.)

1209 1209
1212

Azzo VI d'Este

(rest.)

He did May 12 10.
a

not get the Brief of Grant in

Rectum Feudum

till

xxii

PRINCES AND PRELATES
1212

Aldobrandino I d'Este Azzo VII d'Este

1215

1215 1222

And

again

1240

1264

GRANDMASTERS OF THE GREAT ORDERS.
The Temple of Solomon.
Gilbert Horal

Philippe de Plaissiez

1196 I20I

X20I

Guillaume de Chartres

I2IO

1210 I219

The Hospital of
Geoffrey Lerat

St.

John.
1195 I207 I207

Guerin de Montaigu

I23O

The Teutonic Order.
Heinrich Waldbot von Bassenheim 1 1 95 1195 Otto Von Kerpen 1200

Herman Bartt Herman von Salza

1206 I2IO

I200 1206 I2IO
12 39

Knights of Christ, or of the Sword. VORD. Winno von Rohrbach I202 Volkwin von Winterstadt I209
Santiago. Gonzalo Rodriguez Gonzalo Ordonez
Suero Rodriguez Sancho Rodriguez

1209 I236

1195 1203

I203 1204 I205 I2o6 I2IO 1213
12 13

Pedro-Fernandez de Maranon Pedro Arias Pedro Gonzalez Garcia Gonzalez de Candiamo

1204 I205 I2o6 I2IO
12 13

1224

San Julian del Pereiro (Alcantara). Gomez Fernandez 1183
Benito Suarez

Nuno Fernandez
Calatrava.
Nufia Perez de Quinones

1200 1208

I200 1208 1219

1182

Martin Martinez Rodrigo Diaz Rodrigo Garcias

1198 1206 1212

1198 1206 1212 1216

6

PRINCES AND PRELATES
PRELATES.
Patriarchs of Constantinople.
Orthodox.
Latin.

xxiii

Georgios II
Xiphilin

1193

IJ 99

Ioannes

X
1199
1206

Kamtera
Mikhael IIII
Autorien

1206
1215

Thomas Morosini

sedes vacat

1204 1211
1215

121

1

1211

Theodoros

Mamixos Manuel I

II

1215 1216 1215 1216 1221

Gervais

1225

Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem.

Monaco
Albert II

1194 1203
12 14
12 1

Rudolf
Lothairo

1203 1214 1216

1224

Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch.
Theodoros IIII
Ioachinos I

1185
1199

1199 1219

Latin Patriarchs of Antioch. Peter I of Capua Peter II of Capua

1198 1208

1208

1219

Archbishops of Canterbury. Hubert Walter 1205 1193 Stephen Langton 1207 1228

Sub-prior

Reginald

and

John de Grey, Bp. of Norwich, dispute See.
Archbishops of Mainz. Konrad I von Wittelsbach Leopold von Schonfeld Siegfried II von Eppstein
1183 1200

1200

1200 1208 (Ghibelline) 1208 (Guelf)

Archbishops of Trier. Johann I Dietrich II von VVied

1

1

90

1212
1242

12 12

xxiiii

PRINCES AND PRELATES
"93
1205 1208 1212 1216
1205 1208

Archbishops of Koln. Adolf I von Altena 3 Bruno IIII von Sayn Dietrich I von Heimsberg
(sedes vacat
St.

1212
1216)

Engelbert I von Berg
1

1225
in 1205.

Adolf

I

was deposed by Innocent the Third

INNOCENT THE GREAT
CHAPTER
I

CONCERNING THE PERIOD OF INNOCENT THE THIRD
Europe Italy Capets Angevins Iberian Peninsula Spain The Empire The Pontificate Hohenstauffen Balkan Peninsula Russia Lithuania Bohemia Slovene States Hungary Scandinavia Knights of Christ Unrest Dynastic Poland Principle of nationality Cause of unrest The Miliprinciple

— — — — — — — — — — — Crusader — Lothario de' Conti — The tary orders — The Papacy's dangers — Pontifical policy — Turbulent Rome — The

— — — —

— — —

last

Pope's position

Europe,
still

at

the end of the Twelfth Century, was

new

to the later
:

Middle Ages.

The

period

Chaos was passed but the period of coalescent atoms was still passing. The era of the dynasties had only just dawned in Italy. Amid a crowd
of of

competitors,

the

great

houses

of

the

West

had succeeded
they might
exist,

in building

rule,

up nations over which by whose strength they might
they-

with

whose taxes
just

might wage war.

They had
Capets,

become conscious of power.
by
their

The The
in-

helped

geographical

position,

had

definitely found their place in
to

Europe.

Angevins were unwilling

become wholly
A

2

INNOCENT THE GREAT
:

sular

because

they always had considered their

royal island as a

mere appendage
It
is

to

their conti-

nental duchies.

true that the kings of the

Peninsula as yet were not vitally concerned with
dynastic problems.

Their task was to contrive a
:

Moors were still at Cordova, Lisbon looked across Tagus into Moorish territory, and Aragon stopped short near Ebro.
continuous existence
for the

Until this time, the tendency of Spain had been
to
localize
:

but the unity (when
reviving,

Spain was
for

all

Navarre) was certainly
belong
its

Leon had
to

sunk from the pride of parental independence
in

secundogeniture to the royal house of
Castile.
at
its

daughter

cally

accepted

The Empire was practiown valuation and the
;

Pope had less power in Rome than out of it. His temporal pretensions, as always, were fairly comprehensive. His actual possessions, however,
were

somewhat
or

meagre.

The

Hohenstauffen

were undecided whether they should be wholly

German
been

wholly
as

Sicilian

— they
and,

would

have
they
still

admirable

either

;

naturally,

could not but
shielded
the

fail

as both.

The

Byzantines
Islam

Balkan

Peninsula from

— the

whose value never was appreciated properly, until treacherous crusaders (ring-led by scheming Venice) destroyed the great bulwark of Christendom, and miserably failed to erect
Byzantines

anything

in

its

place.

A

variety
in

of

Slovene

states lay along

the

Danube and

the uplands

PERIOD OF INNOCENT THE THIRD
from
Dalmatia,
as

3

eager

for

recognition

and

notoriety as

their geographical

successors of the

The Magyars had their own kingdom, and were by way of being an outpost
Twentieth Century.

beyond them, Russia (scarcely even Orthodox) was wedged between a
of Christendom eastward
:

for

Lithuania,
west,

still

hideously

heathen to the northtribes

and

sundry

Tartar
the

professing

a

limited form

of Islam to

south-east.
;

In the

and a small Poland existed between Germany and the Military Mission of the " Knights of Christ" or
north,
" of the

Bohemia had a native dynasty

navia
stifled

Sword " in Prussia and Livonia. Scandiwas suffering from the reaction which
after

her energies

the

great

part

played

by her people in Europe in the previous centuries. Sweden's energies revived three hundred years while our own eyes have seen the awakenlater
:

ing of Norway.

The
rest.

characteristic note of this period

was un-

Christianity

was only
Tartars

just

beginning to be

really secure

from Saracens, Norse, Vandals, Goths,
other
:

Huns, and
of

although

it

was

to

incur considerable danger through the foolishness
its

professors at no distant time.

The

dynasties,

having collected and consolidated their adherents,

were about to begin to weave the webs of selfaggrandisement which kept the peace of the world
:

disturbed, until the principle of nationality succeeded

that of dynastic interest as mischief-maker.

4

INNOCENT THE GREAT
The
unrest was caused by the somewhat critical

position in

which the

affairs of

Christendom
:

stood.

The Crusades had won
of the princes

the East
it

but the quarrels
;

had
not

lost

again

and Spain

in

the

West was
castle

yet conquered.
still

A

variety of

exotic Christian states

lingered in the Levant
there,

—a
of

here, an

island
:

vince

somewhere
spirit
it

else

and half a probut these were a source
of
:

weakness rather

than

strength.

The

old

crusading

was gone

the

time

esteemed
Infidel

God-service

to

fight

when men the Muslim

was passing; and the new spirit of commercialism was growing so rapidly, that in 1204
it

twisted a whole crusade to

Church's
absolute

power,

of

own ends. The commanding wholesale and
its

obedience

in
all

secular

matters,

was
for

in

abeyance.
take the
increasing
policy,

Unless
Cross,

the

great

princes

would
the

no one

prince

would

:

complications

of

the

new
to

dynastic

which was beginning to be the fashion,
it

made
at

absurd

for

any sovereign
Orders
the
of

be absent

from his realm while his near neighbours stayed

home.

The
Orders

great

the

Hospital
the

and of the
Spanish

Temple,
of

Teutonic
of

Order,

Santiago,

Alcantara,

of

Calatrava, the Knights of the

of the Militia of Christ,
alive the real

still

Sword or Brethren to some extent kept
on the Baltic
be
rich,
:

crusading

spirit

but
to

even

they

were

beginning
with

to

and

quarrel

and

fight

Christians,

instead

of

:

PERIOD OF INNOCENT THE THIRD
devoting

5

undivided

energy

to

the

extirpation

of Infidels.

Protective

and commercial
with
lived

motives
;

caused the idea of the Crusades to persist
the
ideal

but

had perished
Louis

the

last

crusader
his

(except

St.

who

out

of

time)

who fought
Lionheart,

the Saracen for the

good of

his soul

and the saving of the Sepulchre

— King

Richard

who

(despite what

moderns may urge
in

against him) was a real and true crusader.

Such, then, in

brief,

was the period
Segni,

which
of

Lothario de' Conti di

cardinal-deacon

SS.

Sergius
figure

and
as

Bacchus,

arose
Pontiff,

to

be

the

central

Supreme

Maker and

Unmaker of emperors, and Warden of Sicily Who, as "Pater Principum ac Regunt" interfered
more with princes and kings of Europe and their national and private affairs than any of His predecessors
a
Bull of

on

Peter's

throne

:

Who

transformed
last

Excommunication from being the

whimper
most
If

of

an outraged sect to the rank of the

lethal

weapon
times

in

European
critical

politics.

the

were
at

for

Christendom
for
its

because of external pressure and internal dissensions,

they

were

least

as

difficult

the

Papacy.
graphical

The Patrimony
position,

of Peter, from
.

geo-

would be endangered by the

existence

of any

more powerful
Italy

state

either

in

the

north of Italy or in the south.

When

the
its

Emperor's kingdom of
first

wished to expand,

prey was the temporal dominion of the Holy

6
See.

INNOCENT THE GREAT
When
"II
the

kingdom of
in
its

Sicily

(called

par

excellence

Regno"
provinces,

later

Italian

history)

desired

new

only

neighbour was

the Pope.

While
of

different

rulers

controlled the two ends

the

Peninsula,

the

temporal
to

power
exist

of

the

Papacy could only continue
playing off one

by deftly

neighbour against the other, or
the

by judiciously holding
two.

balance

between the

When,
also

however,
to

the
of

Roman
Sicily,

Emperor
the
:

happened

be
in

King

Patri-

mony
could

indeed was

a parlous

plight

for

what

be

more natural than

that

the

Emperor

should desire to give his diplarchy territorial continuity
;

and, were he able to do so, what would

be the fate of the Papacy?

However

successful
it

may be
is

the

modern

solution of this problem,

open to question whether the mediaeval Papacy

could have succeeded without temporal power.

A

Rector

Mundi who was only
well,

Pontifex

Maximus
likely

and not Princeps as
to

would have been
but

lapse

into

the

honourable

inconsiderable

position of a patriarch or an exaggerated bishop.

There is ample evidence of the truth of this to be drawn from the history and status of the

Holy See

during

the

"Babylonian

Captivity."

The

pontifical policy, therefore,

was

to

keep The
territorially

Empire and The Kingdom not only
apart, but also politically separate

and even
the

hostile.

Again, the

Pope's

position

in

Eternal City

PERIOD OF INNOCENT THE THIRD

7

was constantly dangerous, and a perpetual source of trouble and disquiet. On the same erroneous
(but popular) principle, which accords no honour
to

a prophet in his

own

country,
in

no Pope was

considered worthy to be obeyed
turbulence of
credible
:

Rome.
is

The
in-

The

City at this time

almost
in
;

its

entire disregard of authority

any
and

form would be remarkable at any period
the ease and
rapidity,

with
its

which
walls,

the

fortunes

of factions changed within

can perhaps

only be paralleled in the history of Greek colonial

commonwealths.
City

The normal
have
producing

condition

of

The

seems
civil

to

alternated

between

uproar
political

and

war,

kaleidoscopic

and constitutional changes, and seasons of repentance and reaction, which served as intervals for
recuperation
fresh

and

breathing-space preliminary to

Such was the city from which Innocent the Third began to rule the world. It is true that He managed to ameliorate its condition to some extent but though His policy
outbursts of violence.
:

and calculated opportunities made
trator,

Him

an arbi-

peacemaker,

and matchmaker of Europe,
of

feudal suzerain of

The Empire and The Kingdom,
Aragon

of

England,

and

—and

though

He

(first

of Popes)

was able

to .establish

a genuine

Latin patriarchate in Constantinople
to be content with a very

—even He had
He
exacted
Hills.

much

smaller measure of

obedience from

Rome

than that which

from princes and prelates beyond the Seven

8

INNOCENT THE GREAT
From His
very "position a Pope was

much more

helpless in

Rome
in

than

He

was

in

Christendom.

A
by

mere heresy
bulls

Languedoc could be suppressed of confiscation, by grants of its lands to

neighbouring princes. be quelled
in this

A
:

riot in

Rome

could not

way
aid

the

Pope could not then

summon

external

to

maintain

mastery of His diocesan

city.

Him At least He

in

the

did not.

Innocent the Third might order King Philip the

August and
France Third
not,
:

his vassals to annihilate Albigenses in

but

He

could not ask for French troops
against Italians, as Napoleon the

to defend
^.id

Rome
for

Pius the

Ninth.

And He
and

could

on the other hand, relinquish
struggles
at

irritating

and
the

fruitless

His

doors,

rule

world from untroubled quietude, as did Leo the
Thirteenth.

In

reviewing

the
it

policy

of a

Twelfth Century

is

well to

Pope of the remember that He
life,

dwelt amid alarums and excursions, ready at the
shortest notice to
fly

for

His
a

to

crown an

emperor among the usual scenes of carnage and
massacre,
or
to

deal

with

hostile

army

of

foreigners from the impregnable fortress of Sant-

angelo.

That
due,

the

Lord

Innocent
of
to

was

never
is

hampered by the
perhaps
or

existence
so

an
the
as
to

antipope

not

much

forbearance

imbecility

of His

enemies,

His

Own
that

personal force

of

character.

Indeed,

now

the lapse of seven centuries has enabled us to place

PERIOD OF INNOCENT THE THIRD
Cardinal
focus,
it

9

Lothario in

something
that,

like

his

proper

would be safe to say
of

had he himself

been elected pseudopaparch
lawful

in

opposition to
See,

some
six

holder

the

Apostolic

within

months the positions would have been reversed, and Christendom enthusiastically would have
acclaimed
Peter.

him

as

a

true

successor

of

Saint

CHAPTER
CONCERNING LOTHARIO
The House

II

DE'

CONTI DI SEGNI

of Conti di Segni Birth of Lothario, 1158 or 1160 Lateran school Paris University Pierre de Corbeil Lothario's studies Canon Law Preaching University of Bologna Jurisprudence Master of Arts Pilgrimage to Canterbury A human Pope Digestive period Youthful literary work Subdiaconate 1 187, Cardinal-diaconate Church restoration 1191 "De Contemptu Mundi" 1193 1197 The Conclave 1198, Supreme Pontificate Scrutiny Accession Portents PriestCoronation hood Episcopate Enthronement Innocent preaches at His Own Consecration

— — —

— —

— — — — — — — — — — —

— —

— — — —

In
of
to

order
the

definitely

to

establish
it

the

genealogy
necessary
in

House
mss.

of

Conti,

would be
to

examine so many theories dealt with
and
printed

so

many
off

books,

hunt
to

down
strip

and expose so many invalid
so

traditions,

many husks
that

of

fable
folio

from

the

kernel
barely

of truth,

a

large

in

nonpareil

would
to

suffice for the record of so fascinating

(and

fruitless)

an exercise.
that

It

will

be better at once

confess

the

questions

whether Innocent

the Third descended from the

Lombard

Faroald,

575-591, or whether He sprang from the House of Tusculum to share dis-

Duke

of Spoleto a.d.

tinction (or disgrace) with Colonna, are positively

and unreservedly

left

open.

The accompanying

e

A— HOUSE

OF CON!

Lothario de Comitibus

S:

Cj
cr.

d.

Lando
Lord of Montelongo

Ot
Lo:

Palo

*vho ;na,
f

was
daur

Gallura

Ricardo
C. of Sora

Paolo oconsul

Valmontone
id

Stefano Card. Deac. S. Adriano in Foro

Fluminaria

ho

is

called

ipe filius."

Table

A— HOUSE
Lothai
10
ili'

OF CONTI

Comltibui

Lord

Crescentio of Ferentino

Saxo
cr.

Giovanni de' Scotti

=

Card. 1099 d. 1 137

Maria

Trasimondo Lord of Ferentino
t.

1090

Clemens. P.P.
["

Ill

Claricia

=

Trasimondo
C. of Segni
b.

Lando
Lord of Montelongo

Ottone

1187-1191 Paolo detto Scolaro "I LCard. Bp. of PraenesteJ

Lord

ot

Giovanni Card. S. Maria

Jacopo
C. of Andri

1

120

Palo m bar a

Cosmedin Chancellor of the Church
in

Apulia Marshall of the Church
Justiciar of

Trasimondo, who was
betrothed to Elena, daur of Barisone I of Gallura

Pietro de' AnibaIdi

= Daur

Ricardo
C. of Soi a

d,

Pietro 1212

Tommaso
C. of Celano 1207 dep. 1223 by the Emperor Frederick II in favour of his bastard Frederick of Antioch
'

.

Innocentluft, P.P. HI 1198-1216 Lothario Card. Deacon of "| S.S. Sergius and Bacchus J

Ottaviano Poli Card. Bp. Ostia and Velletri
Vicarius in L'rbe

Giovanni, C. of Alba Lord of Ponte Mammolo

Paolo Pioconsul

Stefano Card. Deac. S. Adriano
in Foro

Filippo

Monte Foriino and Turrim
I'rbis

Valmontone Sacco and Fluminaria

Lord

of

Ottaviano Card. Deacon S S. Sergio „

tiregorlufi,

P.P. Villi

1 227- 1 24

and Baccho

[Ugolino Card. Bp. of] L Ostia and Velletri J

Heir of the

fiefs

of the

Alexander,

House of

Poli

I*.P. IIII 1254-1261 [Rinaldo Card. Bp. of~| Ostia and Velletri J

'

Pape

Giovanni would seem to have married the niece of Cardinal Ottaviano de' Poli who is called affinis." Ricardo lost Sora in 133 1. Filippo, Count of Anagni, is referred to as " Comes Anagninos patruelis fratris Pape filius." Gianalfo and Jacopo are called " consobrino nostro " in var ous letters.

:

LOTHARIO
pedigree

DE' CONTI DI SEGNI
Lothario's

n

of Cardinal

more immediate

kin perhaps will suffice for the present purpose.

Trasimondo, Lord of Ferentino, was probably
a nephew of that Cardinal u Saxo de Comitibus"

who
this

died in

1

1

37.

Their respective dates render
it

hypothesis plausible, and
(according
to

should be noted
they

that

Ciacconius)

both

bore

the chequy eagle of Conti.
father of six sons.

Trasimondo was the
Claricia, sister of

The

eldest (also Trasimondo,

Count of Segni) married
dinal

Car-

Paolo,

of

the

senatorial

House

of

Scotti,

who afterwards became Pope Clement the Third. From this marriage sprang four children, of whom
Lothario (born 11 58 or
1160) was the youngest.

We
but

know
it

little

or

nothing of his early years
that,

is

not unfair to assume
his

like

other
the

young Romans of
John Lateran.
his
de'

quality,

he

received

rudiments of his education at the school of Saint

The

influence of the cardinals of

family,

his

uncles

Paolo de' Scotti, Giovanni
Poli,
4

Conti, and

Ottaviano de'

procured him
:

a few benefices in

Rome and Anagni
to

which, as

Ciacconius says, no doubt assisted the boy in his
education.
able

He

seems

have preserved agreehis

memories of one of
Hismael,

tutors at

Lateran,

Pietro

whom

he preconised

Bishop of

Sutri on his
4

own
him
"

accession to the pontificate.

Palatius calls
;

of Conti

Pape affinis." He does not bear the arms and he may have been the brother of the wife of Andrea

de' Conti.

12

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Paris

was
seat

his

university

at

that

time

the

premier

of

learning
to

in

Christendom,
its

only
un-

Bologna venturing

dispute

otherwise

questioned primacy, and then in canon law alone.

The

University

of

Paris

was,

in

the
It

full

in-

tention of the word, a university.
national,
its
it

was

inter-

supernational,

and

even

(in

virtue

of

wide privileges) largely extranational.

That
even a

was
of

not

to

be esteemed
is

French,

or

part
fact

France,
popes,

that

shown by the oft-recurring princes, and private persons
it

were content to use
tion

for

a

court

of

arbitraits

—a

custom which lasted

long

after

un-

challenged

supremacy

in

the

republic

of letters

had passed to Oxford. 5
in
in
fact,
all

The

University of Paris,
final

was regarded as a court of
matters theological,
find

appeal

moral,

and

political.

Thus we
to

King Henry Fitzempress
question
of
his

offering

submit

the

differences

with

Archbishop Thomas (Beket) to the decision of the
University
or party.
that,
in

of

Paris

as

being above

nationality

Even
Paris,

the

Roman

Curia acknowledged

were gathered the principal theo-

logians

of

the

Church

—and,

what

Rome was
Schism
Paris,
for

pleased to acknowledge in the

Twelfth Century,

Avignon and the
were glad
therefore,
6

Popes of the

Great
scene
call

to rely

upon

in the

Fourteenth.

was

a

most

suitable
to

the

Which Giordano Bruno was pleased
lettere."

"

La vedova de

buone

LOTHARIO
training
in

DE'

CONTI DI SEGNI
for

13

of a

young man destined
is

a

career

a

Church Whose boast

that

She knows
in

no nationality (excepting, of course,
of candidates for the

the

case

pontifical throne).

Prelates

of rank were pleased
as well.

to

be professors of Paris
la

Bishop Gilbert de
:

Poiree became a

lecturer there

so also did Pierre Comestor, the

Eater of Books, Chancellor of the cathedral of

Mathieu of Angers and Melchior of Pisa were raised to the purple Gerard de la Pucelle
Paris.
:

and

Anselme became respectively Bishops of Coventry and Meaux, without separating themselves from the University.
It

was

to

Pierre de Corbeil that Lothario de'

Conti owed his subsequently high reputation as a
canonist,

but as a canonist
ideas.

of broad

mind and
the

luminous

Nor was Innocent

Third
in-

tardy in acknowledging the
curred.

obligations

thus

His old instructor was made prebendary of York, then Bishop of Cambray, and soon afterwards was promoted, almost against
the
the
his
will,

to

archiepiscopal
old

see

of Sens.

Insomuch did
that

man

protest

against

advancement,

when (having neglected pontifical orders to proceed against a noble who made light of his new dignity)
the

Pope charged him with
his

ingratitude, cynically
"

remarking to
pavi,"

former

tutor,

Ego

te

episco-

Pierre de Corbeil, like a true successor of

Diogenes, quashed further discussion by replying,
M

Et ego Te papavi."

Nor

did

Innocent forget

:

14

INNOCENT THE GREAT
:

His fellow-students
served
it)

to

some (whose merit dein the

He

gave a seat
:

Sacred College
:

—as
and

to

Robert Curson

to others, sees

to others,

mitred abbacies.
Lothario's studies were almost entirely patristic
rhetorical.

Besides canon law and the Fathers,

he was taught the art of composing and delivering

sermons
for

—discourses
in
it

which are notable, not only
teaching.

the

comparative excellence of their Latinity,

but for their erudition and high moral

Some

facility
:

prose

composition
as

acquired

but

was more

was also a writer of sermons
His writings
elaborated with

for vocal

delivery than as the author of treatises
stylist.

that

Lothario shines as a

are too

cramped with

detail, too

texts, too

tinged by a melancholy temperament

but his sermons, even to read, are stirring

—how
pulpit

much more
by a Pope
learning,
!

so

when declaimed from

the

From

Paris,

in

pursuit of further

Lothario proceeded to the University of
its

Bologna, at that time very celebrated for
of jurisprudence
to
;

school

and when,

at length,

he returned

Rome, he brought with him the degree of
and force of character.
to rule,

Master of Arts, and a very distinguished reputation for scholarship

In addition to his studies in the history of the

Church which he was
in

Lothario had had

the unique advantage of living quite close (both

time and place) to one of the most famous

chapters of that history.

Only a few years before


LOTHARIO
an

DE* CONTI DI SEGNI
(and
afterward
of
the

15

he went to Paris, there had been unrolled before

astounded
the
rapid

terror - stricken)

Europe,
with
its

whole

Beket

controversy, against
wills,

swordplay of

spiritualities

temporalities, the bitter grinding of

two iron

and the

final

tragedy of sacrilege and martyrdom,

which won

far

more

for

the Church than

could

have been obtained by twenty vigorous years of
archiepiscopate.
Paris,

While

still

an undergraduate at

made a pilgrimage to the new shrine of the new Saint Thomas in Canterbury Cathedral. So much the historian may record. What he cannot write down among his
Lothario had
historical
facts

are the impressions, quite indubiperdurable,

tably

formative,
this really

and

even directive,

momentous pilgrimage must have had upon the plastic mind of the future Pope. One of the things which make Innocent the
which
Third an interesting
torian,
figure,

not only to the his-

but also to the thoughtful student of his

kind,

is

His humanity.

He
are,

is

not, as

many Popes
call,

of the Middle

Ages

a mere clarion

a

mere piece of pageant, or a merely misty schoolman. There are many gaps in His history which we cannot fill but at least we have evidence to
:

show
selves

that
;

He

was a man of
near,

like passions

with our-

and therefore
returned to

and understandable
the
usual
;

liked perhaps, loathed perhaps, but understandable.

He

Rome

after

course

of years engaged in accumulating facts

and im-

:

16

INNOCENT THE GREAT
like

mediately,

many
the

another

graduate,
digestive

suffered

much during
mental growth.

inevitable

period

of

He became

a prey to a form of
of ferment caused

melancholy exaltation
from
his

—a

state

by reviewing the world, the
newly-attained
in

flesh,

and the devil
standpoint.
(in

theoretic

While he was
with

this

condition,

he

many young
in

religious

writers,

common who have

undergone a long imprisonment alone with ideas)
indulged
writing,

gruesome
their

excesses
grisly

of

descriptive

which (by
(having

intensity
detail)

and the
clearly

unnecessary

minuteness

of

their
in

show

that

knowledge
It

profusion)

he

lacked experience.

was extremely natural that

a young man, fermenting with the unassimilated
learning of Paris and Bologna, "should try to persuade,
first

himself by meditation, and afterwards
tractates,

others

by verbose
to
it

that

true

salvation

and the way

were

to

be found in morbid

contemplation of death and the processes of the

phenomenon

of putrescence.

It

was certainly as
to sepa-

well for himself as for the subsequent history of the

paparchy, that Gregory the Eighth saw
rate

fit

him
by

definitely

from the world, by calling him
:

to the subdiaconate
for,

this

and active work of the Church means, a term was placed upon the

extraspective
in the

broodings which one sees reflected

pages of

De Contemptu Mundi— broodings
to a

which might so easily have become introspective,

and have led him inevitably

hermit's

cell

LOTHARIO

DE' CONTI DI SEGNI

17

whereby the Church might have been richer in possessing an obscure misanthropic and socially unpleasing saint, but the apostolic throne would
certainly

have lacked one of

its

brightest orna-

ments, and Christendom the whole-hearted service
of a

mighty

intellect.

Shortly after the accession of his maternal uncle
as Pope, under the
in
1

name
to

of Clement the Third,
to

187,

Lothario

was raised
Bacchus.
as
well

the

cardinal-

diaconate and

attached

the urban church

of
in

SS.
his

Sergius

and

Of
as
in

his

service

cardinalature,

a

canonry
not

of

Saint Peter's-by-the- Vatican which seems to have

been

conferred

upon him,
signatures
:

there
as

are

many
a

records

—a

few

witness,

few
of

letters to

canons

but

we

are told that his curial

activities

were considerable.
later

In his capacity

what two centuries
"

would have been
his first
titular

called

Cardinal-Nephew," one of
the

works was to
church.

restore
"

battered fabric of his
his

He

restored, at

own
a

expense, the aforesaid
6

church, which was so shapeless and ruinous that
it

resembled

rather

crypt
in
1

than a

basilica."

Clement the Third died by Cardinal Bubo
self the

191,

and was succeeded During
this

Orsini,

who imposed upon him-

name

of Celestine the Third.

reign Lothario's energies were no longer employed
6

Gesta,

c.

3.

" Prefatam ecclesiam que nimis erat deformis
basilica

et

ruinosa ut
restauravit."

magis crypta quam

videretur suis sumptibus

B


18
at the

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Lateran
:

he and

his family being eclipsed

by

the relatives and adherents of the

new Pope
at

;

and

thus he was enabled to enjoy considerable leisure,

which

he

employed

variously,

partly

Segni,

partly at Anagni, finishing

De Contemptu Mundi.

That he was not definitely banished from Rome, is shown by the fact that he witnessed two Bulls In eminenti Apostolice sedis, of the Lord Celestine xxix Sept. 1 193, and Religiosam vitam, iiii Nov.
1

197, both given in the

Bullarium

Magnum
"

;

and
the

he certainly was able to keep
next
conclave —

sufficiently

in

public eye to be accounted a " papabile

for the

he
all

in probity

As he grew before God and
"

in age, so also
all

did

the people, and
7

expected and hoped for his elevation."

Nor

was Rome disappointed of its hoped-for sensation. At the conclave of twenty-eight cardinals, 8 which was immured at the monastery of Septa Solis
Clivisauri, the

Sacred College set aside the strange
Pontiff,

recommendation of the dying Orsini
Giovanni
de'

of

Colonna

;

and elected

its

twenty-sixth

member

to the see of Saint Peter.
It

This election was most dramatic.

was
in

re-

garded as

distinctly

sanctispiritual

in

inspiration,
its

and
total

quite

unworldly,

even

unconclavial,

freedom from party bitterness and the usual
of
interest

meannesses
7

and

influence,

tricks

of

Gesta,

c.

3.

"Proficiebat autem sicut aetate sic etiam probitate

coram Deo
sumerent
8

et

omni populo
I.

ita ut

omnes de

ipsius sublimatione pre-

et sperarent."

Cf.

Appendix

LOTHARIO
that

DE' CONTI DI SEGNI
scrutinies.
It

19

canvassing, and long-drawn

seems

two other cardinals
of

— Giordano
of
S.

da Ceccano,

presbyter

the

Title

Pudentiana
says,

— of

whom

Palatius

(quoted

by

Hlirter)

Pren-

savit pontificatum sed frustra,

—and
de'

Giovanni da
9

Salerno, presbyter of the Title of S. Stephanus in

Monte
ten

Caelio

— who
to

(says

Raynaldus

)

obtained
pres-

votes

—joined

Giovanni

Colonna,

byter of the Title of S. Prisca, in acceding with
their

suffrages

the young Cardinal-deacon of

SS. Sergius and Bacchus.

A
of

dove
in
;

is

said to

have

settled

upon the coach
driving

Cardinal

Mastai-Ferretti

while

from

Imola
in

1846 to take the name of Pius the Ninth
equally felicitous tradition asserts

Rome and an
Conti

that three of these birds hovered
de'

above Lothario
and
his
11 98.

during

the

conclave,

that

the

whitest of

them descended upon
His
election,
viii

head at the

moment
on
the
xxii

of

Jan.

Being
priest

only in deacon's orders,
Feb.,

He

was ordained
bishop
Porto, and
also

and
day,

consecrated

by

the

Cardinal-bishops of Albano,
following

Ostia on
the

when He
and
took
Lateran.
of

received
of

pontifical

crown,

possession
It
is

His

cathedral church
noting,
of mind,

of

quite

worth
vigour

as

a token
less

the

extraordinary

no

than of the delightful unconven-

tionally of the

Lord Innocent's character, that, between the date of His election and His ordina9

Ann. 1201

;

No.

25.


20
tion,

INNOCENT THE GREAT
He

composed and elaborated sermons explaining His Own conceptions of His dignity sermons which He actually preached at His Own The last, In conordination and consecration.
secratione

Romani

pontificis^

contains

so

much

matter of surprizing excellence, that one ventures
to subjoin a translation in
10

an appendix. 10
I

Cf.

Appendix

II

I.

CHAPTER

III

CONCERNING INNOCENT THE THIRD AND THE EMPIRE
1

198,

Papacy and Empire Papacy and Empire Empire and Papacy Peter versus Caesar Papal claim to Sicily Claims of Henry VI Church for Italy against Germany The Supreme King Frederick of Sicily Arbitrator Three would-be emperors Philip, Duke of Swabia Otto of Brunswick, Earl of York HohenstaufTen Party (Ghibelline) Brunswick Party (Guelf)

— —

— — Philip's irregular Coronation — Innocent for Otto, but inclined to be neutral — Case of the Archbishop of bishop— France against Salerno — Pontifical terms — An — Philip's case — Nov. 1202— Otto's Otto — England for Otto desperate case — 199 — Innocent champions him — Bull of 1201 excommunication — And his second — Denunciation Philip's of Philip — Rejection of Frederick — Selection of Otto — Innocent's literary support of Otto— Otto's losing game — General venality Otto handicapped by poverty and incapacity — John Lackland's default — Philip's affluence and capacity — Bohemian duplicity Philip's Ghibellines act — Overtures to Guelf archbishop — Adolf price — 1204 — Otto's loss — Philip buys Guelf duke — Pope and archbishop — Philip calls "check" — 1205 — Otto plays up — Philip "check mate" — Otto's ineptitude — 1207 — Innocent's problem — Pontifical terms to Philip — Philip's discreet capitulation Otto recalcitrant— Innocent determined upon a settlement — June 1208, Assassination of Philip — Innocent reverts to Otto — Nov. 1208, Germany accepts Otto — Affirmation of elective principle a gain to the Papacy — Philip the August warns Innocent — Oct. 1209, Coronation of Otto — 12 10— A beggar on horseback — x May 1210, Otto against Innocent — Nov. 1210, Innocent remonstrates — Mar. 121 End of Innocent's patience — Otto excommunicated and deposed — Innocent decrees a new election — Elect-Emperor Frederick — 1212 — Elect-Emperor goes to Germany — 1213, Diet of the Empire at Konstanz — Otto's stand — Alliance with John Softsword against French — July 1214, Bouvines — May 1215, King Frederick crowned at Aachen — Summary
Guelf desertions
idiotic
viii
1

— — —

first

s

calls

1,

-final

When

Innocent the Third began to reign
its

in 1198,

the status of the Papacy,

temporal power and

22
spiritual

INNOCENT THE GREAT
prestige,

depended
of
all

in

no small degree

on

the

personality

the

new Pope.

There
hand,

were
to

possibilities

on

sides capable of leading

widely

different

results.

On

the

one

the

Papacy might
might
in

soar above
in the

the

Empire and
to

be a spiritual sun

firmament of the world

it

become
that

a

power superior
of

the

Empire,
crowns.
sink

the

successor

Peter

might

dispose of the

imperial

and

all

other

Christian

On

the

other hand, the

Papacy might
might pass

beneath

the

Empire
a
of

— Peter
or

under the control of Caesar,
patriarchate

occupying a mere
importance
Coin,
little

with
that
filled

spiritual

greater

than
see

Mainz

and

be-

come a
by the
might

by German prelates nominated
king,

German
have

simply in
to

order that he

some

one

give

him

the

two
viceItaly.

crowns of the
roy of a

Roman Empire and to be German garrison in conquered
third

There was a
a course
in

course,

an indefinite one
each
each

which
for

Papacy and
superior,
other's
its

Empire would
claimsecretly

fight

hard
to

niggling
other's

successes,

ing

be
that

the
it

afraid

was the
as

inferior,

neither

being quite convinced about

own
policy

status,

and

both

behaving

though

a

of

oppor-

tunism

was

its

settled

method

and part of a
solid

long and carefully considered scheme.

As
facts.

well as possibilities there

were certain
the

The

Papacy

claimed

kingdom

of

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
Sicily

23

(more

modernly known as the Kingdom
Sicilies)

of the
of
its

Two

as

a

feudal

fief

in

virtue

acknowledged

relations

with

the

Norman

kings.

Henry
Sicily

the Sixth,

the late

emperor, had

held

and had considered the Matildan lands (Tuscany, Parma, Mantua, Modena),
iure

uxoris

;

as

well

as

the

Marches,

Pentapolis,

and

all

Lombardy, as part of the Empire. Also he had contended that a Roman emperor could be no
man's vassal, not even Saint Peter's.
this the

And

all

of

Popes disputed.

Innocent the Third, by

claiming a great deal, might very reasonably expect
to realize

some
the

part thereof; and historians

may
the

just
fact

as

well

frankly

recognize

once
for

for

all

that

Church

stood

Italy

against

the

Germans, and not simply as Peter against

Caesar.
that that
habit,

The Pope indeed

said quite frequently

He

stood for Italy, and harped on the fact
of

Germans were outlanders and barbarous
being

moreover
ears.

afflicted
11

with a language

uncouth to polite
that of
" Italia

Had

such an idea as
at

Unica e Libera" existed

the

beginning of the thirteenth century, the Church

might aptly have been called the
11

patriotic party,

Pope Innocent
i

III.

was perhaps the
.

first

who

officially

made

Tedeschi and started the flow of sarcasm with which were so fond of assailing Germans in subsequent centuries, a sarcasm which culminated in the famous decision of
fun of
the
Italians

Florentine Signory, not to pay for a certain cartoon in the municipal palace because the artist had introduced into the composition thereof " representations of monsters, dwarves, Germans,
the

and similar indecencies."

24

INNOCENT THE GREAT

and Innocent the Third the national hero. But unfortunately none of the actors of our period knew
the names of the characters they personated.

From

the very

first,

fortune favoured the Pope.

At His accession He at once found Himself supreme arbitrator of Christendom. Three kings of Germany happened to have realized that no one

Pope could make an emperor and they, consequently, were competitors for His support and favour. Of these three, the Lord Innocent already was warden of the youngest and (according to modern reckoning) the legitimate claimant.
but the
;

But, apart

from

this

temporary relation (which,
to the

while

it

lasted,

might have been twisted
as

advantage of the Apostolic See), the position of
Frederick of Hohenstauffen,
iure
matris,

King

of Sicily

12

would have been dangerous

to the

temporal independence of the Papacy, were he to

be

also

Emperor.
13

The
uncle

next

pretender,

Duke
(as
far

Philip of Swabia,

and next heir

as

the

Hohenstauffen lands were concerned) to

Frederick, was a candidate for the Empire, chiefly
in order to

keep the crown

in

the family

:

for

he

knew that, however legitimate and King Frederick might be, he would
have no chance of retaining
15

duly-elected
(as a minor)

in

permanence either
to

heirs in a
13

Innocent had reconfirmed the Kingdom Breve of Nov. 1 198.

Constance and her

the

Duke Philip had been invested by his imperial brother with Duchy of Tuscany, which was claimed by the Holy See as

part of the Matildan donation.

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
title

25

or demesnes.

Therefore

Duke

Philip (while

he personally perfectly respected his nephew and
the latter's claims
just as the

and position) looked upon himself

Uncle-Regent.
is,

That he aspired

to the

imperial

title

in
:

itself,

no proof of treachery

against his

nephew for the custom of having more than one emperor was by no means uncommon in the Eastern Empire, when reasons (for such a
condition of affairs) existed similar to those which

had newly arisen
basic
tion

in the

Western.
to

Duke
a
in

Philip's

policy
to

simply

amounted

determinathe

keep the imperial dignity

House
an
possibly

of

Hohenstauffen.
barely
the

The
of

real

heir,

being

infant

out

arms,
to

could

not
:

take
he,

necessary
Philip,

steps

do

this

therefore
to prevent
;

Duke

had himself elected,

the crown from

falling into alien

hands
Otto

and the

South
third

Germans were
(and
foreign)

his

chief adherents.

The
Bruns-

pretender,

of

wick.
14

14

Count of Poitou,
Henry
the Lion

Earl

of York, 15

was a

Otto, as son of

who was

spoiled of his duchies

(Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, by Barbarossa), had the right (accord-

ing to the

Duke of Saxony. In Brunswick, which he inherited from his virtue of his lordship of father (this, being allodial land, was not escheated with the duchies), he is called Otto of Brunswick. The Duchy of Brunswick did not come into existence as such until viiii Aug. 1255, when it was created in favour of his nephew. Otto the Boy. 15 Richard I is said to have created his nephew Otto Earl of York in 1190: in 1196 he was created also Count of Poitou, a creation which Hoveden says was by way of exchange for his Earldom of York. In 1200 he sent ambassadors to John to claim both York and Poitou, but was unsuccessful. G. E. C. Complete
German
fashion) to style himself

Peerage, vol.

viii, p.

212. note.

26

INNOCENT THE GREAT
of

nephew
raised

King Richard
to

Lionheart,
in

who had
his
conti-

him
and

high dignities, both
dominions.

nental

insular

He

had
from

been
;

brought up rather as an Angevin than a German

and

had

only

some

slight

support

the

princes of the North-west.

The
of

principal

members

of the

Hohenstauffen

party, the

Ghibellines, were

Archbishops Ludolf
of

Magdeburg and
Stade
:

Hartwich

Bremen,
of

who

respectively wanted the

lordships of

Sonnenburg
Salzburg,

and

Archbishop

Adelbert

Bishops Diethelm of Konstanz and Wolfgard of
Passau,

who were
:

family friends

:

Bishops Gerard

of Osnabruck and

Thiemo

from

self-interest

Bamberg, apparently Bishop Konrad of Hildesheim,
of

Chancellor of the

Empire
II

:

and the Bishops of

Brixen and Eichstadt.
of Carinthia, of
Bavaria,

Beside these, the Dukes
of Saxony,

Bernard

Ludwig
of

I

and

the

whole

posse

Saxon,
followed

Franconian,

and
been

Swabian

counts,

also

Duke
which
wick
that

Philip.

Many

of these

princes

held

fiefs

had

confiscated

by

the

Emperor

Frederick Barbarossa from the House of Bruns:

it

was therefore opposed

to

their interest

Duke Otto should be elected, or indeed any one who was not a Hohenstauffen. The principal members of the Brunswick party,
the Guelfs, were Archbishop Adolf of Coin, Arch-

bishop

Johan I of Trier, Bishop Hermann of Heinrich of Strassburg, the Miinster, Bishop

:

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
Bishops
of

27

Paderborn,

Minden,

Cambray and

Verden and Corvey. To these must be added Dukes Henry of Brabant and Walram of Limburg, Counts Baldwin of Flanders, Wilhelm of Jtilich, Volkwin of Waldeck,
Utrecht, the Abbots of
the Landgrave

Hermann

of Thuringia,

and Henry

Count Palatine of the Rhine. All the princes and bishops of the Netherlands hung together
must not be assumed, from the similarity of titles, that a Duke of Brabant or Limburg was the equal in any sense of the Duke of
but
it

Bavaria or of Saxony.

Further, the archbishopric

of Mainz was vacant, the Jupan of

Bohemia was

busy with

civil

war

at

home, and the Duke of
:

Austria was about to die
for

so none of these voted
in-

Otto.

But (apart from the comparative

significance of the Guelf party) an analysis of the

subsequent proceedings of the personages named
in

the

foregoing

category

will

show

that

the

Ottonian faction was not rendered invincible (as
insignificant factions

have been known to be) by
loyalty.

the consolidating

bond of

The Archof

bishop of Coin, the Bishop of Mtinster, the Abbots
of

Verden and Corvey, the
Jtilich ratted

Duke

Brabant,

and the Count of
for

to the Ghibellines

no honourable reasons.
deserted
his

Palatine

Even Henry Count brother Otto (who refused
of Lichtenberg)
to

him
that

the

seneschality

accept
of

of Goslar
left

from

Philip.

The Landgrave

Thuringia

the Brunswicker, on account of a

28

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Count Baldwin of Flanders, who place had only been a Guelf because
of Romania.
Lastly,

family quarrel.
in the first

he was afraid of King Philip of France, went

away
the

to

become Emperor

Archbishop of Trier (who had been vastly

bribed by

Duke

Otto) actually went over to the

Ghibellines and

crowned Duke

Philip.

This

left

Otto only the support of the

Duke

of

Limburg

and the Count of Waldeck with the Netherlands
bishops

and
of
:

the

Bishop
last,

of

Strassburg.

The
most

allegiance

the
it

perhaps,
to

was the
been

worth having
of revenge,

was due
brother

the strong motive

his

having

murdered

by Duke
allies

Philip's

predecessor.

Apart from these

Otto could only hope for help from France,

or from the Papacy.

As

it

was

to

the

interest
it

of the

Papacy

to

have a weak Emperor,
pose that the

is

only natural to supfirst

Lord Innocent from the very
Brunswick was bound
as a
to

had a predisposition toward the Guelf candidate.

Duke Otto
to the

of

appear

Holy See

man whose

election

would

damage
in the

the prospects of the hereditary principle

Empire, the confirmation of which principle
far

would have gone as

to solidify

the

imperial

power as
Still

it

would

to abolish opportunities for

Papal

intervention in Imperial affairs.

such was not actually the case.
the

At
to

first

Pope announced
in

that

He
the

was going
disputed

be

neutral

the

matter

of

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
German
likely

29
in-

kingship.

He
to

even appears to have
Philip, as

clined toward the
to

Swabian
assist

being more
if

be able
side,

the

Church,

won

over to
favour
it

Her

than the Saxon Otto in whose
for the pontifical

would be more natural

policy to

have moved.

It

is

indeed an instance

of the

Lord Innocent's readiness to do violence to His Own feelings and throw precedent and inherited policy to the winds, if by so doing He
whereon
it

might build one more step to the Siege of Peter

might

tower

the

higher

over

the

minds of men.

The Emperor Henry, among

other things for

which he was hated (and quite possibly poisoned)

by his southern subjects, had carried off the Archbishop of Salerno, and imprisoned him be-

The Pope was of opinion that yond the Alps. it would redound to the credit of the Papacy in
the eyes of the
Italians

were
of

this
it

prelate

to

be

released at His instigation: and
to

was His object
entity

arouse

some

feeling

the

of Italy

among

her inhabitants.

Therefore, after giving

time for the neutrality proclamation to have effect

upon Duke
Sutri
to

Philip,

the

Pope sent the Bishop of
if

suggest that,

his

brother of Salerno

were
tion

to be released, the Celestinian

excommunica-

Swabian still languished) would certainly be removed, while it was quite possible that further favours would follow. No one knows to what desirable end this train
(under which
the

3o

INNOCENT THE GREAT
policy

of

might

have
his

led,

had
granted

not

the

pig-

headed German who
the bit
relief

filled

the see of Sutri taken

between
the

teeth,

unconditional

from

ban (refraining from mentioning

the hard

case of the

unhappy archbishop),

and

hurried to grace Philip's coronation in his
capacity
to
:

official

so inducing the HohenstaufTen adherents
that

think

Rome was

with

them

all

this

because he was a party man.

We
in

have here an

admirable example of the way

which the Lord

Innocent was only too often served.
Self-interest or policy, which,

on the one hand,

won

for

Duke Otto

the friendship of the
lost

Roman

Pontiff,

on the other hand

him

that of the

King of France. The nephew and friend of the Angevin and English Plantagenets (represented by King Richard Lionheart, the dear friend of Innocent the Third) could not at the same time Indeed the be the friend of the French Capets. French King wrote complaining of the elevation of Otto, upbraiding the Pope in a most unfilial manner for supporting him. Old ideals were
passing away, notably that of the position of the

Empire

:

which,

in

its

highest

conception,

was

almost a kind of lay Papacy, fitted into the structure of the

body

politic of

Christendom, with the
it

Roman
Empire.

Pontificate balancing

as a sort of spiritual

The Emperor ought
still

not to belong to a

Country,

less to a

Family, but to Christendom. 10
ie

Hiirter.

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
How
could this ideal be realized
for

31

nominees disputed
personify

and foreign alliances?

when two party the Empire with civil war How could the Emperor
Infidel in a

Europe
civil

in

arms against the
at

new Crusade,
wielding the
spiritual

as the temporal lord of Christendom,

sword
the

the
if

bidding

of

his

co-equal,

Pope,

the personality of

the

Emperor

differed

geographically,

being Otto

of Brunswick here, or Philip of Swabia there, or
little

Frederick of Sicily elsewhere

?

King Richard Plantagenet, who (if one may judge him from their correspondence) was on
most amicable terms with the
his

Pope,

supported

nephew Duke Otto in an appeal for recogniThis was not only diplomatic, tion by Rome.
but according to precedent.

Duke

Philip,

whom

the

Pope would

willingly

have supported had
beset

his conditions

been complied
beginning.

with, also appealed to

Rome
from

:

but his course was

by

difficulties

the

very

First, there

was the

difficulty of his

excommuni-

cation

by Celestine the Third.

That, he fondly

imagined, was removed by Pope Innocent's absolution, sent

through the Bishop of Sutri,
bungle
in

who by

his

strange
insisting

according

absolution

without

upon the Pope's conditions, may safely be said to have lost the Lord Innocent His grip over Philip, and so diverted the whole course of
the pontifical policy with regard to
election.
It
is

the

disputed

true that the said absolution

was

:

32

INNOCENT THE GREAT
an
alacrity,

accorded with
prince,

which,

to
:

a

cautious

might have seemed suspicious

but

Duke

Philip
cions.
at
all.

was too much

in

a hurry to verify suspito

Indeed they do not seem

have occurred

He

probably judged the
standpoint
in
;

Pope from a
that

purely

secular

and,

a

Conti
of an

should
Orsini

be prompt
(Orsini

reversing a
Conti's

decree

being

hereditary enemy),
to

no doubt appeared quite natural
pretender.
elected,

the Swabian

Again, when Philip had actually been

he

had

another

difficulty

in

getting

crowned.
tion for a

Aachen, the traditional place of corona-

German King, was
the

out of the question
at

but

eventually

ceremony was performed
But,

Mainz

by Archbishop

Johan of Trier and the
only a
little

Bishop of Tarentaise.

later,

the Lord Innocent wrote to the former austerely

threatening him with suspension, unless he should
at

once

betake
for

himself to

Rome,
of
the

to

apologise

humbly

his

assumption

office

of a

coronator.

The
in

archbishop obeyed, and the Pope
a breve, dated
viii

pardoned him
to

Nov. 1202;

but conditionally upon his according his support

Duke Otto

:

failing

this,

he would be excom-

municated campanellis

et candelis.

No
:

doubt
still

this

was very disconcerting

for

Philip

but

he

was strong
of his
quality of

in

his

family's

influence,

the priority

election,

the

quantity
;

not

less

than

the

his

supporters

and
to

consequently,

he

was

by no means as eager

humble himself

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
before

33

the

Pope

(of

whom

he entertained a not

ill-founded Hohenstauffen distrust) as

was

his

more

despairing adversary.
Otto's case

might be justly described as quite
uncle,
in

desperate.
fortunately
will
in

His
died

Richard
and,

Plantagenet,
in

unof

1199;

spite

a

his

favour, Otto
vital

found himself deprived

of

extremely

support.

For

King

John
princes

Softsword, while

sending promises of assistance,

kept the legacy for himself; and
of the Empire

many

swung over
had
:

to

Philip.

But King
after

Richard
Pope's

evidently

been

a

man
Otto's

the

Own

heart

for,

when

prospects
definitely
friend's

were blackest, the Lord Innocent came

and actively
nephew.
received
Bull
in

to the assistance of

His dead

First,

the Swabian embassy

was
listen

coldly
to

Rome, and
to

obliged

to

a

(read

them

at

a

consistory

in

the

Lateran) in which the pontifical position towards
the

Empire was summed up in the following mordant epigram, " He who is anointed is less than He who anoints, and He who anoints is more worshipful than he who is anointed." 17 This A month later, the was at the end of May. Pope addressed a general epistle to the princes and prelates of Germany, concerning the Swabian

pretender;
lished the
17

and,

early

in

Jan.

1201,
is

He

pub-

famous Deliberatio which
est qui ungitur

contained
Unguens

"

Minor

quam Qui

ungit, et dignior est

quam

unctus."

34
in

INNOCENT THE GREAT
the
Bull

Interest

Apostolice

Sedis.

In

this

document, the
cial

manner,

Lord Innocent, and expounding
liceat,

affecting

a judi-

the

case

under

the

heads of quid

quid

deceat,

and quid
His judgsecond
in-

expediat, reviewed the

claims of the three candi-

dates

;

and, though in a

modern

Jesuit

ment would be
(in

called a masterpiece of casuistry

the

invidious

and unwarrantable

tention

of

the

term),

He

had

the

courage

to

follow

His premises

to their logical

and inevitable

conclusion.

The
as

election of the

baby Frederick
unanimous,

of

Sicily
:

King,
at

although
the

was

illegal

because

baptized.

The

election

had not been of Philip of Swabia was
time

he

simply null and void (because he had been

ex-

communicated), as

was

also

the

absolution

on

which he so fondly
to

flattered himself,

which (owing

the

stupid

blunder

of

the

Bishop of Sutri)

had been represented as unconditional instead of
conditional as the
side this

count

as

Pope had intended. But bethe Swabian was damned on a second well. There was another Bull — (it is
a
letter

quoted

in

to

the

archbishops

of

the

Kingdom dated x Aug. 1199 18 )
ing

— excommunicat;

Markwald von Anweiler and all Germans in arms against Frederick as King of Sicily. It could not be denied that Philip was a German
18
.

Cj.

note

58, p.

89.

"

Excommunicamus

et

Anathematizamus
Teutonicos

.

Marcovaldum et omnes Latinos et Damnamus."
.

fautores eius tarn

quam

.

.

.

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
and, as

35

he apparently was claiming the

Empire
allegi-

against Frederick, (to

whom

he had sworn

ance) he was, by virtue of this Bull, excommunicate as being a rebel against his
Philip's

nephew.
did

That
not
dis-

oath to Frederick was null and void, as

being

made

to

an

unbaptized

person,

mitigate Philip's
ability

liability,

because Frederick's

had not been defined when the oath was taken. Philip had sworn in good faith, and was
therefore

bound by
the

his

oath until formally disdisability.

pensed after the definition of aforesaid
Therefore

Duke
as

of

Swabia as a
wholly
unfit

perjurer,
for

was
more,

denounced
Philip's

being
in

the

highest secular office
claims

Christendom.
thus
to

Furtherthe

being

rejected,

Scripture

which
is

says

"Woe

the
to
;

kingdom
clench
in

whose king
sequence,
the

a

child,"

seemed

the

matter also as regarded Frederick

and,

con-

Duke
of

Otto
a

of

Brunswick,

(although

nominee

discontented

minority,

and

quite illegally elected,)

was
the
in

to

and

Elect-Emperor
is

of

German King Romans. As such
be
i

indeed he

addressed

a letter of

Mar. 1201

;

and

in

return he

made

fairly

comprehensive proa
great

mises concerning rights which as yet he scarcely
understood. 19
19

Dated on the same day

Tibi

Ego Otto Dei Gratia Romanorum Rex et Semper. Augustus, Domino Meo Innocentio Pape, Tuisque Successoribus, et Ecclesie
polliceor promitto et iuro

Romane, spondeo
honores
et iura

quod omnes possessiones

Romane

Ecclesie proposse

et servabo.

Possessiones

mea bona fide protegam quas Ecclesia Romana recuperavit autem

36

INNOCENT THE GREAT
letters to various princes
:

mass of
prelates,

and prelates
those
.

in

Germany proceeded from Rome
expatiating

to

the ex-

upon

Philip's

previous
:

communication by Celestine the Third
the southern princes, urging

those to

them
knight,

to rally to the

Guelf cause.
Bolland,
self,

An

obscure
a

Walther von
to

even

secured

whole

epistle

him-

praising his desertion of Philip. 20

This may

well serve as an

example of the Pope's thoroughOtto's cause
to

going energy

in

when once He had
retinendas bona

made up His mind
liberas
fide
et

adopt
et

it.

quietas Sibi

dimittam

ipsam

at eas

iurabo.

cuperandum
defensor et

Quas autem nondum recuperavit adiutor ero ad rerecuparatarum secundum posse meum ero sine fraude quecumque ad manus meas devenerint sine difficultate
et

Radicofano usque Cepetanum exarchatus Ravenne Pentapolis Marchia Ducatus Spoletanus Terra Comitisse Mathildis comitatis Britenorii cum aliis adiacentibus terris expressis in multis privilegiis imperatorum a tempore Lodoyci. Has omnes pro posse meo restitutam et quiete dimittam cum omni iurisdictione districtu et honore Suo verumtamen cum ad recipiendam coronam Imperii vel pro necessitatibus Ecclesie ab Apostolice Sede vocatus accessero de mandato Summi Pontificis recipiam procurationes ab I His Adiutor etiam ero ad retinendum et defendendum Ecclesie Romane Regnum Sicilie. Tibi etiam Domino meo Innocentio Pape et Successoribus Tuis omnem obedientiam et honorificentiam exhibebo quam devoti et Catholici Imperatores consuerunt Sedi Apostolice exhibere. Stabo etiam ad consilium et arbitrium Tuum de bonis consuetudinibus populo Romano servandis Similiter et exhibentis et de negotio societatis Tuscie et Lombardie. mandato parebo de pace vel concordia facienda etiam consilio Tuo et inter me et Philippum Regem Francorum et si propter negotium meum Romanam Ecclesiam oportuerit incurrere guerram subveniam Ei sicut necessitas postulaverit in expensis. Omnia vero predicta tarn iuramento quam scripto firmabo cum Imperj fuero coronam adeptus. Actum Nuxie in Coloniensi Diocesi, Anno Incarnati Verbi MCCI Co dice Dipiomatico Dominii Temporalis S. Sedis. vi Idus Iunj.
restituere procurabo

ad has pertinet tota terra que

est a

:

:

Tom.
20

I.

This

letter

would seem to be purely gratuitous.


:

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE 37 We are not concerned with the internal history
of

the

German
bearings.

civil
It

war,
is

except
here

in

its

inter-

national

that

the

correin

spondence of the Lord Innocent contained
Regesta,

the

catalogued

by no

Potthast,

and
eight

mostly
inter-

transcribed
esting.

by Migne, becomes extremely
find
less

We

than

epistles

addressed to King John Softsword between 1200

King Richard's Three went to legacies to the Elect-Emperor. King Philip the August, impressing him with
and
1206
urging

payment

of

the
the

necessity

of accepting

Otto

and

discarding

Duke
letters

of

Swabia.

The
affairs

charge of the matrimonial

Pope even took of His protege
1202-3
of

two
out

to

her
of

father

in

pointed

the eligibility

the

Duke

Brabant's

daughter as Empress.
to favour

And, when a disposition

the

Duke Philip began to manifest itself in German hierarchy, the Lord Innocent was
persuasive.

seized with a positive scribendi cacoethes of letters

minatory or
annoyed,
in

He

had

been

deeply

that, at the election to the see of

Mainz

1200,

the

Guelfic

Siegfried

von

Eppstein

should have secured only three votes against the
nine
of
the

Ghibelline

Leopold von

Schonfeld

while the unfortunate Archbishop of Besancon, for

rendering royal honours to the

Duke

of Swabia,

was

menaced

with

excommunication

campanis

pulsatis et candelis extinctis with quite unexpected
acridity.

38

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Although the Pope was burning with
zeal
for

a

Crusade,

and

well

knew
of
for

that

the

distressed

and divided
from
that

conditions

the

Empire

forbade

any hope of assistance
quarter
:

His darling

scheme

yet,

nevertheless,

He

was

bound both by honour and interest to support Otto now. Without pontifical assistance, and
the

constant

support

afforded

through

epistles,

legates,

and malediction of
his

his enemies, the Elect-

Emperor and
aries,

claims

would

have
all

withered

beyond recognition.

Even with

these auxiliin

numbers of
every

his supporters

melted away
until
it

spite of

effort to

retain them,

he was
noted)

reduced to a single
in his

city,

and that (be
not

hereditary dominions.
so

The Lord Innocent was moved,
by the
tary
loss

much

of skirmishes or the failure

of mili-

manoeuvres, as by the continued desertions

which weakened the Guelfic cause.
princes
nally

The German

and prelates of both parties were phenomemercenary and interested in their motives,
oblivious

and
as

altogether

of

the

merits

of

the

causes which they alternately espoused.

So long
took
the
lordships,

pay

was

forthcoming

— whether
of
or
their

it

shape of silver marks,

grants

new

confirmations of old spoliations,

advantageous
children,
:

marriages
so long
longer.

for

themselves or

just

were they loyal

to their

leader

but no

In this competition, King Otto, from the

first,

:

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
was severely handicapped.
tory

39

The

extent

of terri-

which

owed

him
:

obedience
this

was

smaller

than that of his rival

means
family
;

that he

had
of

fewer lordships wherewith to satiate the
his

maws

ravening parasites.
less

His

possessions

were

wide than the Swabian's
evacuation
his

and even they

were largely possessed by other people
enemies whose
contrive,

—by

his
to

he was too weak

and by

friends of

whom

he dared

not

demand

restitution for fear of

changing them

into enemies.

And
his

at the

same

time, the absence

of bullion

in

treasury

most seriously ham-

pered him.

He

had,

from his uncle King John

Lackland, whole sheaves of promises to pay the
various legacies bequeathed by the Lionheart's will

but these were not negotiable securities either in

Germany
1

or elsewhere.

John
This
is

did,

however, pay

9000 marks
2 13

to Otto's military chest
I. 108).

(Foedera

on xxviii Jan. a good exemplificathieves "
:

tion of the

adage

"

Honour among

both

these noble

men

being, at the time, excommunicated
their respective thrones.

and deposed from

Duke
far

Philip of Swabia,

on the other hand, was
;

from being pinched by penury

and, further,

he had the very nicest knowledge of the price of

German prince. The Jupan ot Bohemia, instance, who (with the true Slovene thirst
a
regality)
gratified

for for

had
by

long
Philip's

styled

himself

King,

was
loyal

pretensed-imperial

recogni-

tion

of his

claim

;

and was secured as a

40

INNOCENT THE GREAT
The
sequel
is

Ghibelline.

delightfully illustrative

of the manners of these mediaeval peoples.
crafty Ottokar later conceived a desire
fical

The
;

for pontititle

recognition

also

of

his

kingly

and

allowed himself to Guelfize for a few months for
the
in

express purpose of obtaining

it.

This must
for

no way be accounted a diplomatic triumph

the Pope's

bow and

spear, but simply a

manoeuvre

prompted by the Czech's
as he

vanity.

For, as soon

was registered as King of Bohemia at the Lateran and at Otto's court at Brunswick, as well as with the Ghibellines, he was very easily frightened back to his former allegiance by Duke
Philip's

threat

of confiscation.

Indeed
he

he

may
for,

be said to have done very well for himself:

by

his

latest

tergiversation,

gained

Duke

Philip's

daughter Kunigunde as his queen.
of Konstanz (who
well

The good Bishop Diethelm
gratitude
for

was Ghibelline from conviction as
favours
past

as

from

received)

was one of
Count
to

the

chief pillars

of the

Swabian
is

party.

Wilhelm of

Jiilich
all

(who

credibly

asserted

have surpassed

the rest of his contemporaries

in the scandal of his life)

had recently turned

his

coat in return for a lordship worth 600

marks a
This

year and some other minor considerations.

ill-yoked pair set themselves to win over no less

a personage than Archbishop

Adolf

I

of Coin,

who was
Bishop

the heart

and the soul of the Guelfs.
acted

Diethelm

according

to

his

con-

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
science.
his

41
for

The Count
;

of Julich

was well paid
successful,

services

and,
well

as

they were

the

money was
gifts,

spent.

The archbishop was
all

offered a Ghibelline confirmation of

the Guelfic

and not a few further inducements.

He
sold

wavered

— held

out for a good
silver.

price

— and
return
to

himself for 9000 pieces of

The
in

price of a

German archbishop transcended
apostle.
Saalfeld,
at

that of a Jewish
for

given by

Otto

services

election,

was

confirmed

Adolf;

and,

on the morrow of Saint Martin,
fidelity to

1204,

he

swore
the

Duke
:

Philip.

On

the

same

day,

Duke

of Brabant
his

and Lower Lorraine also
price

became Ghibelline
Nivelle,

was the abbey of the lordship of Neuss, half Alsace and
for

Boppard, with permission
instead

daughters to inherit
to

of

these

fiefs

lapsing
all

the

Empire.
of a

Archbishop Adolf, with
convert,

the enthusiasm
in

proposed to crown Philip
the
possibly
invalid

Aachen, so
at

as

to

rectify
:

coronation

Mainz
Guelfs

but the inhabitants of

Aachen were staunch
the
pre-

;

and

(after

bitterly reproaching

late for his fickleness)

they complained about him

to the Pope.

The Lord Innocent kept Himself always posted in German affairs. He had noted
for

well
that

some time

past,

Archbishop

Adolfs

efforts

on Otto's behalf had been perfunctory and
hearted
;

half-

and had long suspected him of luke-

warmness: but the news of the treachery came

42
as

INNOCENT THE GREAT
a distinct
blow.

To
in

judge from the
old

letters

which the Pope sent
latter

days to Adolf, the

would seem
;

to

have been almost a personal
prelate

friend

and, although His Paternity was in duty
to

bound
ently

punish the erring

by excom-

munication

and deposition, yet

He

was appar-

more grieved than angry, and continued to correspond with him during his disgrace, and even conferred a pension on him vii Nov. 1209. 21 Further, the Pope wrote to Siegfried von Eppstein, whom, (over-riding the capitular vote) He
had
and,

preconized

to

the

archbishopric

of

Mainz,

directing
if

him
in

to remonstrate with the transgressor

vain,

to

report

to

Rome.

He

also

decided that in future,
not

German archbishops would
the

only

have

to

take

customary oath
pallium

on

receipt
Peter's

of the

archiepiscopal

from Saint

tomb, but also to sign and seal a docu-

ment,

wherein they swore unqualified obedience

in all things to Peter's Successor.

Without doubt,

Caesar's distress was Peter's opportunity.

Duke
see

Philip,

however, determined to make the

best of his chances,

summoned

his

adherents to

him crowned by the Archbishop of Coin at Aachen on New Year's day 1205. This news
where
he, for

aroused the Elect-Emperor Otto from his lethargy
at Brunswick,

some

time,

had been
and
too,

enjoying himself heedless of imperial
the growing insecurity of his position.
21

affairs

He,

Cf. Letters to

Archbishop Adolf, Appendix VI.

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
summoned his supporters Duke of Limburg, his own
bishop

43

— (now
Mainz,

reduced to the

brother William, Archthe

von

Eppstein

of

Bishop

of

Cambray, and the Abbot of Verden) to meet him and marched to that city, with the at Aachen
;

idea of holding
parity
after

it

against Philip.
this

But the
;

dis-

of

forces

rendered

impossible

and
fall)

some

fighting,

Otto (being injured by a

retired to Coin.

Duke

Philip's next step

was both ingenious and

At Aachen, with great pomp, he deposited the regal inabdicated the kingdom
diplomatic.
:

signia

;

and

(as

Duke

of Swabia) solicited election

as king.
cally

This was unanimously and enthusiasti;

accorded
the

and, having

now swept away
to

all

but

radical

ground of reproach as
election,
II

the

irregularity of his

Philip and his queen,

Irene (the daughter of Izaak

Angelos), were

solemnly anointed, consecrated, and crowned by
the
right

archbishop on the traditional

spot for
to at
(if

such ceremonies.

Whatever Otto might claim
recognition,
election

be in virtue of pontifical
least
illicit)

Philip
valid

was

king

by

free

and

coronation.

As

for the vital

matter of pontisatisfied

fical

confirmation,

Philip

no doubt was

for

the present with the fact that
his nation behind him.
in

he practically

had

The
It
is

other,

no doubt,

would come
neither

due time.

one thing to ask
quite

the Father of princes and kings for a crown which

He

nor the applicant holds

:

it

is


44
another

INNOCENT THE GREAT
thing
to

petition

for

ratification

of

a

diadem which one has on one's brow.
Otto at
in

this

juncture seems to have

behaved
might
he

an extremely inadequate manner.
his

He

have retained
the

friends with
for

a

little

exertion

Abbot of Corvey,

instance, for
(as

whom

might have requested a mitre
did for the

he successfully

Abbot of Verden) and who, piqued
went and swore
Adolf
allegi-

by

his sovereign's neglect,

ance to King Philip at his coronation.
succeed
carrying
in

Otto did

preventing

Archbishop
with

from
uncity,

Coin
it

along

him

:

but

was

able to hold

against Philip.

A

German

however, never at any time was noted
to
its

for loyalty
effort

episcopal

ruler

;

and very

little
it.

on

Otto's part sufficed to re-capture

But
;

Philip,

tenacious as usual, took
visited

it

back again

and, having

the city in state at Easter 1207 and con-

firmed and

extended

its

commercial

privileges,

taught the Coiners
the winning side.

the

advantage

of being on

Even Pope
tion for Otto,

Innocent, notwithstanding His devo-

was

far too astute to persist in

im-

posing him as emperor upon the

and the princes of the
there
settled

German people Empire, who manifestly
Yet,
to

were determined to prefer Philip of Swabia.
were

many outstanding
Himself and

questions
Philip,

be

between

before

could transfer His favour to the Ghibelline.
therefore prepared a truce
;

He He

and

insisted to

King

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
Philip
all

45
in

that

the

claims

of the

Apostolic

See

ecclesiastical disputes should

be conceded. be

The

Guelfic

archbishops were to

kept no longer
I

out of their sees.

The deposed Adolf

of Coin

was not to be maintained in his illegal position. Leopold von Schonfeld, the Ghibelline Archbishop of Mainz, was to be deprived of his temporalities and Bruno V was to be set at liberty in order
;

that he might succeed his rival Adolf in the see

of Coin.

Finally the

was

to

be disbanded.
in

which the Church
bishing

army prepared against Otto With the curious propensity all ages has shown for furscores,

up rusty weapons, old
is

forgotten

grudges (when anything
Innocent
offered

to

be gained thereby),

a

full,

complete,

and

uncondi-

tional absolution

from the Celestinian excommuniagree to the last demand

cation as the price of the renunciation.
Philip

was unwilling
until

to

;

and
tive,

it

was not

his

own embassy

returned

from Rome, assuring him that he had no alternathat

he gave way.
of their

Quite apart from
positions,
;

the

difference

respective

Innocent

was a

far greater
first

was not the

man than Philip and the latter German sovereign or the last

— who
Rock
fical

has shattered

his

mailed

fist

upon
to

the

of Peter.

He

therefore agreed to the ponti-

terms

:

was absolved and reconciled
all

the

Church, at Speyer, Aug.
the

1207, swearing to obey

Pope

in

those

matters

by disregard of

which he had incurred censure.

46

INNOCENT THE GREAT
The
question of a truce
Philip

— between
the
legates.

or,

better

still,

a peace

and Otto, was then treated by
to

Philip,
for

secure

pontifical

favour,

levied

a
;

tax

the

Crusade throughout

the

Empire
ditions.

and confidently awaited the legatine con-

These
right

suited

him admirably.
to

He

was

to give his daughter Beatrix in marriage to Otto,

with

the

of

succession

the

duchy of

Swabia, together with certain lordships and castles
as her dowry.
his kingly
title,

Otto on his part was to lay down

and recognize
Philip

his father-in-law as

sovereign.

Otto

refused.

loyally

disbanded
truce
;

his

army

:

accepted
to

an

unconditional
for

and

appealed

the

Pope

imperial

coronation

for himself,

and

pontifical favour for the

deposed
but
the

Archbishop Adolf.

The Pope pardoned and
confirmed

received
see

Adolf,
at

Bruno

V
He
in

in

the

of Coin,

same time when
Guelfic

confirmed von Eppstein the

candidate

Mainz

;

and

He

also

an-

nounced, by legate,
Philip as King.

His intention of recognizing

This means that the Lord Innocent was defeated,
in that

He

was obliged

to relinquish

His support

of Otto.

Yet, so deftly did

He

wield the weapons

of spiritual and

temporal diplomacy that

He

all

but transformed

His defeat into a
the

victory.

His
sees.

nominees

occupied

disputed

German
obeying

King

Philip,

His

liegeman,

was

His

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE

47

commands, humbly asking for imperial coronation, as though he were the vanquished asking favours
of a conqueror.

June 1208, King Philip was assassinated by Otto von Wittelsbach, a notorious robber, murderer, and perverter of justice, to whom he
But,
in

had refused

his

daughter

in marriage.

It

is

said pre-

that his death

was heralded by astronomical

sages and portents similar to those which terrified

Rome

before the murder of Julius Caesar.
at

The Pope was
news; and, though
cannot but have
definitely

Sora when
sensible

He
that

heard the

He
been

regretted the tragedy,
this

He

event

and absolutely terminated the unhappy
which,

struggle,

during

a

decade,

had

afflicted

Germany with anarchy and civil war. He wrote once more to the German princes pointing out that the judgment of Heaven had decided in
favour of Otto.

The Germans,
a preliminary

tired of discord,

agreed.

After

recognition

by the Saxons, Otto
all

was solemnly accepted as king by
at

Frankfort-on-Main,

xi

Nov.

1208.

Germany To make

his position sure,

he followed out the conditions

agreed upon by
self to Beatrix,

his

dead

rival

;

and betrothed himdaughter, receiving

dead

Philip's

her dowry,

which consisted of several lordships
fifty

and three hundred and
the
to

castles.

The ban
;

of

Empire was put upon

Philip's assassin

and,

avoid possibility of another disputed election,

48
it

INNOCENT THE GREAT
was decided
that the

prelates

and princes of

Germany should
Mainz,
the

in future

entrust their rights of

choice to seven electors,

viz.,

the Archbishops of

Coin,

and Trier, the

Duke

of

Saxony,

Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Markgraf

of Brandenburg, with a casting vote to the
of Bohemia.

King

This (excepting from the point of

view of those princes who had relinquished their

was a considerable improvement on the old system for a candidate, there were
right of election)
:

fewer electors to canvass and

bribe

:

while,

for

the electors, there were fewer fellow-voters with

whom

to

share the

candidate's

money.

also a distinct gain for the Papacy.
definitely

was The Empire
It
its

and

solemnly

reaffirmed

elective

character within a
to

few months of (what seemed
but
to

be)

the

triumph of the hereditary principle.

The

Papacy,

which could not
be
better
if

be

elective,

would always

able

engage
had

the

Empire on equal terms,

both had to submit to
if it

periodic intervals of uncertainty, than

to

oppose a long and perpetually interrupted succession

of tired and

somewhat

old

men and

their

varying views to the steady family policy of an
hereditarily constituted state.

King
of

Philip the August, alone

of the princes

Europe,

foresaw

what

would
would

happen
be
Innocent,
;

;

and
for

warned the Pope

that

He

sorry

making Otto
ever,

king.

The Lord

howinti-

refused to credit the suggestion

and

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
mated
to

49

His imperial protege" that the double
in

crown awaited him
Thither,
after

Rome. 22

some doings in Upper Italy, King Otto marched and was crowned Emperor in
;

The customarybloody fight took place between the Romans and Germans and the Emperor sought to make the
Saint Peter's, on
iiii

Oct.

1209.

;

Pope responsible for of men and horses

his considerable losses
in

both

this

struggle.

The Pope

considered that the Papacy had been slighted by
Otto's previous diplomatic gaucherie^ and was not
inclined
to

work hard

to

smooth down or

ride

over the Emperor's brusqueness.
tates quarrelled.

And, although

The two potenfor the moment

matters

were kept within due bounds, the

Em-

peror's behaviour during his journey

back through

Matildan Tuscany shewed that the reconciliation

was by no means a
d'Este in
:

stable

one.

His

act,

for

example, granting the March of Ancona to Azzo
12 10,

was

a

direct

challenge

to

the

for the latter had always claimed the Pope March as being a pontifical territory. The Lord

Innocent answered the affront in a most characteristic

way.

On
{in

x

May

12 10,

with subsequent

confirmation two
of investiture
22

years

later,

he granted a Bull
to

rectum feudum

the

Holy

Letter dated v Jan. 1209. Cj. Appendix VI. Otto had sent persons of low degree as his ambassadors to supplicate for Imperial coronation, instead of princes of rank,
23

as

was demanded by the exigences of the protocol and Lateran

etiquette.

D

5o

INNOCENT THE GREAT
fief

See) to Azzo of the very

of which he had

obtained imperial investiture with the sword.
:

This

was check to the Emperor who replied by seizing castles and fiefs, which (he said) the Pope had stolen imperio vacante and even invented mon;

strous

pretentions justifying

his

invasion

of the

Kingdom, alleging that his coronation oath bound him to recover anything which at any time had
belonged to the Empire.

The Pope
client

clearly perceived that
fat

His quondam
;

had waxed

and was kicking

and wrote

to

King Frederick of Sicily, now sixteen years old, inciting him to resist any infringements of
his
rights.

But

before

proceeding

to

extreme

measures, Innocent again remonstrated with Otto,

Nov. 1210, 24 trusting that gratitude might bring
24

From

the

Bull

"Quamvis

dc

Regnum"

dated

i

Nov.

12 10.

(From the Altemps MSS.)
Innocentius Episcopus, Servus servorum Dei, Dilecto in Christo
filio

et

Ottone, dei gratia Romanorum Regi, semper augusto, salutem apostolicam benedictionem. Quamvis de regnum Apostolice
.

.

.

Sedis quod Domino disponente mater omnium et magnam insuffinam quantam Desideravimus personam tuam cientes merebit Nos
.

.

.

ad imperiale fastigium
venerabilis
ceteris
fratres

sublimare et quolibet per Nos ac etiam Nostros operam efficacem ut coronam Imperj
principibus
obtineres.
.
.

conscriptis

.

Ad tantum

igitur

apicem

dignitatis per
.
.
.

Sedem Apostolicam sublimatus Romanum

sed habeas pro oculis que modernis temporibus facta deberes sunt precipue in antecessore suo videlicet Federico quia fidelitatem nolens ut tenebatur Sedi Apostolice conservare prima facie porticam
Sancti Petri et alia

postmodum gravamina
meritis
in

intulit
tulit

ecclesie

sacro-

sancte pro

quorum

proprio confere

quando

in filios procul destinavit quia

scriptum est "

penam ipsam Ego sum Deus

Qui vities peccata patrum in filios usque in tertiam et quartam generationem." Hanc filius volens personaliter sepulcrum Domini visitare Israel-

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
him
to

51

a

better

frame of mind.
his

The Emperor
:

insolently

denied

culpability

alleging,

not

wholly without reason

(according to the

current

was Emperor all temporal affairs of the Empire and Christendom were within his cognizance, and that the Pope
ideas of the time), that as he

no longer had any

call

to interfere therein.

He

went on
that

to protest that

he had never interfered
the

with those Spiritualities to which the Pope (now
there

was a

Lay Head

for

Temporal
and
his

duties of the world) ought to confine Himself;
iterated his

newly invented interpretation of the
oath
as

imperial

coronation

an
a

excuse for
little

misdeeds.
mitting the

The Pope delayed
Emperor
to

longer, perhis

heap up evidences of

rancour against the Church, and hostility towards

King Frederick,
father,

upon
the

whose head
sins

he

seemed

desirous of visiting

of his grandfather,

and uncle.

A
the

crusade has been
control

known

to

wander beyond
but

of the

Roman
ten

Pontiff:

an em-

peror can

never entirely get out of hand.
121
1,

On
after

xxxi
the

March
Pope

years

and a month

first

recommended the German

princes

and prelates
to

to

support Otto, His patience came
issued a bull of excommunication

an end.

He

against the Emperor, which was accompanied by a
iticis

non immerito potuit comparari qui propter peccata sua remisterram nequaquam ingredi meruerunt ante quo tempore Jerusolimam intraret morte fuit repentina in quodam flumine
sionis

suffocatus.

.

.

.

52

INNOCENT THE GREAT
from their
princes

bull of deposition, absolving his subjects

allegiance to

him

:

furthermore the
at

German

were commanded
election.

once

to

proceed to a new

This fulmination took Germany by surprinces,

prise
will.

:

but there was no resistance to the Pontiffs

Many
reviving

actuated
for

by long dormant
Hohenstauffen,
(although

but

affection
in

the
of

promptly acted

the

name

Germany

they were not the lawful electors).
fell

Their choice

upon King Frederick of
Thus,
at

Sicily:

and envoys 25
the
all

were dispatched begging
crown.
the

his

acceptance of the

very

moment when
nearly

excommunicate
Sicily within the

Otto

had

conquered

Pharos

(i.e.

Apulia and the rest

of the

Kingdom) he found that the Pope was, even more than of old, able to sway Germany to His will and that the ground had been cut away from under his feet. In very truth Otto had played the part of ^Esop's dog having the Imperial Crown safely in his mouth, he had
continental
; :

dropped

it

in

a

vain

endeavour
;

to

grasp

the

shadowy diadem of ened by the splash
property.

Sicily to

and now was awakhimself an

find

excom-

municate ex-emperor trespassing on a better man's

The young King,

in spite of the advice of his

nobles and the entreaties of his wife,

Constance

de Aragon, accepted the proffered dignity at the and hastened to Germany, beginning of 1 2 1 2
;

23

Heinnch von Nifen and Anselm von

Iustingen.


INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
stopping
Innocent.

53

on
he
:

his

way

to

confer
hostility

with
of

the

Lord
in

Evading the
crossed

the

Guelfic

Milanese,

the

Alps and
diet
in

arrived
12 13,

Konstanz
granted

where

he held a
to

and
and

liberty

of election

the

chapters

freedom of appeal to Rome.

On

the arrival of this

new
to

competitor, the exhis

emperor Otto hastened
Beatrix

marry

betrothed,

von

Hohenstauffen.

She

died

a

few

days

after

the

ceremony

;

and many of Otto's
portend
Provi-

adherents, judging the

event to

dential disapproval of the marriage of an

excomprince,

municate person,
either

left

him.

Indeed,

this

from his

infelicitous

manners, the

malig-

nance of his
best

stars,

or

whatever form of words
ill

expresses permanent

luck,

seemed more

able to lose supporters than to gain

— or

retain

them.

Otto,

however,
to

so
able

far

profited

by

his

marry Mary of Brabant, upon whom he had had his eye for more than twelve years and thus secured (in a roundwidowerhood as
be
to
;

about way) the support of her father the
of Brabant.

Duke

Further, being convinced that (while

King
could

Philip the

August was

his

make headway against and led away by the frantic promises of his uncle King John Softsword, he embarked against the French, with his new father-in-law and the
Counts of Flanders and Boulogne
trous avuncular expedition which
in

enemy) he never King Frederick,

the disasat

was smashed

54
Bouvines,

INNOCENT THE GREAT
xxvii
Jul.

12 14.

This,

once

more,

reduced

him to the status of mere Duke of Saxony, Lord of the moderate inheritance of Brunswick Coin alone of all Germany (out:

side
to

his
:

ancestral

dominions)

remaining

faithful

him

while for a second time he suffered the
of

bitter
this

mortification

seeing a

successful

rival,

at

King Frederick, crowned in his stead Aachen in May, 1215: an event which signatime
the

lized
last

triumph

of

Innocent's

policy

for

the

time in Germany.
his

Throughout
Pope,
after

Ottonian

German
in

policy

the
the the

the

first

gambit
the

favour
ruined

of

Hohenstauffen
unreasoning
playing a

which had
of

been
not

by

folly

Bishop of
of

Sutri,

was

game which was

His

choice.

Betrayed by His agent, the Lord Innocent was
unable to continue the Hohenstauffen friendship;

and had
fields,

to

become a
cramped

Guelf.

Now

a powerful man,

accustomed to choose or make his
is

own

battle-

fight

when suddenly compelled to on ground of some one else's choice by

reason of the sudden incompetency of a trusted

was annoyed at having to support the phlegmatic Otto and was It speaks hard put to justify His course at all.
servant.

The Lord

Innocent

;

well for the authority exercised

the

Germans
so

that well

He

by Innocent over was able to maintain His
the

struggle

against

Swabian,
it

to

get

such good terms for His protege" when

appeared

INNOCENT AND THE EMPIRE
jected candidate upon the Princes

55

necessary to abandon his cause, to impose a re-

who

for

years
policy,

had upheld a leader of entirely opposite

and
all

lastly

(having

made and crowned him with

Empire obedient to his rule) to brush him aside and make the same Princes obey a third and still more different candidate. And it is more than ever remarkable that the cause for which Otto was deposed was one which
the

would be

likely to find favour

among

the patriotic

Germans
and

— the
the

recovery of

lost

imperial provinces
in
Italy,

and the consolidation of German power
that

person

in

whose favour

he

was

deposed was a boy who could speak no German,
born in
of
Sicily,

brought up under the tutorship

the

Pope
the

and
fact

a

self-confessed

vassal

and
is

liegeman of the

Holy See.
that

But

this

success

due

to

the

Lord

Innocent

was
His

once more fighting on ground of His

own

choice

and was

logical

as

well

as authoritative in

diplomatic reasoning.

CHAPTER

IIII

CONCERNING INNOCENT THE THIRD AND THE FOURTH CRUSADE
Innocent's crochet

— Difficulties — State of Christendom— Innocent's efforts — Funds — Foulques de Neuilly's mission — Count Baldwin of Flanders — New levy of " Dime Saladine" — Venetian contract — Venetians suspected — Chief crusaders — Boniface of Montferrat — Oct. 202 — Proposed assault on Christian Zara — Peter the Legate — Innocent threatens excommunication — Crusaders desperate — Nov. 1202, Capture of Zara — Massacre of Latins — Dual Sebastocracy a failure — Jan. 1204, Nikolaos Kanabos, Basileus — " Murtzuphlos Rise of " Murtzuphlos," 203— Death of Izaak becomes Alexios V — Dandolo warns Latins — Feb. 1204, Alexios IIII murdered by usurper — Latins in arms — Alexios V blinded by Alexios III — Latins sack Byzantion — but preserve incredible relics — Latin rule — Baldwin of Flanders, Emperor of Romania Latin Patriarch of Constantinople — Latin King and Princes Alexios III at Hadrianopolis — Numerous pretenders — at Trebizonde — in Epiros — at Nikaia — at Herakleia — and elsewhere Innocent and the new empire — Thievish Latins — "Respect Church property" — Emperor Baldwin blunders at Bulgaria Innocent's diplomacy defeated — 1205, Baldwin captured by Bulgars — Innocent's new responsibilities — Venetian arrogance 1208, Innocent's efforts with Laskaris — Room for the great — Orders — Templars and the new princes — Thefts of Latin Hierarchy — ecclesiastical supervision — Venetian cupidity — Venetian patriarch protests — 121 Patriarch Morosini dies 121 — 12 vacat— 1215, Gervais of Tuscany, Patriarch — 1204, Bull, Legimus in — Innocent's hopes expressed — and unfulfilled.
1
1

1 1

"

gifts

1,

1

1

5

secies

Dci7iiele

The
that

darling

wish of Pope Innocent's heart was
should
56

Christendom
to

take

really

efficacious
to

measures

reconquer the

Holy Land, and

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
re-establish the

57

now shadowy kingdom
idea.

of Jerusalem.

This was His fixed
to
live

He
in

would have liked

and labour
of the
to
in

for

this

end alone.
the

He

felt

the presence

Infidel

Holy City

to

be

an

insult

Christianity,

and the torpor of

Christendom
be an

submitting to such an affront to

insult to

Heaven.
better

No

one

knew

than

Innocent

what a

host of difficulties beset the scheme for a Crusade.

He
the
to

was quite aware of "the
volatility,

inertia, the stolidity,

the
curb,

inconstancy, which rulers have
to shape."
26

direct, to

Yet
fluent

He

bravely

encountered the passive opposition of princes, and
set

Himself

to

crystallize

the

phantasies
to

of peoples.
militant

His favourite
"

adjuration

kings

was
rest,
27

Make

peace, and take

the Cross."

To

the

the Cross."
tation in

He said, "As you are at peace, take He must have felt keenly the repu-

Him. His policy there had led Him near to one of the two serious mistakes of His life, when He (the apostle of the Prince of Peace and God's vicegerent) Who was constantly urging Christians to surcease from interchristian strife and combine against the Infidel, found Himself both the
initiator

which Germany held

and

the

mainstay of a state of
.

affairs

which simply amounted

to

the handing over of
for

one of the best recruiting grounds
36

crusaders

Rolfe.
Cf. the

Hadrian
Pope's

the Seventh.
:

27

letters

Appendix VI.

;

58
to

INNOCENT THE GREAT
anarchy

and

civil

war.

It

shews immense
Innocent
its

perseverance and no small powers of persuasion

and
and
its

organization,

that

the

Lord
to

was
for

able to get a Crusade to start on
it

way

at all

would be hardly

fair

blame
it

Him

scandalous misbehaviour

when

passed from

His control

into the clutches of the Venetians.
in

At the beginning of His reign, the outlook politics must have been indeed disheartening
and annihilation of Infidels. The archies of Christendom were too
with their
principal
fully

to

a Pontiff intending Himself toward Christian unity

monto

occupied
affairs,

own
least

(or

their

neighbour's)
of

be

in

the

receptive

His hints
their

of

the

nobler

tasks

which

awaited

brains

and

swords.

The

lesser states

were as suspicious of

the greater,

as were the greater of one another.

Some
of the

sovereigns were setting ineffable examples
state

of

matrimony

;

and the inevitable

pontifical

censure

prejudiced

them

against

the

blandishments of the Pontiff. Christendom's
first

The
oftence

great Orders,

line

of

and defence,

were quarrelling and bickering among themselves
in

the very face

of the enemy.

The

Christian

princes in the Levant were behaving like heathen

savages

—the

Count of

Tripoli, for instance,

(who

flayed his archbishop)

and the Prince of Antioch
as
slaves
to

(who
and

sold

Christians

the

Saracens
to-

was

suspected

of

schismatic
Basileus

leanings

ward Orthodoxy).

The

of Byzantion,

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
Alexios
1199,
the
28

59

III,

to

whom

Innocent wrote

xiii

Nov.

was meditating a war of conquest against
of Cyprus, instead of one of aggression
states.

King

on the Saracenic

The Republic
in

of Saint

Mark was

finding trade with the Infidel far

more
cause.

profitable than

any war,

however good a

The
28

only
1.

bright

spot which

shone through the
No. cccxxxix,
se
p. xcvii,

Tom.

Reg. Inn. PP. Ill

Ex

Archivis.

part of 1st

and 2nd sheet. Imperialis excellentie magnitudo

si

coram humiliaverit

qui humilia respicit et alta a longe cognoscit et super sui stabilierit

imperii

fundamentum

preter quod aliud poni non poteat est Christus
-

"ipse" instead of "Christus' '] Iesus et super Quo Ipse Dominus Noster nascentis ecclesie posuit funda" Super hanc petram," inquiens " Edificabo ecclesiam mentum. Meam," exaltabitur et elevabitur quoniam omnis qui se humiliat exaltabitur secundum testimonium veritatis et firmabitur et non flectetur quoniam edificium quod super hoc fundamentum consistet Cum nee casum timet nee ad machinas formidat hostiles enim Dominus Noster unam Sibi sponsam elegerit non habentem maculam neque rugam iuxta quod in Canticis protestatur [the MSS. reads " ptest," the abbreviation for " ro " being omitted] " una est," inquiens "dilecta Mea sponsa columba Mea" et in evangelio dicet "alias oves Habeo que non sunt ex hoc ovili et illas oportet Me adducere ut fiat unum ovile et unus Pastor." Cum etiam in consutilis tunica Christi divisa non fuerit et in simbolo contineatur expresse Credo Unam Sanctam Catholicam et Apostolicam Ecclesiam Grecorum populi ab unitate Apostolice Sedis et Romane Ecclesie recedentes que disponente Domino cunctorum mater est et magister sibi aliam ecclesiam confinxerunt si tamen que preter unam est
(of course) reads
.
.

[Migne

.

ecclesia

sit

dicenda.

predictorum murmur Christiani imo ut Christum propicium celsitudinem tuam Rogamus Monemus et Exhortamur in Domino et in remissionem Iniungimus peccatorum quatenus propositis aliis sollicitudinibus viriliter ac potenter assurgas in adiutorium Iesu Christi et ad terram illam [Migne reads "ipsam" instead of "illam"] quam Ipse Proprio Sanguine compara'vit. De qua in Psalmo habetur " Homo factus est in ea et Ipse fundavit earn Altissimus" et alibi " Deus Rex Noster ante secula operatus est salutem" in medio ferre liberandum de manibus paganorum et restituendam pristine libertati ut in ea Nomen Domini glorificetur

Ut

igitur utroque

tibi

reddas

60
mist
of

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Christian
of
rivalries

was that

the

great

leaders

the

Saracens

Salah-ed-din

and Nur-

ed-din were dead, and that their successor Seifed-din was not Soldan of an united Islam.

However, nothing daunted, the Lord Innocent, overburthened though He was with the affairs of The Church and The Empire, set Himself wholeheartedly to the task of preparing a Crusade.
It

was a labour of
ing.

love,
efforts

prosecuted without waver-

His

first

met with

little

response:
It

princes and peoples alike turned a deaf ear.

was almost

in vain that the

Pope devised means

of collecting funds for the sacred cause.

The

fire

of enthusiasm which had lighted former Crusades

had degenerated

into

the merest

flicker,

and the

Pope had
to

to seek

a latter-day Peter the

revive the dying embers.

He

Hermit found him in
exercitum dirigas

in secula sicut tantus princeps

manum

extendas

et

copiosum sperans in Eo Qui est Spes omnium Qui non deserit sperantes in Se quod paganorum multitudinem a facie tui exercitus Nos enim remissionis et protectionis quam profetur hoc effugabit. aliis principibus Christianis Indulsimus te Volumus esse participem dum modo ad succursum terre sancte potenter assurgas studeas etiam imo sicut potes efficias ut Grecorum ecclesia redeat ad Sedis Apostolice unitatem et ad matrem filia [it seems to show a lack of historical perspective to invite the Orthodox Church to consider itself to be the daughter of the Latin Church], revertatur, ut oves " Si Christi ab uno pastore regantur sicut Ei mandatur a Domino " ut [Migne omits "Si"] diligis Me Symon Petre pasce oves Meas et sub uno capite cuncta membra corporis [Migne reads "corpori"
:

connectantur illo videlicet cui Dominus ait " quod caput interpretatur. [The letter bearing the date xi Nov.

Tu
1

vocaberis Cephas"

199 to the Patriarch

Ioannes X Kamtera is written in the same tone, makes use of the same arguments, and quotes the same texts.]

:;

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
found eloquence was exciting
all

61

Foulques de Neuilly, a parish priest whose new-

who heard
the

him.

A

pontifical

commission

to

preach

crusade

started this tolutiloquent fugleman

on a missionary

journey through France and Flanders.
cess

His suc-

became notable and bred further success the Counts of Champagne, Blois, and Lyonnais, the bishops of Soissons and Troyes, Simon de Montfort, Jean de Brienne, Mathieu de Montmorency, Geoffrey de Villehardouin, the Lord of
Joinville

and some threescore

lesser lords, volun-

teered from France.
the
interdict

The Pope

ingeniously used

which lay upon that country as a
for the crusade
:

means of obtaining money
might be celebrated
in

Mass

such places whence con-

tributions for that object

were forthcoming.
Baldwin of

In the north, the turbulent Count

became aware that King John Softsword's was not a stable (and therefore a satisfactory) alliance against King Philip the August
Flanders

and he took the Cross, seemingly
difficulties

to avoid fresh
in multitudes

with France.

Minor men

came from the same region, such as the Counts of Boulogne and St. Pol, and Nicholas de Mailly.

The

Pope's joy at this small response to His

exhortations did not blind

Him

to

the

question

of ways and means.

Tournaments, the wearing

of furs and versicoloured clothes, were forbidden

on the ground of

their expense.

The
as

Cistercians

and

Premonstratensians

as

well

the

secular

62
clergy
of
:

INNOCENT THE GREAT
France were pressed
for

a

new dime

saladine

secular taxation of absent crusaders was

stopped

:

money was

extracted from Jews by the
:

fashionable methods of the age

clerks

were perinterest

mitted to mortgage three years' revenues of their
benefices
;

and the

laity

were excused the
of Italy

due on debts.
the

Negotiations were concluded with
republics

maritime

— excepting
;

Pisa

and Genoa, neither of which could be employed
without offending the other,
fallen into

Amalfi had largely

the sea and decrepitude

and so was

unable to
tract

make any
the

tender.

A
was

mercantile con-

with
;

Venetians

drawn

up

and
to

accepted

whereby the
likely
(in

crusaders

undertook

pay, as fares, a great deal

more money than they
i.e.

were ever

to

possess,

85,000 marks,

which Hurter
t0

1830) calculates as being equal

,£750,000

sterling.

According to the Codex

Diplomaticus
entire

Hungary it appears that the revenues of that kingdom at the time of
of

the

Fourth Crusade were no more than 166,000
marks.

silver

Consequently these Crusaders agreed

to pay, as

passage-money, a sum nearly equal to
undertook, for this sum, to convey

half the annual income of a considerable kingdom.

The Venetians

4000 knights and horses, with their 9000 squires and 20,000 infantry, and to feed their convoy for
nine months.

The

Pope, however, pleased at the

apparently approaching realization of His dreams,

approved

:

but

He

stipulated that

no operations

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
expedition.

63

against Christians were to be undertaken by this

Events shewed His suspicions of the

Venetians implied by this condition to be only
too well founded.

The
the

principal personages (excluding, of course,

Venetians)

who took
Count

part

in

the

Fourth

Champagne, Marquess Boniface of Montferrat (afterwards King of Thessalonika), Count Baldwin IX of Flanders (afterwards Emperor of Romania), Henry, brother
Crusade,

were

Thibaut

of

of the last (and

his

successor in the

Romanian

Empire), Eustace, brother of the preceding, Jean

de Brienne (afterwards King of Jerusalem and
later

Emperor of Romania), Gaultier, his brother (afterwards Count of Lecce and Prince of
still

Taranto),

Geoffrey de Villehardouin

(afterwards

Lord of Messinople and Marshal of Romania), and his nephew (both afterwards Princes of Akhaia), Simon de Montfort (afterwards Count of
Toulouse), the Count of Blois, the Count of St. Pol,
the

Count of Lyon, the Count of Perche, the Count of Malaspina, Gaultier de Montpellier (afterRomania), the Lords of JoinDampierre, Laval, Bethune, and Frouville,
of

wards Constable
ville,

the Bishops of Soissons, Halberstadt, Bethlehem,

and Troyes, Nicholas de Mailly, Milo de Brabant, Guillaume de Champlitte (afterwards Prince of
Akhaia), Othon de
la

Roche (afterwards Megaskyr
Baron of Geraki),

of Athens), Manasses de Lille, Jacques d'Avesnes,

Guy

de

Nesle,

(afterwards

64

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Montmirail,
Gaultier

Bernard de

de

Cardoville,

Mathieu de Montmorency, and Jean de Neuilly (afterwards Lord of Passavant and Marshal of
Akhaia).

Champagne, the leader of the crusade, died before it started and the Marquess Boniface of Montferrat (brother of Konrad of evil memory) was elected leader in his stead. After
of
;

The Count

ceaseless
at
last

and heart-breaking delays, the crusade
Venice on
of
viii

left

Oct.
its

1202,

with the

avowed

intention

fleshing
in

swords

upon
This

the Christian

town of Zara

Dalmatia.

unholy scheme was brought about by the poverty

and improvidence of the crusaders (who gave
that they had,
also

all

and

all

that they could borrow,)

and
spite

by the unchristian cupidity of the banausi-

cally-minded Republic of Saint

Mark

:

for, in

of every effort and heroic financial sacrifices, the

necessary payments, without which the Venetians
refused to carry out their contract, were short by

34,000 marks.

dumped upon the island of San Stefano, and treated very much as though they were prisoners. Rumours flew about
crusaders had been
that the Saracen Soldan Seif-ed-din

The unhappy

was

offering

great privileges to the

Doge Dandolo,

to bribe

him
so

into diverting the course of the Crusade.

And

the Venetians proposed to their debtors the reduction of the revolted seaport of Zara, as a
fulfilling their obligations.

means of The Pope was advised

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
of
this,

65
(dis-

probably by

German
make

pilgrims,

who

gusted at the prospect of becoming mercenaries of
Saint Mark) tried to
their

way

to the

Holy
pres-

Land

from

other

ports.

The Lord
I

Innocent
29

promptly sent Cardinal Pietro
with

of Capua,

byter of the Title of SS. Marcellinus and Peter,
legatine

powers,

to

try

to

dissuade

the

Venetians and the crusaders from the Dalmatian

Those tradespeople, however, received him with scant courtesy, refusing to let him accompany the army in an official capacity and
objective.
;

his efforts to divert the expedition to

an attack on
general

Alexandria completely
the

failed.

As

a last resource

Pope

threatened

the

Crusade with

and particular excommunication if it should dare to act against any Christians whatsoever and especially

against the Zarantines.

But the crusaders,
from starvation
in

desperate

from want of money,

consequent upon the high prices
sick of delay
tian

Venice, and

and uncertainty, accepted the Veneand
xviii
(viii

terms:

Oct.

1202)

sailed

blindly
for their

into the excommunication,

and took Zara
fitting

employers on
for

Nov. 1202, a
which

beginning

an

expedition

covered

the

name

of

Crusade with disgrace, destroyed an ancient and
Christian
barity
itself

empire amid scenes
heathenish

of

appalling bar-

and

vandalism,

and

rendered

ridiculous

by the absurd
it

simulacra of re-

spectable institutions, which
29

set

up haphazard
in his benefices.

in

His nephew Pietro

II

succeeded him

E

66

INNOCENT THE GREAT
(if

a feeble attempt to replace the orderly
structure of the Byzantine Empire.
It

archaic)

may

as well be said (with a wet finger) that

the Fourth Crusade

an essentially the exotic emotionalism of Foulques de Neuilly's
fervorini,

was (from the very beginning) artificial movement, germinated under
at

and nourished

Venice by the peddling

hucksters of that city for their

own
Zara

aggrandiseitself

ment.

The unhappy movement
at

disgraced
fell
;

more and more
to

every step.

and the

crusaders, ring-led

by the nose, were carried on Byzantion with the object of unseating a more

than usually odious usurper, the incapable Basileus
Alexios III Angelos {soidisant, after the manner
of that period,

Komnenos)
his

in favour of his brother

the ex- Basileus Izaak II

and blinded) and

(whom he had deposed nephew Alexios 1 1 1 1. The

wretched Basileus allowed himself to be frightened
out of impregnable
siege.

Byzantion after a nine days'
their

The Venetians and

tame

Latins

entered, in the

names of the restored joint Basileis. The Of course the restoration was conditional.
to

Venetians were

have

trade

privileges
;

which

would make them commercial despots
to the

and the

Latins were to have the obedience of the East

of the

Holy See to Seven Hills

offer as a
gift

sop to the Cerberus

—a

which must have been

singularly unpleasing to

hoped

to achieve this

Pope Innocent, Who had end by diplomacy, and was

keenly aware of the value of compulsory adhesion

Irene of

Hui

Theodora

=

Konstantinos Angelos

Theodora
ilkos II

Maria

= Ko

Q. Dowager of Jerusalem

1
IZAAK KOMNEN
Basileus of

Cypt

1185-1191

Androniko! Angelos

Ioannes Angelos

Komnenos

Manuel
K. of Thessalonika 1230-1240 Despot of Epiros
1

Izaak Angelos

Dukas
d.

1203

230- 1 237

William

III

jess of Montferrat

See Table

D)

.

of

Conrad

Theod<

k.i

Demetrios I K. of Thessalonika
1 207- 1 2 22

.Dnkas

Table

B—THE BYZANTINES
=
I

Irene, d. of Andronikos nephew to the Basileus

Koiislnullnos XI

Dnko*

Theodora

=

Konstantinos Angelo

Andronikos Protosebastos

Bertha of Sulzbach

= Miinnel

I

Komneno* =

Maria, d. of

Raymond de

Poitiers, Pr. of

Antioch 1136-1149

{See Table E)

Fulk Plantagcnel K. of Jerusalem 1131-1142

Andronikos II Komiienos
:

Theodora
Q. Dowager
of Jerusalem

Tli.--..rl... r

a

= Andronikos

II

Alexios

II Basileus,

Komnenos 1180-1183

IZAAK KOMNKM.K
Basileus of Cyprus

Agnes, d. of Louis VII K. of France (See Table H)

f
,

Basileus, 1183-1185

I

Theodores Bona; Despot of Apron and C. of
Adrinople

I

1185-1191

Manuel Koran

Alexios
Despot of Trebizonde Despot of Herakleia

A
Mikhael 1 Angelos Despot of Epiros

Manuel
K. of Thessalonika 1 230- 1240 Despot of Epiros 1230 1237

Izaak Angelo
d.

1203

IzHAk

II

Aneelot

Boniface, K, of
1204- 1207

Conrad

=

Tlu><><]<>n>

Alexios III Angelos = Euphrosyne

Alexios IIII Angelot Symbasileus

Roger, son of

=

In

=

Philip, D. ofSwabia Elect- Emperor

Leon Sguros
Despot of

Alexios

T Dnkas

K. of

Sicily

(See Table E)

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
to

67
Alexios

the

dogma

of pontifical

supremacy.

the Third, after his deposition, maintained himself
as Basileus at Hadrianopolis for
incited
I

some years and the Sultan Gajat-ed-din against Theodoros
;

Laskaris of Nikaia, his son-in-law, in hope of

regaining his lost empire.
captured, and died, like

But he was

at length

many

of his predecessors,

a monk.

As was
of

to

be

expected,

Greeks
of

and

Latins

could not exist side by side in peace.
individuals

Quarrels

and quarrels
(bubbling
lust

the order of the day.

became The hasty action of some
crowds
with

Flemings,
bigotry

who
a

over
loot)

Christian
the
per-

and

for

had

burned

Saracen

mosque,
Latins

which

Greek

toleration

mitted to exist in the
resident

city, led to

a massacre of

and a nine days' conflagration,
30

devastating a considerable part of the five
into

regions
ex-

which Byzantion was divided.
all

Thus was

tinguished

hope of the maintenance of a good understanding between conquered and conquerors.

The
dotage,

blind

Basileus
result

Izaak was in a premature
his
affliction

the

of

and

twenty

years' semi-starvation in a

dungeon.

querulous,

and suspicious of the
:

He became son whom he
(not

could never see

he objected to the presence of
regarded
without
to

the

Latins,

whom, he
:

cause) as
30

idolaters

he was

bitterly

opposed

Gibbon says eight

— of

which the Venetians obtained three as

their share in the partition.

68

INNOCENT THE GREAT
;

the (to him) new-fangled notions of obedience to

Rome

and

his bigoted hatred
his

of the heterodox,

coupled

with

patriotic

and

comprehensible

mistrust of the Venetians, caused

him

to forget a

proper gratitude for his deliverance from bondage

by Latin hands.
a success
:

The

dual sebastocracy was not

for,

while the elder Basileus roused the

suspicions of the Latins by his hostile babblings,

the

younger

disgusted

the

Greeks by

his pro-

romanism.
izinor

Popular

irritation against

the roman-

o friend of the Latins came to a head (at the end of Jan. 1204) the Byzantine
got out of hand
;

when

mob

and compelled a well-dressed

young man, named Nikolaos Kanabos, to accept the dangerous honour of the purple buskins. This did not at all suit the book of one of the
court
officials,

a
or

certain

Alexios

Dukas,

called

Murtzuphlos,
held
a

" shaggy-eyebrows."

He
Third,

had
in
;

command under
1203,

Alexios

the

which he gained some small military reputation
and,
the
in

na d

all

but succeeded in burning
to

Latin

fleet.

Wishing
the

better his position

as protovestiarios of the palace, he collected his

adherents

:

spread

report

that

Alexios the
barbarians;

Fourth had betrayed the
and,

city to the
in

by a

trick,

succeeded

obtaining posses-

sion of the younger

Basileus,
fate

whom
befel

he at once
unwilling

imprisoned.

A
is

similar

the
:

competitor for the Basilicate, Kanabos

while the
fright

aged

Izaak

said

to

have died of

on

:

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
altered fortunes.

69

hearing of the sudden reverse in his but newly

Dukas then
hailed

donned

the
;

purple

buskins

as

Basileus Alexios the Fifth

and enthusiastic Greeks
his country.

him as the saviour of
he

With

extreme boldness, coupled with extremely Oriental
duplicity,

once more attempted the destrucLatin
fleet
;

tion

of the

and

laid

a trap

for

the

princes, trying to persuade
in

them

to a conference

the palace by stating that he wished to

make

certain promised
in his

payments.

The Doge Dandolo
its

youth had been an envoy to the Byzantine

court

;

and no doubt remembered

treacherous
in

proclivities

—he

had been blinded there
for

1173,

a

fact

which may account
against
the
;

much

of his bitter-

ness

Greeks.

He

however

saw
This

through Dukas
unfortunate

and warned the Latins.
the

so exasperated the usurper that he strangled the

Alexios

Fourth,
viii

after

having

beaten in his ribs with a mace,

Feb. 1204.

The
pelled

Latins,
to

beset

with
the

dangers,
of

were

com-

act

with

vigour

desperation

although in

the heart of a hostile country, they
;

besieged a hitherto impregnable capital

and,
it.

in

two months, by constant attack, reduced
the night of
viii

On

April, the
it

reign

of Alexios
in
tell

V
of

Dukas
blood.

ended

(as

had

begun)

floods

Niketas and Villehardouin

us that he

escaped with the Basilissa Euphrosyne (his motherin-law) to the court of Alexios the Third, where,

::

jo
after

INNOCENT THE GREAT
a
short
interval

of treacherous
his

friendship,

he was
turned

blinded
the

by

predecessor,

who then
wander
in

miserable

wretch
In

out

to

darkness and despair.
Asia,

an attempt to reach
Latins,

he was caught by the

and flung

from the summit of the Column of Theodosius,
a

doom which had been

predicted

Tzetzes, half a

century before. 31

by the poet He may have
man,
a

been a criminal, or he may have been a patriot
he was
without

doubt

a

very

violent

forceful ruler,

and a sharp thorn
place
to

to the Latins.

This
size,

is

not the
wealth,

expatiate

upon

the

beauty,

or importance of

Byzantion

as

it

was before the Sack,, or upon the horrors
Sack.
It

of that

will

suffice

to

say that
;

the

Latins

behaved
in

like

Hunnish
ruin

barbarians

and
only

succeeded
to that

achieving a

comparable
in

wrought by the Romans
in

Jerusalem, the

Arabs

Alexandria,

or the Constable de Bour-

bon's troops in

Rome.
the

They were bewildered by
;

the wealth which they found
stitions

and childish superof

usurped

realm

sane judgment

priceless objects of real intrinsic
lessly

worth were heed-

destroyed,

while the most incredible relics

were zealously preserved.

Beside the True Cross
to

and the Crown of Thorns (afterwards pawned
31

In

passing one would

like

to

point out that the Byzantines

invariably

discovered (generally after the event) that every important occurrence had been predicted at some time or another by a monk or a poet. A prediction to them was as necessary for the

completion of an event as

is

a record thereof to us.

i

C—EMPIRE
,ouis
y

OF

VI

=

of France

Adelaide, d. of h Count of Mai

ess

Theodoric of Alsace = 5 I Count of Flanders

Baldwin V, Count
of Hainault

= M;

1171-1195

II

=

Isabelle

?ust

Hem Em pei
1

P°5

206-

,ord
:rre

Guy, Count
of Flanders

Geoffrey II de Villehardouin Pr. of Akhaia

=

Agnes
d.

1247

Table

C—EMPIRE

OF ROMANIA
Demoiselle

= Louis VI King of France

Adelaide, d. of Humbert II Count of Maurienne

=
I
I

Reginald, Lord
of Courtenay

s
I

de Donjon

Hawise, da. of Robert Bastard to King Henry I Beauclerc

Alice,

daur of
II,

=

Louis VII

=

Thibaut
of

Count

King of France

Eleanor, Heiress of Acquitaine

=

Henry

II,

d.

Fitzempress 118

Champagne

(See Table F)

Theodoricof Alsace = Sibylle Plantagenet, d. Count of Flanders Fulk V, Count of Anjou and K. of Jerusalem

Peter,

Lord of = Elizabeth, Heiress
of Courtenay

Courtenay

English House
of Courtenay
Philip II

The August

Henry
of

I,

Count = Maria

Richard
d.

I

Champage

Lionheart 1199

Baldwin V, Count
of Hainault

= Margaret,
d.

Countess of Flanders
1194

1171-1195

Henry I King of Jerusalem
(See Table G)

Maria

=

Baldwin

I

Philip II

=

Isabelle

Henry
Emperor
1206-1216

=

Alice, d. of Boniface

Emperor, 1204-1205 Count of Flanders (as Baldwin IX)

The August
1 195-1205

K. of Thessalonika (See Table D)

lolande Empress
1216-1219

=

Peler, Emperor, 1217 Lord of Courtenay

Ferdinand of=
Portugal

Joanna
Ctss. of

=Thomas

II

Burchard
d'Avesnes

=

Margaret
Ctss. of Flanders 1244-1280

= William,

Lord

Flanders 1205-1244

Count of Maurienne

of Dampierre

John de Brlenne =
Co-Emperor
John Count
I

Berengere, d.
of

King Don
of Le6n

Guy, Count
of Flanders

of

Hainault

1229-1237 King of Jerusalem 1210-1225 (See Table El (See Table G)

Alfonso IX

Philip M. of Namur refused the Empire
d.

Kobert Emperor
1221-1228

Geoffrey II de Villehardouin
Pr. of

Agnes
d.

1247

Endre II King of

=

lolande d. 1223

Theodoras
Laskaris
Basileus of

I

Maria
d.

Baldwin
d.

II,

Emp. =

Mum

1222

1228-1261 dep.
1273

Akhaia

Hungary

1226

Nikaia
(See

Table B)

ERRATUM
Page
71, lines 18

and

19,

for "with Byzantine rites"

read " with Latin

rites

and Byzantine

regalia."

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
some clothes of the Blessed Our Lord, His baby-linen,
used
at

71

the Venetians and sold by them to Saint Louis)
Virgin,

a tooth

of

the
part

identical

Cup
Bread

the

Last

Supper,

of

the

broken thereat, a tooth of Saint John Baptist, an

arm of Saint Stephen, and the entire body of Saint Andrew (now at Amalfi, except the head which was taken to Rome in the reign of Pope Innocent the Eighth), were cherished by blood-stained
fanatics.

The Sack
erecting

being ended, the

Latins
in

set

about
of
six after

some form of government the departed Greek rule. Twelve
Latin prelates
32

place

Electors,
33

and

six

Venetian nobles,
to the

nearly offering the
finally

Crown

Doge Dandolo,
dignity
of

(xvi

May) decided upon Count Baldwin
for

of Flanders

the

newly

invented

Emperor
Byzantine

of

Romania.
three

He
weeks

was

crowned with
in

rites

later,

Sancta

Sophia

:

which cathedral, together with the right
a

of nominating

Latin Patriarch,

now belonged
whereby

to the Venetians, as part of the bargain
it

was

stipulated

that

the latter and the Latins

should divide the Empire and the Patriarchate be-

tween the two

parties.

The Venetians

appointed

3a Jean the Elect-archbishop of Acre, the Bishops Gamier of Troyes, Nivelon de Cherisy of Soissons, Pierre elect of Bethlehem, and Konrad of Halberstadt (a German), and Pietro Abbot of Loca

in

Lombardy.
33

Vitale Dandolo, Ottone Querini, Bertuccio Contarini, Nicolo Navagero, Pantaleone Barbo, and Giovanni Baleggio.

:

72

INNOCENT THE GREAT
de'

Tommaso

Morosini

;

and the Lord Innocent

confirmed him

in his position.

The

chiefs of the

Latins were rewarded with
empire.

fiefs

under the new
got the
king-

Boniface

of

Montferrat
to
to

dom
titular

of

Thessalonika,
as
heir

which
his

he

considered
Rainer,

himself entitled

brother

king thereof in right of his wife Maria,
late Basileus
:

Manuel I Komnenos Othon de la Roche, a lordship of Athens Guillaume de Champlitte, a principality of Akhaia and two Venetians became Duke and Admiral of Naxos and Lemnos respectively. A host of
daughter to the
:

:

smaller lordships,
satisfied

Thebes, Nauplia, Andros,
;

etc.,

smaller ambitions

and the new empire
from Hadrianopolis.
that

launched out into war: for Basileus Alexios III

was threatening the
If

capital

the

Latins

thought

the

capture

of

Byzantion would put an end to Greek opposition,
they were
cracy,
into
at

very soon undeceived.
in
its

The

sebasto-

beheaded
existence

capital,

sprang, hydra-like,

elsewhere.

Beside

Alexios

III

Hadrianopolis,

another Alexios, of the House
at
to

of

Komnenos, proclaimed himself
I)

Trebizond
the
I

an Angelos (Mikhael
buskins
in

aspired

purple

Epiros
(after

;

and
a

Theodoros
period

Laskaris,

was

saluted

short

of

nominal

viceroyalty on behalf of his father-in-law Alexios
III) as
at

Basileus

at

Nikaia, beside

smaller

men

Herakleia,

Rhodes, Apron, Lakedaimon, and
of the

Nauplia.

The magic name

Roman Empire

D—THE
he Old
3-1183

MON'

=

Judith, d. of Leopc

d. of

Bela

= K

Bon i race
M. 1192-1207
of"

King of
.ngary

1

Thessaloni 204-1207

itrios

ssalonika deposed. 227

Bertha, d. of Boniface M. of

Gravesane

Table
William
III the

D—THE MONTFERRATS
Old

=
I

Judith, d. of Leopold

1 1

II

von Babenberg

Marquess, 1140-1183

Duke

of Austria

Andronikos Angelos (See Table B)

Isabelle Plantagenet, Queen

=

Konrad
M. 1183-1192 K. of Jerusalem 1192 {See Table G)

Izaak

II

Angelos

=

Maria,
III,

d. of

Bela

=

Boniface

:

Basileus of

of Jerusalem

Byzantion

King of Hungary

M. 1192-1207 K. of Thessalonika 1 204- 1 207

Eleonora, d. of Humbert III

Pr. of

William Ascalon
d. 1

=

Count

of

Savoy

179

Sibylle Plantagenet, Queen of Jerusalem (See Table G)

Rainer
Tit.

=

Theodora,

da.
I

King of

of Basileus

Thessalonika d. 1183

Manuel

Komnenos
(See Table B)

Iolande = John de Brienne K. of Jerusalem Q. of Jerusalem and Co. Em p. of

Romania
{See {See (See

Beatrix de Viennois d. of Andrew of

=
1

Table C) Table E) Table G)

Burgundy, Dauphin de Viennois

Demetrios K. of Thessalonika 207- 1 222 deposed.
d.

Bertha, d. of Boniface M. of

= William

III!

Alice

=

Henry, Emperor
of

M. 1207-1225

Romania

Gravesane

(See Table C)

Baldwin V de Montferrat K. of Jerusalem 1183-1186 (See Table G)

1227

/\

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
had
in

73
princes

become the West, and no
in

fact

quite
less

cheap

—two
in

than five

the East,,

laid claim to

it.

After

this,

any man might hope

to die a
It

Roman Emperor.
that

was fortunate
at a distance
:

Pope Innocent the Third

was

from Byzantion

— and
could

also

unsee
in

fortunate

fortunate

in

that

He

not

the horrors and ruin of the Sack,
that

— unfortunate
letters
(for

He

could not

be kept immediately advised

of

all

that happened.

Important
arrived

the

Basileus

Alexios

I

II I)

from
:

Rome

the

day

after that prince

was murdered
the

while others
fresh
hostili-

(urging the Latins to abstain from
ties)

only

arrived

in

middle

of the

siege.

The Pope,

recognizing that what was done could

not be undone,

made

the best of the

new Latin
not

empire and patriarchate.
particularly

Though He was
the
that

pleased

with

appointment
Patriarch

of

Morosini,

He

confirmed

rather

than have the distressful country without constituted ecclesiastical authority
that there should
rity
:

for

it

was

full

time

be a high ecclesiastical autho-

on the spot to curb the thievish tendencies
all

of

the

Latin

princes (from

the

emperor to

the

Lord of Thebes) toward Church property. The Lord Innocent had to write .letter after letter
these demoralized potentates,

to

the

burthen

of

which was always "Respect Church property":
excepting
to be at

when
all

the

princes

shewed

themselves

penitent,

and then the charge would

74

INNOCENT THE GREAT
to

change
have
far

" Restore
34

stolen."

Church property which you Sometimes a Prince would be so

restored to
to

grace

him and

pay

tithes

Pope could urge with some hope of success, 35
that

the

there

are

letters

even,

written

to

pious

crusading lords, impressing upon them the duty
of maintaining at their
in

own expense

clerical vicars

36 the livings of which they were lay rectors.

It

must

have
bolted

been

exasperating

in

a

high

degree

for the
I

Pope, when the blundering Emperor
off

random to fight those very Bulgarians, who had shewn themselves so amenable to pontifical diplomacy. All the Lord
Baldwin
at

Innocent's cherished

schemes

for

maintaining the

union of Bulgaria with the Catholic Church were
defeated

by

the

Flemish

emperor's

ponderous

efforts to protect his nascent

realm from the Tsar

Kaloyan.
captivity
;

tomed

to

His expedition very properly ended in and the Pope, Who had been accuswrite as a spiritual father and superior
but observant and wide-awake

to the obsequious

Bulgar, was

reduced (xvi Aug. 1205) t0 as ^ tne

foolish emperor's life

and

liberty as a favour

from

the exulting barbarian
this request

—and

to

remain calm when
bitterness
is

was

refused.

The extreme

of

all

His subsequent

letters to

the Venetians

very well to be understood, seeing that
34
35

He

was

Letter to Lord of Thebes, xiiii July 1208. Letter to Megaskyr of Athens, xxiiii Jan. 1209.

38

Letter to Archbishop of Athens,

viiii

Mar. 12 10.

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
human, and
origin of
all

75

regarded

them

as

the

source

and
the

the misfortunes of His once cherished

Crusade.
East,

The

Latin

conquest

of

part

of

instead

of lightening,

materially

increased
letter,
37

the Pope's cares.
or a long

Hitherto, an occasional

been

all

drawn and intermittent negotiation, had that had affected Him from that quarter.
petty prince needed as

Now, each
and
deal

much

paternal
;

advice as the most outrageous western sovereign
the

Church

in

more
(very

pontifical

Romania required a great protection and attention than

did the bishops of the Toulousain.
too,

The Venetians high and mighty since their Doge
of

Lord of a Quarter-and-Half-ofa-Quarter of the Roman Empire, 38 and enjoyed the
bore the
title

whole of the commerce thereof) had to be looked
after.

Their tendencies, which were ever more and
to place filthy lucre before Christianity,

more

and

trade before the maintenance of those pathetic morsels
of Palestine, had to be kept within due bounds.

As,
sint
y

however,
the

Lord
the

was a case of quae cum ita Innocent did His duty by the
it

Latin Empire as best

He

could.

He

took special

charge

of

interests
still

of

the

Church,

which

must have been
papas, as
large

largely served

by orthodox
sufficiently

we

are unable to trace

any
the

influx of

Latin clerks to take their places.
frequently

The Pope wrote
37
38

on

subject

of

Cf.

"Dominus

note 28. quartae partis et dimidiae Imperj Romani."

-

76
the

INNOCENT THE GREAT
validity

of Orthodox
39

Orders which

He
all

ex-

pressly acknowledged,

but insisted that

future

ordinations or consecrations of
follow the

Greek
the

clerks should

Latin Rite. 40
divisions

He
all

tried to reduce the
local

lamentable

among
In

impera-

tunculi of the East.
xvii
in

Mar. 1208, to
Nikaia,

good faith He wrote, Theodoros I Laskaris, Basileus

urging

neckedness,
peror of
Justinian,

and

to

him to surcease from stiff acknowledge the Latin emas the legitimate successor of
lawful

Romania
and
his

sovereign.

This must

have been a curious
court

letter to

be received at the
Byzantine
in
all

of

Nikaia,

(which

was
that

save geographical position) by a prince
certain
in

who was

his

own

heart
of
All

he was the one

and only

Autocrat
also

the

Romans.

The

moved to protest to the Despot Mikhael Komnenos of Epiros against his treatPope was
of

ment
desire

the

Archbishop

of

Durazzo,

and
41

to

him

to leave that prelate in peace.

The
beside

conquest,
that

however, had

one good

result

produced by the scattering of objects and

evidences of Byzantine civilization over the avid

West.
closed

A
to

very large tract of country,
the

hitherto

great

Orders,

now
never
theirs

lay

open

to

them.

Estates,

which

they

could
;

have

possessed before,
39 40
41

now became

and helped

Letters to Patriarch of Constantinople,

viii

Mar. 1208.

Letter to Archbishop of Larissa,
Letter, xvii

iiii

Oct. J208.

Aug. 1209.

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
warfare against the Infidel.
It

77

to defray the cost of their unequal but perpetual

seems, however, that the Latin princes (prostill

bably

under

the

influence

of

the

spiritual

disquiet produced

by the major excommunication),

when they ties, made
giving
in

first

entered upon their
gifts

new

sovereignin

lavish

to

the

Templars
It

the

shape of lands and churches.
haste,

was a case of
leisure
;

and repenting
letters

at

for,

from the numerous

written

by the Pope

upon the subject
the

to

the Patriarch

Tommaso,
of
the
to

to

Emperor Henry,
to

to the Constable of

Romania,
most
have
latter

and

the
vices

lesser

offenders,

one

salient

of the

Latin

lords

seems

been that of stealing back the lands which they

had given

to the

Templars.

But as these

were usually quite capable of looking

after their

own
lators

property [more particularly

when

the

pecu-

were such small

fry as the

Lord of Thebes,

Lord of Soule (Syla)], it might seem that the Templars had bitten off more land in the Morea and Romania than they could chew and, so,
or the
;

afforded filching princes an opportunity of snapping

up what they hoped would be unconsidered trifles. Again too, the Pope set Himself seriously to
organize a Latin Hierarchy throughout the newly

conquered East.
traditions

In general,

He

followed

Greek
in

and established a Latin archbishop
metropolitical
see.

every Orthodox

The Lord

Innocent expressly directed that the Latin arch-

7%

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Greek

bishops of Akhaia should enjoy precisely the same
plethora or dearth of suffragans as had their
42

predecessors,

and refused

to allow

any change to
Further-

be made

in the

boundaries of dioceses. 43

more

He
find

kept up a system of steady supervision
affairs of

over the ecclesiastical

Romania

in general.

We
men

Him making

the Latin

prelates
44

act

in

unison to extract tithes from Venetians,

to exact
lay-

obedience from foreign clerks,
(notably the

45

and

to

compel

widowed Queen of Thessalonika) and dishonest bishops to disgorge stolen Church 46 In Akhaia, the Pope used the Hospiproperty. 47 and from time to time tallers as tithe-collectors
;

found Himself obliged to take individual churches,
or even entire sees, under protection as a means

of saving them from rapacious laymen.
occasions

48

On

other

He

had

to chide the

Bishops of Akhaia
for

for excessive eagerness to

excommunicate, and

allowing their soldiery to annoy clerks. 49
tion to these political

In addi-

and

semi-political measures,

which the Lord Innocent was compelled to take

by reason of the indiscipline
(as

into
in

which the Latins

ever in the East)
it

fell

Romania,

He

also

considered
42 43

to be

His duty

to adjust, the differ-

Letter to Archbishop of Athens xxvii Nov. 1206.

Letter to Bishops of Akhaia xxv Mar. 12 10.
Letter to Bishop of Gallipoli Letter to
Letter to

44 45 46
47

Letter to Letter to

Mar. 1208. Patriarch of Constantinople xxv Apr. 1208. Archbishops of Patras and Thebes xxiii Jan. 1209. Archbishop of Athens x Oct. 1208.
xii

48 49

Canons of Thebes

xxiii Jan.

1209.

Letter to Archbishop of Patras xxii Mar. 12 10.

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
ences

79
50

between

bishops

and
be

their

chapters,

to

make arrangements whereby
of ruined

the cathedral services

dioceses

might

kept
51

up and the

poverty of the Church tided over.

On

the other
to

hand

He

would not allow undue exactions
be suppressed;
the
52

be

made on Orthodox monasteries which seemingly
were not
ticular to

to

and

He

was parshould be

insist that

same

liberties

allowed to Greek clergy

who
53

joined the
to

Roman
enjoy

Church as they had been accustomed
under the Orthodox regime.

Lord Innocent and the new Latin empire were much vexed by the Venetians' beBoth the
haviour with regard to their
cerning
treaty
rights

con-

appointment

to

ecclesiastical

benefices.

The Republic
ferring

of Saint
;

Mark

insisted

upon prean extent
at
last

Venetians only

and, to such
that

did

they

push

their

monopoly

the

Patriarch

Tommaso
:

(himself a Venetian) protested
;

energetically
to appoint

complained to the Pope
It is

and refused

any more Venetians.
to

worth noting

that he

had been compelled
;

promise to appoint
the

none but Venetians

and, though

Pope abhad

solved him from the promise as

being contrary

to the interests of the Church, the Venetians

contrived to hold him to

it

for quite a

long time.

Now

at last

his

sense of decency overcame his

w
51

M
53

Letter to Archbishop of Nazoresca xxiiii Jan. 1209. Letter to Bishop of Daulis vi Feb. 1209. Letter to Bishop of Thermopylai xxxi Mar. 12 10. Letter to Bishop of Kardia xxix Mar. 12 10.

80

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Matters were a
unfortunately,
little

national prejudices.

mended
excomrobbing

by

his

action

:

but,

after
for

municating King Levon of Armenia
the Templars, he died, in June
lonika.

121

1,

at

Thessa-

The
for

election

of his

successor

signal

a

fresh

display

of

greed

was the and inter-

national bickering.
to

secure

a

The Venetians tried by force patriarch of their own the Latins
:

relied

upon an appeal

to

Rome

in favour of their

candidate.
elections
;

The

Pope,

however, quashed
to
insist

both

upon an unanimously supported patriarch. Nothing could be decided. The Latins called the Archbishop of
and sent a legate
Herakleia patriarch, while the Venetians decorated
the parish
priest

of their
see,

own

quarter with

the

same

title.

The
i.e.,

therefore,

was vacant from

1211-1215,

until the

assembling of the Lateran

Council, which, after solemnly settling the precedence
to be enjoyed

by future patriarchs of Constantinople,

petitioned

the

Pope

to

nominate a prelate and
In consequence, one Ger-

determine the vacancy.
vais, a

simple Tuscan priest, was

made

patriarch of

Constantinople out of the Plenitude of the Apostolic

Power
to

;

and the Council congratulated

itself

upon

the permanent subordination of the Eastern

Church

Rome, quite regardless of the fact that there was a Greek patriarch, Maximos II, of Byzantion, who lived at Nikaia, and was far more really the representative of the Orthodox Church than was
a Latin curate out of Tuscany.

THE FOURTH CRUSADE
The Fourth Crusade brought no honour
Innocent
the

81
to

Third.

He

seems to have been
to

glad to escape from the shameful position in which
it

had placed Him, by pretending
facts that

draw pleasure

from the
lished

a Latin patriarchate was estab-

on the ruins of schismatic Byzantion, and
Latin

that the

Mass was sung

in

Sancta Sophia

amid the smoke and dust of the collapse of Christendom's last Eastern bulwark against the advancing foes of Christianity and
the
Bull
civilization.

In

Legimus

in Daniele
is

He

expressed the
et

hope that Byzantion which
successful

"defendendum

retinendum," would afford a point d'appui for a

Crusade into the Holy Land

(vii-xiii

Nov. 1204).
all

How

bitterly

He

was disappointed
is

history shews.

To

the Fourth Crusade
in

due

the presence of the cent

Turk

Stamboul
the

— and Inno-

the

Third originated
for

Fourth Crusade.

Happily

His memory, the Pope was not wholly

responsible for the mischievous havoc wrought by

His Frankenstein.
far-seeing statesman

He

was

vilely served.

As

a

none could regret more keenly

than

He

the substitution, as the shield of Europe,

of the pasteboard Latin empire for the tried mail
of the Greek.

As

a far-seeing

Churchman none

could perceive more clearly than

He

that the estab-

lishment

of a

Latin

Hierarchy throughout

the

Empire of Romania was only a conquest from and in no way a conquest of Orthodoxy.

CHAPTER V
CONCERNING INNOCENT THE THIRD

AND

SICILY

Innocent, Suzerain of Sicily Meaning of pontifical primacy Innocent's Own conception of His office The Sicilian Question
Innocent's unique relation to Sicily
1

— — Cause of Sicilian trouble — 198, King Frederick aged four— The Bull Et Zizania— Markwald's case, and supporters — Markwald takes the Innocent's opposition — Markwald's success — Innocent denounces excommunication and failure in Apulia — he would him — his bribe Innocent — Who rejects such offers — Markwald unconditreachery — Aug. 1199, Markwald's tionally submits — but second excommunication — he becomes a brigand — Complications, Gaultierde Brienne — Innocent's dilemma — Investiture of Gaultier de Brienne — Excellent results thereof — Chancellor Walther excites Markwald — Markwald's Saracen ally — Siege of Palermo — Pontifical and Royalist victory — Flight of Markwald —his covery — quarrels with the Chancellor — who blamed by the Pope — 1201, Rebel defeat at Barletta — 1202, Death of Markwald — Capparone rebels — Marriage of Frederick — Pisan interference — 1205, Gaultier de Brienne killed by Diopold of Acerra — who reconciled — as Capparone — 1208, Frederick, aged begins to reign — Otto invades Sicily — 12 Frederick, aged elected Roman Emperor — Summary
II,

field

first

tries

re-

is

is

is

14,

12,

18,

It has been asserted

that

though the Apostolic
military sense)
at

See was defeated
battle of

(in
it

the

the

Benevento,
in

really

won a
but
it

great diplosuzerainty
is
it

matic

victory

securing
of

the
:

feudal

over the kingdom
that this gain

Sicily

possible

was not so valuable as
82

has been
tribute,

deemed.

Apart from the amount of the

"

INNOCENT AND SICILY
the " Chinea," which was

83
real,

more nominal than
plunged
the

the incessant and inextricable difficulties in which
the

suzerainty
it

perpetually

Papacy,
of Ilion

rendered

at

one time a

Wooden Horse
It is

and

at

another a Box of Pandora.

customary
every

to allege that the

Popes have never been backor

ward
sort

in

asserting

inventing claims to

of

imaginable

right
to

when
do.

it

has

been to
is

Their

advantage
to

so

This allegation
conceived

due either
of the

ignorance,
position

or to
as

misunderstanding

pontifical

by the

Roman
realizes,

Pontiffs

Themselves.

When
of

the historian

as

the

Popes
yet

Themselves undoubtedly
gist

realized,

and
in

realize,

the

the

plain

un-

varnished
to

(and

enormous) charge addressed
coronation
office,

Them

Their

and

the

exact signification of the same, "Accept the tiara,

and know
kings,

Thou art Father of princes and Ruler of the world and on earth Vicar of
that

Our Saviour Jesus
official

Christ

54

—as

well as of other

and

in

and public and accepted epithets used by description of the Papacy and its pre-

rogatives

e.g.

"

Supreme

Pontiff,"

" Plenitude of

Apostolic
that
to
(if

Power,"

it

may

as well be conceded,

words mean anything) no one has a right

be surprized, or to attribute, undue or over-

pretentious arrogance to Peter's Successors,

when
the

They
64

act

absolutely

and

autocratically

on

Accipe tiaram^ et scias Te esse Patrem firincipum et regum,

Rectoreyn ordis, in terra Vicarium Salvatoris nostri Jesus CJiristi.

;

84
strength
formally

INNOCENT THE GREAT
of

the

absolute

and

autocratic
to

right

and

solemnly

conceded
of the

Them

by

the

perdurable

consensus

major part of

Christendom.
tion

Innocent the Third's

own concepsovereigns
it

of

His supremacy
clear

over secular

was as
epistle

as

daylight.

He

defines

in

an

dealing with the disputes of the kings of

England and France. "If thy brother trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between him and thee alone and, if he will not hear thee, and, if then take with thee one or two more
; ;

he

shall
:

neglect to

hear them,

tell

it

unto the

Church but if he neglect to hear the Church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man, and a publican. 55 Now," He proceeds, " the king of England maintains

that the king

of France, by enforcing the

execution

of an unjust sentence,

has trespassed

against him.

He

has therefore admonished him of

his fault in the

manner prescribed by the gospel
same gospel) appealed
to

and, meeting with no redress, has (according to the
direction

of

the

the

Church.

How

then can

We, whom Divine

Provi-

dence has placed at the head of the Church, refuse
to

obey the Divine

Command ?

How

can

We
to

hesitate to proceed according to the form pointed

out by Christ Himself?

We

do not arrogate
:

Ourself the right of judgment as to the fee

that

belongs to the king of France.
right to judge respecting the sin
65
;

But

We

have a
right
it

and that

St.

Matt. XVIII, 15-17.


INNOCENT AND SICILY
is

85

Our duty to exercise who he may. By the
if

against the offender, be he
imperial law
it

has been

provided, that

one of two

litigant parties prefer

the judgment of the Apostolic See to that of the
civil

magistrate (apud Grat. caus.

ii.

9.

I.

can. 35),

the other shall be bound to submit to such judg-

ment.

But

if

We

mention

this,

it

is

not that

We

found Our jurisdiction on any
has
falls

civil authority.

made

it

Our duty
sin
;

to reprehend the

God man who
re-

into mortal

and

(if

he neglect Our

prehension) to compel him to
tical

amend by

ecclesias-

censures.

Moreover, both kings have sworn

to observe the late treaty of peace,

and yet Philip

has broken that treaty.
is

The

cognizance of perjury

universally allowed to belong to the ecclesiastical

courts.

On

this

account therefore,

We
free

have also a
56

right to call the parties before

Our

tribunal."

Even
Sicilian
(as

had

the

Popes
they

been

from

the

incumbrance,
kings
to

were quite
princes

likely

Fathers of

and

and

Rulers

of the world)

make Their consent necessary
of the Sicilian crown by a

to a successful tenure

layman.

As

things were, however, this

weapon
ways.
for

was one which could be made
It

to cut both

was sometimes contrary

to

Their
.to

interests,

example, to be obliged always
the

remember

that

Kingdom was an appendage of the Patrimony, more particularly when it was a question of an Emperor becoming the Pope's liegeman
56

Cap. Novit.

13,

de iudiciis, (cited by Lingard, II. 307).

86
for

INNOCENT THE GREAT
his

extra-imperial

southern dominions.

This
subtile

Sicilian

question

often

demanded
Pontiff

very

diplomacy.

When

the

happened

to

be
it

a man-of-God rather than a man-of-the-world,

was apt

assume indeed the proportions of a white elephant, the ownership of which is supto

posed to be at once pleasing to the
ruinous
to

pride and

the

purse and

mental
Third,

peace of the

possessor.
fortune,

Innocent the
in

by a

trick

of

was placed

a

position

toward

His

vassal which no other
since.

He

was

at

Pope has occupied before or once Warden of the King and
;

Protector of the

Kingdom

and

it

speaks well for

His high sense of duty that
devote sufficient attention to
tions of the

He

took His charge

so seriously as almost to despair of being able to
fulfilling

the expecta-

Empress Constance, who had confided her child and his Kingdom to the Apostolic care. Much of the Sicilian trouble was due to the Lord Innocent's action in deposing Markwald von Anweiler from the governorship of the March with which he had been invested by the late Emperor. This German, with singular pertinacity, ferocity, and cunning, had determined to carve for himself
a principality
in
all
: ;

and

to

found a dynasty.

Foreigners

ages

in

Italy

have entertained such ambi-

tions

in the

Twelfth Century adventurers pranced
every province.
of
;

prospectively in
in

The
most

fisherman
frequently
into

troubled
the

waters

politics

lands

best

prizes

and the

difficulties,

INNOCENT AND SICILY
which the minority of King Frederick
xvii

87

May

1198 at the tender age
of the Apostolic

— (crowned of —and
four)

the non-residence

Warden and

Protector plunged

the

Kingdom, seemed admirnote
that

ably suited for Markwald's purpose.
It
is

interesting

to

the

very

first

Bull (after the one proclaiming His

Own

election)

which the Lord Innocent issued,

viiii

Jan.

1198,

was Et Zizania.
weeding His
garner, and

It

announced

His intention of

fields,

gathering the wheat into His

burning up the tares (zizania) with
;

the

fire

unquenchable of malediction
against

and

it

was

directed

Markwald.

The deposed Marchancellor,

quess was supported

by the

Bishop

Walther of Troja, the Count Palear, and Count
Diopold of Acerra
purporting to
;

and he produced a document,
will

be the real

of

the

Empress
Finding

Constance which

appointed him tutor of Sicily
of

and
he

administrator

the

Kingdom.
peninsula
to

further support from the

German

lords of Molise,

marched
:

across

the

Monte
Sicily

Cassino

which, being a natural fortress of great

strength,

might be regarded as the key of
Pharos. 57
kingdom of
later

within the
57

This aggression of course
Sicily

When

the

came
title

to

be divided

into

two

states a
part,

little

in

the

13th century- the

Monarchs of

either

claimed, kinglike, the whole

of Sicily.

Consequently

they were differentiated by their contemporaries by the qualification
of "within" or "without the Pharos" according to the continentality or insularity of their

the text which

is

dominions. The use of the phrase in anachronistic by about half a century may perhaps

be excused as an intelligent anticipation.

— —

88

INNOCENT THE GREAT
permitted
;

could not be

and the

Lord Innocent
short
notice,

dispatched His uncle, Lando di Montelorigo, with

600 men,

all

He

could raise at

to

oppose the Germans.

At the same time, the Pope roused Umbria and the Marches in the German rear and fulminated warnings to the Sicilians against Markwald, 58 and demands for help
;

58

The

following are
:

some of the

principal

documents concerning

Sicily

and Markwald

In a

letter from the Lateran dated Feb. 1 199, addressed to the Archbishops of Palermo, Capua, Reggio, and Monreale, and the Bishop of Troia, chancellor of The Kingdom. {The Archbishop of Messina is omitted as he was i?i rebellion at the time.)

"Constantia* Imperatrix Friderici Siciliae Regis tutelam et balium Nobis testamento rehquit et Nos super utroque omnibus assecurari mandavit cum Marcovaldus persecutor ab Precavete regni non dormiat sed regnum perturbare moliatur. vobis et regno ab insidiis Marcovaldi qui licet aliud mentiatur regnum tamen non regi sed sibi usurpare contendit." Reg. I. 564.
regni
.

.

.

.

.

.

In a

letter

of the same date to the Clergy, Barons, Judges, Soldiers and whole populace of Capua.

opus esset eandem peccatorum remissionem Concederemus omnibus qui Marcovaldi et suorum violentiam expugnarent quam Concedimus omnibus qui contra Sarracenorum perfidiam ad defensionem orientalis provincie accinguntur." Reg. I. 558.
" Si

In a

dated betwee?i March and August 1199, to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors and whole Clergy of Calabria and Apulia.
letter

" Expunite singulis et per universam parrochiam vestram faciatis exponi tyrranidem Marcovaldi cuius consilio nobiles vestri passi

was daughter of Ruggiero the late king of the legitimate professed nun, she was taken by force from her convent to Emperor Henry VI. She was fifty years old at the time and marry the " because it was not believed that she could bear at that age, she was deand it was given out that any lady who pleased might livered in a pavilion Many came and saw her and the suspicion ceased." Malaspina see her. in Muratori Rer. Ital. Script, viii 939.

* Constance
line.

Norman

A

;

INNOCENT AND SICILY
to

89

the

Rectors

of

Tuscany.
at his

This

shews that
;

He

took the

German

own

valuation

and
the

prepared for his destruction accordingly.

At
fort

first,

success leaned towards

Markwald
the

:

of

San Germano guarding

approach to

Monte Cassino surrendered, and he proceeded to sit down before the monastery, which very nearly
exilium et ferreis vinculis alligati.
.

.

.

Volumus nihilominus
et universos et

eadem

districtione

Mandamus

ut

ipsum

et sub complices eius

singulis diebus
extinctis

Dominicis et festivis pulsatis campanis excommunicatos publice nuntietis."
another
letter

candelis

And in

Markwald is

referred to


.

"satis hactenus

manus Teutonica regnum turbaverat

.

.

verum

Marcovaldus Dei
cutor."

et ecclesie inimicus antiquus, regni Sicilie perse-

In a
"

letter

dated

x Aug.

1199 to the Archbishops, Bishops, Counts,

Barons, Citizens and whole Populace of The Kingdom {of Sicily). Excommunicamus et Anathematizamus ex parte Dei Omnipoet

Apostolum Eius auctoritate et Nostra Marcovaldum et omnes fautores eius, tarn Teutonicos quam Latinos, specialiter Diopoldum, Othonem, Siffredum, et Othonem de Lavian, Hermanum, et Castellanum Sorelle, qui principaliter Forma receptionis haec fuit iuravit adherent Marcovaldo. Marcovaldus publice sine pacto quolibet et tenore super crucem et evangelia quod super omnibus pro quibus excommunicatus existit sine fraude mandatis Nostris obediet universis quae sibi per Nos vel nuntios aut litteras Nostras duxerimus facienda. Mandatum est ei sub debito praestiti ivramenti ut a balio regni invasione quoque ac molestatione ipsius per se ac suos omnino desistat nee ipsum aut patrimonium beati Petri per se ac suos vel alium ullo modo molestet universa quae detinentur ab ipso restituat sed ad vomitum rediens et volens adhuc in stercore suo computrescere ut iumentum Nobis post absolutionem quasdam Nobis litteras Postmodum vero idem Marcovaldus Nobis litteras destinavit. destinavit in quibus in manifestum sui periurii argumentum se balium et procuratorem regni Sicilie non erubuit nominare. Nos igitur fraudem eius et versutias attendentes qui putavit Nos fallere sed potius se decepit omnia quae fuerant in forma excommunicationis ipsum tanquam periurum sacrilegum incendiprions expresse
tentis

beatorum Petri

et

Pauli

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

9o

INNOCENT THE GREAT
to

had

capitulate
1

for

want

of

water.
filled

But on
the

xv Jan.
tanks
;

198,

a sudden storm

abbey

and

the

Germans,
compelled
for

whose
to

position

was
siege.

hazardous,

were

raise

the

This gave the signal

many

of the southern
;

lords to rally round the baby-king

and the Pope
their

addressed a general epistle to the Sicilians urging

them

to

oppose Markwald,
crimes and

by supporting
cruelties

lawful sovereign against a foreigner guilty of the

most atrocious

:

Markwald
his

was

to

be treated as a Saracen, and therefore
:

out of law

villages

or provinces cursed by
;

presence were ipso facto to suffer interdict

and

the Lord Innocent concluded by announcing the
dispatch
of

money
slipped

for

the

payment

of

troops

acting against the bandit.

Markwald
obedience
followed
:

into

Apulia,

demanding
first

its

but his failure at the petty siege was
his

by the publication of
in

excom-

munication,

which
M

his

companions
not
the the

"

Germans

as well as Latins

were anathematized nominatim,
aiming
but
at

Markwald, who was
Tutorship of
Sicily,

merely at the
very crown of

The Kingdom,

finding

that

measures taken

arium perfidum sceleratum et invasorem Excommunicamus, Anathematizamus, et Damnamus."

The

letter concludes

with a general warning

to

beware of

Markwald
"qui sanguinem vestrum sitiunt et inducere vos nituntur in perpetuam servitutem." From the Breve " Exoptata Regni Tran-

quillitas?

'

INNOCENT AND SICILY
by the Pope were an insuperable obstacle
success,
tions

91
to his

now approached Innocent with proposiindicating how entirely he had mistaken his
His simple Teutonic logic

opponent's character.

opined that a bribe

might not be unacceptable

to the Successor of the Colleague of Judas.

And
re-

he approached the Pontiffs Holiness with a
quest that
in

He
(so

would desist from opposing him
on the
he offered
throne
to

his

designs

of

the

boy-king,

who was
of the

prove)

not the
the

son

Emperor
at
all,

Henry VI

and
to

Empress
In

Constance
for

but a changeling.

return

this

amenity he offered
uncie,
:

pay 40,000 gold

Sicilian

part

in

cash and part after the

capture of Palermo, together with a double feudal
tribute

and increased right
;

for the

The Kingdom

and

lastly

Holy See over he offered to become

liege-man and not merely vassal for his crown.

His proposition being rebuffed with the scorn
which
it

deserved,

the

versatile

and ingenious

German expressed a desire for The Pope could conciliation.
to such a petition
laid
;

unconditional re-

not refuse assent

but,

suspecting treachery,
conditions.

He
and

after

down verv severe much demur and

Markwald,

a

well-wrapped-up
;

skilfully

planned threat, accepted them

and pro-

tracted the negotiations with the legates

who were
letters

charged to
however,
* The

accept

his

submission.

Meanwhile,
to

he

was
is

writing

numerous

Sicilian uncia

a coin about the sue of a half-guir

92

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Germany and
Italy,

various personages in
all

claiming

kinds of

titles,

and confessing the

fictitiousness

of his reconciliation with the Papacy.
riposted

The Pope

worded Bull of the Greater Excommunication on x Aug. 1 199. Markwald, ad vomitum rediens> et volens adhuc in stercore suo computrescere^ had to take and all Sicily was warned to the consequences
with a fresh and more
bitterly
;

beware of the man and
slavery."
60

his

companions

"

who

drink

your blood and strive to bring you into perpetual
After this exposure of his machinations Mark-

wald made no more ado, but entered Sicily
set

;

and

up as a brigand.
of the

This he was able to do

almost with impunity, owing to the disorganization

administration

;

and beside he was
chancellor

secretly

backed up by
filled
:

the

Walther.

This prelate was

with ambition, which

he

was unable to gratify even though he had practically supreme power in the realm, he desired the archbishopric of Palermo which carried with it
the
Sicilian

primacy.

The

Pope,

Whose

only

knowledge of the chancellor came through the Apostolic ablegates, was unwilling to grant his
request
at

once

:

but

would allow him

(in

his

capacity as Chancellor of

The Kingdom)

to

ad-

minister the archiepiscopal demesnes until sufficient

data for a decision could be collected.
sanguinem vestrum sitiunt perpetuam servitutem"
60

Meanwhile
vos nitu?itur in

" qui

et inducere

Table

E
3ertha, d. of Otto Margrave of Susa

Henry

I

=

Margaret
of Scotland

Beauclerc i ico i 13s

d III Austria

III

MH

V

Matilda

=

Emperor
1106

Geoffrey C. of Anjou

im-1125

Henry

the Black

lgaita

lerno

Henry d'Este

Henry

II

The Proud

Fitzempress 1154-1189

Friesland

Alhina
of Castile

=

Dowager mark
11

Henry

the Lion

d'Este D. of Saxony

Matilda Plantagenet

Li
f

AM
1

I

=

Sicilv

d.

166

Margaret Garcia 1 1 II K. of Navarre

LIP

II

Emperor
3-1208

Irene, d. of Izaak II Angelos {See Table B)

Richard I Lionheart 1 1 89- 1 199

John

III

pulia 161

Pr. of
d.

Henry Capua
1

Lthisa

Beatrix
III

:

OTTO

IIII

172

dinand
)f

Emperor
1198-1209-1218

Castile

Table H)

ER
r

II

Willi a;
K. of Sicilv, Pr. of Taranto = Jehane PI;
d.

Sicily

-"93
;,
I

dau. of

f

Angelos Byzantion

of

Her

Fitzemp
(See

narried
ip II

Tat

Emperor

b Hss.

of Boutron net

K.

iam I Boutron

\

ihe case of Emperors the middle date given their imperial coronation at Rome.

is

that of

Table

E— THE

EMPIRE, SICILY

AND ANTIOCH

cred de Hauteville

Frederick I D. of Swabia 1079- 1 105

IIENHV V
106 1111-1125

William

I

Humphrey
D. of Apulia 105 1- 1057

=
I

Robert Guiscard=
D. of Apulia 1057- 1085
j

D. of Apulia 1043-1046

C. of Sicily

Frederick II D. of Swabia

=
I

Judiih, d. of

Henry

II

!

:

1105-1147

Henry the Black D. of Saxony

Fit zcm press

"54-1189

Ullll. III. Ml.

I

I
<1.

Adela of Friesland
nf Philip'
1

Maukla = Konrad

K, of Fiance

Queen Dowager of Denmark

Frederick till D. of Swabia 1 152- 1 167

MEMtL

IEI1

K

I

=

Beatrix of
d.

Barbarossa

Burgundy Raynald III

Henry the Lion
d'Este

=

Matilda
Plantagei

Emperor
1152-1155-1190

D. of Saxony

Itohrmond
Pr. of

II

I

Alice, d. of

BaMwi

William

I

=
I

Antioch

K. of Jenisalen

K. of Sicily 1154-1166

d.

Margaret Garcia 1 1 II

Constance = .
Q. of Sicily 1195-1198
[

HENBV

VI Emperor

K. of Navarre

1190-1191-1197

Frederick V D. of Swabia 1167-1191

Konrad

II

PHILIP

II

=
J

Irene, d. of

D. of Swabia 1192-1196

Elect-Emperor 1198-1208

Izaak

II

Angel us

(Set Table B)

1!

n)

1.

mini

I

=

;<

mum

de Chaiillon

Erard

II

OTTO
Wenzel, K. of

IIII

Pr. of Antioch,

1152-noc

'1136-II49

L. of Montreal, 1174-118

C. of Brienne 1161-1189
1

=

Ferdinand III K. of Castile {See Table H)

1198-1209-1211

lEolir inn ml III
Pr,
>>f

— Manuel

1

Pietro Ziani

=

Constance
1191-1193
'r.

William

III

Antioch

1163 .201

Basileus of Bvznnti. (See Table B)

of Venice

=

Irene, dau. of
II

K. of Sicily, 1193-1195 of Taranto, 1 190- 1 195 = Jehane Plantagenet
d. of

Albina. Hss Taranto ar

Gauihier III C. of Brienne Pr. of Taranto C. of Lecce

John, K. of Jerusalem and

=:

Iolande de Mont-

Co-Emperor
d.

of

Q. of Jerusalem

\Sn Table D)
1237

Izaak

Angelos

Henry

II

Basileus of Byzantiot

Fitzem press
(See Table F)

she remarried
Philip II

Elect-Emperor

loheinoud
Pr, of

IIII

=I

Antioch

Melisende de Lusignan, d. of

LMiemond -

Hss. of Bouln

Gauthie
C. of Brienne and
Jaffa

nde, Q. of Jerusalem
(See Table

=

(2)

tlCK

II

= (3) Jehane Plantagenet
= (1)

Stupor Mundi

laot 1205

I

Amaury

II

G)

Emperor
1198-

1208-1216 1219-1233

I

K. of Jerusalem [Set Table G)

Constance, d. of K. En Alfonso II
of

King of

Sicily

Aragdn

Itolieinond \ Pr. of Anlioch

II Pr. of Antioch

Raymond

H98-i2t;o K. of Jerusalem 1225- 1240 D. of Swabia 112-1216

IM3 US"
C. of Tripolis 1233- 1251

1205-1208

X
ise

of

Emperors the middle date
c

j

their imperial

INNOCENT AND SICILY
of His uncles, Ottone di Palombara, to help

93

the Lord Innocent sent fresh forces under another

King
Count

Frederick against Markwald.

But here a fresh complication arose.
Gaultier de

Brienne (who

had married Albina,
his father-in-

daughter of the bastard King Tancred of Sicily)
arrived out of France
law's principality of
;

and claimed

Taranto and county of Lecce,

money. Luchaire 61 quotes the French chronicle of Bernard the Treasurer
or

an equivalent

in

to suggest that the

financed

this

Pope had instigated and even marriage, and further had financed

the free-lance for the purpose of attracting a
interest to counteract

new
this

the Germans.

But,

if

be

so,

Innocent thereby prepared for Himself the

horns of a
it

dilemma.

If

He

allowed the claim,

might seem that
refused to allow
into

He
it,

was

letting a fair slice of
:

His ward's kingdom

slip

through His fingers

if

He
ant

He

might drive the claim-

open

hostility

and incur the accusation
took the only course which
:

of denying justice.

He

a decent
with
his

man

could take

invested Count Gaultier
allegiance
to
;

fiefs,

taking his oath of
:

King Frederick trusted him to keep his word and sent him southward to become one of the chief
supporters
of

the

prince

whom

he might have

dispossessed.

Count Gaultier's presence in Sicily was indirectly the means of saving the boy-king's life Markwald got for, later, when
Indeed,
:

61

Luchaire, Innocent III,

Rome

et tlialie, p. 178.

94

INNOCENT THE GREAT
:

possession of Frederick, he refrained from killing

him
to

such a

crime

being likely
to

not

so

much

benefit the

German, as
of

assist

the not un-

reasonable

claims

Gaultier

de

Brienne,

who

was a
at

more formidable antagonist than a boy La Ziza by Palermo, or a Pope in distant
far

Rome.

The

obsolescent

Gregorovius,

who

(in

his Geschichte

der Stadt

Rom

in Mitteliilter) never

by any chance allows any virtuous action on the
part of the
inspired,

Papacy excepting when teutonically
(as

naturally

one would expect) jumps

at the opportunity to
this instance of

become

feverish concerning

Innocent the Third's favour to a

Frenchman. But surely the facts of the case, and the excellent results of His bold and honest

Pope from insinuations of being disloyal to His trust and no true friend of King Frederick of Sicily by His acknowledgment of the Tancred claim. The arrival of the new Count of Lecce was
action, sufficiently clear the

also a very serious thing for the

wicked Chancellor,
in

who had been The Kingdom
therefore

largely
for

instrumental

getting

Emperor Henry VI, and was exposed to the animosity of King
the
heir
to
;

Tancred's

and he
his

seems
attempt

to

have urged
perhaps

Markwald

make

earlier

than the latter had intended.

Beside the nobles,

whom,
to his

(either

by fear or favour) he had attached

Markwald was in conjunction with Magaddi the Emir of the Sicilian Saracens.
cause,

;

INNOCENT AND SICILY
Having got
unsuccessful.
into

95
in

communication with

traitors
:

the palace, he tried to surprise Palermo

but was
in

Nor was he any happier
:

his

attempts at a siege

for,

on the twentieth day, the
fleet

Archbishop-Admiral of Naples arrived with a

and the

pontifical

and royal armies made a

sortie.

In the battle which ensued, the Pope's persevering
pains, in providing the
auxiliaries,

young king with

pontifical
inis

were amply rewarded.

The moral

fluence which the

Lord Innocent also exerted,

shewn by the fact that the royal troops disdained to desert to Markwald on the explicit ground of
his

excommunication.
to re-form

They

fought bravely

:

but,
;

time and again, they were broken by the rebels

and had
lines.

under cover of the
troops

pontifical

In
;

the

end the Germans made
pontifical
fell

a

false

move

and the

who were comfled,

paratively fresh,

upon them, defeating them

with great slaughter.

Markwald
field.

leaving the

Saracen Emir dead on the
Chancellor

Walther's
his

gratitude

to

the

army
not

which had destroyed

secret hopes could
;

be expected to be overwhelming
troops

and the Lord
together

Innocent Himself was obliged to compensate His
for

their

losses.

These,

with

arrears of pay and a solid bonus by

way
:

of prize

money, the Pope cheerfully provided
custom of the time was rather to
Innocent had
leisure

though the
the victors

let

pay themselves from the plunder of the vanquished.
little

in

which

to

con-

96

INNOCENT THE GREAT
upon His
success, for

gratulate Himself

Markwald

recovered from his defeat with amazing rapidity.

But Count Gaultier of Lecce returned from France,

where he had been recruiting a small but
selected force, in the very nick of time.

carefully

Markwald
at
last

and
to

his

accomplice the Chancellor

had

quarrelled.

Each accused the other of aspiring the crown. The layman being the stronger,
Calabria
in
;

the clerk fled into
that

and began
his

to skin

unhappy
style,

province
in

most

approved

Sicilian

order to raise funds for opera-

tions against his former confederate, to

whom

he

was obliged
mile the

to

abandon the custody of the young
Palermo.

king's person in the castle of Ziza, about half a

from the gates of
Pharos,
62

By

crossing

however, Chancellor Walther came

more immediately under the notice of the Pope. Definite evidence was soon forthcoming against him and the Lord Innocent instantly stripped him of office, and blighted him with the Great Ban. The Markwaldine faction then suffered
;

defeat in the person of Diopold of Acerra outside

the gates of Capua.

The Germans
the

fled into Apulia,

whither they were followed by the Cardinal- Legate
Peter

who

raised

country upon them.
to

The

ex-chancellor
62

now
is

tried

make
in

peace, with the

History for the it has always divided (and still does divide) nations as widely different as those separated by the Straits of Dover, the inhabitants of those parts have ever affected to consider a mere river.
the political
Sicilian

The Pharos

name

Straits of Messina, a

body of water which, although

INNOCENT AND SICILY
Pope
;

97

but was unable to stomach the necessarily
friendship

concomitant
Brienne.

with

Count

Gaultier

de

He

therefore fled to Diopold.

Together
Oct.

they rallied their

men and made
forces near

a great attack
vi

upon the
1

pontifical

Barletta,

20 1,

where

they were

most signally defeated.
suddenly
died,

In

Sept.

1202,

Markwald

and
tried

though one Capparone seized Palermo, and
to play the part of

von Anweiler, the

strain

which

the struggle with the latter had placed upon the

resources and attention of the Pontiff
rially
life,

lessened.

During the

last

was matemonths of his
in

beside

possessing the young king's person,
Sicily
:

Markwald had been almost absolute
but most of his adherents deserted the

new

tyrant

and joined the

Pope,

Who

(by pressing

on a
got

scheme

for

marrying King Frederick to Costanza

of Aragon, daughter of

King En Alfonso

I)

extra military assistance from that country to help
in

the recognition of Sicily.

The temporary
curiously

illness

of

the

caused rumours of His death to

Lord Innocent spread and this
;

augmented the tedious disorders in The Kingdom. The Pisans mischievously interfered
until

there,

checked by a
to

pontifical

remonstrance

addressed

their

government* with

which

for

some reason they complied.
at length contrived to

The
;

ex-chancellor
and, though
his
lost

be reconciled
in

the Pope did not reinstate him

see,

he did good service

for the king.

The Count

of

98

INNOCENT THE GREAT
his pacification of the south,
killed

Lecce went on with
until

Diopold of Acerra

him

in the castle

of Sarno near Vesuvius, June 1205.

Now

that his

adversary was removed, Diopold also manoeuvred
for

reconciliation

with

the

Church.

This was

accorded, and the Pope sent the penitent Count
straight to

Palermo

to persuade the usurper

Cap-

parone to give up the king and the palace to
the legates.

This done the Pope Himself wrote
of
friends

to the Sicilian barons, stating that, the king being
in

the

hands
there

and guided by lawful
further

wardens,

was

no

excuse

for

the

lawlessness which hitherto might have been palli-

ated while there was no fixed government in the
country.

Although

affairs

were

still

much
:

disturbed, the

great offenders had been crushed

so that,
at the

when
age of

King Frederick came
fourteen
in
1

to his own,

208,

he found

that

what elements

of order existed in his

kingdom were due to the Lord Innocent. The Emperor Otto's subsequent invasion of a kingdom to which he had no claim,
;

and one just recovering from the long anarchy of
its

sovereign's minority, together with Frederick's

coronation as

King

of

Germany

at

Aachen, are

treated elsewhere.
It

has been said that

Pope Innocent was not
Sicily
:

over-successful in

His tutorship of

but

it

should be

remembered that it occupied nearly the whole of the time of no less a man than the

INNOCENT AND SICILY
Emperor Frederick
II

99
to reduce

Stupor

Mundi
while

The Kingdom
spot

to order,

and that he was on the
the

and
in

completely
ill

ruthless,

was
is

Rome,

served by timid legates

Pope and a
It

Christian

Bishop rather than a man of war.
it

quite safe to say that

is

entirely

due

to the

Lord Innocent that the young king lived to grow up, and that he still found a kingdom existing at
all

when he came

to

an age to deal with

it.

— —

CHAPTER

VI

CONCERNING INNOCENT THE THIRD AND ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
Tests of Innocent's character general pontifical duties Innocent's Bishop of the Catholic particular duty What was Innocent? Church Albigensian Nonconformity Condemned by Councils Burgundian dissenters burned 1169, 1 167, 1 166 1 165, 1 163, Lateran Council 1181, Dissenters harried— 1 195, Council of

Corruption of Church in France 1196, Count VI of Toulouse Albigensians the aggressors 1 198, Raymond Names of the Authorities Innocent names commissioners Sects Disunion in Dissent " Eidola Fori" Abbot of MarWaldensian Examination, of the same gare's description

Montpensier

— —

— — — — tenets — Albigensian tenets — Constitution of the sect — Analysis of Albigensianism — Innocent's action — Appointment of two Etsi Nostra legates — Opposition of bishops — May 1204, Navicola — Appointment of third legate — Legates depose bad bishops — Invention of Domingo de Guzman — Dominican Order — Count of Toulouse excommunicates — Jan. 1208, murder of the legate Pierre — Innocent anticipates Bera and Calvin — Reconciliation of Count Raymond — First Albigensian Crusade Leading Crusaders — Leading Albigensians — Simon deM ontBill
1 1 1 1

— —

fort

— Second excommunication of Count Raymond — 12 personal ambitions of Crusaders Albigensians not annihilated but exasperated — Second Albigensian Crusade — Personal hatred of Count Raymond and Count Simon — Mutual atrocities — 12 Innocent reproves Count Simon — Bill of Crusade revoked — Jan. 1213, Council of Lavaur— Count Raymond humbled — Rise of Simon de Montfort— Count Raymond pleads in Rome — Is deposed by Lateran Council Pensioned — Jan. 121 Council of Montpellier— Extinction of Albigensian rebellion — Summary
— Nov.
1209, Massacre of Beziers
10,

12,

5,

Some

writers consider that the verdict of history

upon the character of Pope Innocent the Third should be given in regard to His general govern-

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM

101

ment of the Church. Others think that the crux of His time was the imperial succession, or perhaps the Fourth Crusade
:

while yet a third class
point,

would not emphasize any one
points,

or series

of

but rather rely on the acts of the whole
It
is

reign.

possible,

however,

in

emphasizing

nothing, to
of genius of a great

fail

of due appreciation of

some

flash

stamping the subject as the possessor

mind or of a masterful character. It is equally possible, on the other hand, in laying stress upon any one action or particular train of policy, that what really was routine work may be picked out for praise, and that an original
treatment of a case
of

may be overlooked
is

in

favour

some stroke which

rather the result of the

steady methodical plodding of a permanent undersecretary
seize

than of a great leader's inspiration to
right

the

opportunity.

After

giving

due

consideration to the several claims of
of England, of the East, or of

The Empire,
to

Rome,

be the

touchstone which should prove the true metal of
the

Lord

Innocent,

it

is

clearly

apparent

that

these are not the only things to which one must

look for the solution of the question of the great

Conti Pope's status.
before

We

must go further
like

afield

we can decide whether Innocent
corona
of

shall shine

with

the

a sun

Hildebrand,

or

whether
the

He

shall

be considered a
last

moon

of the

magnitude of the
Pecci,

Borgia, the Barberini, and
politically)
fill

Who

(speaking

the

102

INNOCENT THE GREAT
category
of
pontifical

second

greatness.

The
cope

Lord Innocent's
with
the

predecessors
of

had had
or

to

blustering

truculent

cringing

Caesars,

the indignatiunculae of mulierose kings,
of

the

trade-unionism

barons,

the

venality
:

of

bishops,

and the

riots of the

Romans
for a

there was

ample precedent ready

to

hand
from
there

Pope who
every
of

had
year

to deal with selections

this list in

of

His

reign

;

and

were

hosts

whose experience was at His disposal. The pontificate itself was not particularly in need of a reformer it had been raised out of the slough of despond wherein it had wallowed when it was no more than an ecclesiastical agency of the German Emperors it had not yet sunk into the sanctimonious profligacy of Avignon during the " Babylonish Captivity." And the Holy
curial
officials
:
:

Father
than
to
" bibere

Himself had several better things
caper
at

to

do
or

the

college

of

cardinals

papaliter."

There was,
stable

in short,

no very
in

particularly

Augean

on the Celian Hill

which the Lord Innocent might play the part of
Herakles.

But

in the

Toulousain of southern France there

was that which needed unique and most meticulous treatment the Albigeois was infected with a heresy which was as a peccant humour in the

body of the Catholic Church.
history
verdict

And
in

the jury

of
its

should

be

swayed,

pronouncing

upon the Lord Innocent, by a considera-

< O O J D O H W
C/)

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
tion of

103

His treatment of the Albi^ensians not less than by the evidence adduced in regard to His
other activities.

Was He
on

a blood-bibbing butcher,

Who
to

urged

His minions of the Inquisition

slaughter,

torment, outrage, peaceful nonconformists

who

dis-

dained the doctrines of a bloated corrupt opulent
Erastian Establishment
?

Was He
from
sheep,

the sagacious
flock

shepherd
the

Who

cut

out

His healthy

hopelessly

diseased

threatened wholesale disaster?
the

whose contagion Or was He merely

man
?

in authority,

the philosophic ruler, acting

impersonally for the greatest good of the greatest

number

As Bishop
Innocent
tegrity
:

of

The

Catholic Church, the Lord
responsible
for

was
in

certainly

Her

in-

the

maintenance of which

He

had

certain rules to guide

Him.

approve of these rules
pret

them
(if

all

alike

:

— but
is

may or may not we may or may not interrules as plainly

We

uncomagainst

promising as "

He who

not with

Me

is

Me "

we

are not to close our ears and neglect

them) do not admit of diverse interpretations.

The
growth.

Albigensian heresy was not of very recent
It

had been mentioned, and more or
anathematized, by the provincial

less automatically

more than diocesan synods) of Lombers 1165 and Capestrang 1166. The fourth Canon of the Council of Tours 1163 stated that "A damnable heresy has for some
councils

(which

were

little

104

INNOCENT THE GREAT
in

whence it has spread little by little over Gascony and other provinces. We therefore command, on pain of excommunication, all bishops and clergy of those
time existed
the

Toulousain,

provinces to
matter,
to

turn

their

whole attention to
dealing

this

and prevent any man from giving
heretics,

shelter

the

or

from

with

them.

Catholic princes are

commanded
to

to imprison them,

and are permitted
the

confiscate

their

property."
letter in
in

This canon remained practically a dead
south
:

but some dissenters were
1167.

burned
1181

Burgundy
at

in

The

sects
in

were again noticed
In

the

Lateran Council

1169.

the

Cardinal-bishop of Albano used an armed force for

summary
the

dealings with certain recusants.
of Montpensier

In

1

195
re-

council
all

sought out and

enacted

sentences of excommunication against
:

the sectaries

which perhaps was not very much

to the point, as they
to

had ceased of

their

own accord
that

commune
It
is

with the Church for some time past.

not for a

moment pretended
in

there

never was a time

the history of Christianity

when
had

there was no cause for protest.

In Innocent

the Third's day, the
fallen

Church

in the
:

south of France
in

upon
in

fairly evil

times

one sense

its

grossness,

worldliness,

and lethargy had caused
ill-

heresy

;

and
it.

another sense the heresy had
of

affected

The Archbishop
of Count

Narbonne,

for

example,

(bastard

Raymond Berenger
Lerida,

of Barcelona) held the bishopric also of

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
This prelate had
thirteen

105

beside the abbey of Montaragon where he lived.
not
visited
his archdiocese for

years

;

and amassed riches by the
pluralists,

sale

of the sacrament of Orders, benefices, and dispensations.

His clergy were corrupt

of a

low standard of learning, who wore secular
wives.

clothes,

followed secular professions, and openly lived with

The
;

archbishop himself habitually sheltered
in return for

robbers and brigands

a share of their
(if

plunder

and also countenanced
west of Rhone,

he did not
shared with

personally practise) open usury.

In the south of

France,

the

clergy
:

Jews the contempt of the laity no clerk could and stir abroad until his tonsure was grown over
;

bishops,

when they
it

troubled at

all

about the matter,

were hard put to
tion.

to find candidates for ordinain this condition
it

While the Church was
to find that to

was not strange
inclined
sects tions
(in

secession,

many of the and that members

nobles
of the

consequence) contrived to gain exemp-

from feudal dues.

The

latter also
;

were the

beneficiaries of frequent legacies

and, in spite of

their so-called predilection for simplicity,

were often

wealthy.

The power

of the

Church

actually

was

so undermined by the prevalence of materialism
that bishops were

unable to prevent heresiarchs
the bishop of Albi was power-

from preaching
of Lombers,
less

in public, e.g. Sicard, in the castle

whom

to

silence.

Neither

could
lived
:

the

episcopacy

collect the tithes

whereon

it

Bishop Fulcrand

106

INNOCENT THE GREAT
was reduced
for

of Toulouse

to such

penury that he

had to beg

an allowance from his chapter.
southern
princes
:

Many

of

the

were

secret

or

avowed opponents of the Church Count Raymond VI of Toulouse was excommunicated in 1196 for
his

atrocious conduct
:

towards the abbey of
Viscount
Beziers

St.

Gilles

the

tutor

of

Raymond-Roger
Bertrand

of

Carcassonne and

(one
(1

de

Saissac) was the dissenter

who

197) burned the

Abbey

of Alet (because of a displeasing election),

flung the elect-abbot into

prison and posted the

dead one on a throne

until

one of

his

own

creatures

had
the

been

chosen,

the
;

opposition

having

been
that

meticulously massacred

and the

result

was

young viscount was afterwards known to take part in the nonconformist ceremony of Adoration.
Unfortunately
it

cannot be maintained that the
folk,

Albigensians were simple unworldly

who
:

only

desired liberty of conscience for themselves

on the
all

contrary (like their archetypes and ectypes in

ages) they

proved themselves to be

—when

the

opportunity came

— as

prone to aggressive perse-

cution as any passive resister.

There were

horrible

scenes of violence at the disputed elections for the
see of Toulouse in

1202

:

the lawful bishop

was

hounded out of the
election.

city,

and the canons constrained
to

by threats or actuality of torment

revoke the

Such then was the condition

in

which the Lord
:

Innocent found the south of France

the Church

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
hopelessly
discredited,

107
the

the

nobles

hostile,

bishops

powerless

or

profligate,

the

country

honeycombed with heterodoxy and creeping with
brigands.

On

i

April 1198, in answer to the piteous appeals

of the Archbishop of Auch, the
Cistercians,

Guy and

Renier, to

Pope named two examine the case
In under-

of the Valdenses, Cathari

and

Patarini.

taking this task

He

was guided by the canon of
1

the Lateran Council of

1

79,

which decrees that

"although the Church, according to the words of
St.

Leo, contents Herself with a sacerdotal judg-

ment and does not employ sanguinary executions, nevertheless She is assisted by the laws of princes,
in

order that the fear of a temporal punishment
to

may compel men
remedies."

have

recourse

to

spiritual

He
and
of

then waited for reports, after His

manner

;

accumulated
the

evidence,

as

to

the

condition

Church

and

the

progress

of

nonconformity.

A

fair

idea

of the
to judge,

matter which

He

had

to

consider and

may, perhaps, be gained
Bibliotheca Patrum
:

from a study of the Histoire Gdndrale de Languedoc
of Devic and Vaissete, O.S.B.
op.
:

Bernardi Abb. Fontiscaldensis
:

Acta
torn,

Conciliiii,

orum

Mabillon's

Vetera Anaiecta,

and

Limborch's History of the Inquisition, which quotes
the original records of the heresy
First,
it

trials.
is

may

be said that there

much

con-

fusion as to the exact nomenclature of the various

io8

INNOCENT THE GREAT
It
is

sects concerned.
to suppose (for

quite a mistake to pretend

ends adscititious or otherwise) that
in

there

was anything like unity in dissent Thirteenth Century any more than there is
Twentieth.

the

in the

When

once the absurd principle of

private

judgment (which no one dreams of exeris

cising in matters best left to experts)

practised

in regard to religion, infinite differentiation inevit-

ably follows.

The Lord

Innocent's commissioners
:

were confronted with two main sects
hence
of

the

members
;

of which professed singularly various beliefs
it is

and

no wonder that completely

different sets

dogmas should be

continually confused together.

We find

the nonconformists described as Publicians,

Poplicani,

Petrobrusians,

Paulicians,

Leonistae,

Sabatati, Henricians, Bulgarians, Boulgres, Arians,

Manichaeans, Poor

Men

of Lyons, Cathari, Patarini,
It

Waldenses, and Albigenses.
with
Francis

seems as though

the writers of the period were thoroughly infected

Bacon's

Eidola Fori,

—the

strange

power of words and phrases over the mind were anxious to display their knowledge of at
incoherent

—and
least

the denominations of different heresies, and to label

jumbles
first

of

blasphemies

with

names

which, (when

used meant something definite,

but) in their later application were the merest tags.
Prelates and councils not unfrequently had the un-

common
This
is

sense to place themselves on the safe side
as
" heretics " tout court.

by describing dissenters

the case in the preamble to the canons of

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
the Council of Tours,

109

1163;

63

and

in

the fourth

canon thereof
existed."

it is

written "

A

damnable heresy has

The

Council of Lombers, 1163, stated

" In reply to the Interrogation of the

Lord Bishop

of Lodeve, Olivier and his
heretics,

companions, selected

denied the Old Testament and asserted
only of the

the

efficacy

New.

They

offered

to

prove from the gospels and epistles that the said

Lord Bishop was an
that
all

infidel

and blasphemer, and

the other prelates present were hirelings

and no true shepherds." 64
were burned
anathematized
in

The Burgundians, who
;

1167, were called Poplicani

and
11

twelve years later the Lateran Council of
Cathari,
Patarini,
1

79

and Poplicani. 65
195 was
:

The
up

Council of Montpensier in
to

still

un-

decided as
for its

the

exact

designation

but

made

ignorance with a zealous damnation of
heretics."

"blasphemous
Abbot,'
"
1

The

Premonstratensian
naively
writes

Bernard

of
et

Fontcaude,

Contra Valdenses
197,

Arianos" Two years later, in King En Peyre II of Aragon published an
:

edict against the Valdenses, or Sabatati

while, as

we have

seen, the

Lord Innocent
to

in

11

98 named

Cistercian

Inquisitors

deal

with

Waldenses,

Cathari, or Patarini. 66

was submitted to the Pope, the Abbot of Margare wrote " These
for the information which:

As

63

Acta Concilioru?n,

XXI

p. 1176.

"
83

Hist. Languedoc, Vol.

VI Ed.

1879.

Acta Conciliorum^ XXII
Breve of
i

p. 232.

69

Apr. 1198.

no
false

INNOCENT THE GREAT
prophets pretend
to

to

lead

an

apostolic

life

and

imitate the

Apostles.

They preach unkneeling

ceasingly,

walk

barefoot,

pray

seven

times by day and as often by night.
not
take

money from any man.
diet.

They will They eat no
availeth

meat, drink no wine, and content themselves with
a
plain
:

nothing

They say that because no man should
vain

charity

possess anything.

They Mass

refuse to communicate, pretending that the
is

a

form [inutile)

;

and protest that

they are ready to die or suffer the utmost penalty
for their belief.

They make

pretence of working

miracles."

67

Even from Pope
does not seem
to

Innocent's point of view there

have been anything violently

objectionable in the tenets described by the

Abbot

of Margare, excepting of course the denial of the
efficacy
that,

of the

Mass and Holy Communion; and
Lord Abbot.
of

no doubt, must have been a misconception
People who
got
hold
apostolic spirit, as

on the part of the

have so

far

the

those described in the foregoing quotation, could
not possibly have missed such an important item
as this
that

means of grace.
backsliders
in

But

it

is

extremely likely

the

question

made

the

not

uncommon mistake
particular
clergy,

of visiting
at

upon the Church
the

Universal their indignation

enormities

of

whose
quite

ministrations

they

conto

sequently

(and
67

erroneously)
Vetera Analecta, vol.

disdained
iii.

Mabillon.


ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
accept.

in
in

Of

course

the

fact

remains that these
of
" stasis
"

people

undeniably
little
is
it

were

guilty
little

forming a

creed and a

society of their

own

:

but

conceivable

for

a

single

instant
to
"

that a

Pontiff

Who

was enlightened enough
" methodistical

include

so

very

unusual and

a

person as Blessed Brother Francis of Assisi, his
preaching,
his his
diet,

praying,
within the

his

professional

penury,

plain

Fold,

should have ex-

pelled

Abbot of Margare's enthusiasts solely on the counts named. Lord Macaulay has said
the
that
is

all

necessary to be said on the subject of

the Catholic Church's catholicity in dealing with

human idiosyncrasies. The Waldenses, however, would seem
arrived at a far sharper line
of cleavage.
tenets at the time were mainly as follows
I.

to

have
Their

:

They
or

were
to

not

subject
of

to

the

Roman
of

Pontiff,

the

prelates

the

Church

Rome.
Pope
sect.

They
when
63

could

not

be

excommunicated by
not
to
to

any of these.

They ought
ordered
of

obey the
their

He

them

abjure
in

The Church
The
truth

Rome

sinned

perse-

cuting them.
II.

prelates of the
blind,

Church of
or

Rome

were

blind

leaders of the

and did not preserve
imitate

the

of

the

Gospel

Apostolic

poverty.
* Limborch.
de Vismes.
Hist. Inq. Bk.
I,

chap.

viii.

Sentence on Hugette

ii2
III.

INNOCENT THE GREAT
The Church
of

Rome was
is

a house of

lies.

IV. Oaths are unlawful.

V. Confession to a priest
VI. All judgment
is

useless.

is

forbidden by

God
for

;

and

it

a sin for a

man

to
in

condemn a fellow-man
any case or

to

death or punishment
whatever.
VII.

any cause
right
to

Laymen and women have

the

preach the Gospel.
VIII.

The

prayers

of

the

faithful

and other
this

good works are of no avail to the dead. IX. There is no Purgatory after death, 69
life

being the only Purgatory.

X. The soul on leaving the body, goes straight
to Paradise, or Hell.

Here, perhaps, we come to something a

little

more

precise.

Beside the

categorical

attack

on

certain

definite
it

dogmas
pages,) the

of

the

Catholic

Church
escape
of the

(which
defend

is

not proposed to minimise or even to
it

in

these
that

ought not

to

observation

Waldensian
contrary to

denial,

right to punish crime, simply contemplated such a
state of

anarchy as

is

all

sane ideals
fail

of good government, and as

such could not

of condemnation by lawful authority.

The

creed

of

the

Albigensians,
far

as

far

as

it

can be traced, contained

more numerous
might
be

ele-

ments to
69

which

exception

taken

by

Biblioth.

Patrum. Op.

Bernard Fontiscaldensis.

Contra Val-

denses et Arianos.


.

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
unprejudiced
political

113

economists of any period.
:

Their most important tenets were as follows
I.

There are two Churches, the one merciful the Albigensian Church of Christ, which retains that faith within which every one is saved and
without which no one can be saved
the
:

the other
is

merciless

Church

of

Devil, Mother of Fornication, the the Synagogue of Satan, within which every one is irretrievably damned.

Rome, which Temple of the

the

There are two Gods: the One Good, the other evil. The evil god is the Devil and
II.

Satan
things

:

who

created the Old

Testament and
and
:

all

visible

and

corporeal,

is

the

god,

maker and prince
is

of this world
all

the

Good God
and
incor-

the Creator of
70

things

invisible

poreal.

III. All the

Sacraments of the Catholic Church
:

are vain and unprofitable

excepting Penance and

Confirmation.
IV. There
of the Mass.
is

no Real Presence

in the Sacrifice

V. Orders are vain

;

and

priests of the Catholic
loose.
71

Church have no power to bind or VI. Extreme Unction is of no
fies

avail

;

and

signi-

nothing.

VII.

Confession to a priest
only can forgive sins
Hist. Ing.
lb.

is
:

useless,

as

the

Good God
70
71

but the Perfecti

Sentence on Petrus Auterius. Sentence on Stephana.

H

ii 4

INNOCENT THE GREAT
72

of the sect, by the imposition of hands

and the
people
this

Gospel Book, can absolve

from

all
:

sin

who

join the Albigensian

community

was

called the

Consolamentum? %
is

VIII.

It

impossible for

God
in

to

have become

Incarnate because
greatly
as
:

He

never humbled Himself so
the

to

put

Himself

womb

of

a
of

woman
flesh

He

did not take a real

human body

of our nature, nor do other things relating
in
it,

to

our salvation
sit
it,

nor

rise

from the dead,
of the
it.

nor
with

down

at

the Right

Hand

Father

but only with the semblance of
is

IX. Baptism in water

of no avail to children,
it

because they are so

far

from consenting to
the ceremony. 74
sinful,
:

that

many even weep during
X. Matrimony
appointed by the
is

always

and was never

Good God carnal matrimony between man and woman is not true matrimony,
is it

nor

permitted.

XI.

The

Blessed
;

Virgin

Mary

neither

is

nor

but was and is the Albiwas carnal woman gensian Church, which is true Penance.
72

This
this

of the
at

imposition of hands was one of the principal features ceremony of Heretication of which one hears so much
time.

The

trial

of
the

Benedictus
in

Molineri
case of a

(Limborch)
sick

hands of the sick person between his own and held a certain book over him in which he read the In the beginning was the Word &c. Gospel of St. John and delivered to him a fine thread with which he was to be bound for
held
'
'

affords an example " Bernard de Goch

of

this

rite

the

person.

Heresy."
73 74

Hist. Inq.
lb.

Sentence on Bernard de Goch. Sentence on Petrus Raymondus Dominicus.

:

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
XII. There
there
is

115

is

no resurrection of the body, but

a resurrection of the spiritual body and

inner man.

XIII.

The
;

spiritual

body has bones and
spiritual
cliffs

flesh

and members
tormented,
in

and the wicked are going
these
bodies,

to

be

by being

dashed by devils against

and rocks.

XIV. Souls

are

spirits

banished from heaven

because of their

sins.

XV. All oaths are sinful. 75 XVI. Meat, eggs, must not
fish

be eaten, but only

and

oil.

76

XVII. The Cross
Devil, and no

is

a detestable
77

emblem

of the

man

should adore

it.

XVIII. Carnal intercourse with women
bidden
:

is

for-

married persons are compelled to divorce

on joining the Albigensian community.

XIX. The Endura
encouraged,

(or

fasting to death)

was

and might be accelerated
Vaissete

by phlethe
:

botomy
Devic

or the use of poison. 78

and

inform

us

that

sect

was divided

into the Perfecti

and Credentes

but

a later development appears, when an AlbigensiSentence on Huguette de Vismes. Sentence on the Viscount Raymond Roger. 77 The argument adduced by the Heretics was that no man worshipped the gallows upon which his father had been hanged forgetful, apparently, of those fundamental differences between the actuality and the simile which cannot fail to strike the unbiassed
Hist. Inq.
76

75

Hist. Lan.

observer.
78

Hist. Inq.

Sentence on Bernard de Goch, and
vi.

cf.

Conybeare,

"Key

of Truth," App.

n6

INNOCENT THE GREAT
of one
as
u

arch arose in the person

Niquinta,

who
of

appointed Bernard

Raymond
other
of

bishop

(sic)

Toulouse,"

with
(sic)

episcopuli

over

divers

"dioceses"

which

the

extent

was

to

coincide with that of the Catholic dioceses.

This singular gallimaufry contains several items

on which (even among Christians
date)

at the present

there
e.g.

is

not
the

an
Real

universal

consensus

of

opinion,

Presence,

Sacerdotal
the
the

Authority,
Incarnation,
Cross,

Extreme
the

Unction,

Holy Order,
the

Resurrection,

Sign
Others,

of

and the Precise Epithets which are Applito

cable
will

the Church of Rome.

again,

easily

be perceived to be the merest echoes

of heresies

which were already obsolete Century
in
:

in

the

Thirteenth

for

example

— of

flagrant

Manichaeism

the clause regarding the duality

of the Deity, of

Montanism
the

in the singularly im-

moral regulations relating to matrimony.
again,

Others

such

as

doctrines

on

Baptism,

on

Oaths,

and Vegetarianism, are a curious

antici-

pation of

more modern shatterpated
the
articles

infatuations.

But what can we say of such
phantastic nonsense as

incoherent

and

dealing with

the Blessed Virgin, the physical nature of spiritual
bodies, the lapidatory proclivities

of fiends

in

a

future

state,
?

or

the

article

legalizing

lingering

suicide

These may perhaps commend themfor the
office

selves to misogynists, unimaginative realists, competitors

of curator of the damned,

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
or euthanasiastic
races,
fakirs,

117
ento-

but

not

to

more

lightened

who have wards women, who pursue
living

learned

chivalry

science with an open

mind, and practise sober and decent methods of

and dying.

After weighing the evidence, and some corre-

spondence with the Kings of France and Aragon,
the Lord Innocent realized that
face

He

was face
social as

to

with

what was quite as much a

a

religious

heresy of the most virulent kind.

At

same time He was by no means unaware that the mote in the eye of the Church needed conthe
siderable attention.

This important consideration

perhaps explains the vigour with which

He

pro-

ceeded to purge the Church in the infected
of worthless clerks

district

and

prelates,

and

to eradicate

the heresy.

In 1204 Pierre de Castelnau, Arch-

deacon of Maguelonne, and Cardinal Raoul, exarchdeacon and Bishop of Arras, were appointed
legates in a Bull depriving
all

the bishops of the

place of their spiritual authority, and vesting the

same

in the legates.

This was the

first

step toward

the formation of the
Office of Inquisition.

Congregation of the

Holy

The deposed

prelates, includ-

ing of course the scandalous Archbishop Berenger
of

Narbonne,

bitterly

complained.

The Pope

replied in a second Bull, Etsi

Nostra Navicula of

xxx May 1204, rebuking the complainants and their clergy for the slack and disgraceful condition into which they had allowed themselves, their

n8
dioceses,

INNOCENT THE GREAT
and
their

parishes

to

fall

;

and Abbot
as co-legate,

Arnaud Amaury of Citeaux was added,
to
legates,

strengthen the hands of the other two.

The
this

having

received

special

powers

to

end,
after)

deposed
the
of

the

bishop of Beziers,
bishop
city

and (soon

intruded
that

of Toulouse.

Count
assist

Raymond
the
legates
territory.

now

swore

to

by expelling the recusants from

his

new element was introduced into the pontifical policy in the person of Domingo de Guzman, a Spanish priest, who proposed to Bishop Diego Azebez of Osma a somewhat novel
Just at this time a

method of treating the difficulty. His proposal was to pervade the country barefoot, to carry neither gold nor silver, and to preach in the manner of the apostles. The bishop enthusiastically welcomed the idea on account of its simplicity, which undoubtedly would impress such persons who were goaded into dissent by the too worldly

pomp

of prelates.

He

himself took the leadership
speedily joined

of the

movement which was
legates,

by

two of the
part, lost

Pierre de Castelnau and the

Abbot of Citeaux.
no time
in

Innocent the Third, on His

approving their

zeal.

Domingo
all

and

his

quickly-growing band swore to defend the

doctrine of the Church with their lives against
heretics,

and

to place
in

themselves under the direcChrist,

tion of the

Pope

His capacity as Vicar of

and the

first

mendicant Order went forth to win,

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
by the excellence of
service, formal approval
79 a regular constitution.

119

and

The Count
Cernay
calls

of Toulouse
"

(whom the Monk of peccatorum omnium apotheca ")
to

did not continue

give satisfaction.

Pierre de

Castelnau appears to have been of a somewhat
fiery

temper

;

and,

when he found Raymond
at

half-

hearted against the heretics, sheltering as
as he expelled,

many
Rome.
But

he

once excommunicated him

and reported very

fully

upon

his

case to

The Pope wrote severely to who was induced to surrender
another disagreement
threatened
of
his

the misdemeanant,
to the legate.
;

followed
life.

and
It

the

Count

opponent's

was the case

King Henry Fitzempress and Archbishop Beket over again. Some partisans of Raymond murdered the legate on the banks of Rhone, xv Jan. 1208. Every one assumed Count Raymond's guilt. He The Pope excommost strenuously denied it. municated the murderers wrote to the King of and, France, urging him to attack the Count
:
;

anticipating

the
civili

thesis

of

Beza,

De
y

hereticis

a

magistratu

puniendis,
esse

and that of
hereticos

Calvin,

Jure gladii coercendos
novel proceeding

ordered

a

Crusade against the Albigensians.
:

This was a
of Crusade

hitherto the
to expeditions

name

had been confined
79

toward Jerusalem.

pun on the name of the founder designated the Dominican Order "The Dogs of the Lord" (Domini Canes) for the hunting of
heretics.

A

;

120

INNOCENT THE GREAT
in haste to the
:

Pope and offered to accept conditions he even went The Lord Innocent, to Rome to plead his case. however, insisted upon an examination of the whole affair by a commission. His Holiness appointed the Apostolic Prothonotary Milon and Canon Thedisius of Genoa, as legates for He wished to be fair, knowing very well that the excommunicate Count and the Abbot of Citeaux
:

Count Raymond appealed

were not on the best of terms.
at

The

affair

ended

the

Council
his

of

Montelimar,

when Raymond

renewed
castles

obedience,
surety.

and handed over seven

as

He

was then formally abtook
the

solved

and

shortly

afterwards

Cross

against the heretics.

The

suppression of Albigensian Nonconformity

was by no means a massacre of inoffensive unreIt was rather a fierce sisting religious maniacs.
campaign of extermination against a
foe

which

was well armed,
vast
resources,

led

by famous warriors, possessed

of strong castles and wealthy towns,

commanding
the
guilt

and
the

polluted

with

of

unspeakable
"

atrocities.

At

Pamiers

Frenchmen

of

Raymond-

Roger, Count of Foix, cut one of the Canons of

gouged out the eyes of another monk of the same place.
the

Abbey

of Saint Antonin to pieces and

The

count came along soon afterwards with his
buffoons,

knights,

and

courtiers,
in

shut

up

the

abbot and his monks

the

church

where he

1

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
drove them, nearly naked,
their native city."
80

121

permitted them to fast for three days and finally

from the confines of
part in the

Among
Crusade

the leaders

who took

first

against

the

Albigensians,

were

Duke

Eudes III of Burgundy, Pierre de Courtenay Count of Nevers, afterwards Emperor of Romania, Simon de Montfort Earl of Leicester afterwards Count of Toulouse, Guillaume des Roches, Seneschal of Anjou, Count Guillaume of Ponthieu, Guy Lord of Beaujeu, Enguerraud de Coucy, the
Archbishops Gerard de Cros of Bourges, Pierre

de Corbeil of Sens, Robert Poulain
the

of

Rouen,

Bishops Gautier

II

of Autun,

Jourdain

du

Hommet

of Lisieux, Robert d'Auvergne of Cler-

mont, the English Henry of Bayeux, and Reginald

de Bar of Chartres.

The leaders of the heretics were the Viscount Raymond-Roger of B^ziers and Carcassonne, (son of that Roger II who sacked the abbey of St.
Pons de

Tomieres

(1171),

and imprisoned the

Bishop of Albi, giving him heretics as gaolers,)
Viscount Gaston VI of Beam, Count Bernard
of
1 1 1

Comminges, Count Raymond-Roger of Foix, and Count Gerold 1 1 II of Armagnac.

The Crusaders
of

elected
their

Simon de Montfort Earl
and
at

Leicester as
offensive

leader,

once took

the

against

Carcassonne,

which

was

regarded as a nest of the
80

nonconformists.

The

Luchaire.

Innocent

III., la croisadc des Albigeois, p. 25.

;; ;

122
city

INNOCENT THE GREAT
was taken
succeed
;

and the Earl of Leicester elected

to

Viscount

Raymond-Roger, who was
afterwards.

straitly

confined in

one of the strongest towers,
Beziers
the
fell

where he died
next
;

shortly

and,

despite the

pleading

of

Bishop,

(whose predecessor Bishop Guillaume

Ill's teeth

had been beaten
subjects,

down

his

throat

by

his

own
1209.

so

that

he died,

Mar.

1167),

was the

scene of a most fearful massacre,

x

Nov.

The
and

Albigensians

opposed a furious resistance
with

were

treated

unmitigated

severity.

Count Raymond again fell foul of the legates, by reason of his unwillingness to exterminate his

own
store

subjects of Toulouse, and his refusal to re-

the property of the
in

Bishop of Carpentras

and,

consequence, he once more came under

the ban of excommunication.

The
tions

year

12 10

was spent

in fruitless

negotia-

between the

King
of

of

Aragon and Simon
and
of
to

de Montfort,
his

who wished
and

to secure recognition of

new

lordship

Carcassonne
element
beginning
of
to

Beziers.

The
the

political

secular

personal
to

ambition

was

already

appear,

infinite

detriment

the

Crusade.-

King

En

Peyre was opposed
to

and seems
against

have assisted
Matters
state.

Simon de Montfort the Count of Toulouse
were
in

him.

indeed
first

a

very

unsatisfactory

The

Crusade

which

had been much hampered by the observance of
the feudal forty-day limit for military
service by

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
many
them.
of the lords,

123

seemed

to

have done more to
than
to

exasperate

the

Albigensians

annihilate

The
Crusade,

Pope,

therefore,

proclaimed

a

second
near

gathering

forces

from

far

and

under Duke Leopold VI of Austria, Duke Theobald

of Bar,

the

of

Kleve,
the

the

Count of Auxerre, the Count Count of Jiilich, the Count of
of
Paris,

Berg,

Bishops

Lisieux,

Bayeux,

Toul and Loudun, with Simon de Montfort as

commander

in chief.

The
first,

siege of

Lavaur was

at

once attempted.
neither fight
gensians.

At

Count Raymond would
Albi-

the Crusaders nor pursue the

After

the

fall

of

Lavaur,

however,
perpe-

when
trated
for

the

most

revolting
sides,

cruelties

were

on both
blazed

the great personal

hatred

each other (displayed by the rival leaders)
forth.

then

Count
at

perated

beyond measure
de
his

Raymond was exasthe way in which
his

Simon
pillaged

Montfort
villages,

slaughtered

subjects,
his

and
the

devastated
field,

crops

and
retire

vines.
:

He
but,

took

and
the

besieged
to

Carcassonne

when
of

defeated,
allies,

was able
appealed

under

cover

his

counts of
to

Foix and

Comminges.
for help,

He

then

bothjn men against de Montfort, and in representations on his behalf to the court of Rome. The war, by this time, had degenerated into a personal struggle between the
two
chiefs
;

King En Peyre

and only partook of the nature of a

;

i2 4

INNOCENT THE GREAT
of cruelty was achieved In

Crusade when some more than usually revolting
act

by one side or the
Albigensian
:

other.

May

121

1,

eighty-one

knights were hanged by the crusaders
tossed the

who

also

Lady Giraude
select
after

of Lavaur into a well

and burned sixty
Castelnaudary,

sectarians at

Casse near

them preached On the other hand, Gaston de at by bishops. Beam had profaned The Host and unmentionhaving had
ably desecrated the cathedral of Oloron
:

in

11 78

the Albigensians had stoned Catholics in Toulouse
streets and, later, used the high altar of a church

as a public convenience.

The Pope
for,

perceived the true state of things

:

between September and December 12 12,
for

He

wrote to Simon de Montfort (who had just been

making ordinances

the

peaceful

administra-

tion of the scarcely pacified country at the Council

of Pamiers), sternly rebuking him
his

for

following

own

interests

under

cover of

the Crusade.

The Lord Innocent
of

also wrote to the

Archbishop

Narbonne to say that (in His opinion) the heresy was now well under control, and that the services of the Crusaders were required more against the Moors in Spain than against the
miserable
epistle

remnant

of

the

Albigensians.

This

practically

revoked the Bull which com-

missioned the Crusade.

The make a

Council of Lavaur,
definite peace with

Jan.

12 13,

tried

to

Count Raymond, who,

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
but he, expecting help from the
against

125
:

they complained, was not to be bound by oaths

King

of

Aragon

Simon,

refused
it

to

fetter

himself.

help came,

and with

King En Peyre.

The The

Earl of Leicester, however, by prodigies of valour,
defeated the allies at the battle of Muret, where
the
(to

King
is

of

Aragon was

killed.

The
this

only claim
battle

belong to a

Crusade) which

can

have,

that the legate, Cardinal Robert Curson,
after
it,

made peace
ditions

and that one of the con-

to

which the defeated
of extirpating

was

that

Raymond agreed heresy. The Count of

Toulouse was so humbled that he actually served
under his former enemy at the siege of Casseneuil,

one of the

last of the castles held

by the militant
his

Albigensians.

He was

moreover deprived of
to

sovereignty and
subject.

reduced

the

position

of

a
of

Simon de Montfort was now Count

Toulouse, Viscount of Beziers and Carcassonne,

Duke
1

of Narbonne, and Earl of Leicester.

King
x Apr.

Philip the
2 16,

August did not invest him
all

until

though he had obtained

letters

of investi-

ture over

Raymond's
considered

late

territories

from the

Apostolic Legate.

Raymond

himself

so

wronged by
to plead

Simon, that he betook himself* to
his case before the

Rome

Pope and the Lateran Council. He was accompanied by the Counts of Foix and Comminges, who were loyal to him] through all He was also supported by his misfortunes.

126

INNOCENT THE GREAT
who had little love for the new south. The Lord Innocent was
with
the
appellants
:

several bishops,

master o( the
inclined
to

side

but

was

dissuaded, and a decree of the Council

formally

deposed
his

Raymond and granted his dominions to conqueror. The two counts, his allies, were

censured, but allowed to keep their counties after

promising to give castles as sureties for their good
behaviour.
less

The
in

Pope, however,
his

moved by

count-

petitions

favour,

notably from

King

John Lackland's envoy the Abbot of Beaulieu and the Archbishop of Embrun, refused to allow
the ex-count of Toulouse to be reduced to penury
:

a pension of 400 marks

was given

to

him, and

the Lord Innocent promised that, as

He

had de-

prived

Raymond's young son of the succession

to his family inheritance,

He

would see to

it

that

he had ample compensation elsewhere.

In con-

sequence the boy was awarded Beaucaire, Nimes,

and the marquessate of Provence.
in

Raymond

died

1222,

after

a

further effort to regain his lost

inheritance.

The
viii

Council
1215,

of

Montpellier,

which

met

on

Jan.

took the necessary measures for
;

restoring ecclesiastical discipline in the south

and

was closed by the legate Cardinal Peter of Benevento.

When King

Philip the August's son Louis,

disappointed (by the Pope's action in allowing

King

John

to be reconciled) of his

hopes of an English
(or

expedition,

came down with the Third

Peace-

;

ALBIGENSIAN SYNCRETISM
ful)

127

Albigensian Crusade, he found no necessity
measures.

for military

The

rebellion

may

there-

fore be said to

have ceased to be dangerous by

the beginning of 12 13, and to have
cally extinct, as

become

practi-

an organised

force,

by the middle

of

1

2 15.

Much
futile

as the fact

may be

deplored,
in

it

would be

to

deny that the Pope,

His capacity as
to take

Head
the

of the Church,

was compelled

some

kind of stringent measures for the suppression of

Albigensian Rebellion.

No

doubt the most

desirable form which these measures should take,

would have been that desiderated by Domingo
de Guzman.

That His Holiness
is

chiefly

employed
to the

other and physical methods,

due

(first)

custom of the times, which knew no other way of
getting what
it

wanted than by the use of
from
the
irresistibly

force,

and (secondly)

convenient

weapon which Fate placed ready to His hand in the person of Simon de Montfort. It is doubtful whether the Crusade would have achieved its end,
had
it

not been for the Earl of Leicester's perspi-

cacity in realising that,

by judicious
lion's

self-assertion,

he might obtain for himself the

share of the

temporal gains accruing from this spiritual swordservice.
It
is,

perhaps, hardly- necessary to add

that

Pope Innocent bitterly regretted the appalling cruelties of the campaign this point is made quite
:

clear from the tenor of

His

letters

on the subject
fact that

and

it

is

only

fair to

emphasize the

He

128

INNOCENT THE GREAT
the purpose of ending the

only allowed Himself to resort to secular violence,
for

Heresy, after the

efforts of

no

less

than ten years, to effect the same

desirable

end by the more peaceful methods of
failed,

persuasion and Church reform, had

and

failed

entirely through the extremely militant attitude of

the upholders of the

schism, and
its

the

hereditary

slackness of the Toulousain in

zeal for the Faith,

with

its

perennial weak-kneed leaning toward any
to be im-

and every heresy, which might happen

ported from abroad or invented on the spot.

CHAPTER

VII

CONCERNING INNOCENT THE THIRD AND ENGLAND
A
pontifical success

Innocent and Richard Lionheart Accession of John defrauds Otto and Berengere John and Philip the August Innocent's mediation The Canterbury Question 1205, disputed right of election Three claimants Monks secretly elect the sub-prior Reginald— who goes to Rome John intervenes Bishops and monks elect John de Gray Innocent to adjudicate Monks confess irregular election of Reginald who protests Canterbury suffragans declare for John de Gray Innocent's objections to him his election quashed Reginald's election invalidated Innocent nominates and monks elect Stephen Langton Innocent announces the fact to Softsword PlanInnocent's indifference tagenet passion John to Innocent Interdict threatened John Jun. 1207, consecration of Langton sequestrates and escheats archbishopric of York John refuses Langton John's threats May 1208, England under Interdict John seeks terms Innocent grants them Exasperation of John Defection of Archdeacon of Norwich, whom John starves Election of Bishop of Lincoln 1212, John excommunicate and deposed England granted to France John cringes Nunciature of Randolfo France to invade England John climbs down Innocent protects His Oct. 1213, John liegeman of Holy See vassal from French attack, and defends him against his own barons 1215, Magna Carta Value of pontifical victory

— —

— —

— —

— —

Of

all

the subjects of Pope Innocent's diplomacy,

none was more successful (from the
of view)
deterred,

Roman

point

than His treatment of England.

Un-

perhaps even urged on, by the Sicilian

precedent,
of

He

succeeded
fief

in obtaining the

kingdom

England as a

of the

Holy

See, together with

a substantial tribute as the token of His suzerainty.

The

son of King

Henry Fitzempress,
129

(that sturdy
j

i

3o

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Peter's

upholder of royal rights against pontifical,) became
Saint

liegeman.

The

Plenitude, of the

Apostolic
tion
in

Power was brought
case
of
;

into successful opera-

the

a disputed

election

to

the

Pananglican primacy

and

it

was a

far greater

and

more real triumph for the Lateran, that a nominee should sit in Canterbury than
Constantinople.

pontifical
in

Latin

Was

not the Archbishop of the

English

Papa

alterius or bis ?

And who

or

what

was a Latin patriarch of Constantinople, even under the Emperors of Romania, in comparison with the
Successor of Augustine
?

Innocent the Third's

first

dealing with England
to

had consisted of
Lionheart
:

friendly letters

King Richard

to

whom, on one

occasion,

He

sent

four precious rings, as a token of affection, so as to

sweeten much good advice.

King Richard

died,

suddenly, and not wholly free from ecclesiastical
pains, penalties,

and censures of a minor kind, and
in

(seemingly)

without a plenary absolution

the

article of death,

which may explain the delay over
his brother reigned in

his burial. his stead.

And King John

King Richard had been one supporters of his nephew Otto.
sided

of the

principal

with the
;

King John also Guelf candidate in the German
pontifical party.

question
in the

and so was of the

This,

Lord Innocent's opinion, was as it should be. But the Pope was seriously annoyed that the new king did not hand over King Richard's legacy to

Table F
win
.

II

de Rethel

=

Morfe of Armenia

of Jerusalem

'argaret of

enet
1 1

=

Scotland

29 1129

Melisende, Q. of Jerusalem

u
)

Henry V Emperor

(1)

>

heodora

Andronikos

II

Amaury

I

Komnenos,

Bas.

Plantagenet

of Byzantion {See Table B)

sanor. Hss. of

= Henry

II

Acquitaine

King,
C. of Anjou

(by

Rosamund

Clifford)

I

Llonheart

Constance, 1
Brittany

_ Ravmond V

I

1189-1199

K Anjou

1169-nc

C

Wiliiam
E. of Salisbury

Geoffrey

of Toulouse

Abp. of York
1191-1213

d

I226

^ulk of Cuigny

D. o C. t

Henry

III

*

King,

Table

F— THE PLANTAGENETS
Irmengarde de Bourbon

=
1

Fulk

HH

Rechin

C. of Anjou

Morfe of Armenia

1060-1109

William

II

Kuru«

Henry

I

Beauclerc

Margaret of
*

Geoffrey

1III

Martel

Eremberge,

d.

King, 1100-1135

Scotland

C. of Anjou

of Helie, C. of

and Hss. Maine

= Fulk V

Plantagenet

1098-1106

C. of Anjou, j log-: C. of Maine, 1110K. of Jeru^ik n

Robert, E. of Gloucester

Baldwin

III

=

Theodora

Andronikos

II

Plantagenet

Komnenos,

Bas. of Byzantion [See Table B)

Constance of
Castile [See Table


]

Louis VII, K. of France

=

,

Hss. of

= Henry

II Fltzempress

Geoffrey

I.

King, 1154-1189
C. of Anjou, 1151-1189

H)

D. of Brittany 1156-1158

(by

Rosamund

Clifford)

Mabel

= Amaury

^
-

Henry
Titular
d.

Berengere
Sanclio

— Cicliard

I

Llonhearl

Constance, Dss. of
Brittany


I 1

Geoffrey

II,

D. of

-

John Lackland
King, 1199-1216
C. of

-

VI

King, 1189-1199
C. of Anjou

Brittany

Alfonso Villi K. of Castile
(See Table

=

King
d.
:

1183

K. of Navarre {See Table H)

1169-1196

1169-1186

Anjou

H)

William II K. of Sicily [See Table E)

=

1203-1204

Simon

1III, C. of

Arthur
D. of Brittany, 1196-1203 C. of Anjou, 1199-1203

Mont fort
Earl of Ijsicester C. of Toulouse D. of Narbonne V. of Beziers and

Carcassonne

inon V, E. of Leicester


j

Eleanor

A
'JL

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
his imperial

131

King John was approached on the subject the delay of payment was gently regretted and Otto's need of the money delicately England was made to feel that he pointed out.
:

nephew. 81

;

would be doing
England's
availing,

Rome a favour by fulfilling dead wishes. When this method was unin

he was reproached

no

less

than eight

pontifical breves.

King John enjoyed an unenvi-

able financial reputation in

Rome
years

not only on this

account

:

there was another difficulty involving five

pontifical

breves

and

nine

of

negotiation

about Queen

Berengere's dowry, a matter upon

which the Pope had also to correspond with King

Don Sancho
With

of Navarre.

the purely international affairs of England
fit

and France, the Lord Innocent did not see
to interfere
:

beyond recommending a permanent
urged
both
sovereigns
further
to

peace, as the best preliminary to the Crusade in

which
Later,

He

embark.
in

the Pope

made

advances,

the

shape of definite

offers of

mediation when

He

saw

(with sorrow) the two principal kings of the west

engaged

in

a

bitter

war of conquest,

wasting
ill

money, and

occupying

men which
for

could

be

spared in Christendom's need

an immediate

and united Crusade.
Before proceeding to consider the question of
81

This legacy consisted of two-thirds of King Richard's treasure
all his

and

jewels (" baubellis "). King John also refused to acknowledge his nephew either as Earl of York or Count of Poitou.

132
the
that,

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Canterbury
in this case,

controversy
the

it

may be

hinted,

Lord Innocent's diplomatic
guide

acumen perhaps

failed to

Him

quite aright.
election

The pure
little

justice

of

the

contested

did

not essentially

demand Langton's nomination. A more finesse, a wider knowledge of King
impatient desire for
the

John's character, and a less
the

immediate
(for the

welfare

of

Church

in

what

was

period) a very minor

consideration,
trouble,

would have spared

the

Pope years of

and England the
in her history.

third

most humiliating chapter

On
xiii

the death of Archbishop
1205, the
in

Hubert Walter,

Jul.

right of election to the see of

Canterbury was

dispute between the

monks

of

Christ Church and the suffragans of the Province

who held capitular London is Dean of
Winchester Subdean
cellor,

titles

:

e.g.

The Bishop
offices

of

the Province, the Bishop of
:

while the

of Chanare

Precentor,
to

Chaplain
sees

and

Crucifer
of

annexed

the

respectively

Lincoln,

Salisbury, Worcester,

and Rochester.
bishops,

The monks
because
they

claimed on the ground of long usage and established
said

custom

;

and the

they were the chapter

—and
to

what was the
elect

object of a chapter other than

bishops

?

But,

as

the

bishops
in

were

scattered
diocese,

about

the

kingdom, each
Also
there

his

own

they had no
later.

opportunity of taking concerted action until

was

necessary,

(not

precisely

the

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
Tiberian privilege of comrnendatio, nor
equivalent
of
its

133

the

solemn

and

modern somewhat blas-

phemous

farce of the conge" d'etre, but) the royal

assent to the election.

The monks make sure of
met
secretly

of

Christ
right

Church,
chose

in

order

to

their

of election,

forthwith

by

night

and

the

subprior

Reginald to succeed the worldly courtier Walter.

And, having enthroned
Reginald (whether
archbishop)
82

their selection,

they were
done.

straightway afraid of what
still

they had

So

subprior or really
off

elect-

was hurried

on the eighty days'
of

journey
tion

to

Rome

to

obtain pontifical confirma-

and

consecration.

From motives
secret.

pru-

dence, he was strictly enjoined to keep his election

and

letters of

recommendation
it

Imagining,
to

however,
travel

that

would be more commodious
of

as

the

elect-archbishop

a

great

see

than as a mere subprior of monks, Reginald no

sooner landed upon the continent than he bour-

geoned
to

forth with his

new

dignity

;

and proceeded
circumstance.
in

his

destination

in archiepiscopal

This action placed the Canterbury monks
perilous

a

position

:

they
for

were

exposed
to

to

the
with-

king's

displeasure

presuming

elect

out

consulting

him.

Consequently when John's

wishes were
83

made known, Bishop John de Gray
of

Cf.

the journey

Thomas Marlborough [Marlborge] who
Sept.

quitted
vi

Evesham on xx

1204 and arrived in

Rome on

the

Dec.

:

i

34

INNOCENT THE GREAT
;

of

Norwich was chosen by both monks and bishops and envoys were sent to Rome to ask

for his pallium.

The Pope
that

received the envoys

;

and
in

told

them
to

Reginald had already arrived
claims,

Rome

prefer his
ject

and that evidence on the subto

would have

be heard before a decision

could be given.

The monks (who accompanied

means impossible unpleasantness on the part of King John, produced documents to show that their subprior's
the royal envoys) in fear of by no
election

had
not

been
only

invalid.

Reginald

naturally
to

protested, saying that the

Pope had promised

decide,

upon the
Canterbury
but,

right

who was archbishop but also, of election. The suffragans of
formally
asserted
their

now

claim

believing that safety lay in siding with their

sovereign, they declared for the Bishop of Norwich.
prelate.

The Pope knew something

of the

latter

He

had had some correspondence with

him (x Jun. 1203) about the deposition of connubially-minded clerks. In the Lord Innocent's opinion there had been enough of statecrafty
archbishops.

Bishop de Gray was
to

too'
;

good a

King's-man

be a good Pope's-man

and Canter-

bury would thrive better under the ministrations
of a church-man.

Consequently

He quashed Bishop
:

de Gray's election on the ground of irregularity

declared Reginald's to be invalid on the ground
of informality
;

and decided

in

favour of the sole

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
right of the

135

monks
to

to elect.

He

then ordered a

new
of

made by the sixteen monks Canterbury then in Rome, who were to be
election

be

taken as compromissaries for the whole convent.

These,

still

shaking

in their shoes,

were not able
:

anybody but the king's nominee until the Pope told them that no king had anything
to think of to

do with elections made

in

Rome
their

;

and gave
pre-

them a name.
cipitated itself

Thus

advised,

choice

Title of S.

upon the Cardinal-Presbyter of the Chrysogonus, one Stephen Langton,
a fellow student and friend of the

who had been

Pope at Paris, and subsequently Lecturer in Theology in the same university, and had won some fame by dividing the Bible into chapters
as

we now print it. 83 The king's envoys,
than did
the
election.

who knew
It

their

master
to

better

the Pope, absolutely
therefore

refused

accept

became
acquaint
:

the

Lord Innocent's
fiery

pleasing

task

to

the

Angevin with the fait accompli which He did in a most gracious and flowery epistle. There
is

a fable that the

House

of Plantagenet

sprang
If

from the union of a

man

with a female devil.

such cross-breeding were possible and had taken
not known when Stephen Langton was born. While at had a distinguished career rising to be Rector Scholarum He was a prebendary both of Notre Dame and of that University. of York. The Pope called him to Rome and attached him to His household raising him to the cardinalature 1206 (Cf. Appendix ii).
83

It

is

Paris he

He

died

viiii

July 1228.

; ;

136
place,
its

INNOCENT THE GREAT
results

might

fairly

well

have taken

the shape of such an hyaena as

King John.
rage
the epithet
to

We
in

have

in

him

instances

of

ungoverned
for

which he certainly qualified
bolical.

dia-

Whether
or
not,
fell

this

was
a

due

a
the

devilish

ancestry
letter,

on the
into

receipt

of

Pope's

John
;

thoroughly

Plantagenet
sent

passion
to

knights of selected
the
resident
to

barbarity were

drive

Canterbury monks out of

their

convent,

the

number

of seventy

;

and

they afterwards found refuge in Flanders.
while,

Mean-

Rome —

John spat an indignant letter of protest to Langton was a stranger, long resident

among the King's enemies at Paris and even now installed abroad his election was in defiance
of the

King's

— rights —

let

the

Roman
more
finally,

Pontiff be-

think
the

Himself before
English

— England

He

angered the
of

King

of

sent

Peter's

Pennies to

Rome

than any other state in Europe

and would send no more

—and,

the

King

announced
the

his unalterable intention to

proceed to

investiture of the

Bishop of Norwich.

The

Lord Innocent took no notice of these threats and Himself consecrated Cardinal Langton at
Viterbo, xvii Jun.
three
text
for

1207.

84

He

also wrote to the

premier
" render

bishops

of

England quoting the
etc.,"

unto

Caesar

as

justification

His action; and ordered them
an interdict
if

to place

Eng-

land under
84

opposition were
[Matthew
Paris,

made
ii.

Stubbs, Reg. Sac. Anglicanum,

p. 54.

515.]

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
to the archbishop,

137

who now
to

only needed inthroniof. the

zation

to

enable him

take possession

temporalities of his see.

The

king,

however,
over

was having trouble with

his First Estate

money matters
for

;

and,

when
he

the archbishop of York, his half-brother, pleaded
in

vain

and then cursed him

a

robber,

blazed into Angevin anger.
fled
:

Archbishop Geoffrey

his

property was sequestrated and his epis-

copal revenues escheated.

He
the

complained to the
opportunity also
for

Pope
to

:

Who

in turn

rebuked the King and comtaking
claims the

manded
press

restitution,

Queen Berengere's

re-

payment of her dowry. King John refused to accept Cardinal Langton and that prelate took up in any circumstances
;

his

abode

at

Pontigny,
in

where
exile

St.

Thomas

of

Canterbury had lived

fifty

years before.

The king
his

also declined to

make
fulfil

reparation to the
his obligations to

archbishop of York, or to
sister-in-law.

When

the

three
85

bishops,

of the

London,

Ely,

and

Worcester,
"

acquainted

king with the pontifical decree, John
threatened horribly.

swore and
he,

Dentz Dez," cried
I

"if
off
will

you dare
all

to proclaim the interdict,
-to

will

pack

the bishops and priests
is

the

Pope and
in

take what

theirs,

and

all

the

Romans

the

country shall return
85

home
Eglise,

blinded and noseless,
Eustace
of Ely,

William de

Ste.

Mere

Mauger of

Worcester.

138
so
that
;

INNOCENT THE GREAT
they

may

be

recognized

all

over

the

world

and

if

you value your skins get out of
as

my
and,

sight."

The king was
interdict

good as

his

word

;

when the

was proclaimed on
priests alike

xxiiii

Mar. 1208, he took most drastic measures against
the clergy
pell-mell
fact
:

prelates

and

were driven

and wholesale from the kingdom.
the
interdict

The

that

was proclaimed does not

seem to have affected the Cistercians, at whom the Pope carped in a letter to the English Bishops
Feb.
xxi

1209

f° r

massing publicly on village
bells.
85a

greens and ringing
85a

Lackland's fury, how-

This very curious incident, which must not be attributed to any supposed insubordination on the part of the Cistercians, is explained by the Right Reverend Lord Abbot Wilfred of Mount Saint Bernard Abbey, whose only ecclesiastical superior in the Kingdom is the Lord Abbot Carthage of Mount Melleray. The Cistercians of the Thirteenth Century considered themselves to be exempt from episcopal authority and they certainly occupied
;

a privileged position with regard to ecclesiastical taxation. The Interdict was published by the three Bishops, William de Sainte Mere Eglise of London, Eustace of Ely and Mauger of Worcester for a week the Cistercians obeyed it, possibly for the sake of impressing the King then they disregarded it to vindicate their own position as exempts for the only authority which they acknowledged was that of the General Chapter of the Order, or of course that of a Legate. It may perhaps be illuminating to append a small notice of the vicissitudes of this celebrated Order in England
:
:

;

at this period.

In March 1200, in order to pay 20,000 marks due to Philip the August, being the Feudal Relief on his succession to King Richard's French dominions, John levied a tax of three shillings on the hide throughout England. Against this impost the Cistercians protested saying that they had no authority to pay until the pleasure of the To which the King replied General Chapter should be known.

Archbishop Hubert by outlawing the whole Order in his realm. Walter with difficulty persuaded him to suspend the sentence but he refused 1000 marks offered by the Order for a confirmation of
;

: :

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
ever,

139

did not entirely blind
confiscations

him

to

possibilities

while

and

escheatments

were

en-

forced against the clergy, he took hostages of his
principal
ally

lords

for

their loyalty.

Then he

actuall

wrote to the Pope offering to restore

his

church plunder and to permit the Cardinal- Archbishop Langton and the
land
:

monks
his

of Canterbury to

he

further

offered

own

regal

rights

over the Canterbury lands to the Lord Innocent.

The Pope
matter
its
:

accepted

;

and

appointed

the

three

aforesaid bishops as a commission to examine the
for,

as he

was dealing with an Angevin,
{Cf.

Privileges

and Exemptions

Adams,

Pol. Hist.

Eng.

II,

396)

but the royal animosity was not appeased, for, in October, the King issued an edict debarring all animals belonging to the Cistercians from the rights of pasturage in royal forests ordinarily enjoyed.

As

the Order was interested in sheep farming and grazing, this measure was extremely annoying, especially at the beginning of winter. Owing, however, to the death of Great Saint Hugh of

Nov.) the King's conscience became active for a time, (he was one of the bearers of the Saint's coffin, and preand he relented suffisented a gold chalice to Lincoln Minster) ciently to revoke the outlawry and the pasturage decree, and even to apologize to the assemblage of Cistercian Abbots, who (by the archbishop's very diplomatic advice) had come to plead with the King in Lincoln. This was on xxvii Nov. King John was in a good humour at the time, as GrufTydd ap Rhys and William the Lyon had just done homage, (the latter for his English lordships only). After the apology Lackland went even further for shortly afterward he actually founded the Abbey of Beaulieu in the New Forest for the Cistercian Order. {Cf. Pontifical letter xxvii Mar. 1202, App. VI). In 1208 (xxiiii Mar.) came the Interdict. This the Cistercians obeyed for reasons stated above. Their lands in common with those of the rest of the clergy were promptly declared to be conA week later, however, sheltering themselves behind their fiscated. privileges, the Cistercians disregarded the Interdict, as we have On ii Apr. the Abbot of Beaulieu, the King's own foundaseen.
Lincoln
(xvii
;
:

"

140

INNOCENT THE GREAT
suspected a trap of some kind.

He

The
if

interdict
all

(decreed the Pope) was to be raised
satisfactory
:

were
to

but the archbishop of

York was
the

be reinstated within three months, on pain of a
continuance
Province. the
tion,

of

the

interdict

in

Northern

This bleak austerity only exasperated
the
situation

king further, and
was sent
off to

remained as

Rome

to offer a certain

(restoration of the

monks

of Canterbury,
this

amount of submission and reception of Langton,

was probably intended to be a basis for plausible but prolonged and purposely fruitless negotiations. Two days later the Cistercian lands were restored. The Order was not particularly concerned with the political events which marked the next years, until October 1210 when the clergy at large and the Cistercians in particular incurred the King's displeasure, on
account of the paucity of their financial contributions to his never ceasing demands. He forbad the latter to attend the triennial General Chapter of their Order " lest their piteous complaints
should exasperate the whole world against such an oppressor and even denied them permission to receive their brethren from abroad until they complied with his wishes. Upon this the monks of Waverley Abbey temporarily dispersed themselves; and fled overseas to St Benin's Abbey at St Omer. The clergy ultimately of which the contribution of the Cistercians is paid ,£100,000 variously estimated by different authorities at ,£40,000, 33,000 marks, and 27,000 marks. Any of these figures would be entirely out of proportion to the relative wealth of the Order in comparison with We may perhaps find a cause for that of the rest of the Church. the royal persecution other than the exigences of finance. The
:

"but not as a friend"):

;

Abbots of Citeaux, Arnaud Amaury, was one of the keenest of the Crusaders who were pressing Raymond VI Count Now Raymond was John's of Toulouse so hard in the Albigeois. In October 12 12 the King began to be brother-in-law and ally. On all sides he saw the enemies of the Pope either lying afraid. So with a prostrate or else tottering to their fall at His feet. desperate hope that he yet might be in time to be forgiven, John ceased from his anger against the Order, and even sent the Abbot of Beaulieu again to intercede on his behalf with the inexorable

Abbot

of

Lateran.

R. Coggeshall, Matthew Paris, W. Coventry, Rytner, Wendover, Rot. Claus., A nnals of Waverley and Margam.
Authorities
:

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
bad as before.
his

141
in

The

three bishops

(who were

Flanders) were ordered to go to John, and publish

excommunication

in his

face

:

but they dared

not even

go

to

England.
:

The command was
but, not unnaturally,

passed on to other prelates

no one dared to obey.

A
;

pending sentence got about
Bench,

rumour of the imand Geoffrey, Archthat
his

deacon of Norwich and Judge of the Court of
King's

announced
of those

conscience

forbad him to serve an excommunicate monarch.

The archdeacon

days was a somewhat
the
duties

important dignitary,

fulfilling

of

dio-

cesan chancellor, and was not necessarily in major
orders.

As
for

a

class,

archdeacons enjoyed an
oppression,
is
it

ill

name

rapacity and

Salisbury

debated,

"

How
the

and John of possible for an

archdeacon

to inherit

kingdom of Heaven?"
so he

King John could not
him up
in a

afford to ignore so important
;

a person as Archdeacon Geoffrey

happed

cope of lead, precluding the slightest
to death.

movement, and thus starved him

The

election of Chancellor

Hugh

of Wells to the

vacant see of Lincoln gave cause for a fresh royal
explosion.

The

elect-bishop

was allowed

to

go

to

Rouen
to

for consecration,

but took himself instead

Pontigny,

where
official

Archbishop

Langton per-

formed the
(at

first

act of his archiepiscopate

Melun,) xx Dec. 1209.
until
in

So things went from
in-

bad to worse,
iquities

1212 John's atrocious
to

caused

Pope Innocent

issue

a

Bull,

142

INNOCENT THE GREAT
his

absolving
allegiance,

subjects

and

vassals

from

their

pronouncing

excommunication

on

all

who had
to

dealings with him, and giving his realm
Philip the

King

August.

Furthermore, King

same category as Turks, Jews, Infidels, and Hereticks, armed action against the deposed Plantagenet was elevated to the status of a crusade. At this tremendous call of
John, being
in the

now

check,

the
;

cur-like

king

cowered
to

and

offered

amends
official
86

and the Pope, willing

forgive a real

(or to humiliate a royal)

penitent,

sent a trusted
86

of His curia, the subdeacon

Pandolfo, as

there has not been warranted by the facts of the case. Shakespeare, Mr J. R. Green, Miss Norgate, and others, unite in according a red hat and a Legatine commission dated at least in 12 12 to this celebrated clerk. Miss Norgate even goes so far as to evolve a new rank in the Sacred College for his benefit, that of Cardinal sub-deacon.* (Cf. John Lackland, ed. 1902, p. 160.) In addition to this, the late Bishop of Oxford borrowed the surname of another Pandolfo, who was really a Cardinal, and uses it for him in the list of Bishops of Norwich. (Cf. Stubbs, Reg. Sacr. Angl. p. 35.) Still there is some foundation for this posthumous promotion and affiliation. Pandolfo was Legate (though not until 12 18): Legates very often cardinals and there was a Cardinal Pandolfo Masca. are Therefore there is ground for supposition that Pandolfo was Cardinal Masca. But the facts as far as they can be found out tend to upset Pandolfo Masca di Pisa was made this loose train of argument. " subdiaconus sacri palatii " (according to Ciacconius) by Pope Calixtus He was made Cardinal-presbyter the Second, Who died in 1124. of the Title of SS. XII Apostoli in Dec. 1 182 by Pope Lucius the Third and died circa 1201.+ Consequently he was not Legate in 12 1 3. Our Pandolfo (whose family name is obscure, although we know

In the matter of Pandolfo, his rank and
historians as

title,

as

much agreement among

is

;

;

*

One must

not confuse this appellation

with that of "Subdeacon of

the

Holy Roman Church,"

a title distinct from the cardinalature but generally

held by a cardinal.

t There are no further signatures of Cardinal Masca after

this date.

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
nuncio,

143

The armed with all Apostolic power. After much plain two met at Northampton. speaking- from the nuncio, King John drew off again, and tried to terrify him by executing a few
criminals, including a defaulting

clergyman

:

but,

by threatening a
ecclesiastical

priest,

he very foolishly afforded

Pandolfo an opportunity of asserting the supreme
authority

vested

in

him

;

and the
angry

miscreant

clerk

was

rescued

from

the

sovereign's clutches.

Meanwhile, acting under the Pope's commands
(which
that he

very

pleasantly

coincided

with

his

own

had a nephew of the same name and a kinsman who was Archdeacon of Thessalonika) is always designated in contemporary documents and authorities by quite humble titles " Dilectus Alius Pandolphus subdiaconus et familiaris Noster" (In a letter to Stephen Langton xv July 12 13 in which the Cardinal of Tusculum is called "venerabilem fratrem Nostrum" in contra:

distinction.

"P. subdiacono et familiari Nostro" in a Breve of xxviii Jan 1213 in which the Cardinal of Tusculum (to whom it is addressed) is called by his titles. " magistro Pandolfo, ecclesie Romane subBy the Pope diacono, familiari Nostro" (In the Bull Mirantur Plurimum Aug. 121 5). By Matthew Paris "domini pape subdiaconus." " domini pape subdiaconus." By Wykes " Magister Pandulfus." In Annals of Osney In Annals of Margam "quidam de capellanis domini pape." In State Documents "domini pape subdiaconus et familiaris" " Dominus Pandulphus subdiaconus Vester" and in the Calendar of Papal Letters he appears as "papal notary" and "Pope's chamberlain" nor is there* record of any kind that he was ever made cardinal.^ The fact that the Pope calls him " subdiaconus" only shews that he was not of exalted hierarchical rank
:

:

% John of Ypres

in the

Chronique de Saint Berlin simply says he was a

cardinal (Bouquet, xviii 604).

i

44

INNOCENT THE GREAT
King
Philip the

aspirations,)

August, at a great

muster

at

Soissons,
to

declared his intention of in-

vading
to

England
as
well

dethrone the deposed king,

restore the banished bishops

and remove the
the

interdict,

as

to

punish

Angevin

for

the assumed murder of

Duke Arthur

of Brittany.

for the term is often applied, so the Rev. Dr. Ehrle, S.J., informs me, as a matter of curial routine to nuncios. § That he was absolutely
is proved more by the Pope's silence as to any His nuncio, for He invariably proclaimed the quality of His envoys with no uncertain voice in the letters of introduction to John the nuncio to the princes to whom they were accredited

not of high standing
title

other

for

:

simply called "familiaris." Pandolfo was never ordained priest while in England, although from 12 1 5 onward he was Elect-Bishop of Norwich. Canon Jessopp states that he can find no record that Pandolfo ever visited his see or was seized of the temporalities thereof f but, to make up for this
is
j|
:

he earned a reputation for Roman rapacity in all other dioceses. After he left the country, he was made Legate (having before been only nuncio) by Commission on xii September 1218 and returned to England iii December in the same year, where he achieved new fame He steered clear of overt quarrels as one capable of statesmanship. with Cardinal Langton of Canterbury but had to resign his Legation owing to that prelate's hostile influence at the Lateran, xix July 1221. Having now severed his connexion with his see and the country in which it lay, he could safely be consecrated Bishop thereof: which was done xxix May by the Lord Honorius Himself. Pandolfo died quite peaceably either at Rome on xvi August"** or at Viterbo on xvi September 1226, ft at which latter place he was buried.tt
;
:

§

Cf

the official descriptions accorded to
this country.

Dukes and Marquesses

in State

Papers and Proclamations in
!|

Letter to

King John,

xxviii Feb. 12 12.

^

Victoria History of Norfolk, Vol. II. p. 227.

** Annals of Waverley, p. 302, and Florence of Worcester, ii 174. tt Anthony Bek's Book (Lincoln MS.) " Pandulfus, gener Romanus,
legatus.

officio

Anno

pontificatus sui quinto

XV

Kal. Octobr. apud Witerbiam obiit

ut dicitur et ibidem sepelitur."

Xt Bartholomew Cotton
he had never troubled to

(p.

394) would
in the

have

it

that

this

Bishop was
in

brought back dead to be buried
visit

Cathedral Church of the diocese which

while alive, as also would

Weever

Funeral

Monuments,

p.

869.

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
But
these
to

145

preparations
trust
his

were

in

vain.

John,
the

unable
foreign

English barons to
climbed

resist

invasion,

suddenly

right

down
it

from
ence.

obstinate defiance to

self-humiliating obediin

Without approving the way
achieved,
pride,

which
to

was

and
one

at

whatever
hardly

cost

our

English

can

help

admiring

the completeness of the pontifical triumph.

The

Saul

among
;

persecutors agreed to
prostrate

all

the Pope's
apostolic
regalia,

demands
envoy,
receiving

and,

before

the

rendered

up

his

kingdoms and

them again on taking the oath as a 87 and further, feudal liegeman to the Holy See;
87

EGO IOHANNES
in

ab hac hora

Romane

Dei Gratia Rex Anglie, Dominus Ibernie, ero Deo et beato Petro et Ecclesie ac Domino meo Pape Domino Innocentio III Eiusque
antea
fidelis

Non ero in facto in dicto Successoribus Catholice intrantibus. consensu vel consilio ut vitam perdant vel membrum vel mala
captione capiantur

Eorum damnum

si

scrivero
citius

impediam
potero
tali

et

re-

moriam faciam

persone dicam quam Eis credam pro certo dicturam consilium quod mihi crediderint per Se vel per Nuncios seu litteras Suas secretum tenebo et ad Eorum damnum nulli pandum me sciente Patrimonium beati Petri et specialiter Regnum Anglie et Regnum Ibernie adiutor Eis ero ad tenendum et defendendum contra omnes homines pro posse meo sic Deus me adiuvet et haec sancta Dei Evangelia. De quibus ne possit in posterum aliquid dubitari ad maiorem securitatem predicte obligationis et concessionis nostre presentem cartam fieri fecimus et aurea bulla nostra signari ac procensu huius presentis et primi anni mille marcas sterlingorum per manum predicti Legati
si

potero alioquin Eis

quam

Ecclesie

Testibus

Romane persolvimus. Domino S. Cantuariensi

W.

Archiepiscopo. Londoniensi.
'

P. Wintoniensi.

E. Eliensi.

f

Episcopis.

H. Lincolniensi.

W. de Gray Cancellario Nostro. W. de Longa Spada Comite Saresboriensi

frate Nostro.

K

146

INNOCENT THE GREAT
kingship,
xii

signed a deed, binding himself and his successors
to this tenure of their

Oct,

1213.

88

Pandolfo
bishops
;

left

England with ^8000

for the

banished

and the question of Queen

Berengere's

dowry was shelved.

Of

course,

now
ruling

that

King John was
fit

a communiportion

cate vassal

over an uninterdicted

of Peter's Patrimony, he was not a
attack

subject for

by the Pope's men.
August,

The

fury
told

of

King
to

Philip the

when he was

that

R. Comite Cestrie.

Marescallo Comite Penbroc. Roberto de Rosse. W. Comite de Ferrariis. S. Comite Winton.
Guillelmo Briwere.

W.

Petro fiiio Hereberti. Briano de Insula, Dapifero Nostro. Datum per manus Magistri Riccardi de

Marisco, Archidiaconi

Richmundie
tertia

Northumbrie, apud sanctum Paulum Londoniensem, die Octobris Anno ab Incarnatione MCCXIII Regni vero
et

Nostri
88

Anno Decimo

Quinto.

{Cod. Dip. Dom. Temp. S.S. Tom. I.) Dei Gratia Rex Anglie, Dominus Ibernie, Dux Normannie et Aquitanie, Comes Andegavensis, omnibus Christi fidelibus hanc Cartam inspecturis, Salutem in Domino. Universitati vestre per presentem cartam aurea bulla nostra munitam volumus esse notum quod cum Deum et Matrem nostram Sanctam Ecclesiam offenderimus in multis et proinde divina misericordia plurimum indigere noscamur nee quicquam quod .digne offerre possimus pro satisfactione Deo et Ecclesie facienda debita nisi nos ipsos habeamus et regna nostra. Volentes nos ipsos humiliare pro Illo Qui Se pro nobis humiliavit usque ad mortem Gratia Spiritus Sancti inspirante non vi inducti nee timore coacti sed nostra bona spontaneaque voluntate ac communi consilio baronum nostrorum offerimus et libere concedimus Deo et Sanctis Apostulis Petro et Paulo et Sancte Romane Ecclesie Matri nostre ac Domino Xostro Pape Innocentio Tertio Eiusque Catholicis Successoribus tot inn regnum Anglie et to turn regnum Ibernie

JOHANNES

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
assail

147

John was now all of a sudden a sin, was only curbed by the desertion of the Count of
Flanders.
It
is

quite

possible

that

it

was a case of "a
the

Pope

ill-advised "

when,

during

subsequent

struggles between John and his barons, the Lord

Innocent was so decidedly of the king's advice.

Of

course

it

may be

that the

Pope considered

it

detrimental to the moral (as well as to the feudal)
interests of the

Church

to

allow

King John
omnium

to

cum omni

hire ac fiertinentis suis pro remissione

pecca-

torum nostrorum et totius generis nostri tarn pro vivis quam pro defunctis. Et a modo ilia a Deo et ab Ecclesia Romana tanquam
fedarius recipientes et tenentes in presentia venerabilis patris nostri

domini Nicholai
Pandulfi

Tusculani

Episcopi, Apostolice

Sedis

Legati et

Domini Pape Subdiaconi et Familiaris fidelitatem exinde Domino Nostro Pape Innocentio Eiusque Catholicis Successoribus ac Ecclesie Romane secundum subscriptam formam fecimus et
iuravimus Et homagium etiam ligium pro predictis regnis Sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo et Ecclesie Romane et

Deo et Eidem

Domino
et

et vice Ipsius

Pape Innocentio per manus predicti Legati loco Domini Pape recipientes publica fecimus. Successores heredes nostros de uxore nostra in perpetuum obligantes ut
nostro
fuerit
et

simili

modo Summo Pontifici Qui pro tempore Romane sine contradictione deberant fidelitatem
recognoscere.

Ecclesie

prestare et

homa-

gium

huius nostre perpetue obligationis et concessionis volumus et stabilimus ut de propriis et specialibus redditibus predictorum regnorum pro omni servitis et consuetudine quod pro ipsis facere debemus (salvis per omnia Denario

Ad

indicium

autem

marcas sterlingorum precipiat annuatim Pascha quingentas marcas septuagentas marcas scilicet pro regno Anglie
Petri) Ecclesia
scilicet
i^j

Romana

mille

festo

Sancti Michaelis quingentas marcas et in
Ibernie,
salvis.

et

trecentas pro regno

nobis et heredibus nostris

iustitiis liberatibus

ac regalibus nostris.

Que omnia
firma

sicut supradicta

obligamus nos et successores nostros contra non venire, et si nos vel aliquis successorum nostrorum hoc attemptare presumpserit quicunque fuerit ille nisi vite commonitus resipuerit cadat a iure regni et haec carta obligationis et concessionis nostre semper firma permaneat.
sunt rata

case

volentes perpetuo

atque

:

148
be

INNOCENT THE GREAT
hustled
it

or

hullaballooed
also

at

by

his

subjects
Soft-

but then

must

be remembered that

sword had given
to

his suzerain to

understand that,

granted the opportunity, he would go crusading
the

Holy Land, though
of
fact.

his

letters

to

the

Pope upon the subject can scarcely be taken as
records

From whatever

motives

the

Lord Innocent

acted,

He

was

at least consistent.

same from King

The

hand

which

protected
in

vassal

John

Philip the

August

12 13,

two years
barons.

later interfered

in his favour against the

King John was absolved from
the provisions of
lightnings
81

his
:

oath to keep

Magna
the

Carta

and the Lateran

89

scorched

barons

who dared

to

INXOCENTIUS EPISCOPUS, SERVUS servorum Dei—
WlNTONIENSI EPISCOPO, ABBATI REDINGE ECCLESIE ROMANE SUBDIACONO *
P.

— ET

PANDOLFO

MIR AMUR PLURIMUM
movemur quod cum karissimus in Christo filius Noster Ioharmes illustris Rex Anglie supra spem Domino et Ecclesie satisfecerit et
et

presertim
copis
eius

fratri

Nostro Stefano Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo
oportuerit et

et epis-

quidam eorum minus quam

decuerit

ad

negotium, Apostolice Sedis mandatum et fidelitatis prestite iuramentum debitum imo nullum respectum ei contra perturbatores regni quod ab Romanam Ecclesiam ratione Dominii pertinere auxilium non prestiterint vel favorem quasi conscii ne Dicamus socii coniurationis inique quia non caret scrupulo societatis
sancte crucis
inique qui manifesto facinori desinit

obviare

— Ecce

qualiter patri?

monium Romane

Ecclesie Pontifices prefati defendunt

Qualiter crucesignatus tuentur imo qualiter se opponunt his qui
destruere moliuntur negotium Crucifixi.
cenis existentes

Peiores procul dubio Saradepellere de quo potius

cum

ilium conantur a

Regno

sperabatur quod deberet succurrere Terre Sancte.
*

Unde

ne talium

In this Bull

it

will be noticed that

Pandolfo ranks after the Abbot of
cardinal.

Reading which would not be the case had he been a

INNOCENT AND ENGLAND
combine against
had won a
feudal
their

149

lawful

sovereign and the

favoured dependent of the Holy See.
signal

The Church
Pence and

triumph

:

Peter's

tribute

were flowing into Her somewhat
:

depleted coffers
settled in

all

disputed questions had been
:

Her

favour

Her overbearing oppressor
;

was now quite obedient and very humble
tant
island
in

—and
dis-

what were the constitutional aspirations of a

comparison with the necessity of

showing the World that the Church knew how
to protect

Her
It

friends as well as
distinctly a

how

to

punish

Her
the

foes.

was

mistake of judgment

on the part of Innocent.

True, John's letters to

Pope were utterly misleading. True, Cardinal Langton erred on the side of arbitrariness. But,

Innocent knew John's character
treacherous,
incapable,

—cowardly,

cruel,

thoroughly weak (except-

ing

for

wickedness).

And He knew

Langton's

non solum in periculum Regni Anglie verum etiam in perniciem aliorum regnorum et maxime in subversionem totius
insolentia

negotii Crucifixi valeat prevalere
Patris, et Filii, et

Nos ex Parte Dei Omnipotentis
quoque Apostolorum

Spiritus Sancti authoritate

Eius Petri et Pauli ac Nostra, omnes huius modi perturbatores Regis ac Regni Anglie cum complicibus et fautoribus suis excommunicationis vinculo Innodamus et terras eorum ecclesiastico Subiicimus Universis insuper eiusdem Regis interdicto. vasallos in remissionem peccatorum ex parte Nostra iniungentes ut contra perversores huiusmodi prefato Regi tribuant consilium et

— — — — — —
mandatum

iuvamen.

— —

Ne

igitur

alicuius tergiversatione valeat impediri

excommunicationis causam predictorum cum ceteris que ad hoc negotium pertinuerint Duximus committendam per Apostolica vobis Scripta mandantes quatenus protinus omni appellatione postposita
procedatis sicut videritis expedire.

Rymer, Foeder.

Vol.

I.

208.

ISO

INNOCENT THE GREAT
capable, ambitious
for

—brave,
of

the best interests

the

Church,

tactful,

strong,

diplomatic

with
the

unusual
Cross.

sincerity.

But

John
that
his

had
the

taken

Innocent believed

King

of the

English was about to

fulfil
it

promise to free

Holy Land. And a judgement ordinarily
the

was

this

which blinded

so clear-seeing,

and

at all

times so unwaveringly
ness,

on the side of righteousin

and influenced the Pope
advantage,
then,

John's

favour.

The

which Innocent
its

won was
if

contemptible,

on account of
;

ephemerality,

on no higher ground
but that,

and there can be no doubt

when the first flush of triumph had faded, the Pope regretted that ever a single English mark of King Lackland's minting should
have entered the
of
pontifical exchequer.

The
is

case

England's
a
fine
in

humiliation under

John

on the
Pontiffs

whole

example of the Roman
affairs

fallibility

temporal

CHAPTER

VIII

CONCERNING INNOCENT THE THIRD AND

THE CITY
Turbulent
cities

Rome — Causes of Turbulence — Bad example of other — Innocent's object — and method — The Lombard Pisa and Sardinia — 1200, Innocent describes Guglielmo da Massa — 1202, Sardinians massacre clergy — Pisa's opportunity Pisan raid on Torres — A matrimonial case — Rival candidates Pisa gains Sardinia — Orvieto — Rebellious and heretical — 199, excommunications — 1200, Pietro Parenzi — Parenzi murdered 1209, second Orvietan attempt on Aquapendente — Viterbo 199, Consuls rebuked — 1200, War — 1205 — Unwinged words 1207, Peace — New Laws — Lawlessness of the Romans — The mind of Innocent — The mind of the Romans — 198, Innocent changes the Roman constitution — The Prefect's Oath — Benedetto Carusomo — Pierleone and Capocci — Rome and Viterbo claim Vitorchiano — Innocent's dilemma — War between Rome and Viterbo — Innocent pleases both — Gabriano and Varni pother Opportunity of Pierleone and Capocci — 1202, Orsini and Scotti feud — Ricardo de' Conti — The Poli estates — Poli vs. Conti Poli gambades and gallery play — Intervention of Pierleone and Capocci — Rebellion — Innocent retires to Ferentino — New democratic constitution for Rome — 1203, Elections — Democrats claim — 1204, The Pope as pacifiPoli estates — Recrudescence of cator— His diplomacy — A Pierleone senator — Capocci protestant — Civil War in Rome — Pontiff has the sinews of war— Innocent's contempt — Terms of peace — New senate incapable — People voke Pope — Innocent returns to the status quo ante— Review of Innocent's internal policy — System of charity — Famine of 1202 "Panem — circenses" — Infanticide — Santo Spirito the Foundling Hospital — Religious Orders — The Trinitarians Mendicant Friars — Friars Minor — Friars Preachers — Curial Reform — Summary
cities
1 1 1

riot

in-

et

first

It

is

one of

the

most
151

remarkable

features

of

the history of the

Roman

Pontificate that,

long

152
after

INNOCENT THE GREAT
the
Pontiff
at

had

become
to

able

to

wield

Christendom
or war,
culties

His

will,

make and unmake
in
diffi-

kings and emperors, to compel princes to peace

He
with
to

Himself was almost always
His

Romans.
t{

Rome

indeed

never

seems not
of
or
it

have deserved Tacitus' description
place

as

the

where everything atrocious
speaking
90

shameful

(he
is

is

of

Christianity)

collects

and

practised."

The Lord

Innocent's difficulties with the City

appear to have arisen from two

sources

:

first,

the shocking example set by other neighbouring
Italian
cities

or

states

;

secondly,

the

notion

(maintained as a root idea by the temperamentally

turbulent

populace) that

it

stood

in

a more

or less independent position in regard to the Pope.

Among
cities

the cantankerous cities and states with
to deal, the

which the Lord Innocent had
in

Lombard
Pisa

the

north

with

Orvieto,

Viterbo,

and

the

island

of Sardinia

nearer

at hand, are

perhaps the most important to be considered.

The

following

Lombard

cities

came
flail
:

in

turn

under the weight of the

pontifical

(September

1

199-December

1204):

Cremona Parma and
to

Piacenza sinned in

common from 1198
Piacenza

1205,

when

Parma

saw the error of her ways
while

and

was pardoned,
90

having

invented

erumpebat per urbem etiam quo cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque. Ann. XV Ed. Lipsius, 1524, p. 528.
exitiabilis superstitio rursus
. . .

Patrimony of Saint Peter
Fiefs nominally held of Saint Peter by more or less independent laymen

Tuscia
Lands, now pertaining to Tuscia, which had at one time formed part of the Patrimony,
1

The Legacy or Matildan Donation

;

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
a
fresh
sin

153
:

persevered therein until 1207
to

Berre-

gamo
with

began
Treviso

misbehave
Alessandria,

in

12 10

and
city

mained under displeasure, as was also the case
:

a

papal

par

excellence,

was

stiff-necked
:

and would obey the
through the loss
elected an excom-

Pope
of
its

in

nothing

it

persisted
in
its

bishopric,

and
as

12 13

municate heretic

rector,

whenafter

it

re-

mained under the
interdict
:

Pope's

displeasure,

ban,

and

Verona,

Modena,

Mantua,
to

Novara,

Ferrara, Padua, belong also to the
All

same category.
legates,

these

cities

were insolent
always
afflicted

somethe

times
clergy

heretical,

aggressive

against

whom

they

with outrageous taxes
to

and,

furthermore,

they

were given over
city
in

de-

solating

wars
civil

between
disorders,

and
all

perpetual

and to of which the
city,

Church was the chief

sufferer.

The
protect

Pope's
the

object

was
and
life

to

ease

matters,
of

to

clergy

the
at

property

the

Church, and to
decent

make

least

endurable for

and

Christian

method of attaining same in every case.
by exhortation,

women. His this object was much the If anything could be done
and
the

men

Innocent
for

Third

(with

His
the

enormous

capacity
it.

letter-writing)
failed

was

man
to

to

do

When
at

words
first,

He

proceeded
finally

deeds

—gentle

then

severe,

terrific,

and generally
breves and

effective.

The

bulls

which issued from the

i

54

INNOCENT THE GREAT
seem
to

come in the following ." Please be good:" "You will be sorry order: are not good:" " Such and such inif you dividual sinners are excommunicated " " Your
Lateran

have

city

is

laid

under an interdict
is

"
:

of your city

abolished:"

— "All
it

— " The
to his
is

:

bishopric

the subjects of

your

city are

outlaws throughout Christendom, and
to

any prince who desires
will

add
so."

dominions

be blessed for doing

It

not suggested
In-

that this procedure

was invariably

successful.

some places, there was no lay prince considerable enough to be named definitely as
deed,
in

pontifical

commissioner
Faith,

for the restoration of the

Catholic

Apostolic
;

peace,

and

Christian

treatment of the clergy

and

cities like

Bergamo,
It

Treviso, and Alessandria, were as contagious ring-

worms on

the

body of

Italian

politics.

must
is

however be emphasized that Innocent (Who
spoken of elsewhere as the pioneer of Italian
barbarians to do in
ally

in-

dependence) never dreamed of inviting transalpine
Italy

what
in

He

was perpetucountries,

urging them
to

to

do

their

own

namely

consider themselves as

Peter's

sword

to be wielded at the Pope's will against objection-

able or contumacious ears.

The
the

affair

of Pisa and Sardinia was another of
difficulties.

Lord Innocent's provincial
at the

The

Pope found Sardinia
far as
it

very beginning of His

reign in an extremely unsatisfactory condition.

As
its

could be said to be governed at

all,

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
rulers

155

were the four hereditary Judges of Torres,
in

Arborea, Cagliari, and Gallura, whose overlord very shadowy way was supposed to be the
Pontiff.
strikers,

a

Roman
in-

The Judges themselves were
deceivers
;

"tosspots,

of

maidens,

and

rogues

grane" 91

and, what

the masterless

men

(a

very

mixed stock and addicted
such governors,
it

to vendette) were,

under

may be

useless to describe.

In 1200 Innocent as suzerain kicked (in a spirit
of love) Guglielmo da Massa,

"We
like a

hear,"

He

Judge of Cagliari. wrote, "that you have returned
;

dog

to your

vomit

and

that,

plunged

in the

voluptuousness of the time, you have actually been

usurping the rights of the Church instead of respecting

Her

as your

Mother and

Mistress.

You

have stolen the wife of the Judge of Torres, dishonoured her and killed her in prison. By caresses,
threats, or violence,

maids and matrons, patrician or

plebeian, are your victims.

You

illtreat

churches
with

and the
Serra,
until

clergy,

as though they

were

serfs,

your crushing taxes.

You have deposed

Pietro di

Judge of Arborea, and kept him in prison he died. Without waiting for Our investiture

or asking

Our

permission, and to

Our

loss,

you

married your daughter to a noble,

Ugo

di

Basso,

giving her as dowry half Arborea and reserving for
yourself
that
all
all

the fortresses

;

and yet every one knows

Sardinia belongs to the domain, jurisdiction,

and patrimony, of the Apostolic See.
91

That

is

not

Sir

Walter Besant.

156
all.

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Even your Judgeship
of Cagliari

you only

obtained, on the death of the last Judge,
his

by

seizing

wife and daughter, leaving the one to die in

prison,

and marrying the
:

other, a minor, to

one of

your kin

although the Judge, on his deathbed,

confided them both, as well as his dominions, to
the Archbishop of Pisa."

Two
had
establish

years

later,

finding that

His exhortations

failed,

Pope made a definite attempt to order and peace in Sardinia, naming the
the

apostolic

prothonotary
full

Blasio

as

Archbishop

of

Torres with

powers.

But, in the following year,

the Sardinians indulged in a considerable massacre
of prelates
cation
;

and the

pontifical threat of

excommuniseems

and

anathema

(to

be

pronounced every
island)

Sunday and Holiday throughout the
to

have been simply contemned.
This was Pisa's opportunity
:

Pisa,

the Pope's

enemy
Ban.

in

Tuscany, and herself under the Great
being a maritime republic, and the

Pisa,

Pisans of a pushing and commercial temperament,
desired to bring Sardinia into both spiritual and

temporal subjection to herself and to reduce
the status of a colony.

it

to

Consequently*

when

the

Lord Innocent (claiming the
Peter's
tions)

island as a fief of

Patrimony
insisted

in virtue of

Carolingian Dona-

on

oaths

of allegiance

from

the

Judges, and urged the local bishops to act for the
restoration

of law

and morality, the incorrigible
too ready
to fall into

Sardinians were only

the

INNOCENT AND THE CITY

157

arms of the Pisans. The result was the Pisan raid on Torres and the practical enslavement of that
division of the island.

This same year Barisone
died,
fell

Judge of Gallura, leaving a daughter Elena, whose marriage
I,

to Innocent (as legal suzerain of Sardinia) to

arrange.

Desiring to obtain a definite foothold

in

Pope appointed His Own cousin, Trasimondo de' Conti, to marry the lady and
the island, the

thereby to acquire iure uxoris the hereditary Judgeship of Gallura.

Owing however
girl

to Pisan influence
for

on her mother, the

was coy

three years

:

which gave the Pisans a chance of providing a
Visconti, a citizen of the republic,

rival

candidate for her hand in the person of Lamberto

whom

she was

induced to marry

in

1207.

The Pope

retorted by
(the

sending Trasimondo to incite Genoa

com-

mercial rival of Pisa) against Sardinia, fulminating

by the way excommunications against bridegroom,
bride,

and the

latter's

part, continued to

The Pisans, on their be Guelf when the Pope became
mother.

Ghibelline, allying themselves with another of

His

enemies, the

Emperor Otto

:

but,

though Innocent

contrived to nullify their efforts in this direction,

Pisa remained under excommunication until the end
of the reign.

The
.

republic

was however able

to

console

itself

with the possession of Sardinia, of

which the Pope henceforth disdainfully washed His
hands.
Pisans,

By way, however,
and making them,

of getting even with the
willy-nilly,

instrumental

158
for

INNOCENT THE GREAT
good
at
least

somewhere, the Lord Innocent

wrote to the Bishop of Gallipoli and the Dean of
the Great Church of Constantinople ordering
to

them

compel, with threat of censures,
to

all

Pisans in

Romania

pay

tithes.

92

The

case of Orvieto presents a different feature
cities

from that of the Lombard
Pisa imbroglio
:

and the Sardinia-

the place being not only rebellious

but heretical as well.

In the very year of the Lord
to

Innocent's accession, the Orvietans had tried
steal

pontifical

Acquapendente,

The
;

following

year the Catharist heresy broke out very violently.

The

usual

excommunications followed
of
Orvieto,

and the
to

bishop,

Ricardo

was transferred

Rome.
to
taries,

He
but
1

appears to have been able occasionally

nerve himself to hang, burn, and behead sec-

never entirely to suppress them.

In

Feb.

200 the Christian inhabitants of Orvieto
in

succeeded

getting

a

pontifically-nominated

Podesta

in the

person of Pietro Parenzh

who was

promptly murdered by the heretics on xxx

May

by

way

of retaliation for the bitter persecution, both

physical

and
It is

financial,

to

which he had subjected

them.

worthy of note, as an instance of the

disorders of the times, that the brave Parenzi, after

swearing allegiance to the
Orvieto, at once

Pope

as

Podesta

of

made
him,
92

his will

and received plenary

absolution in intelligent anticipation of that

doom

which elevated

in
viii

the

eves of reasonable

Letter

Mar. 1208.

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
Orvietans, to the rank of a hero and martyr.
city

159

The

was quiescent

after

this

outburst until 1209,

when

the inhabitants again
;

made predatory attempts

on Acquapendente

and were immediately scorched

with interdict and crippled by a fine of 4000 marks.

The
the

case of Viterbo
its

more nearly

affected

Rome,
its

by reason of
walls.

geographical

proximity and of

frequent residence of the pontiffs within

At the very beginning of Innocent's reign, we find it cankered with heresy and hankering after independence. On xxv March 1199

He
city

had occasion to rebuke the Consuls of the

and

to

furnish
all

them with

injunctions

against

heretics.

Like

other communities of the period

the Viterbitans resisted the pontifical measures as
far as

they could

:

failing to turn aside the

Pope

from His course of unification, they proceeded to

worry His
selves
in

class,

the clergy, drawing upon them-

1200

a

threat

to

suppress

the

see.

After this

came the war between Viterbo and
is

Rome
itself.

(which

treated of below)

;

and, from

its

close until

1205, the city seems to have behaved
into
evil

But then Viterbo lapsed again
its

ways, exiling

bishop and electing an

excomas

municated

Patarin,

one
city.

Giovanni

Tignosi,

chamberlain of the
'

'Wallowing
"as

in

your
a

sins," fulgurated the

angry
its

Pontiff,

does

beast

of

burthen amid

dunghills, the stink of your putridity has corrupted
all

the

region

round about."

All

the dreadful

160

INNOCENT THE GREAT
were launched against those who had dealwith

pains and penalties of excommunication and interdict

ings

Catharism and
;

every

other

kind

of

heterodoxy
not
until

and the bishop was

restored.

But

June 1207 was there peace, when Innocent Himself went to superintend the cleans-

ing of this

Augean

stable.

Henceforth recusants
used as public

were
their

to

be outlawed, their property confiscated,
sites

houses razed and the

rubbish heaps.

Further, their fautors were to be

mulcted of a quarter of their goods and bound
over in
a
the

new and
lapsed,

strict

oath

of

allegiance.

As

for

or

recidivi,

they were to be
lawyers

deprived

of the

assistance

of

and the
provision

ministrations

of

the

clergy,

nor might they be

buried

in

consecrated
to

ground

— which
And

would seem

indicate that

their execution

was

regarded as a matter of course.

these laws

were

to be in force over the
xxiii

whole Patrimony.

On

September 1207 they were promulcities of

gated at a sort of parliament, consisting of clerks

and lay representatives of the

the Patri-

mony, which was held by the Pope's command.

Two
Civil

further
to

statutes

respectively

subordinated
clergy were

Canon Law

so

far

as the

concerned, and prescribed police regulations prohibiting family feuds, private wars, and vendette,

all

very excellent
:

from

the

theoretical

point

armed hand rather of a Feudal Lord than of a Shepherd of the
of view
but,
in

practice, the

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
People was required to enforce them.
Still

161

they

did secure peace to the Patrimony until the death
of the

Lord Innocent.

With all these hideous examples of anarchy and Donnybrook Fair around it, very naturally
Pope
dealing

Innocent
with
the

found
City

considerable
itself.

difficulty

in

Immediately
to

after

His
the

election,
for

Rome

swore allegiance
:

Him

and
until

howled

largesse

which

was

refused

Pope had received the confirmation of His position by coronation a month later. In the

mean time He made inquiries as to the usual amount given, and the minimum amount which
could

be given enraged

;

and the donation of the
a

latter
total

sum

denial of their
It is

Romans more than claim. Then riots began.
the

necessary clearly to understand the minds

of the

contending parties.
Innocent
the

which guided
sayings,

The main principles may be found in His
spiritual

"Among
precedes

People of God,

authority

temporal,"

and

"

God

has

placed in the firmament of the Universal Church

two
but

great

dignities,

the

Papacy

which

reigns
:

over souls, and Royalty which reigns over bodies
the

former

is

immensely
in

superior

to

the a

latter."

The Romans

recognized two
the

officials,

senator exercising authority
People, and a prefect
the

name

of the

who nominally
to

represented

emperor

— preferring

pretend to obey the

Roman Emperor who was

generally absent, rather


162

INNOCENT THE GREAT
common decency
overlord
the
to

than to behave with
actual
Pontiff.

their

and

ever

present

Roman

Even according
essentially

to Innocent's ideas there
in this position.

was nothing
treat

anomalous
quite

Most Popes had been
with
the

as well
(as

pleased to

Roman commune
of

a separate

power with
other

rights
cities

peace and
in

war) as
this

with

papal
relation

constituted

manner.

The

of pontiff to

commune

could quite

well have
prelates

been on a par with that of German
to

in relation

their city

governments, or

with that of the northern Free Cities which also

had sovereign bishops.
to

The one

thing necessary
is

such a form of

government

that

the

lay

power should be competent to perform its secular functions and this the Roman commune emphati;

cally

was

not.

Consequently,

taking advantage

of the

temporary enthusiasm which accompanied

His

election, the

Lord Innocent changed the conCity.

stitution

of the

Henceforth both senator
pontifical

and prefect were to be
to

nominees and
only.

swear allegiance

to

the

Pope

There
Pietro

wras

nothing violent about this change, as Innocent
the imperially nominated
prefect

retained

Vico, taking from
still

him an oath of
of Christ,
I

allegiance which
:

survives in the Vatican Archives

"In
" for

the

name
land
[to

I,

Peter,

Prefect

"of the

City,

swear that

will faithfully care

the

which

the

Lord
to

Pope has
the

"committed

my

charge

honour

:

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
"and
perfecting
sell,
let,

163
I

of

the

Church.
nor

will

" neither

subinfeudate,

mortany-

gage,
" thing

nor

in
it."

any
93

manner

alienate

from

Unfortunately the Pope was confronted with the

problem of dealing both with a legacy of

evil

and

with

present

discontent.
;

The

evil

which

men do lives after them and Benedetto Carusomo, who had usurped the sole senatorship from
1191-1193,

Maremma
Church.

had appointed a governor over the and the Sabina in despite of the
first

This was the

bone of contention
in

:

Innocent recovered the

districts

question,

and
of

thereby came into collision with
leone

Giovanni Pier-

and

Giovanni

Capocci,
led

representatives

the Great

Houses who

the democratic party

in the City.

These malcontents took occasion to express a alleging that, in regrievance against the Pope
:

covering the
tolic

Maremma and
being
(in
all

Sabina for the Apos-

See,

He

had robbed the people of

Rome

their real

reason

accordance with the

practice of socialists of

ages) to render themto

selves

sufficiently

hostile

make

it

worth

the

Pope's while to buy them.
refused
93
;

However, Innocent

and Pierleone and Capocci therefore took
Christi ego Petrus Urbis prefectus iuro'

" In

nomine

quod terram

"

quam inichi dominus Papa procurandam commisit fideliter procurabo "ad honorem et perfectum Ecclesie. Non vendam nee locabo nee "infeudabo nee impignorabo nee aliquo modo alienabo quidquid ex
'*

ea."

{Reg*

I

ccxvij sheet a.)

1

64

INNOCENT THE GREAT
and watched
their opportunity for

umbrage, ranged themselves among the antipapal
faction,

a con-

spiracy.

Now

it

happened that the Viterbitans wished
town near
it

to possess themselves of Vitorchiano, a

Montefiascone.
subject to
that
it

But Vitorchiano said that
to the Viterbitans.
least

was

Rome, probably only meaning thereby

was not subject
nominally

Now
city.

Rome was
the

at

a

pontifical
city,

Viterbo was certainly a pontifical
felicitous

which (with
cities

opportunism of pontifical

of

the period) had been very Ghibelline indeed

when
its

Barbarossa besieged
loyalty
to

Rome

in

1167,

shewing

the

imperial

principle

by plundering

much

of Saint Peter's

and samsonizing the bronze

gates of that edifice.

As
to

a matter of fact there was hardly a penny
two.

choose between the
averse
;

Rome
to

itself

was
the

never

from

exacting

money from
chase
the
pelt
coffins

Popes

and had been

known
to

living

Popes from the City and

of

dead ones with mud, as indeed happened
funeral of Alexander the Third.
94

at the

The dilemma amounted
awarded
Vitorchiano
:

to

this

:

if

the

Pope
if

to

Viterbo,

the

Romans

would be very angry
sustained the
As an Rome, it is
94

on the other hand,

He

Roman

claims to the disputed town,

modern persistence of mediaeval traditions in note that the coffin of Pius the Ninth was not curious to only pelted with mud but almost tossed into Tiber as well.
instance of

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
pride and quite unmanageable.

165

His charming Romans would become puffed with
Incidentally they
city

would destroy the
completely
in
1

pontifical

of

Viterbo as

as

they

had

destroyed

Tusculum

191.

In the war between
naturally followed,

Rome and

Viterbo which

Innocent supported

Rome

just

so far as to allow her to recover Vitorchiano and
at the

same time get very nearly smashed. And then He saved Viterbo, and enabled her to keep her independence. Rome was actually grateful But the Viterbo, for His favour. for His help
:

democrats accused
of the City.

Him

of betraying the interests

Then
stolen

the lords of Gabriano and Varni, having

the

some land from the Colmezzo family in Campagna, refused to obey the pontifical
:

courts

pretending to

hold

the

stolen

property

from Pierleone and Capocci as representing the

commune
in

of

Rome.
in

They, of course, complained
people should
court.

loudly that a fief of the

be held

question

a

pontifical

Innocent reto

torted

by sending the Marshal of the Church
the

desolate

private

property of

Gabriano

and

whereupon Pierleone and Capocci raised the populace (at no time a difficult task) and the Pope was forced to explain the facts of the case
Varni
:

;

to the people.

When, however, a government
its

is

reduced to having to explain
subjects,
it

actions

to

its

is

in

a very poor way.

1

66

INNOCENT THE GREAT
of the families ot

Next came the feud
and Scotti
tions,
xiiii
:

Orsini

which, after smouldering for generain

broke out
viiii).

the

autumn
Third,

of

1202,

(Sept.

- Oct.

The
the

Orsini, fat with the nepo-

tism
the

of Celestine

took advantage of
at

Pope's

temporary
Scotti,

absence

Velletri

to

ravage the

His mother's
Suburra,
the

family, in

Rome.
;

Innocent promptly returned to restore order

and
and

Pandolfo of

the

Senator,

imposed

an

oath

of

allegiance

upon
Saint

both
:

parties

banished them beyond the walls
Peter's

Scotti
Paul's,

by Saint
with
all

and

Orsini

by

Trastevere between them.

One
:

of the

leaders,

Teobaldo

Orsini,

was waylaid

in the

Via Ostiense

by the Scotti and murdered

whereat Orsini raised
utterly
Scotti,

the plebs by parading Teobaldo's corpse,

wracked and destroyed the houses of the
and captured two towers belonging

to the Senator.

At
His
rich

this juncture

the

Pope's main support was

brother

Ricardo,

whom He had made
possible,

as

and powerful as
of

not

perhaps alto-

gether without the idea of making friends of the

mammon
the
in
title

unrighteousness.

This Ricardo (the
still

builder of the Conti tower which

exists

under

of Torre di

Nerone near the Via Nazionale

modern Rome) had purchased the mortgages on the properties of the House of Poli and had
;

paid off the debts of
family
:

Oddo

Poli, the

head of that had
the

in

return

for

which

he

had

daughter of

Oddo

betrothed to his son.

Oddo,

;

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
however,
seeing his property
out
of

167

the

hands
in-

of the usurers,
gratitude
tried

with
to

the

most inconsequent
it
;

recover

and

actually
de'

had
for

the

impertinence to sue Ricardo

Conti

having dispossessed him.

This

is

an excellent

example of the way
it

in

which the Romans found

Pope or members of the pontifical family for there was always something to be gained by litigation of this kind, sometimes by force, sometimes by a stroke of luck and always as a concession to secure what one might call the
safe to bait a
:

silence

of a

yelping

cur.

Honesty and
all.

justice

did not enter into the question at

The
fief,

case of Poll
to

vs.

Conti, having to do with a

had

be tried in the pontifical courts.
foolish
Poli's

The
:

Lord Innocent, with a most
actually offered to
this

generosity,

pay Oddo

expenses

but

did not suit the plaintiffs book in the least
his familiars

and Oddo and a body of
about

acted the

Adamite, stripping themselves naked and running

Rome

in

and out of the churches,

calling all

men

to witness to

what they had been reduced by

the overweening pride of the Conti and the Pope's

nepotism.

After this scandalous proceeding, the

gymnosophists further had the audacity to pretend
to

hand over the

fief

(which was

still

sub iudice) to
to claim

the

commune
done

of

Rome, and then

pro-

tection as vassals of the City.
certainly

This was almost

at the instigation of the democratic

leaders, Pierleone

and Capocci.

168

INNOCENT THE GREAT
protested
castles,
;

The Pope

and ordered His brother

to

fortify the Poli

which he held, pending the
seized the chance

judicial decision.

The Romans
their favourite

of engaging in
volted.

pastime

;

and

rein

The Senator Pandolfo was
the

besieged

the Capitol,
partially
flight:

Conti tower was assaulted and

burned, and

Ricardo obliged to take to
of

while

the

remains

the

tower

were

escheated to the commune, and the Conti and their

adherents outlawed.

The
where

Pope, being no longer safe

in

the

City,

retired to Ferentino in

May, and
ill.

later to

Anagni

He became

seriously

Meanwhile the

disorders in the City ceased, and the

from a destructive to

Romans turned The a constructive policy.
was
to

nominated

senatorship

be

abolished,
in

as

being an engine of pontifical oppression,
of a senate of fifty-six

favour

members
;

elected under the

control of the democrats

and

in this

way

a term

was

to

be put to the despotism and nepotism of

the Lateran.

The Pope and
the

the

commune
Paternity)

entered

into

an
in

agreement that the College of Cardinals (acting
absence of His

was

to

nominate

twelve electors,

who

(in their turn)
:

were to choose
the elections

the fifty-six senators

when however
and,

came on

at the

end of 1203 the ochlocrats seized
;

most of the electors
threats, extorted the
to

by imprisonment and

appointment of senators hostile

the

Pope.

But Pandolfo, who had held the

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
Capitol
all

169
various

this

time

in

despite
it

of
to

the
the

tumults, at length surrendered

senators

chosen by the uncoerced minority of electors as
being favourable
tested
to the

Pope.

The democrats

pro-

and solemnly claimed that the

Poli estates

should be handed over to the

commune pending
when

the

verdict of the court, which the turbulence of the

City rendered impossible

;

and,

the pontifical

party (from the security of the Capitol) declined,
the democrats set up an anti-senate in the monastery
of Santa Rosa.

A

grave recrudescence of disorders

ensued.

The Roman
state of things,

people thoroughly wearied of this

and being by no means
This

satisfied

with the demagogues, implored the Lord Innocent
to return as pacificator.

He

did in

March

1204 and made an oration to the people.
fifty-six

The

senators having fallen out of favour -were
the

abolished by

Pope,

Who

very diplomatically

took

all

the wind out of His opponents' sails by
his

naming

mischief-making adversary,

Giovanni

Pierleone, as sole elector of a sole senator

— thus

riving the lute of the democrats.
his

This
as

man named
Senator, an

kinsman, Gregorio Pierleone,

honest but otherwise colourless character, but wellthought-of as being a

Roman

of

Rome.

Capocci and his section of the democrats, being

now

left

very

much

out in the cold, would (and

could) have no part or lot in these arrangements.

They

therefore

declared,

through the mouth of

;

170
their

INNOCENT THE GREAT

tame but schismatic and abolished senate, that the Pope had violated a treaty of 1188 and was
therefore

deposed.
out
in

Furthermore
fresh as
titles

they
"

tricked

themselves
della
call

as

Buonhomini

Commune," and

such

were pleased to

themselves a government.

This was the beginning of the very thoroughgoing war which ensued.

Towers were

built
:

and
the

burned and rebuilt and again captured
old scores

all

Great Houses seized the opportunity of settling

and bringing blood feuds up
could)
built

to

date.

Every one (who
ruin,

a tower, fortified a
castle
this

or

dispossessed
to

a neighbour of his

and proceeded
base.

plunder and

burn from

The

Anibaldi, the Alexii, Gilido Carbonis,

and the invaluable Pandolfo the ex-senator, helped the Conti and Scotti for the Pope against the
democrats under
the

Capocci,
Rainerii,

who
and
:

was backed
Baroncelli.

by

Frangipani,

The

fighting went on for days

but,

as the pontifical

treasury

was well

filled,

the ultimate victory lay

with

the

Lord Innocent.
were

He

proposed terms;
fire for

and, though the arrangements hung
time, they
at last accepted
:

some

when Innocent

shewed His scorn for the City and its pretensions by investing His brother with the disputed Poli
fiefs.

The
that

terms accepted on xxvi October 1204
four
arbitrators

were
parties

appointed

by

both
their

should decide upon a peace.

And

decision was that electors nominated by the

Pope

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
were to choose
fifty-six

171

senators

who

should swear

allegiance to His Paternity.

But of course
the

this

arrangement, being merely
previous
one,

counterpart
well
:

of

the

could
itself

not

work

the

new
;

senate

shewed

to

be

singularly incapable

breaches of the peace were

unrestrained
to

;

and the people besought the Pope

end the matter, which
to

He

promptly did by

a reversion
of

the

sole

senatorship of Pandolfo

the

Suburra.

This was practically the end

of the strife between the Lord Innocent and His

Romans
1

:

only once
then,

more did a

crisis

arise,

in

208

;

and

by merely

leaving

the

City,

the

Pope brought His pack of curs

to heel,

and

returned a second time

"by

special request."

Innocent
that

the

Third's

policy

throughout
nobles,

was

of the

wise ruler.
favour for

As

for the

He
for

distributed

His friends and force

His

foes

:

He
in

assisted the commercial classes
to

by

helping them

get their debts paid,

avoiding

anything

the shape of novae tabulae;

and by

awarding

them the revenues of benefices mortgaged by deceased but foreign prelates. 95 His works on behalf of the poor were thoroughly in
to

keeping with His position as Vicar of the Poor

Man

of Nazareth.

He
in the

established an
City,

organized

system of charity

and His excellent
the

arrangements

for

dealing

with

famine
to

of
the

February

1202
95

were

infinitely
ii

superior

Breve of

Mar. 1204.

":

172

INNOCENT THE GREAT
soup-

modern system of sporadic and amateur
kitchens.

The

Pontiff

undoubtedly
far

shouldered
"

the

burthen of the Caesars as
concerned.
pleased

as

panem
riots

was
and

The populace was
to

doubtless

graciously

accept

the

frequent

civic disturbances in lieu of " circenses."

A
that

dream
a

inspired

what
:

was perhaps one of
for
it

His greatest

acts of charity
like

is

only natural

temperament

Innocent's

should

be

very strongly influenced by anything in the shape
of

an occult manifestation.
fish

He seemed
first

to

be
the

bidden to
net

in

Tiber

— the
to

cast

of

brought up eighty-seven
the

murdered
the

infants

and
evil

second,

three-hundred-and-forty.

His
blatant

attention

being thus
time,

drawn

most crying
as

of the
that

habitual

infanticide
96

as

of the

dirty-knuckled

Lakonians,
is

He
still
97

established xviii June 1204 what

in effect

the
of

Foundling
in the

Hospital

and Maternity
purpose in

Home

Rome

Borgo, which was to be supported
for the
Italy,

by alms collected
land,
Sicily,

Eng-

and Hungary.

On
in

iii

Jan 1208

He
was

ordered the Veroneikon to be carried in great
to this hospital of called then)

pomp
it

Santa Maria

Saxia (as

and an annual distribution of food and

money
96
97

in

connection with the institution.

Plato's word. This foundation was placed under the care of the Confraternity of the Holy Ghost (whence its modern name), a society founded by Count Gui de Montpellier to do hospital work among the poor.

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
tions
is

173

Another of the Lord Innocent's great foundathe Order of

The Holy

Trinity and of
98

Captives,

commonly

called

the Trinitarians,

first

established by Jean de

Matha and Felix de
Rule

Valois,

and following the
(differenced by a blue

Augustinian

and

dress

and red

cross), with the special

additional obligation of redeeming Christians from

captivity"

among

the

Moors and Saracens even

at the cost of life or personal freedom.

Two

other

great orders, in fact the

first

and greatest of the
in

Mendicant Friars (altogether apart from monastic
institutions)

came

into

being

this

reign,

the

Order of Saint Francis or Friars Minor 100 and
the Order of Saint Dominic or Friars Preachers.
101

Both
ideas

Francis

and
the

Dominic
bulls

received
for

from

the

Lord Innocent
:

encouragement
of
until

their

novel

although

formal

ratification

were not issued
of the

the

succeeding reign, that
xxii

Dominicans being dated
superfluous

Dec.

12 16,

and that of the Franciscans
It

xxviiii

Nov.

1223.

may perhaps be
Order
of

to

mention that
(O.S.F.C.),

the Capuchin schism, at present calling itself the

Capuchin
did

Saint

Francis

not originate until the reign of Clement the
later.

Seventh, more than three hundred years
98

The church

of

San Tornmasp
this

tains a mosaic of

on the Celian Hill conperiod representing Christ between a black
in forjnis

and a white
99 100
101

The

Innocent placed the Trinitarians here. Trinitarians were called the " Crutched Friars."
slave.

Grey

Friars.

Black Friars.


174

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Third was by no means a man
see
faults
in

Innocent the

who

could

only

other

people

or
the

their habits

and manners of government.

On

contrary

He
in

was
to

fully

aware that His

Own

Curia

was wedded
peculation

a rather undesirable proclivity

fact,

— that

it

was

bureaucratically

pompous and wholly given
papales.

over to paperasseries

His chancery clerks were grasping, ex-

number and demeanour, and His court was cumbered with chamberlains and useless if ornamental curial hangers-on. With these He was as drastic as with dissenters. The lay household was dismissed, the Noble Guard discessive alike in

banded, the luxury of the court diminished, vails

were stopped, and a schedule of
so
that

fees

drawn

up,

every pilgrim or visitor or suitor knew
to pay,

what he had
to
his

instead of having to trust

power of bargaining with
ecclesiastics.

an avaricious

horde of venal
not
pleasing
to

This of course was
opportunities
for

those

whose

picking and pilfering were thus done

away

with,

more than it was to those petty officials, chamberlains, and antechamberers, (who lost the daily parade of their self-importance and "little
any

Pope afforded greater The facilities to ordinary people for seeing Him. Roman court, however, was a living and a growing imposthume upon the body of the Church and
brief authority ")

when

the

a temporary cauterization had only a temporary
effect.

All

the abuses grew up again,

venality

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
was
just

175
evils

as

pronounced,

and

all

the

old

reappeared as soon as the master hand was gone,

—as

is

but natural.

It will

be seen that the Lord Innocent's
not
built

life

as

Pope was
affairs

up

solely

of

great

deeds,
set
in

worthy

of
like

His

mighty
in

intellect,

compartments
of a

specimens

the

show-cases

museum, which can be dealt with in certain but was rather a mosaic comallotted rotation
:

posed of many
set
in

brilliantly

coloured achievements

a

dull

cement of perpetual and grinding
a moment's peace.
its

worry.

The Pope never knew
but by
its

A

difficulty could not

be measured by
It
is

magniat

tude,

insistency.

not easy,

the best of times, to conduct complicated

diplo-

matic negotiations with differing parties of wildly
clashing interests
:

but

how much more must

it

have added

to the toil of the task perpetually to
trifles,

be disturbed by unimportant but offensive
repeated and

studied insolence from vainglorious
flocculent

and

purely

nobodies

secure

in

their
riots

own
at

insignificance,

and abrupt and sudden
liable at

His very door

any moment

to drive

the statesman

headlong from

His chancery and
into a

His papers.

A
and
post.

weak man would have wept himself
at

coma with sheer impotent rage
overwhelming onrush
of

the

vastness

He

work of the then would have done nothing, and
the the
position

relapsed

into

of a

little

provincial

176

INNOCENT THE GREAT

canon, wrapped up in his breviary and completely
heedless alike of his obligations and opportunities.

A

merely strong
wrestled

man would have

bravely attempted

all,

honestly,

and gradually succumbed
office,

beneath the burthen of his

happy

if

his
in-

collapse took the shape of death

and not an
the

sanity

haunted

by

spectres

of

Sisyphean

labours which had been his

lot.

was a very strong man, possessed of an extraordinary mind and such a capacity for working as is granted to few among the sons of men. He did all the work of His post: light-heartedly made more: did that and reached out again to find still further scope for His enormous energies. Yet He only
the

But

Lord

Innocent

;

broke down once.

He

was a very strong man
to

in that

and was not afraid
sionally

acknowledge,

He knew, that He occabow
is

made

mistakes.

Even
also
if

Apollo's

not continually bent.
to

He

was strong enough
once (by reason of
it

drop a train of policy,

unheard-of or
off the track

suddenly-arising obstacles)
its

ran

thereby.

schemes.

became unprofitable Thus He abandoned His Sardinian He was often ill served. Yet He always
pursuit
effort
:

and

made a great
vided for

accepted the difficulty pro-

Him by
to the

the carelessness or headstrong
;

rashness of another
the
first

and undauntedly dealt with

same

best of His ability.

Thus He,

of western statesmen, seriously grappled with

INNOCENT AND THE CITY
the the phrase.

177

Eastern Question as we moderns understand

This
an

He

was compelled
run

to

do, be-

cause His darling crusade had
only was
it

amok.
task,

Not
its

immensely
keep

difficult

but

very existence was a bitter disappointment.

He
may

had hoped

to

His cherished

ideal
if

of the

Reunion of Christendom as a hobby,

one

use the word, for His rare spare moments.

He
mean
to

had looked
against
that

forward

to

matching

His theology

of Orthodox

patriarchs,

no

antagonists.

He

had anticipated being able
arguments drawn
and,

persuade (by irrefutable

from

His
the

store

of Paris- and

Bologna-won learning)
;

subtile-minded
the

Greeks

by words,

to

restore

alliance of the

Churches which had
which

been wrecked upon words.
It

was nearly always a sea of petty

details

confronted

Him
that that

;

and

through these before
anything
greatly

He was He could
mattered.

obliged
get to

wade work on
to

Nevertheless,

He knew
pettiness,

the

details,

by

reason
once,

of
lest

their

must be attended

to at

(by

neglect) they should blossom out into giant

weeds

and choke Church and State

alike.
:

One must admire

the greatness of His character
pity

one cannot help but
weariness with which

Him

for

the

infinite

He

was so heavily weighed
to

down.
Finally, one
is

tempted

wonder whether
assisted, if

He
had

would have been hampered, or

He
M

178

INNOCENT THE GREAT
at

had

cation.

His disposal modern methods of communiIt is by no means impossible that the

Lord Innocent, armed with telephones and wireless telegraphy, would have staggered humanity into
the

very wildest

hysterical

phrenzy by the

fre-

quency of His blunt unmincing admonitions, and
the
passionate
attention

which

He

would have
and

demanded

to the never-ceasing torrent of instruc-

tions, exhortations, congratulations, directions,

damnations, surging in an immeasurable flood out
of Lateran over

Europe and the known world. But no doubt, under such conditions, He would
" in

have perished of " something of the nature of an
aneurism
the very
first

year of His pontificate.

CHAPTER

Villi

CONCERNING OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT THE THIRD
Problems confronting Innocent His voluminous correspondence Holy Land 121 1-3, Armenia His aspirations Antioch Tripoli Jerusalem 121 1, Haleb Kingdom of Jerusalem King Amaury II King Hugh I Queen Marie Yolande Jean de Brienne, King Consort Iberian peninsula July 12 12, Battle of Navas de Tolosa The Byzantion Failure 1207, Russian Rebuff

— — — — — — — 198, Serbian success — 1202, Bulgarian success — 199, Armenian submission — Church Reform — 1202, Mission to Pagan Prussia — 12 Missions to Pagan Lithuania and Livonia Morals of Polish clergy — Purging of Church France — Oppo— sition of Princes — King John — 1210-1, King Dom Sancho King Philip of Swabia — Romanian Princes — Royal matrimonial scrapes — A comparison — Philip the August and Ingebiorg — Alfonso Villi of Leon and Berengere — Marie of Brabant — Otto and Costanza — Ottokar's divorce and Beatrix — Frederick of Aragon's divorce — Innocent's austerity and leniency Peyre — Guiltless children legitimate — Typical matrimonial case — King Queen Ingebiorg Agnes of Meran — InnoPhilip the August cent's other interests — Norway — Sweden — Denmark — Hungary — Bulgaria — 12 Fourth Oecumenical Council of Lateran —The crowd of conciliars — Seventy-two additions to Canon Law Canon of Mass revised — Heresies condemned — Other conciliar acts — Mendicant Orders
1 1

12,

in

I

II

II

:

:

15,

Other

matters, beside these tedious great emprizes

of prime international importance, irritated the indefatigable Pontiff by their insignificance, or baffled

Him

by the distance of the
or
imbecility,

locality in
in

which they

occurred from
malice,

the central brain
of an
179

Rome.

The
mulish

excessive or

180

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Roman
ideals

bishop could exacerbate the
as

Pontiff quite

much

as a vindictive or ungrateful emperor's.

To

the just

mind and clean

of the

Lord
in

Innocent,

the

immorality of a

parish

priest

Norwich, or Radom, was as vexing as the adultery
of the

King

of France
in

:

diplomacy could be quite as
Sardinia as in
divided

complicated

Castile or

Germany
to

;

and the King of Armenia as unamenable
as

discipline

a

Doge.

The Lord Innocent
age of thirty-seven,
difficulties

began His reign
before

at the early

He

had quite realized the

or

become

fully

aware of the labours involved

in

His

new
reign.

position,

with an energy of correspondence
in

which was not equalled

any other year of His

He

was

full

of enthusiasm and lust of ex-

tending Christianity, Catholic unity, and pontifical

power.

His

letters

reflect

His aspirations.

For

extending Christianity,
could be arranged
;

He

hoped that a Crusade

and, though His constant efforts
the conquest of Byzantion,

only resulted at

first in

abandon convictions of final success. The condition of the Holy Land was His special
did not
care.

He

He

wrote again and again to the princes of

the crusading states and the grand masters in the
East, urging

them

to lay aside their differences

and

unite against the infidel.

King Levon of Armenia
robbing the Templars, xvii
until

was excommunicated

for

May
12 13.

121

1,

and was not absolved

xxv Mar.

The

perpetual misconduct of the Princes of

Antioch and the Counts of Tripoli annoyed the

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
Pope
121
as

181

much

as the feebleness of the

Kings of
vii

Jerusalem grieved
1,

Him.

At one

time,

Jun.

Lord Innocent had to appeal to the Sultan of Haleb (one of Salah-ed-din's sons) to
the protect the Patriarch of Antioch from Prince Bohe-

mond

IIII, the lawful sovereign of that city.

The

complete indifference of Europe at large, toward a
Syrian Crusade, prevented the Pope from achieving

anything

in

that quarter of Christendom,

beyond

the reconciliation of the

Yet

in spite of

Armenian Church. the poverty of His harvest, the

Lord Innocent's labours were arduous.

One

finds

commending and reproving, excommunicating and pardoning, making people do their duty, stopping quarrels among
there,

Him

as

elsewhere,

Christians,

and

settling disputes

among
of

the cham-

pions of the

faith.
:

For

example

— the

Patriarch

Jerusalem,

having been rebuked

for inefficiency,
is

evil-speaking

and general misbehaviour, 102
to
effect

told to

make
and

haste

a settlement about
his

the

disputed see of
103

Tyre with
the

brother of Antioch

later

is

charged to cooperate with the Grand Masters of

Temple and

the Hospital in the proper distri-

bution of alms sent to the Holy Land. 104
this

Over

duty he quarrelled so passionately with the

autocratic Templar, Gilbert Horal, that he spouted
101
103

Letter to the Patriarch of Jerusalem xxiii Dec. 1198. Ditto iii Jan. 11 99.

104

Ditto Sept.

1 1

99.

;

182

INNOCENT THE GREAT
over the entire
to eat
105

excommunications
action he

order.

This
the

was made
it

and, soon after, the

Pope found

necessary

to

warn

him

off

property of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. 106

This prelate seems,

in

spite

of the influence of

constant admonition, to have died in his violence.

His successor, Albert

II

was, however, more reason1

able in his behaviour, for in

208

107

we

find

him

considered worthy of being legate, and even meriting reappointment to that office
:

which

is

indeed

a contrast with

the opinions entertained officially

about the dead Monaco.

He, almost alone among
far

contemporary Patriarchs of Jerusalem, had so

grown
as
(the

in

grace that

it

was

safe to nominate
his

him
see

arbitrator

between the old enemies of
piratically-inclined

Templars) and the
108

King

of

Armenia.

Nor were the Blessednesses of the Patriarchs Monaco and Albert 1 1 the only recipients of letters from the Pope in Syria. The Templars had to be
reminded of
their financial obligations

toward the
reign
;

Church twice 109

in the earlier part of the

and the Hospitallers were reproved for thievish Count Bohemond of and fractious 111 tendencies.
105 106 107
108

110

Letter to the Patriarch of Jerusalem xv Dec. 1199.

Ditto v Jan. 1200. Ditto ix July 1208.

Ditto v Mar.

1

209.

109

Letter to the Grandmaster of the

Temple

xiii

Jun. 11 99.

Ditto

xxx Mar. 1200.
110 111

Letter to the Grandmaster of the Hospital Ditto
viii

Dec.

1

198.

Feb.

1

199.

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
Tripoli

183

shewed a propensity
;

to favour the

Orthodox

Patriarch of Antioch

and had

to be threatened in

consequence
see had

IM
:

while the Latin incumbent of that

first

to
118

be censured and suspended for
and,
later,
114

excess

of

zeal,

he must needs be
115

forgiven and

reinstated.

Yet, so feeble was a

successor, that both

Count Bohemond

and the

Canons of Antioch 116 required urging before they would have anything to do with him. All these people were more or less in the fighting line and
;

attention would naturally be attracted to
their distant outpost duty.
Still

them on the Pope was not
for

on that account blind
the often

to

the course of affairs in
:

obscure

middle distance

we

find

Him

scolding the clergy of Candia for detaining
in their city

Crusaders

and so preventing valuable

succours from proceeding to the front.

Innocent the

Third

seemed

doomed

to

per-

petual disappointment in Palestine.

In the midst

of His efforts to strengthen the vanishing king-

dom
those
or

of Jerusalem

by persuading fresh parties of
fill

Crusaders to journey thither to

the places of

who had succumbed disease, King Amaury
(1205).

to the Saracens, climate,
II

de Lusignan himself

died

His
;

death plunged the Christian

East into confusion
112 113 114

and severed the connection

Letter to the Patriarch of Jerusalem iiii Mar. 1208. Letter to the Patriarch of Antioch xvii Mar. 1198.

Ditto xxxi Dec.

1

198.

115
116

Letter to the Count of Tripoli xxvi Letter to the Chapter of Antioch

May 1209. xxvi May 1209.

1

84

INNOCENT THE GREAT
insular
last

between
(which

Cyprus

and

continental

Acre
to

alone

represented

the

territorial

dominions of the kingdom of Jerusalem)

the

immense

disadvantage
son
of

of

the
first

latter.

King
suc-

Hugh
ceeded

I,

Amaury's
island

marriage,
while a
of

to

the

throne,

step-

daughter
Isabella

— Marie
by
both
her

Yolande (daughter
second

husband
were

Queen Konrad of
:

Montferrat) 117
but,

—obtained
successors
states

the continental kingdom
minors,

as

the

con-

dition

of both

was reduced
118

to as

low an
In

ebb as was consistent with self-preservation.
the selection of Jean de Brienne
for

as a

husband
disap-

Marie Yolande, and King-Consort of Jerusalem,

the

Pope and Christendom were greatly
:

pointed

as this prince did nothing to justify the

opinions

formed

in

consequence of

his previous

worthy reputation.

The Lord
117

Innocent's

crusading efforts in the

This Konrad, at one time decorated with high Byzantine titles Court of the Boukoleon, had married the unhappy Queen Isabella [wholly regardless of the continued existence of her first husband Henfrid of Toron] whereby He earned and deserved he acquired the marital title of King. unpopularity among the Syrian Franks and finally perished by reason Sir of a misunderstanding with the Old Man of the Mountain. Walter Scott, for the sake perhaps of euphony, calls him Marquess
in virtue of his family connection with the
;

of Mon5errat in The Talisi?ian.

Jean de Brienne was younger brother to that Gaultier whose claims to the County of Lecce are treated in the chapter concerning After being a failure in Syria he succeeded in marrying Sicily. his daughter by another marriage to Baldwin II Emperor of Romania, over the remnants of which state he reigned as EmperorRegent with as much brilliancy and success as he had displayed on his former throne.

118

—KINGS OF JERUSAL

Anc

5r of
II

= Anianry
King

I Plantagenet of Jerusalem

= Maria

Kf

1162-1174 son of King Fulk Plantagenet 1131-1144 {See Table F)

Hugh VIII
de Lusignan

Henfrid

Lord of

T'

Eschive, d. of

= Anianry

Baldwin

Lord of

Ibelin

(above)

II de Lusigi King, 1107-1205 King of Cyprus 1 194-1205

tmpagne
-1246

Plaisence, d. of Hugh III Lord of Giblet

= Bohemond
Prince
ol

Antioch
1201-123.

/\

Table

G—KINGS

OF JERUSALEM
loannes II Basileus of Byzantion 1118-1143

Andronikos Komnenos
d.

(See Table B)

1113

Alexios komnenos Protosebastos

Balian

I,

Lord

of Ibelin

=
I

Helvis de

Rame

d. c.

1155

Agnes,

dailr of
II

Joscelyn

Lord

of

Courtenay

tnianr.v I Plantagenet = Maria King of Jerusalem 1162-1174 son of King Fulk Plantagenet 1131-1144 (See Table F)

Komnena =

Balian II Lord of
Ibelin

Richente de Bessan

Hugh VIII de Lusignan

Henfrid III

(1)

=
Isabelle

=
Plantagenet Queen
1192-1208

(2)

Conrad de Montferrat
King,
1

Lord

of

Toron

192

Marquess of Montferrat
1183-1192 (See Table D)

Italdnln Mil

Plantagenet
King, 1174-1183

William V Longsword de Montferrat Prince of Ascalon (See Table D)

=

Slbylle Plantagenet Queen, 1186-118

=

Gny de Lusignan
King, 1186-1192 King of Cyprus 1191-1194

Eschive

Of:
Ibelin

.tin a 11

ry II
1

de Lusignan
197-1205

(4

1

=

=

(3)

Henry

Baldwin

King,

I de < lianipagne King, 1192-1197

Lord of

King of Cyprus
1194-1205

(above)

Count of Champagne (as Henry II)
1180-1197

Baldwin V de Montferrat
King, 1183-1186

Hugh

I

de Lusignan
of Cyprus

Alice de

Champagne

King

Queen, 1240-1246

1205-1218

Lord

Plaisence, d. of Hugh III of Giblet

= Bohemond IV =
Prince of

Melisende de

Iolande

I

de — John de Brienne
King, 1210-1225 Co-Emp. of

=

Lusignan

JMontl'errat

Berengere, d. of King Don

Antioch 1201-1233

Queen
1208-1212

Alfonso Villi
of

Romania
1231-1237

Leon

/\

/\


OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
plete
success.

185

West, on the contrary, were crowned with com-

He
likely

found the
in

various

kings of
in

the

Iberian

peninsula

a

condition

which

they

were as

to ally
:

themselves

with the

Moors
were

as against

them

two of these sovereigns
with
the

in

serious

disgrace

Church.

A

consistent policy

were taught:
(2)

— [whereby the Spanish
(1)

kingdoms

To obey
:

the

To

unite against the infidel

Holy See: on the one hand
(3)

and the heretic on the other
ecclesiastical,

To acknow-

ledge the primacy of Castile, at least in matters

and so by
119

logical

stages to regard

that

kingdom
as

as temporal

insula

well]

hegemon of the penbrought its own reward to its
the knowledge
that

untiring author,

in

He

had

been the instrument whereby the safety of Christianity
in

was assured, on one side

(at least)

of Europe,

the glorious victory of

was most certainly and to Him alone, that on that xvi July 12 12 the King of Castile commanded a Christian army whose wings served respectively under the Kings
of
the flower of Spanish chivalry as well as the

Navas de Tolosa. It due to the Lord Innocent,

Aragon and Navarre, an army composed of
full

strength
their

of

the

Spanish

Orders
the

arrayed under

Grand Masters under

eye of

militant

bishops and shoulder to shoulder with the levies
Innocent definitely accorded the ecclesiastical primacy of All Spain to the see of Toledo in a breve sent to Archbishop Rodrigo iiii Mar. 1 2 10.
119

1

86

INNOCENT THE GREAT
cities.
:

of the

Never had Spanish Christendom
never did the Crescent experience

been so united

such drastic treatment from the arms of the Cross.

En-nacer the Moorish sovereign
thousand of his people dead upon the
aster of Alarcos

left

a hundred

field.

The

dis-

was avenged and the

future of the

120 Iberian peninsula definitely acquired for Europe.

The
Unity

Pope's negotiations for securing Christian

were

more

variegated

in

their

results.

Letters addressed to the Basileus Alexios III of

(1198-1199) [see p. 59] persuaded him from an armed attack on Cyprus, but failed
Byzantion,
to teach to

him

that the true relation of the

Orthodox

the Latin Church was

that of a daughter to

her mother.

A

fictitious

union of the Churches,

such as was

afterwards
fulfilled

brought
neither

about
the

by the
of

Fourth

Crusade,

desire

the Lord Innocent nor His design.

Cardinal

Gregory's mission in 1207 to Russia

was a

failure,

owing

to the hatred for the
;

Latin

Church inspired by the sack of Byzantion and the Russian Church refused to share in a Catholicity

which took

its

tone from Rome.
to

The Pope was

able

come

to

more

satis-

factory terms with the Serbians in 1198,

and the

Bulgarians in 1202.
confirmation
120

In return for the pontifical
titles,

of their

the

princes of these

There was one fly in the ointment however. In spite of the Pope's repeated charges in favour of Toleration for Jews, the Spanish crusaders whetted their courage and their swords by a massacre in
the Jewry of Toledo just before the opening of the campaign.

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
countries,

187

together with their vassals, agreed to

consider

themselves

members

of

the

Roman

Obedience.

in

The Armenian Church also made its submission 199; and who knows what the persevering
1

diplomacy of the greatest canonist and statesman

who

sat

on Peter's throne
they had

for

a thousand years,
if

might have achieved with the Byzantines,

only

He

and

been

unembarrassed by the

Fourth Crusade?

The whole Church was reformed and extended
at the

hands of Innocent the Third.
of the Mass.

He

recast

the

Canon

Missionaries to the Pagan
;

Prussians
the

were encouraged
of

and the support of
secured on
their

Duke

Pomerania was

behalf, xiii

Aug. 1202.

In a letter to the Grand-

master of the Knights of the Sword, Jan. 1212,
that
to

Order

was commended
and,
if

for

its

endeavours
Lithuanians
as

introduce Christianity
;

among

the

and Livonians

the sword were used
shell,
it

a preliminary to the

baptismal

must be

remembered
understood
that

that
in

the

only efficacious

argument
force,

that

age was that of

and
the

the

heathens used lethal weapons to resist

conversion.
clergy
in

The manners and morals Poland left very much to be
His information
as
to

of

desired,

and,

though
in

the

names

some cases the actual dioceses) of the offenders was extremely vague, the Lord Innocent
(and

wrote voluminously to the bishops of that country

188

INNOCENT THE GREAT
His information
to enable

urging immediate reformation.

however was
to

at least

ample enough

Him
have

confirm grants of lands

made

to the
121

Order of

the

Holy Sepulchre

in that

country.

We

His display of energy in purging the French Church from its spiritual heresy and
already noticed

temporal

rebellion,

evils

at

which

the

Lord

Innocent had been unable to wink
of

in the

His predecessors.

But, beside this,

manner He had

also to arrange the dispute with

King

Philip the

August,

who had been
de
the
it

quarrelling with the brother

bishops of Orleans and

Auxerre (Manasses and
over their
excepting
refusal

Guillaume
serve
in

Seignelay),
feudal

to

levy

when

the

king led

in person.

The ingrained habits of the time seemed to make it natural for princes to oppose the Church, whenever they had the opportunity. King John
of

England did
revenge
his

so,

(first)

from avarice (second)
inflicted

from
for

for

punishment

on

him
I

misbehaviour.

King

Dom

Sancho
in

of

Portugal had to be rebuked for the same reason
in

1210 and 121

1,

having indulged
of

wholesale
property.

confiscation

and
Sicily

plunder

Church

The Swabian King
Germans
in

Philip of

Germany, and the

came under the pontifical flail on account of the same offences while, in the Empire of Romania, every prince, from the
:

highest

to

the

lowest,
121

sought
xiiii

to

grow

rich

at

Breve

Oct. 1208.

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
the expense of the Church.

189

The Lord
employ

Innocent
legates,

had and

to
to

write countless letters, to

put

in

motion the whole machinery of
in

diplomacy and apostolic power,

order to save

His charge from being stripped of Her revenues, robbed of Her fabrics, and deprived of the services of

Her

officials

more enlightened called upon to sneer at the ethics of the early Thirteenth, it would be hardly safe to deny that Innocent the Third had enormous responsibilities, was fully conscious of them, and fulfilled them in
(for

however horribly the Twentieth Century may feel
:

for,

Him)

a singularly efficient manner.

He
monial

had a great deal of trouble with the matriaffairs

of the

kings of Europe,

troubles

from questions of divorce or of marriage within
prohibited degrees, troubles in arranging suitable
(or preventing undesirable) alliances, troubles about

proposals

of marriage

which constantly came

at

awkward moments
It is

imperilling the success of care-

fully laid trains of policy.

and not uninstructive to note how very much more lax the Nineteenth Century was
curious
in

matters matrimonial than the early Thirteenth.

In

Pope Innocent's

time, the

Church severely vetoed
first

(as incestuous) the marriage of

cousins once

removed.

In the Nineteenth Century such unions

were of almost everyday occurrence, particularly

among

the

aboriginal
122

122

Roman
epithet.

Catholics

of

Cardinal

Newman's

i

9o
;

INNOCENT THE GREAT

England and, in the same century there were no less than four royal marriages of uncles and nieces in a single family in the case of King Don Fernando VII of Spain and his brothers

Don

Carlos and

Don

Francisco

:

these being in

their turn further complicated

by the marriage of

the children from these unions of

Don Fernando

VII and Don Francisco. 123 King Philip the August had repudiated his and newly-wed Queen, Ingebiorg of Denmark it was difficult for the Pope to threaten him with
;

interdict

on

account

of

this

conduct

at

one

moment, and to rely upon him for assistance in King Don Alfonso Villi the Crusade at the next. of Leon on the other hand, with but little
less

pertinacity
his

than

King

Philip,

insisted

on

marrying

cousin

Berengere of

Castile.

The

Pope found it His duty to unite the French pair, and to separate the Spaniards, conceding however reluctant legitimation to the offspring of the latter union. At another time, He had to warn the Duke of Brabant that his daughter Marie's marriage with King Otto would not be
permitted, and to labour to secure the
that
rival.

union of
of his the

monarch with
Again,
Sicily
it

Beatrix,

the daughter
to

was
to

necessary
girl,

marry

King of
123

a

Dona Costanza de

The

subjoined table shews clearly the deplorable system of

have not thought

inbreeding sanctioned by the Church in the Nineteenth Century. I it necessary to give details of the marriages of a similar consanguinity which have taken place in the Houses of

Table

H—

ramiro n
K. of Ai.igon 1134-1137

Alfonso
,

I

of Toulouse

1112-1148

Raymond V
.

of Toulouse 1148-1194

Constance

=

Fre^

Blanca

K.
Ei (See

MINI ho III K. of Castile 1157-1158

Fkkdinand

II

Urraca of
Portugal

K. of Leon 1157-1188

cia

1
Iolande,
d. c

Eleanor antagenet

=

Alfonso Villi K. of Castile
1158-1214

Enrique

I

Berengere

= Alfonso

Endre II K. of Hungai

K. of Castile 1214-1217

Villi K. of Leon
1188-1230

Ethisa Beatrix of Swabia

John de Brienne K. of Jerusalem and Co-Emp.
of Romania (See Table C) (See Table E)

=

Berengere

-

1

Table
RAMIRO

H— FRANCE,
II

ARAGON, CASTILE AND LEON
Douce, Hss. of Provence

= Agnes
I

K. of Aragon

of Acquiiaine

= Raymon
I

Berenguer

III

-

Count of Barcelona

"34- "37

Adelaide, d. of

Alfonso

I

PETRONELLA
Q. of Aragon
1 1 37-1

:

RAYMON BERENGUER
C. of Barcelona

Alfonso VIII = Bert

C. of Toulouse

1112-1148

172

K. of Aragon

LOUIS VII

-

Eleoi

LOUIS VII = Constance

Alexios II

= Agnt-!

Raymond

I

:

PHILIP

II

=

Isabella
t

= Raymond

VI

=

Eleonora

C. of Tripolis

C. of Toulouse

Frederick II K. of Sicily
[See Table E)

Marie,

d.

of

Alfonso
C. of
1

1

Henry

II

"37-"Sl

Guillaume VII L. of Mont-

Proveno
See labia F)

196-1209

Raymond

II

C. of Tripolis

LOlls VIII K. of France

=
I

Bla

Raymond
Berenger 1 1 1 1 1209-1245


I

Beatrix o

Savoy

1151-1187

h »!•.!

LOUIS Villi = K. of France 1226-1270

Iolande,

d, II

of

JAYME

I

Margaret

=

ST.

l,oi is

LOI IS VIII = Blanca

Enrique

I

Endre

K. of Hungary

K. of Aragor 1213-1276

PHILIP

III

=
|

Isabella

Jeanne,

IIss.

of

= FerdlnniW
King of
King
Ol
I

K. of Fiance 1270 1285

Ponthieu

III Castile

=

Ellii:

J

nhBitaw

K. ofjcruulcn:

1
Iolande

'"H

(v„

1

ibl

CI
IS)

(Ste Tabic-

=

Alfonno X, King of

1

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
to

191

Aragon, who could bring a dowry of men-at-arms
save the
bridegroom's kingdom
recognized

from disrup-

tion.

The newly
of

wished to be
the daughter

rid of his wife,

King of Bohemia who was no longer

the

elect-emperor.
last

Even

the
:

hundred years but the Dowager Duchessa d'Aosta, whose husband was her uncle
is still alive.

Braganca, Savoy, Este and Rohan within the

Joao, V. K. of

Felipe V, 1700-1724

=

Isabella Farnese

1724-1746

Portugal

Josef

=

Maria

Filippo,

Anna

Duke Parma

of

= Marie

de France

Carlos III = Amelia of Saxony1759-1788

Poland

of 3 ortugal

edro King

III,

= Maria
Queen

I,

Louisa Maria

=

of

Carlos 1 1 1 1788-1808
d. 1 8 19

Maria Carolina
Adss. of Austria

=

Ferdinando

I,

King of

the

Portugal

Two

Sicilies

1759-1825

Joao VI,

=

Charlotta

Maria

=

Francesco

I,

King of
Portugal

King

of the

Two

Sicilies

1825-1830

ARLOS

= FRANCESCA

ISABELLA

= FERNANDO
1808,

VII

=

CHRISTINA

Isabella Louisa

=

Francisco
de

Paula

1814-1833

Carlos

Juan

Isabella II

=

Francisco de Assiz

1833-1868 d. 1904

Carlos

Duke

of

Madrid

Alfonso XII 1875- 1885

;

192

INNOCENT THE GREAT
of Aragon,

crowned by the Pope Himself, and much trusted, had to be denied when he
applied for leave to get rid of his wife. 124
If the

King

Lord Innocent were stern
insisting

in

commandHis

ing and

that

the Church's laws should
at least diplomatic in

be respected,

He

was

treatment of princes

who obeyed Him.

While

He
in

was as austere as any moralist might wish rebuking sin and resisting sinful unions or

was more lenient and more just than are modern law makers, in that He did not
disunions,
visit

He

the sins of guilty parents on their innocent

children.

He

invariably legitimated the offspring

of

these

disputed

unions,
:

capable of succession
of

e.g.

them the children of Agnes
and
declared
in

Meran and

of Berengere of Castile.

The
xvii

first

action

which the Pope took

the

matter of Queen Ingebiorg, was in His epistle of

May

1198.

King
the

Philip

the

August had

repudiated her on

and had

" re-married "

morrow of her marriage Agnes of Meran. Innocent
Sept.

compelled the king to separate himself from Agnes,

by means of an
Philip
flatly

Interdict,

1198,
his
ii

though

refused

to

live

with

true wife.

Agnes's children were legitimated on

Nov. 1201.

There had been a

short-lived reconciliation with

Queen Ingebiorg

in the

summer

of 1200: but the
in

king had been so disgusted that he clapped her
124

Cf.

The

Bull

Cum Quanta

Gloria, xvii Jun. 1206,

and Inno-

cent's Epistle, containing refusal of divorce, dated xviiii Jan. 1213.

:

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
prison
;

193

and not

till

1

2

1

2

did he restore her contime,

jugal

rights.

During

this

Innocent issued

ten epistles to Philip, solely on the subject of his
ill-used

Queen, and referred

to the matter in several

others addressed both to
bishops.

him and to the French At the same time His Paternity very
wrote to console
the injured

frequently

consort

but

it is

impossible to say whether the tardy justice,

which at

length

accrued,

was

due to

pontifical

admonition or to the king's own inclinations.

While

at

one time Innocent the Third had to

watch over the interests of a wronged Ingebiorg,

an orphaned Frederick, or a persecuted clergy, at
other times
to reduce

He

had

to protect a

weakened kingdom,
in

an arrogant monarch to subjection, while

simultaneously

keeping

His house

order

in

Rome.

Yet, amid turmoil, pressure of work, and

conflicting interests of person, family, politics,

and

the clergy, which were always claiming the pontiffs
attention, Innocent

was able

to spare time, never-

theless, for interference

on behalf of the outcasts of

Asia and the trampled worms of Europe, the Jews.

Out

of

all

law, excepting the King's will, the
to

were permitted

grow
in

rich

by that

Jews usury which
the

they alone (according to

the

Church's teaching)
time

might

practise,

126

order that (when

was

ripe) they

might be squeezed

financially (and

sometimes physically)
lto

for the royal benefit.

Not-

In a letter to the Bishop of

Modena, embodied

in

Innocent's

Decretals,

He

defines the limits of usury.

N


i

94

INNOCENT THE GREAT
rites

withstanding the horribly blasphemous secret
to

which they seem
from

to

have been addicted
into

at that

period, Innocent tried to prevent Christian resent-

ment

degenerating

indiscriminate

or

habitual carnage.
in Paris,

He

saved the Jews from torment

from imprisonment and dangerous favour
126

in Castile,

and

He

prohibited the favourite popular
for Jews.

pastime of compulsory baptism
Sept.
1

On xv

199,

He

wrote

:

" Let no Christian

by violence compel them [the
venture maliciously to
of the

Jews] to come dissentient or unwilling to baptism.
Further
let

no

Christian

harm
Civil

their

persons without a judgement
off their property, or

Power, or carry

change

the good customs which they have had hitherto
in that district

which they inhabit." 127
Innocent's
to terminate the civil disorders con-

In dealing with Norway, the Lord
chief task

was

sequent upon the disputed succession to the throne.

Three usurpers Ion Kurling, Sigurdr, and Ingi, had fought for the Crown from 1185 t0 I2 ° 2 when, owing to the action of the Archbishop of Trondhjem
>

the apostolic ablegate, three legitimate sovereigns

(Haakon
126

1 1 1 1,

Guthorm, and Ingi
also to

II).

reigned in

succession.
Cf.

The Pope had
to

keep an eye on
v

epistle

King Alfonso VIII of

Castile,

May

1205.

(Appendix VI.)

Ut nullus Christianus invitos vel nolcntes eos ( Iudaeos) ad baptismum per violentiam venire compellat. Nullus etiam Christianus sine potestatis terre iudicio personas eorum nequiter ledere vel res eorum violenter auferre presumat aut donas quas hactenus in ea in qua habitant regione habuerifit consuetudines immutare.
127

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
Sweden, 128 where the Church was
than elsewhere.
less
still

195

privileged
so largely

Among
it

a people

pagan as the Swedes,

was a matter of consider-

able importance to secure the clergy from being

haled before lay courts.
ject

An

Epistle on the subxii

was sent

In
case

King Sverker II, Denmark, the Pope had to
to

Jan. 1206.

interfere in the

of the ambitious bastard,
129 aspired to the Crown.

Bishop Valdimar,

who
In

Hungary, when the royal power was

at

a

very low ebb, the
fere
for the

Lord Innocent had

to inter-

double purpose of protecting King
his

Imre
of

from

brother
the
also

Endre, and the
In
the

Bishop

Waipen from

King.
to

same year
the
brother

(1203)

He

had

protect

from the King, and the King from the results of
the quarrel for precedence between the

wealthy

and powerful archbishops of Gran

and Kolocz.

The Pope was
to

able,
;

however, to induce

Imre

take

the Cross

and was obliged

to upbraid

the

Venetians most bitterly when they attacked

Zara, which

was

in

the dominions (so the
It

asserted) of a crusading prince.

was the

King King

of Hungary, moreover,
128

who was opposed

at first to
;

Sweden was

still

very

much

of an outpost of Christendom

and

occasionally suffered reverses at the hands "of the very pagans

whom

she tried to convert, both in the upland country and in Finland. A heathen foray, in which the Wends destroyed Sigtuna, led to the formation of the present capital called by the crusading King Knut I

Stoke
129

Holm — the
Letters to

Island of the Pious.

King Valdimar
ii

II,

Jan. 1206,

Mar. 1208, and

to

Elect-emperor Otto,

Jul. 1209.

(Appendix VI.)


196
the

INNOCENT THE GREAT
Lord Innocent's Bulgarian
policy.

He, howand the

ever,

having no strong foundation of power at home
;

on which to stand, gradually gave way

Pope had the pleasure of bestowing and the Tsar Kaloyan of receiving a royal crown and sceptre,

together with the
right to strike

kingly

title

over Bulgaria, the
for the

money, and a primacy

Arch-

bishop of Tyrnovo,

who was
swear
:

to

crown him.
be
faithful

The
and

new Primate had

to

To

obedient to St. Peter, the Holy
the Lord Innocent, and
to
all

Roman

Church,

His Catholic successors,
life

undertake nothing detrimental to Their
advise no

or

liberty, to

man

to

Their

hurt, to maintain

the honour, dignity, and rights of the Apostolic
See, to attend councils

the

same oath from
Bulgaria
their people,

all

when summoned, to exact bishops, and to make all the
their

kings of
they,

swear before coronation that

kingdom would be devoted to the Holy See. This was the result of the union of Bulgaria with the Roman Church and the Pope could congratulate Himself on a genuine triumph on the banks of the Danube. The Buland
;

garians indeed, with the hankering of the savage
for

the

gorgeous,

and suffering apparently from

the

same megalomania which prompted decadent
inflation

Byzantion to compensate each successive loss of

power by a fresh
Protosebastos

of

titles

— took
inch.

— Sebastokrator — Panhypersebastos)
ell

— (Sebastos,

the proverbial

instead of the proffered
insight into the value

Having obtained an

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
the

197

of hierarchical dignities from the unwillingness of

them too high an ecclesiastical precedence, they bourgeoned out into all the glory of a Tsardom with its concomitant of a Patriarchate instead of being content with mere Kingship and Primacy accorded to them by the Lateran. This
Pope
to grant

piece of impertinence would appear to have passed

unnoticed for some time

as,

seemingly, there was
in the

no person
that people

in the

Lateran sufficiently versed

barbarisms of the Bulgarian language to

know what
in the

were saying about the difference

value of
It is

titles

a far

when pronounced in that tongue. cry from the Danube to the Shannon,

Pope in His eagle-eyed purview of even the limits of Christendom found time to rebuke the petty King of Connaught 13 for violating the rights
yet the
of sanctuary

during some

of

the perennial
chieftain,

disstrict

turbances in the West.

This
will,

by

obedience

to

the

papal

was considered
Lateran
that
invitation

to

have deserved so well of the

he
to

was honoured

with

an individual
election

attend the Oecumenical Council. 131

Even

before

His

to

the

Supreme

Pontificate,

the

Lord Innocent had advocated an

Oecumenical Council; and, at last, in 12 15, He was able to open the session, of the Fourth of
Lateran,
before

which
troubles.

He

deigned

to

discuss

many

of
130 131

His

The

invitations

were

Letter to King of Connaught Sept. 1200.
Ibid, xviiii Apr. 1213.

198
issued
in

INNOCENT THE GREAT
rather

some remarkably phantastic persons were summoned, e.g. the kings of Lumbricia, Corkaia, and MinThis epoch-marking assemblage was diensia.
a
curious

way, and

very

numerously

attended,

by
rival

the

Patriarch
Patri-

Rudolf of Jerusalem, two

soi-disant

archs of Constantinople, the

Maronite Patriarch,

Jonas of Antioch (an ex-heresiarch), seventy-one
archbishops,

(among
twelve

whom
of

was
the

Rodrigo
Council),

of
four

Toledo,

the

Mezzofanti

hundred
abbots,

and
priors,

bishops,

nine
other

hundred
clerks,
all

archpriests

and

the Grandmasters (either in person or by proxy),

ambassadors

from

an

emperor,

an

ex-emperor,

and an elect-emperor, envoys from the Kings of
England, France, Aragon, Hungary, and Cyprus,

and

so

many
of

other

persons

that

the

unhappy

Archbishop
in

Amalfi perished from suffocation
Seventy-

the crowd, and one authority states that three

other bishops met with similar disaster.

Canon Law were the work of this Council. The new Canon of the Mass (as largely by the Pope Himself) was revised
two additions
to

adopted

:

several heresies
;

and

their inventors

were
to

condemned
the

and

it

was made a crime,
latae
license.

entailing

minor

excommunication

sententiae,

preach
also

without episcopal

The Council
such

dealt with a vast

number

of subjects,

as the Faith, the Divine Office, the Constitution

of

the

Church,

Morals,

Position

of

Clerks

in

OTHER ACTS OF INNOCENT
judicial

199
the
of

matters,

the

rights

of

Jews,

and
status

corporeal

appearance and
It

the

precise

Angels.

also

delivered judgment upon Count

Raymond
of the

of Toulouse, deciding therein that the
to

Comtat Venaissin was
Church.
132

become an appanage
reported
in

It

also

favour of

the newly devised

Mendicant Orders of Preach-

ing

Friars,

the
the

Grey

and
of

the

Black

— now

known

as

Religions

Saint
or

Francis

and

of Saint

Dominic.

The Acts

Canons of the

Council were translated into Greek, according to
precedent.

The
this

Lord
and,

Innocent
as

had

looked

forward
point
for

to

Council
life;

being the culminating
in

of

His

His choice of a text
preached
a
before
of

the
first

sermon
session,

which

He

the

He

indicated

prevision

His

ap-

proaching end.
This is the name for the territory of Avignon which remained a Papal city until the French Revolution, and was (as such) claimed by the Holy See at the Congress of Vienna.
132

CHAPTER X
CONCERNING THE CHARACTER OF INNOCENT THE THIRD
Faithful

Patient Just Persistent Honourable Strict Diplomatic Respectable Forgiving Friendly Opinion of Brother Salimbene, a Friar Minor Innocent's personal appearance Innocent the Great Vicar of Christ His versatility A great

— —

— —

letter-writer

— His

sermons

— His

motto

Jul.

1216,

Death of

Innocent the Third

Perhaps the main characteristic of Innocent the Third was His lifelong fervence for the Faith,
and single-hearted ardour
for

God-service.

He

was

just

in

an age of oppression and perjury.

He was patient, and more prompt to see good in Man than evil. He could, and did, most manfully

persist
it

in

any scheme of

policy,

when he
no way a

considered
strict

duteous so to do.

Honourable and

in

his

engagements,
a mistake at

He
all

was

in

timid politician, but rather a brilliant diplomatist.
If

He made

in statecraft,

it

was
trust

the

mistake of believing other people to be as
Himself,
to

capable as

and

this

led

Him

to

overmuch
the

the

senses

and
as

the

judgments
legates.

of

inferior

persons

whom
to

(for

want of

better)

He

was compelled

use

His

His

CHARACTER OF INNOCENT
parts

201
dis-

were such, that

He

would have been

tinguished in almost any career, and, as
Pontiff,
it

Supreme

cannot be said that
salient opportunities

He

missed any of

the
for

more

which were afforded

showing of what character

His metal

was.
cer-

Though he was
tainly

not invariably obeyed,

He
:

was

respected

by

His

Romans

while,

from recalcitrant foreigners,

He

actually did exact

a very satisfactory measure of submission.

He

presented a mitre and an emerald ring to every bishop

who

visited the

Threshold of the Apostles.
hesitation
in

He
His
the
fast

never

showed any
(who,

pardoning
always

enemies

by-the-bye,

were

enemies of the
in

Church as well). He was His friendships though friendship was
:

never

allowed

to

blunt

the

biting

edge

of

pontifical

admonition for the good of the soul of

a friend.

Brother Salimbene di
Innocent
in
:

Adamo 183
the

says of the Lord

"

The Church
holding

flourished

and throve
over
kings
this

His

days,

lordship
all

the

Roman Empire and
princes

over

the

and

of

the

whole

world.

Yet

Pope

sowed the seeds of the cursed dissensions between Church and Empire, with His chosen Emperors Otto the Fourth .and Frederick the
Second,

whom He
:

exalted

and

entitled

son

of

the Church
133

but herein

He may
to

be excused that

Cf.

the translation of Br. Salimbene's Chronicle [1221-1288]

in Mr. Coulton's

"From

Saint Francis

Dante"

1906, pp. 255-6.


202

INNOCENT THE GREAT
meant
well.

He

And
stout

note

that

the

Pope was

a bold

man and
Lord
:

of heart.

For once

He
Coat

measured on His
of the

Own person the Seamless and He thought how the
:

Lord

must have been of small stature vet, when had put on the Coat, it seemed too great

He
for

Him
was

:

so

He

feared and

venerated the

relic

as

seemly.

Moreover,
and,

He

would

sometimes
preached to

keep a book before
the people
;

Him when He

when His

chaplains asked

Him
it

why He
man,

did this,

being so wise and learned a
say,

He

would answer and
yet

'I
:

do
for

for

your sakes, to give you an example
ignorant and

ye are

ashamed

to

learn.'

Moreover
mirth.

He

was a man although,
His business

as the poet saith,

mingled
ing
that

at times with

He He

corrected and reformed the Church services, add-

matter of His
others

own and
:

had composed

away some yet even now it is
taking
it

not well ordered, as
real truth requires."

many would have

and as
as

Other contemporary writers speak of
" vir

Him

:

summe

litterature
134
:

et

eloquentie,

vir

alti

cordis et

alti concilii

litteratura clarissimus et facundie singularis

135
:

vir

clari

ingenii,

magne

probitatis et sapientie
136
:

Cui nullus secundus tempore Suo
134
135 136

Lambertus Parvus, Chronicon^ V 56. Chronicon Turonense, V 1057. Rigordus, Gesta Philippi Angus ti\ V 60.

:

CHARACTER OF INNOCENT
per vite merita et sapientie magnitudinem
centius meruit appellari
13T
:

203

Inno

nee similem Sui scientia facundia decretorum et

legum

peritia

strenuitat

:

iudiciorum
138
: .

nee

adhuc

visus est habere

sequentum 11

multum

varius

Papa

:

vir strenuus et litteratus et

Qui

in multis causis
140
:

honori et utilitate ecclesie cognoscitur profuisse
gloriosus
fuerat
H1 fuit in

omnibus

factis

Suis

142
:

pusillus

statura

sed
143

pulcher,

sapientis-

simus

in trivio et

quadrivio

in theologia ceteris

prestantior

ingenio

velocissimus

eloquentissimus

facundus
et
si

lingua

expeditissimus vox

Eius sonora

suppresse proferebatur audiebatur ab omnibus

et

intelligebatur.

Aspectus Eius reverebatur ab
144
:

universis et timebatur
vir magnificus et

prudens cuius magnanimitas
145

et

constantia super alios homines excellebat
fuit

vir perspicacio ingenii et tenacis

in divinis et

humanis
literali

litteris

memoriae eruditus sermone jam

vulgari

quam

discretus

—statura

mediocris

137

138
139

140
141

Honorius P.P. Ill, First Encyclical. Chronicon St. Pet., Ill 242. Chronicon Mon. St. Albans. Chronicon Montis Sereni. Gloriosus must be taken in its mediaeval and not

in its classical

sense.

Chronicon ex Pantheo. Liberal' Arts of the Middle Ages, Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, and Music, Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, were called
143

148

The Seven

respectively trivio
144
145

and quadrivio.
I

Annibale Mariotti,

c.

423.

An mil.

S. Iustinac

Patav. xix 151.

2o 4
et

INNOCENT THE GREAT

decorus aspectu, medius inter prodigalitatem et

avaritiam sed in eleemosynis et victualibus magis
largus

———

severus contra rebelles et contuet

maces sed benignus erga humiles

devotos
in
iustitia

Fidei defensor et haeresis expugnator,

rigidos, sed in misericordia pius, humilis in prosperis
et patiens in adversis."
146

Regarding Innocent's personal appearance, the
picture in the Sacro

Speco

at

Subiaco shews

Him

with ears outstanding from an oval face, the eyes
close together

and

slightly oblique in regard, the

long thin nose of the dominator, over the minute

mouth

of the ascetic depressed at the corners, the

large strong chin and the wrinkled

brow of the

statesman.

Innocent the Third was a good strong man, a
brilliant

statesman, and a great Pope

;

and, in the

main, successful in the results of His pontificate.

No

one knows why

He

is

not

known

in

history

by Albert von Beham's appellation, Innocentius

Magnus

:

for

He

is

one of the few Pontiffs (or

men

either, for that matter)

who have

sufficient force of

character, coupled with perseverance
to

and acumen,

be great even were they taken out of their

century,

and

History.

down Those who
set
will

in

some other period of
watching a contest

love

between great men,
can
with
tell

regret that history never

how the Lord Innocent would have dealt King Henry VIII Tudor, the Kaiser Charles
144

Raynaldus.

CHARACTER OF INNOCENT
V, the Emperor Napoleon
forces
I,

205

or with the various

(including

the

Company
last
e

of Jesus)

which
in

were concerned during the

century

the

making of Italia Ufiica It would not be sane
categorically recorded.
in

Libera.

for

His panegyrist

to

deny

that Innocent the Third

was proud.

The
in

fact is

He

was a haughty

pontiff

the

first

intention of the

term— not
office.

or

for

Himself, but in virtue of His
desire to magnify the

From His
of Vicar of

power and

glorify the prestige
title

of the Apostolic See,
Christ,
147

He

used the

and applied the name Crusade (which hitherto had borne a definite and local meaning)
to military expeditions
for the benefit of the

undertaken

at

His command

Church.
to be

Possessed of an immense fund of tireless energy,
the

Lord Innocent could not
:

fail

an active
the
entire

man

yet

the

subjoined

itinerary

of

shew how often He denied Himself a summer villegiatura, and mewed Himself up in Rome, when He found that the press of public work
pontificate will
this title, that (for some reason or Innocent obtained the reputation of being an interpreter of dreams and people were used to come from all parts of Italy demanding explanations of their nightmares. The following note from Maitland's Dark Ages (p. 424) may perhaps take the wind out of the sails of those who regard the title "Vicar of Christ" as a piece of pontifical impertinence "Jacobus de Vitriaco (who wrote early in the Thirteenth Century) says Ipsa terra Jerosolymitana patriarcham habet, qui et fidei peritos et Christianorum pater et Vicarius Jesus Christi] Hist. Orient, ap. Mart. iii. 227. Solomon, too, Bishop of Constance (Ninth Century), addressed Bishop Dado Discrete Antistes, venerande Vicarie Christi!
It
147

was on His assumption of
;

other)

the Lord

:

'

'

Bib. Par. supp.

ii.

825."


206

INNOCENT THE GREAT
this
sacrifice.
It

demanded
idea of

also

affords a clear

the

Pope's
:

movements and

residences

throughout His reign
First Letter
1

Last Letter

From

198 Jan.

viii

Jul.

XV

Rome.
Riete.

Jul. xix

Aug. xv
Sep. ix

Aug. xxi
Sep. xi
Oct.
ii
.

Spoleto.

Sep. xxvi

Perugia.

.

Oct. iv
Oct. v

Todi. Amelia.
Civita Castellana.

Oct. vi Oct. xvi
1
1

Oct.

xii

Dec. xxxi
.

Rome. Rome.

99 Jan.

i

Dec. xxxi Dec. xxxi
Jul.
iii
i

1200 Jan.
1201 Jan.

i

.

Rome.
Rome.
Segni.

i

Jul. xi

.

Oct.

Oct. v

.

Dec. xxxi
Feb. xxi
Jul.

Anagni.
Anagni.

1202 Jan. i Feb. xxvii Aug. vi
.

xv Sep. v
Oct. ix

Rome.
Subiaco.
Velletri.

Sep. xiv

Oct. xxix

Dec. xxxi
Apr. xxx

Rome.
Rome.
Palestrina. 148

1203 Jan.

i

.

May May

iii

May
ill

xi

xiv

Sep. xv

Ferentino.
letters for

{The Pope ivas
Oct. ix

and wrote no
Dec. xxxi

xxiv days.) Anagni.
Anagni.

1204 Jan. i Mar. xiii
.

Mar. vi Dec. xxxi
Dec. xxxi
.
.

Rome.
Rome.
. .

1205 Jan.

i

.

1206 Jan.

i

.

May
Sep.

xi
xii

Rome.
Ferentino.

May
148

xiv

.

.

.

.

Sep. xx

.

.

Dec. xxxi

.

.

Rome.

This was the occasion of the Pope's

flight

from insurgent Rome.

CHARACTER OF INNOCENT
First Letter

207

Last Letter

From
.

1207 Jan.

i

.

May
. .

xxix

Rome.
Viterbo.

May
Aug.
Oct.

xxxi

Jul. xxiv

.

Jul. xxvii
ix

Aug.
Oct.

viii

Montefiascone. 149
.

.

xii

Viterbo.

Oct. XV
xxiii
xiii
.

Oct. xix

.

Toscanella.

Nov. Nov.
1208 Jan.

xvii

Nov. viii Nov. xv Dec. xxxi

.

Corneto.
Sutri. 150

.

.

Rome.
Rome.
Anagni.
Piperno. 151

i

.

May
.

xv

.

May
Jun.

xv
xviii
.

Jun. xvi Jun. xvii
Jun. xix

.

Jun. xvi

.

Fossanova. 152
Castro
renzo.

Jun. xix
Jun. xx

Jun. xx

San Lo-

.

Jun. xxi

.

Castro di Volsci.

Jun. xxi

.

Jun. xxii
Jul.

Ceprano. 153
.

Jun. xxii Jul. XXV
Jul. xxvi

.

xxv

San Germano. lr 4
'

.

Jul. xxvi

.

Arce.
Sora. 155

.

Sep. xxii

.

Oct. iv

Nov.
.

xviii

.

Ferentino.
.

Nov.
1209 Jan.

xxii

Dec. xxxi

.

Rome.
Rome.
Viterbo.

i

.

.

May

xv

.

May

xxv
.

.

Sep. xxv

.

Oct. iv

Dec. xxxi
Dec. xxxi

.

.

Rome.
Rome.
point of

12 10 Jan.
149

i

.

.

.

Montefiascone

is

about i\ m. due East of the southermost

Lago Bolsena 150 The Pope went via Rovertello. 151 The Pope went through Alatri and Castrogiuliano. This would appear to be His longest day's journey more than 30 miles over non-existent roads.

162

Fossnnova was then a monastery.
Ceprano, a border-town on
Liris,

It is

now

a station on the

Rome-

Terracina Railway.
153

which formed the
visited the great

Sicilian frontier.

164

While

at

San Germano the Pope

monastery of Monte

Cassino.

Sora was the county of His brother Richard, which the Emperor Frederick Stupor Mundi afterwards confiscated and gave to his bastard Frederick of Antioch.

155

.

208
21

INNOCENT THE GREAT
First Letter

Last Letter

From
.

i

i

Jan.

i

.

Aug.
Sep.

viii
iii
.

Rome.
Cryptaferrata

Aug. xx
Sep. xxiv
21 2 Jan.

.

Dec. xxxi
Jun. xv Sep. xviii

.

Rome.
Rome.

i

i

.

Jun. xxiii Sep. xxviii

.

Segni.

Dec. xxxi
Jul. vi

.

.

Rome.
Rome.
Segni.

1

213 Jan.

i

.

.

Jul. xi

.

Oct. xi

.

Oct. xxii

Dec. xxxi

.

Rome.

1214 Jan.

i

.

May

xxxi
.

Rome.
Viterbo.
.

Jun. xxiii Oct. xxvii
1

Sep. xix

Dec. xxxi
Jun. v
Jul. xxxi

Rome.

2 15

Jan.

i

.

.

Rome.
Ferentino.

Jun. xvi

.

Aug. xxiv
Oct.
1

Sep. xx

-

.

Anagni.

viii

Dec. xxxi
.

.

Rome. 156

2

16 Jan.

i

Apr.

xiii

.

Rome.
Viterbo.

Apr.

xviii

Apr. xx
Apr. xxix

.

.

Todi.
Orvieto.

May May May

v
xi

.

May May
Jul.

ix

.

xiv

.

Todi.
Perugia. 157

xx

XV

.

His method of action was curiously two-sided.

At one moment, He would be controlling the destinies of Europe at the next, composing
:

156

The Pope

returned to
will

Rome

in

order to preside over the Lateran
less

Council.
157

From

this

it

be observed that the Lord Innocent spent no

than 155 months out of the 222 of His pontificate in Rome, where He divided His time between the Vatican and the Lateran, very much in favour of the latter, which was regarded as the official residence, and seems to have been more readily capable of defence than the Vatican, a comparatively
small building chiefly used as the pontifical vestry for great ceremonies in
Saint Peter's.

CHARACTER OF INNOCENT
glosses on the
authenticity
penitential

209
the

psalms,

criticizing

of

ancient

manuscripts,

or

inditing

hymns

to the

Blessed Virgin.

His

facility
It
it

as a
his
in

letter-writer

habit to

was quite extraordinary. keep His correspondents (as
with
another.

was
were)

compartments, never letting one matter overlap or
interfere

Thus,

King

Philip

the

August
dict

at

one time was
his

in peril of

bringing interseveral
causes.

upon

kingdom

for

two

The Lord
in the

Innocent could rebuke and praise almost
breath,
certainly in the

same

same
in

letter

;

and few men have achieved more
arts

the gentle

making friends and enemies by writing His knowledge of the scriptures was quite letters. exhaustive, as may be seen in His sermons which, for ingenious and fecund stringing-together of texts,
of
:

suggest the fine old-fashioned style of evangelicals
of the mid-Victorian era.

modern missionary bishop of the Midlands has had apparently nowhere else to go for his The Holiness of motto, but to the pagan Flaccus. the Lord Innocent was satisfied with Holy Writ. Fac mecum, Domine, signum in bonum " was the portion which He chose and while really trying to order His life and policy to this end, He tempered His actions rather with " Qui Me iudicat Dominus est!' and " Ultra hominem" than with glucose reiteration of " Servus servorum Dei:" though it cannot be denied that He worked very hard even
11
:

A

;

in this last capacity.

o

210

INNOCENT THE GREAT
died on xvi Jul. 1216, 158 almost His last act

He

being to

make arrangements
of this
life

for

a Fifth Crusade.

So passed out
age,

the

Most Holy Lord
year of His

Innocent the Third,

in the fifty-sixth

and the nineteenth of His reign as God's

Vicegerent upon earth.

And He

bore Arms, of

His Tusculan House of Conti
orientally
168

di Segni, gules,

an
or,

argent- headed eagle displayed chequy sable

and

crowned of the

last.

Primo tertianum passus et in brevi curatus decidit in acutam quam cum multis diebus fovisset nee acitris quibus in magna
.
. .

quantitate et ex consuetudine vescebatur utpote illius aegritudinis ignarus nemine abstineret demum paralysii percussus ad ultimum in

lethargium prolapsus vitam finivit. Cuius finis quia in multis negotiis rigorem nimium quam maxime accendere videbatur laetitiam potius quam tristitiam generavit subiectis Albericus. Chronicon Trium Fontium.

FELICITER

-

APPENDIX

I

THE COLLEGE OF CARDINALS AT THE ELECTION OF POPE INNOCENT THE THIRD
According
i.

to

Ciacconius
Poli,

and

Oldoinus,
in

and

Cristofori

Ottaviano de'

Vicarius

Urbe, Cardinal-Bishop of

Ostia and Velletri.
2.

Konrad von Wittelsbach, Archbishop of Mainz, CardinalBishop of Sabina.

3.

Guillaume de

Blois,
159

Archbishop of Rheims, Cardinal-Bishop

of Palestrina.
4.

Pietro Gallocia, Cardinal-Bishop of Porto

and Santa Rufina.
Cardinal

5.

Pandolfo

Masca da

Pisa,

Prior

of

Presbyters,
Apostoli.

presbyter of the
6.

title

of Divv.

XII

7.

Guillaume Blanchemain de Champagne, Cardinal-presbyter of the title of D. Sabina. 160 Adelardo (degli Adelardi da Verona 161 ), Cardinal-presbyter of
the
title

of D. Marcellus.

8.

Pietro da Piacenza,
Cecilia.
162

Cardinal-presbyter of the

title

of D.

9.

Ruggero,

O.S.B.,
163

Cardinal-presbyter
164
),

of

the

title

of

D.
of

Eusebius.
10.

(Ridolfo Nigelli da Pisa

Cardinal-presbyter of the

title

D. Praxede.

n. Giordano da Ceccano,
of D. Pudentiana.
12. (Giovanni Toscanella

O.S.B., Cardinal-presbyter of the
165
),

title

da Viterbo

Cardinal-presbyter of

the

title

of D. Clemens.
:

159

Ciac. omits this cardal
Ciac. omits this cardal
Cf. Cristofori.

but Cristofori names him.
:

1,0
161

but Crist, names him.
164

162

Jb%

163

fa
211

fa

165

fa

212
13.

APPENDIX
167

I

(Guido Papareschi, O.S.B. 166 ), Cardinal-presbyter of the of D. Maria Transtiberim.
Bernardo (of the Canons Regular
the
title
),

title

14.

Cardinal-presbyter of

of D. Petrus

ad

Vincula.
16S
),

15.

Uguccione Bobone Thieneo
title

Cardinal-presbyter of the

of Divv. Silvester et Martinus Equitj.
title

16.

Giovanni da Salerno, Cardinal-presbyter of the
Stephanus in Monte
Caelio.

of D.

17. (RofTredo
title

dell'

Isola,

O.S.B. 169 ), Cardinal-presbyter of the
Segni e
170

of Divv. Marcellinus et Petrus.
di
d'

18.

(Giovanni de' Conti
of the
title

Anagni), Cardinal-presbyter
of D.

of D. Marcus.
171
),

19. Cinzio

(Cenci

Cardinal-presbyter

of

the

title

Laurentius in Lucina.
20.

Giovanni
the
title

(di

Sampaolo Colonna), 172 Cardinal-presbyter of

of D. Prisca.

21.

(Gratiano da Pisa), 173 Archdeacon, Cardinal-deacon of

Diw.

Cosmas
22.

et

Damianus.

(Gherardo Allucignoli), 174 Cardinal-deacon of D. Hadrianus
in Foro.

23. Gregorio Galgano da Santo Apostolo, Cardinal-deacon of

D. Maria
24. Gregorio
(di

in Porticu Octaviae.

Crescenzo), Cardinal-deacon of Divv. Vitalis,
176
)

Gervasius et Protasius. 175
25. Gregorio (de' Alberti

da Monte Carello, Cardinal-deacon
d'

of D. Georgius in Velum Aureum.
26.

Lothario de' Conti di Segni e
Divv. Sergius
et

Anagni, Cardinal-deacon of

Bacchus.

177

27.

Niccolo, Cardinal-deacon
Schola Greca.

of D.

Maria in Cosmedin

alias

166
171

Cf, Cristofori.
Jl, m

167

lb.

168 174
;

lb.

169
175
it is

lb.

17 °

lb.

172 is

ibf

173

Ibt

fa
and

fa

176

/^

177

This

a statement of Ciac. and Oldo.

the rank usually ascribed

But Cristofori says, was he promoted from the cardinal-diaconate of Saints Sergius and Bacchus to that of Saint George in Velum Aureum, but that he actually had been cardinal-presbyter of the Title of Saint Pudentiana since 1190. This, of course, conflicts with Ciac. and Oldo., who name Giordano da Ceccano {cf. 11 in foregoing category) as beneficiary of this Title in 1198.
to Lothario at the date of his election to the pontificate.
that, not only

APPENDIX
28. Gregorio, Cardinal-deacon of

I

213
in
178

D. Angelus

Foro Piscium.

Bobo, Cardinal-deacon of D. Theodorus. 179 Cardinal-deacon of D. Maria 30. (Pietro Capuano da Amain),
29.

in Via Lata.
31. Cencio Savelli, Camerarius S.R.E., Cardinal-deacon of D. Lucia in Orphea, alias Si/ice. ls0
32.

(Egidio Pierleoni, Cardinal-deacon of D. Nicholaus in Carcere
Tulliano.)
181

178

Cristofori says that
date.

Ugode' Geremei was Cardinal-deacon of St. Theodore

at

this

He

also records that a

"Bobone"
St.

Orsini, or a

"Bosone"

d' Aries,

was Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of
election.
It is

Anastasia in the year of

Pope Innocent's
179
180

not easy to reconcile the authorities.

Cristofori.

This cardinal subsequently became Pope under the name of Honorius

the Third.
181 Cristofori.

APPENDIX

II

THE CREATURES OF POPE INNOCENT THE THIRD
According
to

Ciacconius

and

Oldoinus,

and

Crisiofori

First Creation, Dec. 1198
1.

Ugolino de' Conti
Gerard,
(9th

di Segni e d' Anagni, (Pontifical
182

Nephew,)

Cardinal-deacon of D. Eustachius.
2.

Abbot of the

Cistercians of Pontigny), Car-

dinal-deacon of D. Nicholaus in Careers Tulliano.

Second Creation,

Pentecost,

11 99

(Promotions only)

Third Creation,
1.

Dec. 1200

Benedetto,

(?)...

Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of D.

Susanna.
2.

Leone Brancaleone, (Canon Regular,) Cardinal-deacon of

3.

VII Soliis. Matteo, (?)... Cardinal-deacon
D. Lucia in

of D. Theodorus. 183
. .

4.

Giovanni de' Conti

d'

Anagni,

.

Cardinal-deacon of D.

Maria
182

in

Cosmedin alias Schola Greca.

This cardinal subsequently became Pope under the name of Gregory the
Cristofori

Ninth.
this Matteo but distinctly says that Giooccupied the cardinal-diaconate of Saint Theodore till vanni Malabranca 1206, when he was succeeded by Gregorio de' Crescenzi, a Canon Regular
: :

183

knows nothing of

but

cf.

the Fifth Creation.
2I 4

APPENDIX
1.

II

215

Fourth Creation, Mar. 1205
Niccolo
Rogerio,
(da

Chiaramonte, O.S.B.

Cist. 184 )

.

.

.

Cardinal-

bishop of Tusculum. 188
2.

(?)...
.

Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of D.

Anastasia.
3.

Wido

Pierleoni,

.

.

Cardinal-deacon of D. Nicholaus in

Carcere
4.

Tulliano.

Johannes, formerly Subdeacon of S.R.E., Cardinal-deacon
of D. Maria in Via Lata. Pietro da Mora,

5.

Subdeacon S.R.E., Cardinal-deacon of D.

6.

Angelus in Foro Piscmm. (Giacomo Guala de Beccaria, a Canon Regular, 186 ) Cardinal-

deacon of D. Maria
7.

in Porticu Octaviae.

Pietro

de'

Conti

di

Campagna, Abb. Cass. O.S.B.
of

.

.

.

Cardinal-presbyter

the

Title

of

D.

Laurentius

in

Damaso.
Fifth Creation, Dec. 1206
1.

Ottaviano de' Conti di Segni e

d'

Anagni, Pontifical Nephew,

Cardinal-deacon of Divv. Sergius et Bacchus.
2.

Gregorio de' Crescenzi, a Canon Regular, Cardinal-deacon of
~

D. Maria in Aquiro} %
3.

Giovanni, a priest of the pontifical chapel, Cardinal-deacon
of Divv.

Cosmas

et

Damianus.
,

4.

Pelagio de' Galvani, O.S.B.
in

Cardinal-deacon of D. Lucia

VII Soliis.
von Eppstein, Archbishop of Maintz, Cardinal-

5.

Siegfried

presbyter of the Title of D. Sabina. 188
6.

Ildebrando Cajetani, Cardinal-deacon of D. Eustachius.

Sixth Creation, Dec. 1207
1.

Pietro Sasso d' Anagni,

.

.

.

Cardinal-presbyter of the Title

of D. Pudentiana Pastoris.
184 187

Cristofori.

185

i.e.

Frascati.

186

Cristofori.

and Oldo., but of Saint Theodore.
Ciac.
188

Thus

Cristofori assigns

him the Cardinal -diaconatc

Cristofori places this creation in 121 1.

2i6
2.

APPENDIX
. .

II

(Uberto da Terzago,
Angelo,

.

Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of

D. Stephanus in Monte Cae/io.
3.
(?),
.

m

)

.

.

Cardinal -deacon of D. Hadrianus in Foro.

4.

Mauro,

(?),

bishop of Ameria in Umbria, Cardinal-presbyter
(?).

of the Title of

Seventh Creation,
1.

121

i

Johannes, 190 (?)... Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of D.
Praxede.
(Benedetto,
Rufina.)

2.

(?),

.

.

.

Cardinal-bishop of Porto and Santa

3.

Gregorio,

(?),

.

.

.

Cardinal-bishop of Sabina.

4.
5.

Gherardo da
Goffredo,

Sessa, Cist., Cardinal-bishop of Albano. 191
Siffredo),
(?),

(or

Legate

to

the

Holy Land,

Patriarch of Jerusalem, Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of

D. Praxede.
6.

Gaultier

(?),

Legate against Gallic nonconformists, Cardinalin Porticu Octaviae.

deacon of D. Maria

Eighth Creation,
1.

Dec. 1212

Stefano da Ceccano, O.S.B., Cardinal-deacon of D. Angelus
in

Foro Piscium.
Langton,

2.

Stephen

Archbishop

of

Canterbury,

Cardinal-

presbyter of the Title of D. Chrysogonus.
3.

Gregorio Theodoli, Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of D.
Anastasia.

4. Pierre
5.

de Douai, Cardinal-deacon of D. Maria in Aquiro. Raniero Capocci, a Cistercian, Cardinal-deacon of D. Maria
in Cosmedin, alias Schola Greca.

6.

Bonaventura (Papareschi
in Foro

192
),

Cardinal-deacon of D. Angelus

Piscium™

189

Cristofori.

190
191

Cristofori calls this cardinal-presbyter Enrico Sifredo Cajetani

da Pisa.

Cristofori supplies the date of this creation.

192 Cristofori.
193

phis

is

the second cardinal-deacon created for this cardinal-diaconate at
Cf.

this creation, apparently.

Seventh Creation, Nos.

1

and

5.

APPENDIX
7.

II
194
),

217
Cardinal-presbyter of

Tommaso
Bertramo,

(del

Vescovo da Capua

the Title of D. Sabina.
8.
(?)

Cardinal-deacon of D. Georgius

in

Velum

Aureum.
9.

Stefano de' Conti, Pontifical

Nephew

:

Canon
the

of Bayeux, 195

Cardinal-deacon of D. Hadrianus in Foro.
10.

Robert

Curson,

Cardinal-presbyter

of

Title

of

D.

11.

Stephanus in Monte Caelio. Raniero da Orvieto, a Canon Regular, Cardinal-deacon of
D. Lucia in
Si/ice alias
196
),

Orphea.
Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of

12.

Giandomenico (Trinci

D. Cyriacus in Thermis.
194
195
196

Cristofori.
lb. (de

Normandis).

lb.

APPENDIX

III

THE COLLEGE OF CARDINALS AT THE DEATH OF POPE INNOCENT THE THIRD
According
i.

to

Ciacconius

and

O/doinus,

and

Cristofori

Niccolo (da Chiaramonte, O.S.B.

Cist. 197 ),

Cardinal-bishop of

Tusculum.
2.

198

Guido Papareschi, Cardinal-bishop of Praeneste. 199
Ugolino de' Conti
Benedetto,
di Segni e d'

3.

Anagni, Cardinal-bishop of

Ostia and Velletri.
4.
5.
(?)

Cardinal-bishop of Porto and Santa Runna.

Pelagio de' Galvani, O.S.B., Cardinal-bishop of Al banc. 200

6.

Cinzio Cenci, Prior of Presbyters, Cardinal-presbyter of the
Title of D. Laurentius in Lucina.

7.

Cencio

Savelli,

Cardinal-presbyter

of

the

Title

of Divv.

Johannes
8.

et

Paulus Pammachj.
201
),

Leone (Brancaleone

Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of

D. Croce in Hierusalem.
9.

Pietro Sassa d' Anagni, Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of

D. Pudentiana.
10.

Giacomo Guala de
Giovanni,
(?)

Beccaria, Cardinal-presbyter of the Title

of Divv. Silvester et Martinus Equitj.
11.

Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of D. Praxede.

12.

Robert

Curson,

Cardinal-presbyter

of

the

Title

of

D.

Stephanus in Monte Cae/io.
197

Cristofori.

198

i.e.

Frascati.

199

i.e.

Palestrina.

But Cristofori asserts that Gherardo da Sessa, O.S.B. Cist., occupied the suburban see of Albano from 1211 to 1220, and that Pelagio de' Galvani of the same Religion (having ascended from the cardinal-diaconate of Saint

200

Lucy in VII
201

Soliis to the cardinal-presbyterate of the Title of Saint Cecilia)

succeeded Gherardo in the Alba Longan Chair in 1221.
Cristofori.
'

218

APPENDIX
13. Stefano

III

219

da Ceccano, O.S.B., Cardinal-presbyter of the Title

of Divv.
14.

XII

Apostoli.

Stephen Langton,
Chrysogonus.

Cardinal-presbyter

of

the

Title

of D.

15.

Gregorio Theodoli, Cardinal-presbyter of the Title of D.
Anastasia.

16.

17.

Campagna, Abb. Cass. O.S.B., Cardinalpresbyter of the Title of D. Laurentius in Damaso. Tommaso (del Vescovo da Capua 202 ), Cardinal-presbyter of
Pietro de' Conti di

the Title of S. Sabina.
18.

Guido

da

Bisenzo,

Archdeacon,

Cardinal-deacon

of

D.

Nicholaus in Carcere Tulliano. 203
19.

Ottaviano de' Conti di Segni e
of Divv. Sergius et Bacchus.

d'

Anagni, Cardinal-deacon

20.

Johannes,

(?)

ex-subdeacon S.R.E., Cardinal-deacon of D.

Maria in Via Lata.™
21. Gregorio

de Crescenzi, Cardinal-deacon of D. Theodorus.

22. Giovanni, (?) Cardinal-deacon of Divv.

Cosmas

et

Damianus.

23. Raniero Capocci, Cardinal-deacon of D. Maria in Cosmedin,

alias Schola Greca.
24.

(Bona ventura Papareschi in Foro Piscium.
Pierre (de

205
),

Cardinal-deacon of D. Angelus

25.
26.

27.
202
203

Douai 206 ), Cardinal-deacon of D. Maria in Aquiro. Bertramo, (?) Cardinal-deacon of D. Georgius in Velum Aureum. Stefano de' Conti, Cardinal-deacon of D. Hadrianus in Foro.
Cristofori.

But Cristofori queries Guido da Bisenzo's creation in 1205 ; and records Egidio Pierleoni as beneficiary of this cardinal-diaconate certainly from 1205
to 1221.
204

Cristofori states that

he vacated (by death?)
till

this cardinal-diaconate, in

1210, which remained vacant
206

A

the creation of Ottavio Ubaldini in 1244. fine example of the instability of the Dominican Ciacconius, and his

Jesuit

recensor.

They record

the

creation -of "

Romanus Bonaventura

Innocent the Third's eighth consistory; and then, they apparently forget all about him, excepting his nationfor this cardinal-diaconate in
ality
:

Romanus,"
for,

among

the " Cardinales xxvij

vivi

creatus est," they simply say that the cardinal-diaconate of the
in

Fishmarket was served by a Angeli in Foro Piscium"
the
206

Roman

quando Hcnorius Papa III Holy Angel
'
*

Romanus

Diac. Card. S.

Cristofori.

APPENDIX

IIII

SERMON OF INNOCENT THE THIRD, PREACHED
AT HIS OWN CONSECRATION
"He
is

a faithful

over His house,

and prudent servant whom the Lord hath so that it may be fed with food convenient."

set

The

Eternal
is

Word
set

points out to us the qualities of

him who

over the house, and in what

way he

should care for her. He will be faithful and prudent so that he may feed her with food convenient at ordered times—faithful, that he may present it prudent, that it may be done at the proper time. The Word also notifies Him who has instituted, The Lord and him who has been instituted, the servant. What servant has been instituted ? a faithful and prudent one over what has he been set ? over the house : why has he been instituted ? so that he may nourish it when ? at the appointed time. Let us examine each of these sayings, for they are the words of The Eternal Word. That is why each word has its value, each bears a profound meaning. Every one cannot be the master, but only He upon Whose Vestment and Loins are writ, " King of Kings,

— — —

:

:

:

and Lord

of

Lords,"

He
has,

of

whom

it

is

said,

" His

by the self-same plenitude of His Power, constituted the pre-eminence of the Holy See, in order that none may be so bold as to resist His established Mandate, even as He Himself has said, "Thou art Peter; and upon this Rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell
is

Name

Lord."

He

APPENDIX
shall not prevail against
it."

IIII

221

For, as
is

He

has laid the

Himself its Foundation Stone, the gates of hell cannot prevail against it. But this foundation is immovable, even as says none can lay other Foundation than that the Apostle which is laid, and which is Jesus Christ. Let then Peter's boat, in which sleeps the Lord, be beaten by for Jesus rules furious waves and she will never perish
foundation of the Church, and
:

;

:

the sea and the tempest, peace will be restored, and

even the The Church is that grand sea and the winds obey ? and solid edifice of whom the Eternal Word has said, "And the rain descended, and the floods came, and and it the winds blew, and beat upon that house fell not; for it was founded upon a rock;" namely
(astonished) cry
is

men

"Who
"

This,

Whom

;

on that rock of which the apostle
is

said,

"Jesus Christ

Rock." It is manifest that the Holy See, far from being enfeebled by adversity, consoles itself by the Divine Promise, saying in the words of the prophet,
the

"Through
country."

affliction
It

hast

Thou

led

me

into

a
to
I

far

abandons itself with confidence promise which The Lord made to His apostles with you alway, even to the end of the world."
Yes,

—"

the

am

God

is

with us.

Who

God, — even

As

this

institution

comes more, from the God-Man,

then can be against us ? not from man, but from

— the

heretic

and the

dissenter, the malevolent wolf, seek in vain to

ravage the vineyard, to rend the robe, to overthrow the candlestick, to extinguish the light for thus hath " If this work be of men, it will come Gamaliel said,
:

to
it
;

naught; but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow lest haply ye be found to fight against God."

my trust, I will not fear what man can do unto me." I am that servant whom God hath set in charge of His house, may He grant me fidelity and prudence, so that I may feed her at the desired time.
" In

The Lord

is

;

222

APPENDIX
God
that
I

IIII

Yes, a servant, and the servant of servants.
please

May

it

am

not one of those of

whom

Scrip-

Whosoever committeth sin, the same is the servant of sin," not one of those to whom it is said, M O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt," and in another place, " that servant that knew his lord's will, and did not do it, shall be beaten with many stripes." But may I be one of them of whom The Lord says, "When ye shall have done all those things which are commanded, say, 'We are unprofitable servants.' I am a servant, and not a master. As The Lord said to His

ture says, "

'

apostles,

"The

kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship

over them, and they that exercise authority upon
are called benefactors.
is

them
that

But ye
let

shall not

be so.

He

him be as the servant of all and he that is chief, let him be your minister." That is why I desire to serve and do not assume dominion thus following the example of my most illustrious predecessor who has said, " Not as those who desire to
greatest
:

among you

over the clergy, but as models for the flock, through the Spirit." I am put in charge of the house. What an honour
reign
!

But, what a heavy burden

!

I

am

the servant of servants,
If

the debtor of wise men, and of fools.

there are those

scarcely serve one properly, how can a single one serve all ? " Besides these things that are without,

who can
that

which cometh upon me
anxiety,

daily, the care of all the

Churches."

What

and what sorrow, what uneasiness, and
I
!

not to bear Have I not undertaken more than I can carry out ? Yet I will not exaggerate my undertaking, in order that I may not find myself wanting in the elevation at which I began. One day will reveal to another the trouble that I endure,

what hindrances, have

one night
ness
is

will

announce

to another

my

cares.

My

firmif

not that of a rock,

my

flesh is

not brass.

But

APPENDIX
I

II II

223

am

feeble

and

full

of defects,

to all

and without
is

delay, will

God who gives generously give me strength. That is
I

why, since man
trust that

not master of the path he follows,

He who supported
is

Peter on the waves of the

sea so that he might not sink, that

He Who makes
that

smooth what

uneven, and

softens
I

which

is

rough, will direct

my

steps.

have made known to
that

you the circumstances, now hear the duties. I must be prudent and faithful, so I am a servant
:

may present God requires
I

to

servants food at the time required.

three

things of

me

:

a

faithful
:

heart,

prudence in action, the Food of The Word for, with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with Abrathe mouth confession is made unto salvation. ham believed God and ° it was counted unto him for
;

righteousness/'

Without

faith,

it

is

impossible to please

whatsoever is not of faith is sin. If I And that faith how can I strengthen others in faith ? for did not is one of the chief points of my function " I have prayed for thee, The Lord say to Saint Peter, that thy faith fail not," and u when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren." He prayed, and was hearkened to, hearkened to in all points, owing to His obedience. The faith of the Holy See has never failed in trouble but it remains firm and invincible, so that the privilege of Saint Peter remains inviolable. Yet, precisely for this reason, I have need of faith because, though for all other faults I can be freed before the tribunal of God, for faults against the Faith I may be judged by the Church. I have faith, perpetual faith because the Church is apostolic and I am well convinced that my faith will save me, according to the promise of Him Who has said, u Thy faith hath saved thee go, sin no more." Faith without works, is dead if faith lives, it works through
:

God, for myself have no

:

:

:

;

:

:

224
charity.

APPENDIX

IIII

"The just shall live by faith." It is not those who hear The Word, but they who are doers of The Word who are victorious before God. u For if any be a hearer of The Word, and not a doer, he is like unto
a

beholding his natural face in a glass." But neither faith without prudence, nor prudence without
aught.
faithful
I

man

faith, avail

must be
I

wise as serpents."
so that
that

and prudent. It is written, "Be ye Oh, how I stand in need of prudence,

may

grasp at the observance of

my

duties, so

hand may not know the doing of my right, so that I may separate the clean from the unclean, good from evil, light from darkness, salvation from perdition, so that I may not call bad that which is good and good that which is bad, so that I may not declare that darkness which is light, and that light which is darkness, so
left

my

that

I

may
live,

not

condemn
that
I

should

and

who

deserve death.

It

death those souls which judge not those worthy to live is then with good reason that
to

and double breastplate was counted among the principal ornaments of the high-priest. The judgment of the Pope (of whom the type lay in the dignity and the name of the high-priest) ought to distinguish the true from the false, the good from the four things
the square
;

evil

:

the one, so that he

may not

err in faith

:

the other, so

ought to distinguish two motives, for himself, and for the people so that if the blind should lead the blind, both should
that he

may

not deceive himself in action.

He

:

not

fall

into the ditch.

The

breastplate was. square,

on

account of the fourfold meaning which ought to manifest itself to the Pope through Scripture, the historic meaning, the allegorical meaning, the figurative meaning, and the mystic meaning. The breastplate was double because of the two testaments which the Pope cannot ignore, because the letter killeth, but the spirit maketh foursquare, because of the New Testament, which alive
:

APPENDIX
is

IIII
:

225

contained

in the

four Gospels
is

double, because of

engraved upon two tables. How great should be the prudence which must be responsible for the wisdom of all, which has to decide
the Old Testament which

complicated cases, remove all secret doubts, negotiate all business, decree all decrees, explain Scripture, preach to the people, punish disturbers, strengthen the weak, refute heretics, and defend Catholic Christians Who is capable of all this ? May such an one receive It is on that account The Lord has said our praises
in
all
!

!

earnestly, u
I

Who

then

is

that wise

and
!

faithful servant ?

will
I

make him

ruler over

my

household."

Pray God that my put in charge of the house my eminence, and that it merit may correspond with

am

will

turn to the honour of
carries out
is

He
all

The Mighty Lord for, when His Will by means of a feeble servant,
:

attributed not to

human power,
is

but to Divine

Force.
that
I

Who am

I,

and what
in

the house of

my

father,

charge of kings, and occupy the seat of honour ? For it is I who am spoken of by the prophet, " I have this day set thee over the nations, and over the kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and
should be put
to destroy,
It is
I

and

to

throw down,
written,
li

to build,
will give
;

and

to plant."

unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven," and to
of
it is
I

whom

which the Lord said to all the disciples in common), Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained." But speaking to Peter only, He said, "Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt- loose on earth shall
also
(that
;

me

—"

be loosed in heaven." Thus it is that Peter can loose others, but he himself can be loosed by none. "Thou art called Kephas," saith He, which signifies Head. In the head is found the centre of man's senses, they are
P

226

APPENDIX
member.

IIII
All the rest are called

divided in every other

to take their share in the welfare of the

body

:

but Peter

alone has been raised to the plenitude of power.

You

recognize

now who

is

the servant put in charge
of Jesus

of the house.

It is

none other than the Vicar

Christ, the successor of Peter.
:

He

is

the intermediary
:

between God and man beneath God, above man less than God, more than man he judges all, and is judged by none, as the apostle says, "God is my judge," but he who is elevated to the highest consideration is lowered in his function of serving so that humility should be raised and greatness humiliated, and he who is exalted shall be obeyed. All the valleys shall be raised, and the mountains and hills be brought low. And it is said yet again, "They have called thee prince, be not proud, but as one among them." It is "the candle on a candlestick, which giveth light to all that are in the house." When the light grovveth dim, how deep becomes the
:

:

darkness

!

It is

" the salt of the earth

:

but

if

the salt
?

have

lost his savour,

wherewith

shall

it

be salted
is

It is

therefore

good

for nothing, but to be cast out,

and to
is

be trodden under foot of men."
required from
to give

That
is

why much

him

to

whom much

given.

He

has

account to God, not only for himself, but for those under his care. For the Lord makes no distinction among His servants. He does not say in the plural "the servants," but in the singular "the servant," because there should be but "one flock, and one shepherd." "My Well Beloved," He says, "is one, she whom they have chosen is one." The garment of The Lord was without seam and shall remain seamless. All were admitted into one Ark. They were saved from the waters by a single Pilot but those who remained outside the Ark were drowned in the Flood. He is put in charge of the house, so that he presents her with food at the time required. Our Lord Jesus
:


APPENDIX
and
after,

IIII

227

Christ established the primacy of Peter before, during,

His Passion.

Before His Passion,
this

— in saying,
I

"Thou

art Peter,

and upon

Rock

will

build

My

Church," and, " whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth During His Passion, in shall be bound in heaven." saying, " Simon, Satan hath desired to have thee that he may sift thee as wheat, but I have prayed for thee when thou art converted that thy faith fail not After His Passion strengthen thy brethren." when

.

.

.

commanding him Feed My sheep." The first time He pointed out the greatness of
the dignity
:

for the third time, u

the second, the need of firmness in faith

:

the third, the functions of a pastor.

Under

all

these
to

bearings
"

my
:

text

from Scripture evidently applies
in

Saint Peter

— firmness
to feed

the faith
:

Be

faithful

and prudent

"

— elevation
to wit,

when He
"
:

says,

to dignity

when

hath set thee over the house the care of the sheep, when He says that he shall feed them.

He

says, u

He

by The Word, and the Sacrament. It is as though The Lord should say "Feed them by the example of life, by the word of doctrine, by the sacrament of the altar" by the example of action, by the word of preaching, by the sacrament of communion. The Eternal Truth says the first point, "My meat is to do the will of Him that sent Me": it is said on the second in Holy Writ, " He nourishes him with the bread of life and understanding, and gives him the water of healing wisdom to drink" and, in the third place, The Lord says, "For My Flesh is meat indeed, and My Blood

He ought

them

:

:

is

drink indeed."
I

house the food of example in order that my light shall shine before men, so that they shall see my good works, and worship my Father which is For neither do men light a candle and in heaven. put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it
will give the
:

"

228
giveth light to

APPENDIX
all

IIII
:

The Lord

that are in the house wherefore says elsewhere, " Let your loins be girded

about, and your lights

burning;" and "let him

that

Come.' When the anointed priest sins, he causes the people for every spiritual fault is rebuked more severely, to sin and that in proportion to the elevation of him who commits it. I ought also to give the food of the Word so that I should increase the talent which has been given me, by putting it out to usury. For, according to the apostle, God has not sent to baptize but to preach, so that the dogs may eat of the crumbs that
heareth say
' :

:

from their master's table for " man doth not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out So that the text, "the young of the mouth of God." children ask bread, and no man breaketh it unto them," shall not find its application in me, but rather by me. servants the food of the Blessed I ought to give the Sacrament, so that by It they should receive life and not see death, as saith The Lord, u I am that Bread if any man of Life which cometh down from Heaven and, u the eat of this Bread he shall live for ever " Bread which I will give is My Flesh, which I will give Except ye eat The Flesh for the Light of the World. drink His Blood, ye have no of the Son of Man, and
fall
: :

;

life
I

in you."

ought to give you this triple food, at a time conAccording to Solomon, there is time for venient. I ought to give you the food of example, all things. followed by that of The Word in order that you may worthily receive the food of the Sacrament. For Jesus Christ has acted and taught, "leaving us an example Who did no sin, that we should follow His Steps neither was guile found in His Mouth." He who does and teaches this, shall be called great For if I teach without in the kingdom of Heaven.
: :

— —
APPENDIX
acting,
it

IIII

229

may reasonably be said, u Physician, heal thyself," and, "Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast the mote out of thy brother's eye." Thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal ? that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou
For unto the ungodly said God, " Why dost thou preach My laws, and take My covenant in thy mouth." He is justly despised whose life is a

commit adultery

?

stumbling-block.
things to
all

The

apostle says,

"

I

am made

all

men, that I might by all means save some." I will rejoice with them that do rejoice and weep with them that weep, so that my pastoral conduct shall correspond with its aim. I will speak wisdom among them that are perfect, but in the midst of you all, I will know nothing but Jesus Crucified. Being babes in Christ Jesus, I will feed you with milk and not with meat, for strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age. "But let a man examine himself, and, so let him For he that eat of that Bread, and drink of that Cup. eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's Body." It is thus, dear brothers and sons, that I present you with the food and the Divine Word from the table of Holy Writ. I expect from you to do your part. I hope that you will lift up hands, cleansed from disunion and enmity, to The Lord, that you will invoke

Him with the prayer of faith, so that He may grant me grace worthily to fulfil the functions of an apostolic servant, — functions laid upon my feeble shoulders, for the honour of His Name, — for the salvation of my
soul,

— for

the prosperity of the Universal Church,

—for

the welfare of Christianity.

May Our Lord

Jesus Christ,

God

of

all,

be praised,

world without end.

APPENDIX V
SPECIMEN WRITINGS OF CARDINAL LOTHARIO DE' CONTI, AFTERWARDS POPE INNOCENT

THE THIRD
[From
the " Ottobonian

Mundi"

as the

Manuscript" No. 433. " De contemptu work is usually called, or " De Viciis et

Virtutibus" as

it calls itself,

the following are taken.]

Liber
u

I.

Cap. IX.

(viij)

O

vilis

conditionis huraanat

indignitas

O

indigna

vilitatis

humanae

conditio herbas et arbores in vestigia.
et

heu de te et pediculos et lumbricos. Illae de se fundunt oleum vinum balsamum et tu de te sputum urinam et stercus.
Illae

de se producunt flores

frondes

et fructus, et

de se spirant suavitatem odoris et tu de te reddis abominationem fetoris. Qualis est ergo arbor talis est fructus, Non enim potest arbor mala fructus bonos
Illae
i

facere.'

Quid

est

enim homo secundum formam
?

nisi

quaedam arbor

Cuius radices sunt crines truncus caput cum collo stipes est pectus cum albo rami sunt ilia cum tibiis frondus sunt digiti cum articulis. Hoc est folium quod a ventu rapitur et stipula quae a
inversa
sole siccatur.'
,

In Liber

II

The

writer inveighs against drunkenness and every form

of lust, minutely describing the worst examples, he con-

tinues against pride of birth, of wealth, of ambition,
dress.
. . .

and

"Superbus autem ut magnificus videatur
230


APPENDIX V
sed quid est

231

satagit vestiri duplicibus indui mollibus pretiosis ornari

homo

pretiosis ornatus nisi

l

dealbatum intus autem plenum et purpura coccus et byssus in limo putrescunt, aurum et argentum lapides et gemmae in bili sordescunt. 207 Dignitas et potestas male iacent in pulvere, honor et gloria male sedent in cinere. Quid ergo superbe physpurcilia ?'
lacterias dilatas et magnificas fimbrias
?

sepulcrum foris Hyacinthus

Dives
est

ille

qui

induebatur purpura
et

et

bysso sepultus

in

inferno.

Holofernes qui sedebat in canopeo quod erat ex purpura bysso et auro et smaragdo et lapidibus pretiosis intextum

iugulatus est a Iudith."

In Liber III

The

future

Pope
of

writes

somewhat

bitterly of the origin

human existence u Quam turpis pater, Conceptus quam vilis mater, quam abominabilis soror est enim homo de sanguine per ardorem libidinis putreand condition
!

facto,

cuius

tandem

libidinis

cadaveri quasi funebres

vermes assistent, vivus generavit pediculos et lumbricos, mortuus generabit vermes et muscas, vivus produxit stercus et vomitum, mortuus producet putretudinem et fetorem, vivus hominem unicum impinguavit, mortuus vermes plurimos impinguabit. Quid ergo foetidius humano cadavere, quid horribilius homine mortuo ? Cui gratissimus erat amplexus in vita, molestus etiam erit aspectus in morte. Quid ergo prosunt divitiae, quid epulae, quid deliciae quid honores ? Divitiae non liberabunt a morte, epulae non defendent a morte nee deliciae Qui modo a verme honores non eripient a fetore.
sedebat gloriosus in throno
207

modo

iacet

despectus in

thought this garish jingle extremely It is to be regretted that he had not the example to follow of fine. Enea Silvio de' Piccolhuomini, who (as Pope Pius the Second) did His best to suppress a horribly young novel of His adolescence.

No doubt the young cardinal

232

APPENDIX V

tumulo, qui modo fulgebat ornatus in aula, modo sordet nudus in tumba, qui modo vescebatur deliciisin caenacula modo consumitur a vermibus in sepulcro."

In

De Sacro Altaris Mysterio,
is

Lib.

I,

cap.

viii,

which

called u

De primatu Romani

Pontificis" are set
of the Pontificate

forth the author's views

on the subject

and

its

Powers.
apostolis Christus

"Omnibus autem
videlicet

Unum

praeposuit

Petrum Cui totius Ecclesiae Principatum et ante Passionem et circa Passionem et post Passionem commisit. Ante Passionem cum dixit 'Tu es Petrus et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam Meam et portae inferi non prevalebunt adversus Earn et Tibi Dabo claves regni caelorum.' Licet enim universis apostolis communiter dixerit Quorum remiseritis pec;
'

cata remittuntur
principaliter

eis, et

quorum

retinueritis retenta sunt/
'

Petro
erit

concessit

super terram

ligatum et in

Quodcumque ligaveris caelis, et quodcumque
et in caelis.'

solveris super terram erit

solutum

Petrus

potest ligare caeteros sed Hgari

non

potest a caeteris.

dictum est quorum remiseritis peccata remittuntur eis. Huic autem universaliter dicitur Quodcunque ligaveris etc' Circa Passionem vero cum pluralitur dixisset de omnibus Simon ecce
et
illis

Nam

particulariter

'

'

Satanas expetivit Vos ut cribraret sicut triticum singulariter tamen pro Petro subiunxit Ego autem pro Te rogavi ut non deficiat fides Tua statimque subiunxit Et Tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres Tuos.'
'
'
.

1

Ad Petrum
caeteros

igitur

tanquam ad

magistrum

pertinet

confirmare Cuius fides in nulla tentatione defecit. Fides enim Apostolicae Sedis super firmam petram stabili soliditate fundata nullis unquam errorum sordibus potuit inquinari, sed absque ruga manens et

macula pro necessitate temporum a

caeteris

maculis

APPENDIX V
detersit errorum.

233

Post Passionem autem cum tertio Simon Ioannis diligis Me plus his ?' et Me tertio respondisset Domine Tu scis quia amo Te' tertioque praecepit Pasce oves Meas' statimque
quaesiisset a Petro
*
l

'

secutus est Christum non solum genere martyrii sed et in ordine
'sequete
Me.'

subiunxit

Petrus

enim

magisterii.

Quod

Christus ostendit

cum

ait

*

Tu

voca-

Cephas/ licet enim Cephas secundum unam linguam interpretetur Petrus secundum alteram tamen exponitur Caput. Nam sicut Caput habet plenitudinem sensuum caetera vera membra partem recipiunt plenitudinis its caeteri sacerdotes vocati sunt in partem
beris
solicitudinis sed
potestatis.

Summus

Pontifex est in plenitudinem
sine

Hinc etiam quod non

magni mysterii
'

sacramento
tulos
'

cum

Christus universos interrogasset aposesse dicitis

Vos autem quern Me

solus Petrus

quasi primus et potior respondit pro omnibus 'Tu es
Christus Filius Dei Vivi.'
ut super

Cumque

timore periculi simul

exterrerentur apostoli solus Petrus descendit intrepidus

undas maris ad

Dominum

ambularet
'
'

et

cum

multi discipulorum abiissent retro dicentes
hie sermo/ dixit Iesus ad
'

duodecim vultis abire ? Respondit Ei Simon Petrus Domine ad quern ibimus ? verba vitae aeternae Habes et nos credimus et cognovimus quia Tu es Christus Filius Dei.' Cumque Iesus respexisset discipulos ait Simoni Petri 'Si in Te peccavit frater Tuus, vade et corripe eum inter Te et ipsum solum etc' Cui cum Petrus dixisset 'Domine, quoties peccabit in Me frater Meus
'

Durus est Nunquid et vos

.

.

.

usque septies ? Respondit I Hi Iesus Non dico Tibi usque septies sed usque septuagies septies.' Et cum omnes apostoli fugam arriperent solus Petrus educens gladium percussit servum pontificis et dextram eius abscidit auriculam. Cumque post resurrectionem alii discipuli navigio venissent de
et
'

dimittam

ei ?

'

Dominum

Petros succingens se misit in mare ut inter

234

APPENDIX V
Quapropter
et

undas ad Ipsum accederet.

Christus

mortuis prius Se Petro quam caeteris ostendit apostolis quia secundum apostolum 'visus est Cephae post hoc undecim deinde visus est
resurrexisset

cum

a

plusquam quingentis

fratribus simul.'

"

APPENDIX
1198-1216

VI

CORRESPONDENCE OF THE LORD INNOCENT
The
following selection does not pretend to be anything
a very
brief

epitome of the voluminous correspondence of the Lord Innocent. At most it hopes to illustrate the immense variety of His correspondents, the multiplicity of His cares, and the meticulous and unwearying attention which He accorded to all matters great and small alike which came into His pontifical purview, as well as some small indication of the habitual tenor of His epistles.

more than

The

references are either to

Potthast's Regesta, in

which ample sources are

detailed, or to Migne's edition

of the Pope's Letters published in the Patrologia Latina,

The former are indicated by a P followed by the number of the letter in order of date as given in the Regesta the latter by the number of the volume and
;

the page.

Letters to King Richard of England
DATE.
1

SUBJECT.
7.

REFERENCE.
I
I

198

May May May
Nov. Dec.

Saint

29.
31.

20.
17.

Thomas of Canterbury Sends four rings as a mark of friendship Question of ransom money Assurances of friendship Let Pierre de Corbeil have his prebend at
.

531

York
1

199 Apr. 28. Treasury of Canterbury Dec. 22. Take Archbishop Geoffrey of York into

.... ....
.

I
I

179 I96

415

I I

443
595

favour
235

I

451

236

APPENDIX
SUBJKCT.

VI

Letters to King John of England
DATE.

REFERENCE.
.
. .

1200 Apr.
Dec.
1

Queen Eleanor's dowry
Richard's Will
31
,

.

20 1 Feb. Mar.

Case of Honorius Archdeacon of Richmond

The Empire

...... mi
. . .

P 998 P 1235 P 1263
1050
1519
1062

Nov. Richard's Will Do not starve two abbots Dec. Dec. 28 Richard's Will Dec. It is not becoming to a King to steal abbey lands. Give them back 1202 Mar. 27 As a mark of contrition for your bad behaviour in repudiating Havise send 100 men to the Holy Land and build a monastery for Cistercians Mar. 28, Richard's Will Cease from persecuting the Bishop of Jun. Limoges and compensate him for your
.

p

...

p 1548

in

P 1577

,

.

972
II

1075

violence
Jun.

.

1036

Honorius of Richmond

645
1175 110

1203 Feb. 20.

Do

not interfere with the liberty of the
III

Church
Preferment of a foreigner to Carlisle 21. Behave less shamefully to the Archbishop of Dublin or suffer Interdict Oct. 31. As Duke of Normandy you ought to appea before your suzerain King Philip 1204 Jan. 4. Richard's Will and Berengere's dowry Dec. 13. Archbishop of Dublin and Berengere's
15.
.

May May

61
182

.

I

[

I]

220

dowry

....

II

484
[

1205 Sep. 22. Richard's Will and the Empire Sep. 23. Richard's Will

II
II]

1128
1

[

129

Dec. 23. Injustice to an abbess 1206 Feb. 17. Richard's Will and The Empire Mar. 30. Canterbury Dec. 20. Canterbury 1207 May 26. Canterbury Sep. 3. Berengere's dowry 1208 Mar. 22. Interdict on England May 27. Canterbury Aug. Richard's Will

I] I

.... .... ....
.

II)

[

I>

747 1 129 2723 1044

11 I]

[

327 1218
1406 1 50 1
188

.

III

1209 Jan.

12.

Canterbury'

.

III]
11

Jan. 21. Berengere's

Jan. 23.

dowry Berengere's dowry

1537
1535

II

5 1

1

APPENDIX
121

VI

237
REFERENCE. 213

DATE. Oct.

SUBJECT.
19.

12 12

Feb. 28.

Mar.
1213
Jul.

1.

6.
4.

on crusade Canterbury and Pandolfo Threat of excommunication Surrender of the Kingdom
Sicut in Area

Go

mi

.

.

Nov.
12 14 Apr.

in in in in

774 772
881

15.

Takes King and

his heirs

Apr. 22.
121

Make peace

with

under protection France and go on

mi mi

922 226
227

crusade Aug. 24. Magna Carta

p 4990

Letters to King Philip the August
1

198 Jan.

9.

"

tanquam

speciali ecdesie

Romar.e filio"

.

Ingebiorg Aug. 31 Make peace with Richard under pain of
17.

May

I

148

interdict

I

329
321

Aug.
Sep.
1

31.

Take back Ingebiorg under pain
dict

of interI

Interdict on France

199 Apr. 27.

Do

not

interfere

with

the

marriage

of
I
I I

May
Dec.
1200 Jun.
Jul.

31.

Count Philip of Flanders Ecclesiastical arrangements Go on Crusade
.

58s 635 809

Interdict

Ingebiorg

.

p 1074 p 1096
I

Oct. 22. Ingebiorg

.

896

Dec. Dec.
1201 Feb.

Divorce of

Agnes de Meran
.

Divorce Ingebiorg
1.

p 1220 p 1236 p 1288
III

Mar.
Jun.

92.

The Empire Make peace with Otto
Legitimation of King Phil Agnes de Meran
.

1048

III 105
p's children

Nov.
Dec. 1202 Mar.

by

p 1500

Ingebiorg 26. Make peace with Otto Jun. 5- Divorce 1203 May 26. Make peace with John Jun. 3o- Ingebiorg Oct. 9- Stop the quarrel between the Count and the Bishop of Auxerre Oct. 3i- Make peace with John
.

p
III
I

1575 1068 1015

II

II

64 88
162

II

II

176
198
361

Dec.
1204

9-

Ingebiorg

.

II
II

May May

28.

Heresy

30.

Advowsons

of the Countess of Vermandois

p 2227

238
DATE.

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.
16.
7-

VI
REFERENCE.
II
II

1205 Jan.

Feb. 1206 Feb. 1207 Apr.

72.

Jews and Heretics Heresy Take measures about heretics
Ingebiorg

Nov.
Dec.
1208 Feb.
Sep.
Oct.

17.

War

against

virtuous with a crusade

Ingebiorg
17.
97.

Heresy The Empire Heresy

Dec. Dec. 1209 Feb. Apr.

93-

Ingebiorg Ingebiorg and divorce

2318.
1.

Heresy Help King Jean of Jerusalem
Ecclesiastical affairs
.

.... .... .... .... .... .... ....
.

5OI

526
1135

P 2682
II
is

the Albigenses

equally

I246 II 1266
II
II

III
I

I358 I.53

I47O
1493 1494
1545

H
II II

III

36

Aug. 1211 Feb. Aug.
1

2 10

The Empire
of
the

P 4063 P 4178
lands
of

25- Confiscation

Raymond
III

Dec.
1

2.
5-

Count of Toulouse Taxing offertories
Ecclesiastical affairs

.

III
.

524 487
S7I

2 12

May

III
III

Jun. 1213 Apr.
Jul.

9-

Ingebiorg

.

.

617

19.
5-

Invitation to Lateran Council

P 4706
III
.

1214 Apr. 22.

Make peace Make peace

with John with John and crusade

mi
mi

884 227

May

14.

Do

not meddle with ecclesiastical jurisdic

tions

229

12
1

1

5

May 29. Praise for good behaviour Do not help John's Barons against Aug.
.

him

p 4930 in 991
p 5117

2 16

May

Imperial affairs

Letters to the Emperor Otto
1201 Mar.
1.

1202 Jan.

Mar.
1203 Jan. 13. Sep. 9.

Dec. 16. 1204 Jan. 25.
1206 Feb.
Jun.
17.

1207 Dec.

Recognition as Elect-Emperor Write frequent letters to your adherents Be energetic and We will help you Congratulations on progress Imperial affairs Imperial affairs Take care of Church property even though you are engaged in a civil war Assurance of Pontifical favour and advice Communicate with Patriarch of Aquilaea about the truce ordered by Us Much advice
. .

1034

1059 1072 1088
1096
1

107

1 1

109

130

1

136

1145

APPENDIX
DATE. 1208 May
SUBJECT.

VI

239
REFERENCE.
1145
I
I

Assurance of friendship Marriage with Beatrix Aug. Aug. 20 Death of Philip of Swabia Dec. 4- Imperial affairs 1209 Jan. 5- About coronation Jan. 16. " Cum vera pax et Jirma concordia inter
.

147

153 1157
I 1

60

ecclesiam et

imperium nunc

Mar. 10 Frederick of Sicily 2 Bishop Valdimar Jul. 11. Fine exacted from Florence Jul.
Oct.
4-

.... ....
existat
. .

"
I
I

l6l

168

69
82

Otto Crowned Emperor
Question of Matildan Donation
1173
153

Oct.

11.

Nov. 11 Nov. 13 1210 Nov. 1 121 1 Mar. 3i

Measures

against heretics

Bishopric of

Quamvis de

Bamberg regnum 208

149
.
. .

Otto

Excommunicated

(Maunday

Thursday) 209

Letters to King Frederick of Sicily
1

199 Jan. 1200 Dec. 1201 Jul.

3.

Consolation for the death of his father Honour the Church Bishop of Troia and Markwald
.

I

520
1421

p 1234

p
II II II

1204 Oct.
1206 Sep.

4.

Take advice from Our Legate of your kingdom

for the

good
419 984
1081

Congratulations on progress 1207 Jan. 29. Congratulations on regaining liberty 9. Do strive for independent spiritual juris 1209 Jan.
12.

diction in Sicily

II

1523

1210 Jun. 25. Restore the Chancellor to favour 1 2 16 May 14. "In Ro7nanu?n I?nperium electus"

III

280

p 5110

Letters to the Basileus Alexios of Byzantion
1 1

III

Angelos
I I

198 Aug. 15. Unity of Christendom 199 Nov. 13. hnperialis excellentie™
208 209

.... ....
to

325

760

Cf. p. 50.

Extract from Bull of Excommunication
et

:

" Beneficiorum nostrorum ingratus

persequitur
retictum."

regem
the

Sicilie

promissiouum oblitus suanim malignc orphanum et pupillum apostolice protectioni
ea

— Bullarium Magnum.
Breve " Stent

Extract from

quae"

the

Bishop

of

Turin,

Apr.

5,

1212

:

u
810

Otto non

iam nomiuandus Imperator sed impius persecutor."

Cf. p. 59.

1

240
DATE.

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.

VI
REFERENCE. P 1222

1200 Dec. 1 201 Apr.
1202 Nov. 16.

Do Do

not be arrogant' 11

not interfere with King Amaury of Cyprus Beware of danger from the CruFade
.
.

P 1332
I

1123

Letter to the Basileus Alexios
1204 Feb.
7.

III
.

I

Angelos
. .

Be

loyal to the See of Peter

II

259

Letter to the Basileus Theodoros
1208 Mar. 17. Acknowledge

I

Laskaris

Henry of Constantinople as your Emperor and cease from schism

II

1372

Letters to the Emperor Baldwin
.

I

of Romania
II

1204 Nov. 7. Constitution of the new empire 1205 Jan. 21. Appointment of Morosini as Patriarch Feb. 8. Respect Church property
.

454
517
521

II
II II

May

15.

Commendation of new. Legate

.

622

Letters to the Emperor Henry of Romania
1205 Aug. 16.

Make

1208 Mar.

7.

peace with Bulgaria 212 Persuade the Greeks to recognise the Latin
Patriarch
.•

...
.

II

710
1352

II
.

Mar. Mar.
1210
121

Imperial chapels taken under protection 26. Permission to exact allegiance from pre11.

II

1364
1363

lates for the temporalities of their sees
Jul.
10.
5.

II

Pay

tithes

III

296 427 612
596
901
id est

Oct.

Restore

Sition

near

Ravennika

to

the
III

Templars
12 12

May

22.

May

Restore monastic lands and respect Church property 23. Do not cherish persons excommunicate for destroying churches

III

....
.

III

1213 Aug. 30. Commission for the new Legate Pelagius, Cardinal Bishop of Albano
211

III

"Ad
.

firmamentum
instituit
.

igitur coeli fecit

Deus duo magna luminaria
et

duas magnas
potestat.
.

dignitates quae sunt pontificalis auctoritas et regalis
est

Quanta

inter

solem

lunam, tanta inter pontifices

et

reges differentia."
212

This

letter

was written

to

him

as Regent.

APPENDIX
DATE.
1

VI

241

Letters to King Imre of Hungary" 3
SUBJECT.

REFERENCE
I I

98 Dec. 22. 1

Make

Croats pay tithes to the Archbishop of Kolocz
to a

......
Bishop
814

460
643 1458
15

1

199 June

21.

1201 Aug.

Make reparation for violence You must pay tithes

p
II

1023 Feb. 28. Consent to King's proposals anent crusade Sep. 15. Why have you hindered the Legate to
Oct.
4.

Bulgaria? Congratulations on more reasonable behaviour to the Legate Allot a sufficient sum of brother Endre

II

417

....
money
to

II

427
169

Nov.

5.

your
II

Letters to King Endre
1203 Nov.
5.

II

of Hungary

215

Confirmation of agreement with his brother

King Imre
1205 Apr. 25.
Jun. 26.
Jul.

II

893

The Regency The Regency

p 2017 p 2017

27.

We

recognize you as King, but

make

resti-

1206 Jun.
1207 Apr.

7.

5.

tution to the Bishops who have been robbed Confirmation of Berthold the Queen's cousin as Archbishop of Kolocz Church patronage
. .

II

702

II II II
I

893 1132
1534 1100

1209 Jan. 21. Bishopric of

Bamberg

.

.

.

.

Nov.
1212
Jul.

9.

Crusade
Quarrel

15.

between

Archbishops

John
.

of
.

1212 Feb.

12.

Gran and Berthold of Kolocz The same

Ill Ill

447
515

Letters to King
1203 Jun.
5.

Don Alfonso

Villi of Castile

Jun.
113

18.

(!) marriage of his daughter Berengere to her first cousin once removed, King Don Alfonso Villi of Leon Recommending an abbot

Incestuous

II
II

82

.

.

.

.

99

King Imre

is

called " Heinrich,"

" Emmich" and " Emericus."

114

"The

bishop has been thrown violently

down

the steps of his church

of which the treasury has been ransacked, the reliquaries and' vessels pro-

faned and dispersed, and the temporalities confiscated."

M * The first three Andrew of Hungary.

letters

mentioned are addressed

to this prince as

Duke

Q

1

242
DATE.
1205
121

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.
5.

VI
tithes
.
.

May

Do

not

make Jews and Moors pay
.

REFERENCE. II 616

Feb. 22. Be faithful to the Church .,111 380 4. Assistance for the Moorish war Ill 513 26. Congratulations on victory of Navas de Oct. Tolosa Ill 703 P 4706 1213 Apr. 19. Invitation to Lateran Council
.

1212 Feb.

.

.

.

Letters to King En Peyre
199 Apr. 5. Do not debase your coinage 1204 Feb. 14. Morroco-Malorca war
1

II

of Aragon
I

558 265
565

II

Nov.

Cum

quanta gloria™

1205 Mar. 12. Ecclesiastical affairs

....

II

Jun. 16. Privilegia, promises about Malorca, con fiscate property of heretics

II
II

665

1206 Jun.

9.

Grant of heretics' lands
for

915
915 1342 1449
154

Jun. 17. Permission

coronation of successors
II

1208 Feb.

26.

Aug. 1209 Nov.
121
1

at Zaragoza Marriage of his sister The same, her dowry

....
to
.
-

King Frederick
.

II

II

11.
12.

Extirpation of heresy

.

.

III

Apr.

Faculty to revoke donations during his minority

accorded
III

404

1213 Jan. Apr.
Jun.

19. 19.
1.

Divorce of Queen Marie de Montpellier Invitation to Lateran Council Heresy in the Toulousain
.

p 4657 p 4706
III

489

Letters to King Don Sancho VII of Navarre
1

198

May

29.

Hand

over to King Richard the territorial part of Berengere's dowry, viz. St. Jean

Pied du Port and Roccabruna
1199 Feb. 121 3 Apr.
11.

Make peace

with Aragon

....
. .

.

I
I

182

509

19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

.

P 4706

Letters to King
1

Dom Sancho

I

of Portugal
I

198 Dec.

9.

Financial obligations

424
272

1210
816

May

13.

Concordat confirmed

III
:

quanta gloria quern ad tuam habemus personam per exhibitionem operis evidentius monstratemus regalia insignia universa mantum videlicet colobium sceptrum et pomum coronam et mitram ad opus dum non minus pretiosa quam speciosa fecimus preparari et ea liberaliter tibi donavimus in signum gratie specialis." Bullarium Magnum.
Extract from the Bull

Cum

"Ut

autem

dilectionis affectum

APPENDIX
DATE.
121
1

VI
.

243
REFERENCE.
Ill

SUBJECT.

Feb. 23.

Restore Church property

May

27. Partial confirmation of Will

III

383 423

Letter to King Dom Affonso
1212 Apr.
16.

II

of Portugal
III

Portugal taken under Apostolic protection

56

Letters to King Knut VI of Denmark
1

198 Oct.

6.

Defend the Church
Ingebiorg

I I

363

Oct. 31. Ingebiorg

1200 Oct.

22.

I

363 883

Letters to King Valdimar
1203 Dec.
5.

II

of

Denmark
II
.

Bishop Valdimar

Dec. Dec.

12.
18.

Help Otto in

Germany

Ill
Ill
II II

1

194 106
103
771

The Empire

.

1

1206 Jan. 20. Bishop Valdimar 1207 Apr. 2. Bishop Valdimar 1208 Mar. 1209 Oct. 1210 May 1216 May
31.
7.

14.

Bishop Valdimar Extirpate pagans Crusade Make peace with Frederick

II
.

Ill
Ill

134 1346 116
1

.

.

258

the

Elect-Emperor

p 5110

Letter to King Sverker
1206 Jan.
12.

II

of Sweden
in lay

We

object to the
.
.

judgment of clerks

courts

....

P 2650

Letter to King Erik X of Sweden
12 13 Apr.
19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

P 4706

Letters to King Kaloyan of Bulgaria

We grant to you the title of King 1203 Sep. 10. Make peace with Serbia 1204 Feb. 25. Present of a crown
1202 Nov. 27.

....
. .

I

11 13

II
II

158

277

244
DATE.
1205 Aug. 1207
16.

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.

VI
REFERENCE.
. .

May

Please release the Emperor Baldwin Make peace with Romania 217 25.
.

P 2569
1162

.

.,11

Letters to King Levon
1

II

199 Nov. 25.

Union of the Churches

....

of Armenia

I I
I

Dec. Dec.
1202 June
1205 Jan.

17.

30.
1.

Fight the Saracens Restore Gaston to the Templars

18.

Taken under Pontifical protection Compensate Templars for damage you
have done Abbot of Mount Tabor Do penance in sackcloth and ashes before
the Patriarch of Antioch Absolution from excommunication
. .

I

779 813 819 1007
504
557

Mar.

5.

....

II

II

1213 Feb. 28.

.

Ill

784

Mar.
12 16 Jan.

15.

Keep

the peace with Jerusalem Antioch,

and Cyprus

P 5179
II

Letters to King Amaury
1

of Jerusalem
. .

198 Dec.

2.

Dec. Aug. 1203
217

19.

Kingdom taken under Good advice

protection

I
I

417

454
148

12.

Protect the Church in Tyre

.

II

The Lord Innocent wrote
undated
1

also a letter each to the

Grand Jupan of
Dioclea,"

Serbia:

198-9, and to the

"King

of Dalmatia and

same time.*

The "King

of Dalmatia and Dioclea" seems to have been a

Grand Jupan of Serbia, and was certainly neither a "king" nor "of Dalmatia." There is also another letter to Wulco Meganippanus of Serbia. No prince of this name existed,; the contemporary Jupan being Stefan Vencian Pruovenceni Nemanyic I, the letter is dated
vassal prince of the

23 Mar. 1203.

Wulcan king of Dalmatia and Dioclea" were sent in Grand Jupan of Serbia and his wife, to the Queen of Dalmatia and to the Abp. of Dioclea. The king of Dalmatia replied " Beatissimo atque sanctissimo Patri et Domino Innocentio Dei gratia Sacrosancte Romane ecclesie summo pontifici et universali pape," and placed his kingduplicate to the

* Copies of the letter to "

dom
is

under apostolic protection, acknowledging the Papal Supremacy.

In the
It

letter the

Pope

doubtful

"Your whether King Wulcan was
is

referred to as

Paternity" and
in

"Your

Beatitude."

a position thus to recommend his

dominion without the expressed permission of his overlord. The Grand Jupan (Magnus Iuppanus totius Servie) replied, " Gratulamur itaque magne sanctitati vestre quia non tradidistis nos in oblivionem filios tuos sed Nos autem semper consideramus in vestigia sancte recordatus es de nobis. Romane ecclesie sicut bone memorie pater meus et preceptum sancte Romane ecclesie semper custodire." Regesta, Vol. I, No. dxiij, Page exxxiiij, and No. clxv, Anno II, Page clxxvi,

— both sheets.

APPENDIX
DATE.
121
1

VI

245

Letters to King Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem
SUBJECT.
19.

REFERENCE.
of

May

Observe the excommunication Levon

King
Ill
.

1213 Jan.
1

9.

2 16 Jan.

Consolation for the death of his Queen Keep the peace with Armenia and Cyprus

Ill

432 738 P 5179

Letters to King
12 13 Jan.
7.

Hugh

I

de Lusignan of Cyprus
.
.

Make peace

with Christians

.

Ill
III

736

Jan.

13.

Do not

interfere with the

canons of Nikosia
.

Apr.
12 1 6 Jan.

19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

.

743 P 4706

Keep the peace Armenia

with

Jerusalem

and

P 5179

Letter to the Sultan Seif-ed-din
12 1 3 Apr.
19.

Restore Jerusalem to the Christians

.

.

Ill

831

Letter to the Sultan of Aleppo
121
1

Jun.

7.

Please protect

the

persecuted
.

Patriarch
.
.

from the Prince of Antioch

Ill

434

Letters to King Boniface of Thessalonika
1203 Jun. 20. 1204 Feb. 7.

Do

not plunder the Greeks
.

II

106

Nov.
1205

13.
15.
7.

Go to the Holy Land " Legimus in Daniele"
Captivity of the

p 2123
218
.
.

May
Sep.
Sep.

Respect Church property

I

625

Emperor Baldwin
to the

II II

7.

1206 Nov. 27.

The Queen Remain faithful

710 714
1028

Holy See
I

II

Letters to King Przemysl Ottokar
1201 Mar.
1.

of Bohemia
title

Why

ask Philip of Swabia for the

King?

......
.

of
Ill

1046

1204 Apr. 15. Privilegia and Imperial affairs Apr. 21. Refusal of a primacy for Bohemia 1208 Aug. Obey Otto

H
II

339 357
1

III III

149

Dec.
218

12.

Friendship
:

1160

Extract from the Breve Legimus in Daniele

retinendum constantinopolitanum imperium per cuius subventionis auxilium Terra Sancta facilius poterit de paganorum manibus

"Ad

defendendum

et

liberari."

3

246

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.
3.

VI

Letters to the Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice
DATE.
1

REFERENCE.
I

198 Dec.

Do

not trade in munitions of war with the

Saracens
1

201 Sep.

Do not

......
....
.
.

492
301

quarrel with the canons of Gradisca

P 1476
11

1204 Feb. 25. Be penitent for the way you sinned at Zara 1205 Jan. 29. Confirmation of treaties and Absolution Feb. 8. Respect Church property

P 2399 P 2406

Letters to the Doge Pietro Ziani of Venice ICE
1206 Aug.
5.

1209
12
1
1

Jul.

15.
4.

Jun.

2 14

Feb.

15.

Repentance and reconciliation Pay for damage to Church property Vow of alms for Holy Land Help isolated crusaders to get to Holy Land

II

III

957 88

III

830 963

Ill

Letters to the Grandmasters of the Temple
Gilbert
1
.

Horal
I I
I

2. Private disputes 199 Jan. 13. Specification of financial obligations Jun. Distribute alms sent to the Holy Land Sep. 1200 Mar. 30. Financial obligations
.

467 641
737 975

p

Philippe de Plaissiez
1202 Apr. 22. Restore to King Frederick certain lands unjustly acquired in continental Sicily 1206 Mar. 12. Confirmation of treaty

....
.

I

I

973 832
861

Apr. 10. Appointment of preceptors 1207 Sep. 13. Misbehaviour about services during inter.

II

dicts

II
.

1217

Oct.

31.

Confirmation of donation of Satalia
Guillainne de Chartres

II

1019

1210 Sep. 1212 Feb.
Jun.

17. 17.

Confirmation of grants near Thebes
Ecclesiastical discipline
privileges of the
is

.

.

I

329

superior to the

23.

Templars
Bishops
clerks

may
for

Order have absolution from laying violent hands on
.

P 4384

Ill
.

1213 Jan. Apr.

8.

Help the King of Jerusalem

.Ill
.

19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

.

652 737 P 4706
230

1214

May

15.

Dispute about monastic lands bought by

Order
1216 Feb.
18.

.

*

1 1

II

Confirmation of position

in the

East

.

.

P 5078

1

APPENDIX
Geoffrey Lerat

VI

247

Letters to Grandmasters of the Hospital of Saint John

DATE.
1

SUBJECT.
20.

198 Nov. Dec.

Help Cyprus
Restore the three castles which you have stolen from the Church in Tripoli Do not quarrel with Templars
.

REFERENCE. P 428

64
521

1

199 Feb. Sep.

8.

Distribute alms sent to
12.

Holy Land
.

1206 Mar.

Confirmation of treaty Apr. 24. Grant of land in Moravia

973 832
Ill

155

Guerin de Montaigu
1

2 10

Aug.

3.

Confirmation

of

grant

of

castles

from
Ill
.

1212 Feb. 1213 Apr.

17.

Levon II Submit to ecclesiastical discipline
Invitation to the Lateran Council

305

.

19.

.

.

P 4384 P 4706

Letters to the Grandmasters of the Teutonic Order

Hermann Bartt
1209 Jun. 27. Confirmation in possessions and protection P 3755 12 10 Aug. 27. Do not wear white palls .Ill 312
.

.

.

Hermann
121
Jul.

vo?i

Salza

28.
19.

1213 Apr.

Confirmation of Rule Invitation to the Lateran Council
.

.

.

P 4289 P 4706
945

Dec. Feb. 1214
1216 Feb.

28.
14.

.Ill Confirmation of privileges Confirmation of gift of castle of Amudain
.
.

by Levon
18.

II

.

.

.

.

*

.

Confirmation of privileges

P 4901 P 5078

Letters to the Grandmaster of the Order of Christ
Volkwin von Winterstadt
1212 Jan. 25. Proposed bishopric in conquered territory 12 13 Apr. 19. Invitation to the Lateran Council Oct. 31. On the whole you have done well, but do
.

III

509

.

P 4706
Ill

not interfere with Bishops

.

.

.

921

Letters to the Grandmasters of the Order of Santiago
Sancho Rodriguez
1206 Mar.
12.

Confirmation of Treaty

.

.

.

.

P 3214

248

APPENDIX
Pedro Arias
SUBJECT.
8.

VI
REFERENCE.
Ill

DATE. 1210 Mar.

Grant of privileges

205

Pedro Gonzalez
1213 Apr.
19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

.

.

P 4706

Letters to the Grandmasters of the Order of Calatrava
Martin Martinez
1201 Jun.

Confirmation of privileges
5.

P 1388
II

1205 Jul.

Stir

up the King of Aragon against the
666

Moors
Rodrigo Garcias
1213 Apr.
12 14
19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

.

.

May

20.

Confirmation of Rule

P 4706 P 4925

Letter to the Grandmaster of the Order of San Julian del Pereiro
Nuiio Fernandez
1213 Apr.
19.

Invitation to the Lateran Council

.

.

P 4706

Letters to the Patriarchs of Byzantion (Orthodox)
Georgios II Xiphilin
1

198 Aug. 15. Christian unity

I

327

Ioannes
1

X Ka??itera
I

199 Nov.

12.

Christian unity

758

Letters to the Patriarchs of Constantinople (Latin)

Tommaso Morosini

1205 Mar. 30. Recognition and Pall Nov. 19. Consecrate the Elect-Archbishop of Patras

......

p 2459
II

727

1206 Jun. 21.

No

longer consider yourself bound by your oath for the bestowal of patronage only
II

Jul.

5.

on Venetians Exact compensationfrom those who damage

947

Church property
Aug.
1207 Jan.
25.

II

967
975 1077

To

13.

provide for the Legate institute him as a canon of Saint Sophia Excommunicate Venetians who steal eikons

....

II

II

1

APPENDIX
DATE. 1207 Apr. Sep.
13.

VI
Monks
of

249
REFERENCK.

SUBJECT.

Regulate the behaviour of the
Saint George

P 3083
II

12.
8.

1208 Mar.

Apr. 25. Apr. 26. 1209
Jul.
10.

Threaten the Emperor with censures Do not reconsecrate Orthodox bishops who have been reconciled to Rome See to it that fewer excesses be committed in future under your authority Make foreign clerks in Constantinople obey you Your clergy need discipline. Give it to

I2l6

II

1353
1387

II

II

1388

them
Nov. Nov.
1

III
.

83
147

2.

23.

Remain on good terms with the Emperor You may exact tithes from the Orthodox in order to ease your financial difficulties
Take care
to ordain only proper people

III

.

III
III

l62

2 10

Mar.

15.

217

Gervasio
1216 Jan.
Discipline your clergy

P 5193

Letters to Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem
Monaco
1

198 Dec. 23.

He is

rebuked

for inefficiency, evil-speaking

is enjoined to cease from slandering the bishop (sic)

and bad behaviour, and
of Tyre

I

1

199 Jan. Sep.

3.

Settle the dispute with

Antioch about Tyre
.

I

477 466
737

Dec.
1200 Jan.

15.

5.

Holy Land l,i Suspend your unjust excommunication of the Templars Do not meddle with the Order of the Holy
Distribute alms sent to the

I

I

816
39

Sepulchre
Albert II.
(d. 14

1 1 1 1

Sep. 1213)
. .

1206 Mar. 29. Betrothal of King Amaury's children 1207 Jan. 31. Stop your clergy from wearing lay clothes. 1208 Feb. 13. Make the Count of Tripoli release the
Patriarch of Antioch
. .

II
II

829
1083
132

.

.

II

Mar.

4.

Excommunicate the Count of
Patriarch

he has further dealings with the Orthodox
Tripoli
if

II

1346

219

The Grandmasters

of the

Temple and

the Hospital were appointed

codistributors apparently in order to ensure that a distribution should take
place,

which (taking into the consideration the character of His Blessedness) was a not unnecessary precaution.

1

250
DATE. 1208 Jul.
9.
5.

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.

VI
REFERENCE.
.

1209 Mar.
12 10

Aug.

27.
17.

121

May

Sep. 24.

Reappointment as Legate for four years Arbitrate between the King of Armenia' and the Templars Keep the peace between the Grandmasters Warn the King of Jerusalem to observe strictly the excommunication of the King of Armenia Tell King Hugh of Cyprus to take the Count of Montbeliard, Constable of
. . .

II

1427
18

III
II

471

Ill

430

1212 Jan.
12 13 Jan.

13.

Jerusalem, into favour .Ill Excite the Grandmasters to liberate the Christian captives at Alexandria Ill
.

466
507

.

9.

Mar.

15.

King Jean and his daughter (the new Queen) Absolve the King of Armenia but take very stern measures with the Count of
the people faithful to
. .
:

Keep

Ill

738

Tripoli
Jul.

Ill
for

792

25.

Rebuke the Templars

the

excessive
.

exercise of their privilege of sanctuary

Ill

890

Radulf
121
5

Feb. 20.

The

prohibited

marriage

of

Erard

de
Ill

Brienne

973

Letters to the Latin Patriarchs of Antioch 220
Pietro
1

(I

of Capua)

198 Mar. 17. Suspended for abuse of powers
31.
22.

...
.
. .

I I

45

Dec. 1200 Apr.

Restored to office Why have you not paid your visit to The Threshold of The Apostles ?
Pietro (II of Capua)

460
864

II

121

1

May

18.

Make

all

natives

the excommunication of the

and foreigners respect King of
Ill
.

Armenia
Sep. 24. Marriage of the King of Cyprus' children
220

431

Ill

466

The numeration

of the

Latin Patriarchs of Antioch

is

confusing.

Saint Peter strictly speaking was Peter I, then a certain Peter the Fuller, 465-490, an Arian who was twice deposed, was undoubtedly Peter II, hence

Peter (I of Capua, the uncle) ought to be Peter III, and Peter (II of Capua,
the nephew) ought to be Peter IIII, but they are never so designated.

3

APPENDIX
Nicolas
DATE. 1201 Jul.
SUBJECT.

VI

251

Letters to the Patriarch of Alexandria

REFERENCE.
.

1209 Mar. 23. 1212 Jan. 13.

Strengthen your suffragans in the Faith Exhort the Christian prisoners to patience

P 1430
III

23
505

The same

Ill

Letters to the Katholikos of Armenia
Gregorios
1

199 Nov. 1202 Jun.

12.
1.

Congratulations on becoming a Uniat

Union of the Churches

....
Thomas
.

I
I

776 1010

Letters to the Archbishops of Canterbury
Hubert Walter
1202 Feb.

Translation of the body of Saint
31.

P

1612

May

Excommunicate the King unless he

is

We
1204 Dec.
16.

kinder to the Archbishop of Dublin, for have heard " miserabilem clamorem
:

venerabilis "

you may have three more archdeacons in your archdiocese
also
.

II II

62

Commission

for Berengere's

dowry

.

.

475

Sedes vacat 1205- 1207.

Stephen Langton
1207 Jun.
17.

Nomination

"utriusque

Cantuariensis

ecclesie quassatis electis"

1209 Jan.
1212 Mar.
12

12.

Absolve Fulk de Cantilupe from excommunication inflicted for outraging clerks

P 3603
Ill

The coronation

of John's successors will
.

1

onward

depend on his behaviour Very many letters.

.

.

781

Letters to the Archbishop of Coln
Adolf/
1

201 Jan.

5.
1.

Mar.
1202 Jan.

Introducing Legates Recognize Otto as Elect-Emperor

....

III
III III

1031 1051

Warned
10. 13.

against Philip of Swabia

Dec.
1204 Apr.
1205 Mar.

Affairs of

The Empire

1055 III 1058
II

See that excommunications are observed Excommunication and deposition

III

330 1119

1

252

APPENDIX

VI
REFERENCE.
.

SUBJECT. DATE. 1206 Jun. 24. Regrets and condolences on above 1208 Oct. 23. Reinstatement regretfully and kindly fused Nov. 7. Pension of 250 marks accorded 1209
.

II

911

re-

Ill
.

1

.

.

Ill

155 142

1210 Nov.

12.

Permission to say mass episcopally vested

and
to

to confer

minor orders.

No

pall is

be worn

Ill

346

Letters to the Archbishop of Toledo
Rodrigo
1

201

May

Excommunicate Alfonso King
marrying Berengaria
of Castile
to

of

Leon

for

Alfonso King

P 1370
II

1204 Jun. 24. Absolve him 1206 Jan. 28. Make the King of Castile restore the two castles and three farms which he has

373

1210 Mar.

4.

stolen from the Hospitallers Accords primacy of all Spain to see
.

.

.

II

782
375

.

.

Ill

Letter to the Archbishop of Lund
Andreas
1204 Nov. 20. Please send the enclosed pall to the Archbishop of Upsala to replace the one he

has burned

'.

II

426

Letters to the Archbishop of Athens
Berard
1206 Nov. 27.
1208
Jul.
10.
4.

Have

the

same

jurisdiction as your predeI
.

cessors

103

Oct.

Oct. 10.

Confirmation of property and protection Tell Guillaume de Larse not to plunder churches in the Larissa country Ask the Hospitallers to put pressure on the local Lords to make them pay their

I

1432 1468

"

.

.

II

tithes

II

1467

1209 Jan. 23. Pontifical protection for person and see
Jan.
24.
13.

II
II

1549
1551

Compel your canons

to reside

Feb.
221

Confirmation of privileges

....
.

II

1559

This Guillaume, Lord of Armyre, was told to surrender his loot to the
in a Letter 7 Jul. 1210.

Archbishop of Larissa

APPENDIX
DATE.
12 10

VI

253
KKFEKENCE.
.

SUBJECT.
4.

Mar.

Mar.

9.

Surrender of Korinth and conversion of the Orthodox Archbishop Compel lay rectors to maintain clerical
. .

Ill

201

vicars

Ill

216

Letters to the Bishop of Winchester
Peter
1205 Oct. 27. Reform your diocese, punish clerks who are usurers and adulterers et publice
tenentfocarias
12 1 5

and otherwise
.
.

sin against
.
.

public morality

.

II

723

Aug.

30.

Excommunicate the Barons. And the Great Ban is to be in force until the Archbishop of Canterbury takes
it

off

.

.

P 4992

Letter to the Bishop of Norwich
John de Gray
1203 June 20. Permission to depose married clerks from
their benefices
II

no

Letters to the Bishops of England collectively
1205 Dec. 29.

Dec. Aug. 1207 Nov. 1209 Feb.
1215 Nov.

30.
25.
19.

have been cheated of large sums of Pence from England. Please see about it Do not excommunicate rashly Persuade the King to accept Langton
Peter's
.

We

II II II II

Interdict

England

....

754 754 1208
1255

21.

4.

Stop the Cistercians from saying mass publicly and do not let them ring bells Excommunication of the Barons

II

1563

p 4993

Letter to Queen Agnes of France
1204 Apr. 24.

You may be

buried at Pon-tigny

.

.

1 1 1 1

108

Letters to Queen Maria of Thessalonika
1205 Aug.
16.

1210 Mar.

30.

Congratulations on embracing Romanism Confirmation of marriage settlements

.

I

.

Ill

714 226

254

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.

VI

Letters to Queen Ingebiorg of France
DATE. 1200 Mar.
Jul.
,

REFERENCE.

Consolation

Consolation
22.
5.

p 989 P IIOO
I

Oct.

Assurances of friendship
Consolation
Protection
.

88l

1205 Jul. 1207 Mar.
1

II

680
I

7.
7.

II

IO5

2 10

Mar.

Consolation

III

258

Letter to Queen Adela of Bohemia
12 10 Apr. 13. Divorce Ill

238

Letter to Queen Maria, Wife of Philip of Swabia
1208 Feb. 20. Bishop Valdimar
II

1315

Letters to Berthold Duke of Zahringen
1201 Mar.
1.
1.

1202 Mar. 1208 Aug. Dec.

5.

Recognition of Otto Imperial affairs Obey Otto Support Otto
.
.

Ill
..
. .

.

.

.

.

.Ill .III .Ill

1045 1065

1149 1158

Letters to Henry Duke of Brabant
1202 Mar.

1203 Dec. 1204 Oct.

12.

27.

Confirmation of dispensation for the marriage of his daughter to Otto Ill 1073 .Ill 1104 The same reconfirmed Why do you delay Otto's marriage with your daughter ? You have a secret agreement with Philip of Swabia who wishes her to marry his nephew Frederick of
.

.

.

.

Sicily

Ill

1 1

14

Letters to Philip
1200

Duke
in

of Swabia'
. .

May
1.

Definition of Pontifical position

.

Ill
Ill

1207 Nov.

Our

blessing,

make peace

The Empire

.

1030 1129

Letter to Otto Markgraf of Brandenburg
1200

May

Love your wife, honour your clergy, give up tournaments and compel converts to abandon pagan practices
.

P

1042

APPENDIX
Frederick
DATE.
1

VI

255

Letters to the Dukes of Austria

SUBJECT.
30.

REFERENCE.
Richard's
I

198

May

Refund your share of King ransom
Leopold VI
Matrimonial disappointments Crusade!
Bishopric of

206

1204 Jan. 1208 Feb. 25.
7.

.

.

.II
II

225 1339
151

1209 Nov.

13.

Bamberg

.

.

.

.Ill

Letters to Geoffrey Prince of Akhaia
12 10

Nov.

5.

Help the Archbishop of Patras against
pirates
Ill

342

12 12 Apr.

7.

May

18.

Restore stolen Church dravida Restore stolen Church property at Korinth

property at An-

Ill III

560 624

Letters to Othon de la Roche Megaskyr of Athens
1208 Jul.
14.

Do

not

make

illegal

exactions from the

I 1435 1209 Jan. 23. Respect Church property 1549 .Ill 590 12 12 Apr. Restore Church property 7. P 5052 1216 Jan. 12. Gift of the castle of Livadia to the Church
. . .

clergy

.II

.

.

.

Letters to Balmo Constable of Thessalonika
1208
Jul.
14.

1209 Jan. 24.

Restore Church property As you have restored Church property pay
tithes

....

I

1434
1551

II

Letters to the King of Connaught 222
1200 Sep.

Dec.
1213 Apr.
19.

Respect the rights of fugitives in sanctuary Do not abuse Our concessions to you Invitation to the Lateran Council
.
. .

I

875

P 1209 P 4706

Letters to Simon de Montfort
1206 Jul. 1209 Nov.
2.

12.

1210 Jun. 28.
222

Compensation for Archbishop of Narbonne Report progress, and Confirmation in Heretics' Lands Grant of Albi
to

P 2835
Ill Ill 151

282

His

name appears

have

been Cathal Crobhdearg

mac Toird

helbhach.

5

1

256
DATE.
1

APPENDIX
SUBJECT.

VI
REFERENCE.
to

2

10 Dec. 17.

Leave to Crusade

raise

a

house-tax
in silver

finance
.

Ill

1212 Sep.
1

11.

Thanks

for 1000
to

marks

.

Ill

357 693

2 13 Jan.

15.

Homage

En

cassonne
Jun.
12 14 Jan.
1

.....
Peyre of Aragon
for
.

Car
III
.

1.

Restitution of county of Foix

Ill

743 489

23.
2.

Set free

En

Peyre's son

.

Ill

959

21

Apr.

Dec.

14.

Concerning conquered territory Decision of Lateran Council on same

P 4967 P 501

Letters to Raymond of Toulouse
1201 Dec.

1207

May

29.

Please take measures against heretics Cease from persecuting the Church. "You are an impious and barbarous tyrant, you favour heresy, and plunder the religious, and you oppress and starve the
.

P 1550

Church"
1209
Jul.

II
. . .

1

166

27.

Good behaviour

III
III

100
173
35 6

I2IQ Jan. 23. Prosecute heretics Dec. 17. Do keep to your promise to suppress the heresy 1215 Dec. 14. Decision of Lateran Council
. .
.

III

.

p 5012

1208 Mar.

10.

Raymond's

1210 Dec.

17.

A

were released from fealty to him and confirmed in their lands which they had held of him Breve urges the Count of Foix and the Viscount of Beam to extirpate Heresy
vassals
. .

.

II

1354

P 4148

Letters to the Bishops of the South of France
1204 May 1209 Feb.
31.
3.

Assist the legates

223

P 2230

To proceed against Heretics in general. The Letter to the Bishops was to be
fastened
to Church doors, and read aloud as an invitation and a command to "all men" to proceed against the Heretics
the

II

1545

Lord Innocent nominated Arnauld Amaury, Cistercian Abbot of Citeaux, the Legate Pierre de Castelnau and Cardinal Raoul d' Arras to form a Commission of Inquisition.
221

On May

31,

1204,

1

;

INDEX
Aachen,
Philip of

Swabia abdicates
;

Alessandria, 123, 124

and is recrowned at, 43 II crowned at, 54

Frederick

Alexander P.M. Ill, 164 Alexii, Family of, 170
Alexios
I

" Aboriginal," Newman's
122, 189

epithet, note

Komnenos,

Basileus

of

Acerra,

Diopold, Count of, excommunicated, note 38, 89 supports Markwald, id. ; defeated at Capua,
; ;

Trebizonde, 72 Alexios III Angelos, 59, note 28, 66,
67, 69, 72, 186, 240

Alexios IIII Angelos, Symbasileus, 67,
68, 69,

kills Gaultier 96, and Barletta, 97 de Brienne, reconciled to the Church, 98 Acquapendente, bone of contention between Rome and Orvieto, 158, 159 Acre, Jean elect Abp. of, Latin Elector in Romania, note 32, 71 Adamo, Brother Salimbene di, quoted,

240

Alexios

V

Dukas (Murtzuphlos), 68

69, note 31, 70

Alfonso I, K. of Aragon, 97 Alfonso Villi, K. of Castile, 241 Alfonso Villi, K. of Leon, 190, 241 Alet, Abbey of, 106
Allucignoli, Gherardo, Cardinal, 212

201, note

133
of,

Amalfi,

Abp.

of,

suffocated

at

the

Adelardo, Cardinal, 21 Adoration, Heretic ceremony

Lateran
106

Council,

198

;

Pietro

Capuano

da, Cardinal, 213

Afionso II, King of Portugal, 243 Akhaia, Principality of, instituted, 72 ; Bishops Geoffrey, Prince of, 255
;

Amaury

II,

K. of Jerusalem, 183, 184,
of,

240, 244

Ameria, Mauro, Bp.
Andravida, 255 Andros, Lordship
Angelo,
cil,

Cardinal, 216

of,

chidden

for excessive zeal, 78,

note

4g

;

regulations

concerning

Latin Archbishops

in, 78, note

42

cr.

of, 72 Cardinal 1207, 216

Albert II, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 181,
1S2, notes 103, 106, 107, 249
Alberti, Gregorio de', Cardinal, 212

Angels, defined by (Ecumenical Coun-

199
of,

Anibaldi, Pamily

170
183, notes 1/3,

Albi, Bp. of, 105, 121

Antioch, Patriarch

of,

Albigensians, Heresy, Chap.

VI

;

102,

114; Patriarch (Maronite) Jonas,
198
;

103; aggressive persecutors, 106,

Prince

of,

58
of,
I,

114; First A. Crusade, leaders of, 121, 122 ; Second ditto degenerates into per-

108;

tenets,

113,

Apron, 72
Aquilaeia, Patriarch

Aragon,

cf.

Alfonso

238 Peyre II

sonal struggle between -Raymond

Arians, 108
Arias, Pedro,

VI and Simon de
124;

Third

Montfort, 123, (Peaceful Crusade),

Grandmaster of the Order

of Santiago, 248

126, 127

Albina, hss. of Taranto and Lecce, 93 Aleppo (Haleb), Sultan of, 245
257

Armenia, Gregorios Katholikos of, 251 Levon II, K. of, excommunicated,
80
;

letters,

244

R

;

;

258
Armenian Church submits
Arras, Raoul
d',

INDEX
to

Rome, 187

Cardinal, 226, note 223
of,
;

Athens, Berard, Abp.
78, notes 42, 47,

74, note 36,

Abbey of, note 83a, 139; Abbot of, note 83a, 26, 1 39 Beccaria, Giacomo Guala de, Cardinal,
Beaulieu,
1

255

Lordship of

215, 218

Othon de la Roche Megaskyr of, 63, 74, note 33, 255 Auch, Abp. of, 107 Austria, Leopold VI Duke of, 2nd
instituted, 72
;
1

Beham, Albert von, 204
Benedetto, created Cardinal I2CO, 214,

218
Benedetto, created Cardinal 121
1,

216,

Alb. Crus., 123
Auterius,

sentence

on

Petrus,

113,

218 Benevento, battle
Berg, Count

of,

82

note 70

Berengere, Queen of England, 131, 146
of,

Autun, Gaultier II Abp.
Crus., 121

1st

Alb.

Auxerre, Guillaume de Seignelay Bp.
of, 188, 237 Count of, 121 Avesnes, Jacques d', Crusader, 63
;

of, 2nd Alb. Crus., 123 Bergamo, 153, 154 Bernard, Raymond, named "bishop" of Toulouse by Niquinta, 1 16 Bernard the Treasurer, chronicle quoted,

Avignon, Great Schism, 12 sanctimonious profligacy of, 102 ac;
;

note 61,

93
Cardinal 1212, 217, 219
<?/,

Bernardo, Cardinal, 212

quired for Holy See, 199, note 132

Bertramo,

cr.

Besant, Sir Walter, quoted note

155

Babylonish Captivity, 102
Balbo Pantaleone, Venetian Elector, Romania, note 33, 71 Baldwin I, Emperor of Romania, 61,
63, 7i, 74, 240 Baleggio, Giovanni, Venetian Elector

Bethlehem, Bishop of, Crusader, 63 Latin Elector, Romania, 71
Bethune, Lord
Beza,
of,

De

hereticis

Crusader, 63 a magistratu civili

puniendis, 119
Beziers,

Bishop

of,

deposed,

118
of,

;

of Romania, note 33, 71 Balmo, Constable of Kingdom of Thessalonika, 255

Raymond-Roger, Viscount
of heresiarch, 121
dies,
;

son

imprisoned and
of,

122

;

massacre

122

;

Guil-

Bamberg,

Thiemo
of,

Bishop

of,

26

239 Baptism, v. Paidobaptism Bar, Theobald Duke of,
Crus.,

question

laume III, Bishop of, 122 Bisenzo, Guido da, note 203, 219
Black Friars, 173

2nd

Alb.

123

Barberini (Urban P.M. VIII), 101

Judge of Gallura, 157 Family of, 176 Barons of England, censured by InnoI,

Barisone

Count of, Crusader, 61 Guillaume de, Cardinal, 211 Bobo, Cardinal, 213 Bohemond, Count of Tripoli, notes 112,
Blois,
;

Baroncelli,

cent, note 89, 148
Bartt,

ii5, 183 Borgia (Alexander P.M. VI), 101 Borgo, Innocent founds Santo Spirito
in,

Hermann, Grand Master Teu-

172
of,

tonic Order, 247

Boulgres, 108

Basso,

Ugo

di,

155
of,

Boulogne, Count

Crusader, 61

Bavaria,

Dukes of, xv, 26 Bayeux, Henry Bishop
Crus., 121
;

Bourges, Gerard de Cros Archbishop
1st

Alb.

1st Alb. Crus., 121

2nd Alb. Crus., 123
of, heresi-

Beam, Gaston VI Viscount
arch, 121, 124, 256

Duke of, letters, 254 Milo de, Crusader, 63 Brancaleone, Leone, created Cardinal
Brabant, Henry
1200, 214, 218 Brandenburg, Otto Markgraf
of,

;

Beaujeu,
121

Guy Lord

of, 1st

Alb. Crus.,

254

;

,

INDEX
Bremen, Hartwich Archbishop
Brienne,
Gaultier de,
of,

259
of,

26
63
;

Capestrang, Council
Capitol,

103

Crusader,

held

for

Pope

by Senator

Taranto and Lecce, 93 returns from France, 96 killed at
claims
;

Pandolfo, 169 Capocci, Giovanni,
163
;

Roman demagogue,
;

Sarno, 98; Jean de, Crusader, 61, 63 ; King of Jerusalem iure uxoris,

hostile to Innocent, 164

ex-

cessive

Co-Emperor of Romania, 11S Letters, 245 Bruno V, Guelf Archbishop of Coin,
184
;

167 ; abandoned by Pierleone, wars with
165,

conduct,

166,

note

;

cr.

Pope, 170; Raniero, O.S.B. Cardinal 121 2, 216, 219

Cist.,

45
Bulgarians, 74, 186 Heretics, 108 Bulls Cum Quanta Gloria, note 216,
;

Capparone seizes Palermo, 97 Capua, Archbishop of, letter, note 38,
88 Capuchin Order, schism from Friars
Minor, 173

Etsi Nostra Navicula, 117 Et Zizania, 87 Imperialis Excellentie, 59 In eminent i Apos-

242

;

;

;

;

tolic e

Sedis, 18
;

;

Interest Apostolice

Carbonis Gilido, 170 Carcassonne, Raymond-Roger
count
of,

Vis-

Sedis,

Legimus in Daniele, 34 Miramur note 2i8> 81, 245 Plurimum, note So, 148, 149; Re;

note 76,

115; attacked

by Alb. Crus., 121
Cardoville, Gaultier de, Crusader, 64

ligiosam vitam, 18

;

Sicut in Area,

Carinthia,

Duke

of,

26
of,

237

Carpentras, Bishop

122
of

Buonhomini della Commune, 170 Burgundy, dissenters burned in, 104 Eudes III Duke of, 1st Alb. Cms.,
121

Carthage,

Lord,

Abbot

Mount

;

Melleray, note 8ja,

Carusomo, Benedetto, Senator of Rome,
163
Casse, 124
Casseneuil, siege of, 125

Byzantion,

fire

at,

67; sack
from, 71

of,

70;

relics ravished

Byzantine Empire, destroyed by Fourth
Crusade, 66;
titles,

Castelnau, Pierre de, Legate to Albigeois, 118;

196

murdered, 119

;

letters,

Cagliari, 155
Cajetani,

256 Castelnaudary, 124
cr.

note 22'j,

Ildebrando,

Cardinal

1206, 215

Cathari, 108, 109 Cathedral services in Akhaia, Innocent
J

Calvin.

Jure gladii coercendos
119

esse

hereticos,

arranges for, note 5/, 79 Ceccano, Giordano da, O.S.B.

,

Card.
cr.

Cambray, Pierre de Corbeil Bishop
I3» 27,

of,

19,211; Stefano

da, O.S.B.,

43
187, 198
to act with

Card. 1212, 216, 219
Celestine P.M. Ill, 17, 18, 176

Canon Law, 198 Canon of the Mass,

Cenci, Cinzio,

cr.

Card. 12 12, 216, 219

Canons of Antioch urged
Canterbury, Primacy
disputed election
of,

Patriarch, letter, note 116, 183

Champagne, Guillaume Blanchemain, Card., 211 Thibaut, Count of,
;

Prov. Org.

of,

Crusader, 61, 63, 64

to,

claimants to

Champlitte,

Guillaume de, Crusader,

right of election, 132; candidates,

63

;

Prince of Akhaia, 72

Rome, 133 Innocent's decision, 135; monks expelled, shrine of St Thomas of, 1 36
appeals to
;

Chartres, Guillaume de,

;

Grand Master Order Temp. Sol., 246 Reginald de Bar Bishop of, 1st Alb. Crus.,
;

Lothario's pilgrimage to, 15 Cantilupe, Fulk de, 251

121

Charles V, H.R. Emperor, 205

1

;

260

INDEX
Card.
1205,

Chiaramonte, Niccolo da, O.S.B. Cist., cr. Card. 1205, 215, 218 Chinea, The, Sicilian tribute to St
Peter, 83

215

;

Ricardo

de',

Count

of Sora,

Pope's

brother,

builder of Torre di Nerone, pur-

chases Poli mortgages, 166

;

sued

Christchurch

v.

Canterbury,

by Oddo de'
burned, 168
fiefs,
;

Poli, 167

;

his castle

Chronicon Trium Fo?itinm, note ijS,

invested with Poli
de',

210
Ciacconius, 211 et seq.
Cistercians, 61, 138, note Sja, 139, 140

170;

Saxo

Card., 11

;

Stefano de', Canon of Bayeux,
Card.
;

cr.

Citeaux,

Abbot of Abbots

of,

note 223,

120, 256

City (Rome), Chap. VIII, 179 Claricia Scotti, Innocent's mother,

1

Clement P.M. Ill, xx, 17 Clement P.M. VII, 173
Clergy, state of in southern France, 105

Trasimondo I, 1 2 1 2, 2 7-2 9 1 1 Lord of Ferentino, 1 1 Trasimondo II, Count of Segni, Innocent's father, 1 1 Trasimondo de', suitor Ugolino for Elena of Gallura, 157 de', cr. Card. 1198 (Gregory P.M.
; ;

;

Clermont, Robert d'Auvergne Bishop of, 1st Alb. Cms., 121

Villi), note 1S2 Consolamentum, 114 Constance, Empress, and
Sicily, confides

Queen of
In-

Frederick to

Colmezzo, stolen by Lords of Gabriano

nocent, 86

and Varni, 165 Coin, Adolf Archbishop
26
;

her will, disputed by Markwald, 87,88; her marriage,
;

of,

xxiiii,

note

58
Key
of

deserts

to
;

Ghibellines

for

Conybeare,

Truth,

quoted,

9000 marks, 27
pardoned,
;

excom., deposed, Pope's friendship for,

note 7S, 115

Corbeil, Pierre de, Innocent's instructor, his successive

deposition enforced, 42 45 pensioned; letters, 251, 252;

promotions, 13,

27, 43

City

of,

Guelf,

43

;

vicissitudes,

Corkaia,

King

of,

198

44; only Guelf city in Germany, 54 Colonna,Giovanni di Sampaolo, Card.,
19, 212 Comestor, Pierre, 13 Commendatio, 133

Corvey, Abbot

27 ; mitred, 44 Costanza of Aragon marries Frederick
of,

11,97 Coucy, Enguerraud de,
121
IIII,

1st

Alb. Cms.,

Comminges, Bernard
Comtat Venaissin,
Confession

Count

of,

121, 123; heresiarch, 125
note 132, 199

Coulton's Salimbene quoted, note 133, 201

Councils
103

rejected

by

Waldenses,

112; by Albigensians, 113 Conge d'Elire, 132 Connaught, King of, note 222, 197, 255 Contarini, Bertuccio, 71; Venetian Elector, Romania, note 33 Conti, Andrea.de\ note 4, 11 Giovanni
;

103 ; Lombers, Tours, 103, 109 Lateran, 104 ; Montpensier, 104 ; Montelimar, 120; Lavaur, 124; Mont;
;

— Capestrang,

pellier,

126

;

Oecumenical of Late-

ran, 197, 198

Courtenay, Pierre de, Count of Nevers,
1st

Alb. Cms., 121
note 122, 189
la Pucelle

de',Card. 11, 212; Giovanni de',

cr.

Cousins, Innocent vetoes marriage of
first,

Card. 1200, 214

;

Lando
;

de',

Lord

of Montelongo, 88

Lothario de',
1206,

Coventry, Gerard de
of,

Bishop

Chap.

II,

and
cr.

v.

Innocent; Otta215;
cr.

13

viano de',

Card.

Cowley, A. E., Bodley's sub-librarian
IX

Ottone
93
;

de',

Lord, of Palombara,
de',

Pietro

Abb.

Cass.

Credentes, grade of Albigensians, 115

INDEX
Cremona, 152
Crescenzi, Gregorio de\
cr.

261
sui-

Endura, Albigensian ceremony of
Card. 1206,
cide, 115

notes 182, 187, 214, 215,

219

Crescenzi, Gregorio de', Card., 212
Cristofori, 211 et seq.

England, Chap. VII, 129 En-nacer, Moorish sovereign, defeated
at

Navas de Tolosa, 186

Cross, Albigensian doctrine of the, note

77 115 Crusade, Fourth, 56, 57, 60, 61, 64, 65
>

of, note 4/, 76 Eppstein, Siegfried von, Guelfic Arch-

Epiros, Despot

;

bishop

of

Mainz,

37

;

Cardinal

Chap. IIII, 66
Curia, reformed, 174

1206, note 188, 215

Curson, Robert,
217, 218

cr.

Card. 1212,

125,

Erik X, King of Sweden, invited to Lateran Council, 243

Cyprus, 59, 186, 198

Dalmatia, King

of, note 217, 244 Dampierre, Lord of, Crusader, 63 Dandolo, Enrico, Doge of Venice, rumours about, 64 ; blinded by By-

Euphrosyne, Basilissa, 69 Eustace of Flanders, Crusader, 63 Extreme Unction, validity of denied by Albigensians, 113

Ferentino,

v.

Trasimondo

de' Conti.

Fernandez, Nuno, Grandmaster of the

zantines,

69

;

overreaches Alexios
for

V,

candidate
;

Empire,
;

his

Order of San Julian del Pereiro, 248 Fernando VII, marries his own nieces,
note 123, 190

letters, 246 titles, Vitale, 75 Venetian elector, Romania, note 33

Daulis, Bishop of, note 51, 79 Devic, O.S.B., 107

Ferrara, 153 Flanders, Baldwin

Villi Count
63
;

of,

Crusader,

61,

Emperor of

Dime

Saladine, 62
Sicilian, note

Documents,

58, 88

Domini

canes, note 79, 119

Dominicans, 73 Douai, Pierre de,

cr.

Card., 1212, 216,
236, 251

219
Dublin, Archbishop
of,

Romania, 71; blunders at Bulgaria, 74 Letters to, 240 Foix, Raymond Roger Count of, 120, 123, 125, 256 Fontcaude, Bernard Abbot of, 107, 109 P'oulques de Neuilly, 61, 66 Foundling Hospital (Santo Spirito),
;

Dukas, v. Alexios V Durazzo, Archbishop

of,

76

Ehrle, Rev.

F. S., S.J., Subprefect of
ix,

the Vatican Library,

note 86, 144

Eidola Fori, 108
Elena,
heiress

note 97, 172 Fourth Crusade, Chapter IIII Frederick of Antioch, note iJJ, 207 Frederick II, Stupor Mundi, confers with Innocent and holds diet at Konstanz, 53 ; crowned at Aachen,

of
de'

Gallura,
Couti,

rejects

54

;

crowned King of

Sicily,

87

;

Trasimondo

excommu-

asserted to be a changeling, 91
position
nition of Brienne claims, 83
;

;

137 Embrun, Archbishop of, 126

nicated, 157 Ely, Eustace Bishop

improved by Pope's recog;

of,

im-

Emperor, The, extraimperial dominions of, 86 Empire, The, Chap. Ill disputed suc;

prisoned by Markwald, 94 marries Costanza of Aragon, 97 comes of
;

age, 98

;

reduces Sicily to order,
173
Friars Preachers,

99
Friars Minor,
;

cession to, 24 et seq.

Endre

II,

King of Hungary, complains
;

of Venetians, 195
to Bulgaria, 196

opposes legation
letters,

173 Frangipani, 170
Frouville,

;

196

Lord

of,

Crusader, 63

262
Gabriano, Lord
of,

INDEX
steals

lands of

Guzman, Domingo de
118, 127

(St.

Dominic),

Colmezzo family, 165 Gajat-et-din, 67
Galgano, Cardinal Gregorio, 212
Gallipoli,

Haakon
78,

IIII,

Bishop

of,

note

44,

Halberstadt,
sader,

King of Norway, 194 Konrad Bishop of, Cru;

158
Gallocia, Cardinal Pietro, 211

63

Latin
181

Elector

in

Romania, 71
cr.

Galvani, Pelagio de\ O.S.B.,
dinal 1206, 215

Car-

Haleb, Sultan

of.

Henricians, 108

Garcias, Rodrigo, Grandmaster of the

Henry

I,

Emperor of Romania,

63, 77,

Order of Calatrava, 248 Gascony, infected with Heresy, 104
Gaston, castle
of,

240

to be restored to the

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicily, 23 his marriage,
;

Templars. 244 Gaultier, cr. Cardinal 121 Genoa, 62, 157
Geoffrey,

1,

216

Archdeacon of Norwich, murdered by John, 141 Gerard, Abbot of Pontigny, cr. Cardinal 1198, 214

paternity of Frederick 88 denied by Markwald, 91 Henry VIII, Tudor, 214 Herakleia, 72
;

II,

Herakleia, Archbishop
Heretication, ceremony

of,
of,

80
note 72, 114

Heretic leaders against First Albigensian Crusade, 121

Geremei,
80,

Ugo

de', note 178,

213

Gervais, Patriarch of Constantinople,

Hildebrand, 101

249

Ghibelline Party, 26

Hildesheim, Konrad, Bishop cellor of the Empire, 26
Hismael,
Pietro,

of,

Chanschool-

Giovanni, cr. Cardinal 1206, 215 Goch, Sentence on Bernard de, note 73,
114
Goffredo,
cr.

Innocent's

master, 11
Histoire ge'ne'rale de Languedoc, 107

Cardinal 121 1, 216

Gonzalez, Pedro, Grandmaster of the

History of the Inquisition, 107 •Holy Land, 81

Order of Santiago, 248
Gran, Archbishop
I34> 253

Holy

Office of Inquisition

first

estab-

195 Gray, John de, Bishop of Norwich, 133,

of,

lished, 117

Honorius, Archdeacon of Richmond,

236
in

Great Orders acquire land

Romania,
67
Russia,

Honorius,

P.

M.

Ill,

consecrates

76 Greek Toleration, instance
Gregorio,
fails

Pandolfo as Bishop of Norwich,
of,

in

mission to

Horal,

186;
Gregorio,

cr.
cr.

Cardinal 1207, 213
Cardinal 121
1,

216
sub-

and note 180, 213 Grandmaster of the Order of the Temple of Solomon, quarrels with Monaco, Patriarch of
note 86, 114,
Gilbert,
;

Gregory

P.M.

VIII,

confers

Jerusalem, 181

letters,

296
for

diaconate on Lothario, 16

Hospitallers, tithe collectors in Akhaia,
78,

Gregory P.M. Villi, note 182, 214

and note 47
182
;

;

reproved

Grey

Friars, 173

theft,

notes

no,

in

Gruffydd ap Rhys,
8ja, 139 Guelf Party, 27

Prince of South Wales, does homage to John, note

Hugh

I,

King of Cyprus,

184, 245

Hungary, 195, 241

Guthorm, King of Norway, 194 Guy, Cistercian Inquisitor, 107

Illness of Innocent, 97, 168 Imre, King of Hungary, 195, 241
Infanticide in

Rome, 172

u

;;

INDEX
Queen of France, 192, 193, 237,238,255 Ingi I, Usurper in Norway, 194 Ingi II, King of Norway, 194 Innocent P. M. Ill,— Descent of,
Ingebiorg,
uncertain,
II
;

263
picious of Venetian banausia, 63
;

Pietro
saders,

I,

of Capua, legate to Cru-

excommunicates Crusaders
65
;

for attacking Christian Zara,

confirms

election
;

of

Patriarch

10

;

parentage, uncles,
;

education, Lateran, Paris, 12
;

Morosini, 72, 73 writes to Alexios IIII, 73 ; exhorts Romanian princes to honesty, 73, 74 ; snubbed by Kaloyan, 74 ; cares increased

Bologna, 14 pilgrim to Canterbury, returns to Rome, 15 ; effects
of

education,
St.

subdeacon,
Peter's,

16

;

Canon of

by

the

Vatican, Cardinal of SS. Sergius

and Bacchus, 17 De Contempt Mundiy 18 elected Pope, omens
; ;

before election, ordination, consecration, coronation, 19
at consecration,
;

preaches
begins to

20

;

(The sermon,
;

Appendix
reign,

IIII, 220)
;

by success of Fourth Crusade, 75 recognizes Orthodox Orders, urges Theodorus I to acknowledge Henry Emperor of Romania, 76 case of Archbishop Durazzo, 76 organizes Latin Hierarchy in Romania, 77 measures to benefit Romania, 78 protects Orthodox monasteries, vexed by Venetians,
;
;

;

;

21

relations
;

with

The
to

Empire, 22
Italy,"

champion of " United
confirms
Sicily
;

79 action in disputed election at Constantinople, 80; disappointed
;

23

;

in

Fourth Crusade, 81

;

conception
;

24 nounces his neutrality in Imperial Questions, 28, 29 ; betrayed by an
idiot Bishop, 30, 31
;

Empress

Constance,

an-

of His supremacy, 84

tutor

of

publishes the

Deliberatio, 33

;

recognizes Otto

of Brunswick
;

as Elect-Emperor,

King Frederick and Warden of sends Lando di Monte Sicily, 86 Longo to help Monte Cassino, action against Markwald, 90 offered a bribe by Markwald, 91
; ;

35 match-maker for Otto, Regcsta by Potthast), 37 (catalogued on behalf of Otto, annoyed letters by Mainz election, 37 depressed by continual desertions from Otto recognizes Jupan of to Philip, 38 suspects, Bohemia as king, 40 deposes, and pensions Adolf of Coin, 41, 42 abandons Otto, 44
;

invests

Gaultier de Brienne with

;

Taranto and Lecce, good results of this action, 93 rewards victors at Palermo, 95 excommunicates Bishop of Troja, 96 illness, 97
;
;

;

;

;

measure of His success
98, 99
;

in Sicily,

;

verdict of History upon,

100
103
to in

;

treatment of Albigensians,

;

;

;

names

Cistercian Inquisitors
;

recognizes Philip, confirms
fried

Sieg-

deal with heresy, 109

action

von Eppstein as Archbishop of Mainz, 46 ; hears, at Sora, of Philip's murder, 47 ; crowns Otto, 49 warns Otto, 50, and note 24 excommunicates Otto, 51; confers;

the Albigeois,

117;

approves
First

zeal of St.

Dominic and the Bishop
proclaims

of

Osma, 118;
119;
1

;

Albigensian
-

Crusade, novelty of
anticipates

this,

Beza and
pro-

with Frederick

II,

53.;
;

authority

Calvin,

19;

appoints two more
;

over the Germans, 54 Fixed idea, urges Alexios III a Crusade, 57
;

legates in the AJbigeois, 120

claims Second Albigensian Crusade,

to

for Crusade,

end schism, 59 preparations 60 commissions Foulques de Neuilly to preach Crusade, economies for Crusade, 61 sus; ;

123

;

rebukes

Simon

de

Montfort's ambition, revokes com-

;

mission of Crusade, 124 ; favours Raymond VI, but is influenced by

;

264
Lateran
Council,

INDEX
pensions

and

in

Gabriano- Varni case, 165
his

;

relies
;

provides for his son, 126; regrets
cruelties of Albigensian Crusades,

on

brother for support, 166

misplaced generosity in the case of
Poli vs. Conti, 167
for
;

127; England, 129, 150; friendship for Richard Lionheart, 130;

leaves

Rome
;

Ferentino, serious illness {see

non-interference with international

p. 97),

168

;

returns to

Rome, 169
of

England and France, pay Richard's to urges John legacies, 131 and to crusade, of letter to Don Sancho 131
affairs

of

gains ultimate victory in the City,

170; His

policy

that

Wise

;

Ruler, commercial classes, establishes organised

;

system of charity,

Canterbury election, 133; refuses Reginald and John de Gray, 134 causes election of Langton, acquaints John with the fact, 135 ; rebukes John's
Navarre, 131
;

171

;

charitable foundations, 172;

confirmation of Religious Orders,

;

173; curial reforms, 174; His enormous energies, diplomacy,
176;
tails,

Eastern Question, petty de177
;

violence,

suggests

payment
;

of

problems confronting

Berengere's dowry, 137 interdict on England, 138 ; carps at Cisterit, insists on Archbishop of York, sends Pandolfo nuncio to 140 John, deposes John, awards Eng-

Him, ment

179; enthusiasm, His governof the East, 180, 181 ; copi;

cians for disregarding

ous correspondence, 181
Jerusalem,

frequent

amends
;

to

letters to Crusaders, Patriarchs of

land to Philip the August, 142 accepts John's submission, docu-

ments, 145 supports John against the barons, warns Philip the
;

Templars, 181, 182; His disappointments in Palestine, fixes primacy of Spain 183, 184 at Toledo, 185, and note 119 strives to end schism {see p. 59),
; ;

August not to

John, 147 ; absolves John from oath to abide by Magna Carta, deceived by
assail

John's promises, 148; dealings with

186 urges toleration for Spanish Jews, 186, note 120 ; arranges terms with Serbia and Bulgaria, 186; writes to Grand Master Knights of the Sword and Duke
;

England an example of
fallibility in

pontifical

of Pomerania, receives submission

temporal

affairs, 150,

151, 178

;

difficulties

with Romans,
rebels,

Armenian Church, writes to Bishops of Poland, sends missionof
aries

152;
letter

method with
to

154;

to

Pagan
;

Prussia,

Church

Guglielmo
Cagliari,

da Massa,
155
;

reforms, 187

confirms lands in
dealings with
;

Judge
claims

of

makes
;

Poland, to Order of Holy Sepulchre, note 121, 188
;

Blasio Archbishop of Torres, 156

Sardinia as

fief

of Patride' Conti
;

Philip the August, 188

legitimates

mony, sends Trasimondo
to incite

children

of

doubtful

marriages,

Genoa

against Pisa, 157

makes Pisanspaytithesin Romania,
nominates Pietro Parenzi podesta
of Orvieto,
bitans, 159
;

189; champions Queen Ingebiorg, denounces Agnes de Meran, ten
letters to

King
;

Philip the August,
to

158; letter to Vitergoes to Viterbo, 160;

192,

197

letter

Bishop

of
;

Modena on
interferes

usury,

193, note 125

subordinates Civil to
in case of clergy, 160

Canon Law
;

largesse to

Romans, 161
between

;

changes
;

Roman

Constitution, 162

holds balance
Viterbo, action

Rome and

on behalf of Jews, 194, notes 126, 127 dealings with Norway, 194 Denmark, Hungary, Sweden, 195 grants royal title to Bulgar Kaloyan, 196 ; controls
;
;

;

INDEX
summons of Connaught, Fourth Oecumenical Council, 197, 198, 199; His character, 200, 201, con202 ; the Holy Coat, 202
King
;

26^
cr.

Johannes,
John,

Cardinal 131 1, note 19S,
pleads
for

216, note 204, 218

King of England,

temporary
203,
204,
in

opinions

about,

202,
;

and

notes

portrait

Sacro
;

134-146 at Speco

126; sides with Otto, but refuses to pay Richard's legacy, 130 [cf. 39) unenviable
;

Raymond VI,

financial

reputation,

131

;

orders
as

Subiaco, 204

revises

Canon of
204

election

of

John
;

de

Gray

the Mass, called

INNOCENTIUS
;

Primate,
lical

134

suggested

diabo-

MAGNUS by Albert Beham,
His
pride,
title
;

ancestry,

135; objection to
threats, hyaena-like

His

tireless

energy,

Langton and
barbarity
to

assumes
note 147

Vicar of Christ, 205,

Canterbury

monks,

His reign, His 206, 207, 208, notes 148-/37 methods, 208 literary critic, hymn writing, knowledge of Scripture, His motto, 209 His death, armoitinerary of
;
;

136; confiscates the temporalities of See of Vork, harries clergy for

money,
clergy,

his

oath,
;

138

137 founds]

;

banishes

Beaulieu
to In-

;

Abbey, writes insincerely
note 8ja
ib.
;

rials,

210, note

ij8

;

His creatures,

nocent, phase of Christianity, 139,
;

214, 215, 216, 217.

financial exactions, 140
;

Innocent P. M. VIII, 71
Inquisition, note 222, 255 Interdict on England, 138

excommunicated, 141 deposed, offers amends, 142 ; surrenders his realm to Holy See, 145, and notes
145, 146, 147; deceives Innocent with lying promises to

Interdict on France, 61 Ioannes X Kamtera, 248 Ion Kurling, usurper in Norway, 194 Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem, 184

87, 88,

Itinerary of Innocent's Pontificate, notes
1 48- 757, 206, 207, 208 Izaak II Angelos, Basileus of Byzantion blinded by Alexios III, restored

go on crusade, absolved from oath to keep Magna Carta, 148 opposition to Church, 188 Joinville, Lord of, Crusader, 61, 63 Julich, Count of, 2nd Alb. Crus., 123
;

by Crusaders, objects
67
;

to

Latins,

Kaloyan, Tsar
Baldwin
I,
;

of Bulgaria,

refuses

dies of fright, 68, 69

pontifical requests to liberate

Emp.
royal

74

;

receives

Jerusalem,

Patriarchs

of,

Monaco,
See

title,

196

assumes
243

Tsardom,
of

told to effect settlement about

Grand Master of and excommunicates Templars, 182 rebuked by Pope and forced to retract, 182, notes
;

of Tyre, 181

quarrels with

197 Kamtera,

;

letters to,

Ioannes

X,

Patriarch

Byzantion, 248

;

Kanabos, Nikolaos, unsuccessful and
unwillling claimant for Basilicate,

102,

/03,

104,

249
182,

;

Albert

II,

68
Kardia, Bishop
of, letter to,

appointment,
predecessor,

worthier

than

his
;

note 53, 79

Rudolf
Jesus,

attends

250 Oecumenical
249,

Lateran Council, 198, 250

Company

of,

205

2nd Alb. Crus., 123 Knights of the Sword, letter to Grand Master of 1212, 187 Knut VI, King of Denmark, letters
Kleve, Count
of,

Jessopp, Canon, quoted, note 86, 144 Jews, 62, note 120, 186, note 127, 194 Johannes, cr. Cardinal 1205, 215,

to,

243

Knut

I,

King of Sweden,
of,

note

128,

218

195 Kolocz, Archbishop

195, 241

;

1

; ;

266

INDEX
;

Konstanz, Dietholm Bishop of, 26 wins over Archbishop of Coin, 40 Diet of 1213, 53

;

Limborch, Hist. Inq., 107 Limburg, Duke of, Guelf, 43 Limoges, Bishop of, 236'
Lincoln, Bishop
of,

Chancellor Pro;

Lakedaimon, 72
Langton, Stephen, Cardinal- Pres. Tit. St. Chrysogonus, early life, divides Bible into chapters, elected Pananglican

vince of Canterbury, 132

Hugh of
141
;

Wells

elected

Bishop

of,

John
of,

visits,

note Sja, 139

Lisieux, Jourdain de
1st

Hommet
;

Bishop

Primate,

note Sj,

135
at

Alb. Crus., 121

2nd Alb.

consecrated Archbishop
terbury by Pope,

of Can;

Crus., 123

136

exile

137 ; (consecration of
at Melun), 141
;

Pontigny,

first

official

act

Livadia, Castle of, 255 Loca, Pietro, Abbot of, Latin Elector
in

Hugh

of Wells

Romania, note 32, 71
of,

arbitrary temper,

Lodeve, Bishop

109

149

;

Cardinalature,

216,

219

;

letters to,

251

Larissa, Archbishop of, note 40,

76

Lombardy, held by Henry VI, 23 Lombers, Council of, 103, 105, 109 London, Bishop of, Dean of Province
of Canterbury, 132
"
;

Larse, Guillaume de, 252

Wm.

de Ste

Lateran Council 1169, 104 Lateran Council 1179, 107, 109 Lateran Council 121 5, 80, 126, 197, 198, 256 Latin Hierarchy in Romania, organized,
77, 78
;

Mere Eglise, Bishop of, 137 Lord of a Quarter-and-half-of-aQuarter of the
title

Roman

Empire,"

of

Doge

of Venice, note 38, 75

Loudun, Bishop

of,

2nd Alb. Crus., 123

not a conquest of Orthoin

Louis of France, 3rd Alb. Crus., 126
Luchaire, Achille, quoted, note 6i, 93

doxy, 81 Latin

Romania, thievish tendencies, 73 gifts to Templars,
Princes
;

Lumbricia, King
Lyonnais, Count

of,

138
Crusader, 61

of,

77 ; indiscipline of, 78 Latin Rite, Greek clerks to be ordained
by, 76

Mabillon,

Vetera Analecta, 137

Laval, Lord

of,

Crusader, 63
of,

Lavaur, besieged by 2nd Alb. Crus.,

123; Council

1213, 124; imof,

Macaulay, Lord, 11 Magaddi, Emir of Sicilian Saracens, 94 killed at Palermo, 95 Magdeburg, Rudolf Archbishop of, 26
;

putealization of

Lady Giraude

Magna

Carta, 148

124
Lavian,

Mailly, Nicholas de, Crus., 61, 63

Otto
1

de,

excommunicated,

Mainz, Archbishops
fried

of,

Leopold von
37
;

89 Lecce, Count of, v. Brienne, Gaultier de Lemnos, Admiralty of, 72
note 55

Schonfeld, Ghibelline,

Sieg-

Leonistae, 108
Lerat,
Geoffrey, Grandmaster of the Order of the Hospital of Saint

John of Jerusalem, 247
Lerida, Bishopric
of,

104

Levon
of

II,

King of Armenia, robber
Temple,
excommunicated,

absolved, 180
Lille,

von Eppstein, Guelf, 37 Konrad von Wittelsbach, 211 Malaspina, Count of, Crus., 63 Manichaeism, 108, 116 Mantua, 23, 153 Manuel I Komnenos, 72 Marches, The, held by Henry VI, 23 granted by Otto IIII to Azzo d'Este, 49 confirmed to same in rectum feudum by Innocent, 50 roused by Innocent against Mark;

;

Manasses de, Crusader, 63

wald, 88

;

INDEX
Maremma,
by stolen from Church Carusomo, 163 Margare, Abbot of, quoted, 109, no,
III

267
of,

Meran, Agnes

paramour of Philip
separated from him,

the August,

Merry

children legitimated, 193, 237, 253 del Val, Raphael, Card. Presb.
Tit. S. Praxede, viiii

Maria of Brabant, 53
Maria, Queen of Thessalonika, 72 Maria, Queen of Aragon, 242

Messina, Archbishop

of, rebels,

note 58,

88

;

Straits of, note 62, 96
I I

Maria Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem, marries Jean de Brienne, note 11S,
184

Mikhael Mikhael

Angelos, Despot of Epirus, 72

Komnenos,

note 41, 76

Milon, Apostolic Prothonotary, legate
to Albigeois, 120

Markwald von Anweiler, deposed by
Innocent from governorship of the Marches, 86 disputes will of
;

Minden, Bishop
Mindiensia, 198

of,

Guelf, 27

denounced documents second concerning, note j8, 88 excommunication, note 58 takes San Germano, 89 raises siege of Monte Cassino, aims at crown of Sicily, Pope's measures against, to be treated as a Saracen, goes
;

Empress Constance, by Innocent, 87

;

\

;

Modena, Matildan Territory, 23 Papal letter on Usury to Bishop of, 193 Molise, German Lords in support of Markwald, 87 Monaco, Patriarch of Jerusalem, char;

acter of, note 219, 249

;

v.

Jeru-

salem
Monreale, Archbishop
Hospital, 247 Montanism, 116 Montaragon, Abbey
of, note 38, 88 Montaigu, Guerin de, Grand Master

into

Apulia,

90

;

tries

to

bribe

Innocent, asserts Frederick II to

be

a changeling,
captures

duplicity,

91

;

goes to Sicily, sets up as a brigand,

of,

105

92

93 does not murder him, alliance with
;

Frederick

II,

Monte Cassino, Abbey of, attacked by Markwald, 57 ; Pope sends uncle
to
relieve,

Magaddi, 94 defeated at Palermo, recovers from defeat, quarrels Bishop Troja, 96 dies with
;
;

88

;

imperilled by
;

fall

Sept. 1202, 97

ditto by San Germano, 89 want of water, relieved, 90; visited by Innocent, note 134, 207

of

Marlborge, Thomas, journey to Rome,
note 82, 133

Martinez, Martin, Grandmaster of the

Order of Calatrava, 248 Massa, Guglielmo da, Judge of Cagliari,
155 Massacre of Toledo Jews, note 120, 186 Mastai Ferretti (Pius P.M. Villi), 19 Matha, Jean de, co-founder of Trinitarians, 173

of, 120 Montelongo, Lando de' Conti di, pontifical uncle, 88 Montferrat, Boniface, Marquess of, Crusader, 63, 64 King of Thessalonika, 72 letters, 245 Konrad,

Montelimar, Council

;

;

;

Marquess

of,

note 184,

64

Montfort, Simon de, Earl of Leicester, Crusader, 61, 63 ; leader 1st Alb.
Crus.,

121

;

elected

Viscount of

Matteo, created Cardinal 1200, note /8j, 214 Mauro, Bishop of Ameria, created
Cardinal 1207, 216

Beziers and Carcassonne, negotiates with King of Aragon for recognition, 122;

leader 2nd Alb. Crus.,

123; ambition of rebuked by Pope, wins battle of Muret, invested 1 24
;

Maximos II, Patriarch of Byzantion, 80 Meaux, Anselme Bishop of, 13
Mendicant
Friars, 173

Count of Toulouse and Duke of Narbonne, 1 25; causes success of
Alb. Crus., 127
;

letters to,

255

1

268
Montmorency, Mathieu
61,

INDEX
Olivier, select heresiarch, 109 Oloron, desecrated cathedral of, 124

Montmirail, Bernard de, Crusader, 64 de, Crusader,

64
of,
;

Order of
126
;

Montpellier, Council
de, Crusader, 63

Gaultier

St. Dominic (Black Friars, Pied Friars, Friars Preachers) en-

Guy

de, forms

Confraternity of
97,

172; Aragon, 242

Holy Ghost, note Marie de, Queen of
of, 104,

ratified by Honorius P.M. Ill, note 191, 173 Order of St. Francis (Grey Friars, Friars Minor), ib., favoured by

couraged by Innocent,

;

Montpensier, councils

109

Lateran Council, 199

;

Mora, Pietro
Morosini,

da, cr. Card. 1205, 215

Order

of

the

Holy Sepulchre,

182,

Tommasode,

Patriarch C. P.,

188, 249;

72, 73» 77> 78. 79» 80, 248,

249
deserts

Order of the
tarians,

Holy Trinity and

of

Munster, Hermann, Bishop Otto for Philip, 26, 27 Muret, battle of, 125

of,

Captives (Crutched Friars, Trini-

Mathurines), established
;

by Innocent, notes 98, 99, 173 Order of the Hospital of St. John of
of,

Naples, Archbishop- Admiral Napoleon I, 205
Narbonne, Berenger
104
;

95
of,

Jerusalem, 78, 182, 247

;

Archbishop
life,

Order of the Temple of Solomon, 77, 182, 245, 246, 249, 250
Orders, Great,
v. titles
of,

scandalous
;

105

;

depri-

vation, 117

letter

from Pope, 124,

Orders, Sacrament

sold

by Arch-

255 Nauplia, Lordship
in

of,

72
7

bishop of Narbonne, 105 Orleans, Bishop of, 188
Orsini, Card.

Navagero, Niccolo, Venetian Elector

Bubo de
with

(Celestine

P.M.

Romania, note 33,

HI), 17;
Orsini,

Navas de Tolosa, 185, 242 Naxos, Duchy of, 72 Nazoresca, Archbishop of, note jo, 79 Nesle, Guy de, Crusader, Baron of
Geraki, 63
Neuilly, Foulques de, commissioned to

feud

Scotti,

Teobaldi

murdered by Scotti after beyond banishment Sampaolo
Orsini

Fuori, 166

preach 4th Crus., 61, 66; Jean de, Crusader, 64
Niccolo, Card., 212
Nicolas, Patriarch Alexandria, 251

Orthodox monasteries protected against Bishops by Innocent, note 82, 79 Orthodox Orders recognised, 76
Orvieto, rebellious, 158; heretical, 159;

Nikaia, 76 Niketas Khoniatas, 69
Nikosia, Canons
of,

245

by Innocent, 160 ; Raniero Card. 1212, 217 Osma, Diego Azebez Bishop of, friend of St. Dominic, 118 Osnabruck, Gerard Bishop of, Guelf,
visited
cr.

da,

Niquinta, Albigensiarch, 116

26

Noble Guard disbanded, 174 Norway, disputed succession, 194 Norwich, Geoffrey, Archdeacon 141; John de Gray, Bishop
I53> 253

Otto IIII H. R. Emperor, xv claim Empire, French, to English,
;

of,

and German
25 27
to,
;

titles,

notes 14, 73,
26,

of,

deserted

by supporters,
of

;

representative
;

elective
hostile

Novara, 153
Nur-ed-din, 60

principle, 28

French king

30

;

desperate case

of,

33

;

Oecumenical
Oldoinus, 211

Council,

v.

Lateran

Pope supports him, the quid pro quo, note 19, 36 matrimonial
;

et seq.

affairs,

37

;

disadvantages in the

; ;

;

INDEX
Civil

269
Pietro,

War, obtains 9000 marks
Lackland,
39;
recognizes

Parenzi,

Podesta of Orvieto,
of,

from

158
Paris,

Jupan of Bohemia as king, 40 inacdeserted by supporters, 41
;

Archbishop

2nd Alb. Crus.,

tivity at

42

;

Brunswick, 42 lethargy, abandoned by Pope, 44 re; ;
;

123 Parliament of Viterbo, 160

46 accepted as king by Germany, 46 betrothed to Beatrix von Ilohenstauffen, 47 Philip the August continues hosfuses to abdicate,
;

Parma, 23, 152 Passau, Wolfgard Bishop
Patarini, 108, 109

of,

26
46, 49,

;

Patras,

Archbishop

of,

notes

78, 255
Paulicians, 108

tile,

48

;

crowned
with

at

Rome,
;

1209,

diploPope, 49 matic gaucherie, 49 ; invades the Kingdom, 50 excommunicated,

quarrels

Pentapolis, 23

Pecci (Leo P.

M. XIII),
of,

101

;

Perche, Count

51

;

deposed, loses
;

German

sup-

Crusader, 63 Perfecti, grade of Albigensians, 115

port,
dies,

marries Beatrix, who 52 marries Mary of Brabant,
defeated at Bouvines, 12 14,

Peter the Hermit, 60
Petrobrusians, 108

53

;

Peyre

II,

King of Aragon,

109,

122,

54
Ottokar, Jupan of Bohemia, 39, 40
of, Guelf, 27 Padua, 153 Paidobaptism, Albigensians deny cacy of, 114

125, 242, 256

Pharos, the, 87, note 57, 96, note 62 Philip the August, King of France,
Philip of
effi-

Paderborn, Bishop

144, 147, 190, 193, 237, 238 Swabia King of Germany,
;

invested with Tuscany, note 13

claimant

for

Empire, 24
;
;

;

atti-

Palear, Count, supporter of

Markwald,

87 Palermo, Archbishop

tude to Frederick II, 25 favoured by Innocent, 29
to

at first

appeal
caused

of,

note 58, 88

Rome,
;

31

;

difficulties

battle of, 95 ; seized by Capparone, 97 Palombara, Ottone de' Conti di, 93 Pamiers, atrocities of, 120

by Celestinian excommunication, embassy coldly received in 32 Rome, 33 election as King of
;

Pananglican Primacy, disputed election
to,

declared null, 34 ; denounced as perjurer, 35 ; superior

Germany

130

wealth and position in Germany,
to John,

Pandolfo,
rank,

Nuncio
note

142
143,

;

his

recognises
as

Jupan
;

of

Bohemia
daughter
to Coin,
re-

86,

142,

144

King, 39
;

marries

Legate and Elect-Bishop of Norwich, note 86, 144 ; dies, note 86, 144 ; obtains ^"8000 for banished
bishops, 146

Kunigunde 40 42
;

to

King of Bohemia,
at

summons adherents
abdicates

Aachen,
;

elected

and crowned, 43

re-visits

Fandolfo
of

of

the

Suburra,
besieged,
to

Senator

Rome,

banishes

Scotti
in

and
the

cent,

Coin, 44 ; negotiates with Innoreconciled to Church at

Orsini,
Capitol,
;

166;

Speyer,
terms,

45

;

accepts
his

pontifical

168; loyal

Innocent,

disbands

army,
for

46

170 sole senator, 171 Papareschi Bonaventura, cr. Card. 12 12,
note 193, 216, 219

assassinated by Otto von Wittels-

bach, 47
Piacenza,

;

reproved

robbing

Church property, 188
152, 153
;

Papareschi, Guido, O.S.B. Card., 212

Pietro da, Card.,

Paperas series papules,

J

74

211

;;

270

INDEX
Poplicani, 108, 109

Pierleone, Egidio, Card., note 203, 213,

219; Giovanni, demagogue, 163, 164 ; raises Romans against Innocent, 165

Potthast, 37

Premonstratensians, 61'
Publicians, 108

Pierleone, interferes in case of Poli vs.

Purgatory, denied by Waldenses, 112

Conti, 167
as sole

;

senator, 169

nominates kinsman as Gregorio nominated
;

senator

of

Rome, 160

Querini, Ottone, Venetian Elector Romania, note 33, 71

in

Wido,

cr.

Card. 1205, 215

Pietro I of Capua, Card. Presb.

SS. Marcellinus and Peter, legate to
;

Radulf,

Patriarch of Jerusalem,
titular

Rainer of Montferrat,
Thessalonika, 72
Rainerii, 170

250 King of

Venice, 65
note 220,

Patriarch of Antioch,

250 Pietro II of Capua, Card. Presb. SS. Marcellinus and Peter, Patriarch of
Antioch, note 220, 250
Pisa, 62, 152, 154, 156, 157
;

Raymond VI,

Gratiano

da, Card., 212; Pandolfo,
da, Card., 211
j

Masca

Ridolfo, Nigelli

Toulouse, excom., 106 peccatorum apotheca, omnium second excom., 119; appeals in Rome, 120; quarrels with legates, 122; appeals for help to Aragon, quarrels with Simon de Montfort,
;

da, Card., 211
Pisans, interfere in Sicily, 97
tithes in
;

besieges
to

Carcassonne,
;

123

;

de-

pay

feated at Muret, 125

serves under

C

P.,

158
9, 19

Simon
pleads

at

siege

of

Casseneuil,

Pius P. Pius P.

M. Villi, M. X, viiii

before
is

Plaissiez,

Philippe

de,

Grandmaster

125 ; Pope,

Lateran Council, deposed, pensioned by
126;
letters to,

dies,

256

Order of the Temple of Solomon, 246 Poland, Bishops of, 187 Poli, Oddode', 166, 167 Ottaviano de', Pape Affinis, note 4, 1 1 Card., 211
of the
;
;

Raymond-Roger, Viscount of
106

Beziers,

Real Presence, denied bylAlbigensians,
'

"3
of, note 58, 88 Reginald, Subprior of Christ Church, Canterbury, 133, 134

Reggio, Archbishop

Pomerania,
Ponthieu,

Duke

of,

187

Guillaume

Count

of,

1st

Alb. Cms., 121

Relics preserved during Sack of Byzantion, 70, 71
a,

Poor

Men

of Lyons, 108

" Pope ill-advised," case of Pope, position
of,

147
to,

Renier, Cist. Legate to Albigensians,

coronation charge

107

note 54, 83

Popes Alexander P. M. Ill, 164 Alexander P. M. VI, 101 Celestine P. M. III. 17, 18, 176; Clement P. M. Ill, xx, 17 Clement P. M. VII, 173; Gregory P. M. VIII, 16 Gregory P. M. VIIII, 214, note 182 Honorius P. M. Ill,
;
;
;

Rheims, Guillaume
bishop of
1st

de

Blois,

Arch-

Alb. Cms., 211

Rhodes, 72 Richard I Lionheart, note 8/, 130Roche, Othon de
la,

Crusader,
;

63

;

Megaskyr of Athens, 72

letters,

;

Innocent P. M. Ill, 213 g.v. ; Innocent P. M. VIII, 71 Leo P. M. XIII, 101 ; Pius P. M.
144,
;

255 Roches, Guillaume des, Seneschal of
Alb. Cms., 121 Sancho, Grandmaster the Order of Santiago, 247 Roccabruna, 242
1st

;

Anjou,

Rodriguez,

of

VIIII,

19; Pius P. Urban P. M. VIII, 101
9,

M. X,

ix;

1

;

;; >

INDEX
Rochester, Bishop
Cant., 132
of,

271
Paolo
de', Innocent's uncle, 11
of,

Crucifer of Prov.

Scotti,

Seif-ed-din, position

60

;

rumours
245
of,

Rogerio, Card., 215
Rolfe, Fr., note 26, 57

concerning,
Elec-

64

;

letter to,

Sens, Pierre de Corbeil Archbishop
of,
;

Romania,
of,

First

Emperor

71

;

13, 1st

Alb. Crus., 121

tors of, notes

32,33, 71

Constable
of,

Serbs submit to Rome, 186
Serra, Pietro di,

77 Rouen, Robert Poulain Archbishop
1st Alb. Cms., 121 Ruggero, Card. O.S.B., 121

Sessa, Card.,

Judge of Arborea, 155 Gherardo da, note 200,

216, 218
Sicard, Albigensiarch, 105
',

Ruggiero, King of Sicily, note jS 88

Sicily,

Sabatati, 108, 109
Sabina, the, recovered for the Apostolic See,

Chapter V, suzerainty of, 82, incumbrance to the Papacy troubled by Markwald, 86 85 documents concerning, note 58, 88
83
;
;

;

163
Innocent's
portrait
in,

Otto's invasion
services to, 98,

of,

98

;

Innocent's

Sack of Byzantion, 70
Sacro
Speco,

99; Frederick IPs

marriage, 190
Sigtuna, destroyed by

240
Saissac, Bertrand de, 106

Wends,

note 128,

195
Sigurdr, usurper in

Salah-ed-din (Saladin), 60
Salerno, Cardinal Giovanni da, 212
Salisbury, Bishop of, Precentor Prov.

Norway, 194
v.

Simon de Montfort
Sition,
castle
of,

Montfort

Cant.,

132; John

of,

his

doubts

Salza,

concerning archdeacons, 141 Hermann von, Grand Master of
of,

be restored to Templars, 240 Soissons, Nivelon de Cherisy, Bishop
to
of,

Crusader, 61
;

;

Latin Elector in

the Teutonic Order, 247 Salzburg, Aldebert, Archbishop

Romania, 71
26

Archbishop of Thes-

Sancta Sophia, Latin Mass

in, 8
;

Sancho I, King of Portugal, 242 rebuked for robbing churches, 188 San Germano, surrenders to Markwald, 89 visited by Innocent, 207 San Tommaso informis, Church given
;

salonika, 77 Sonnenburg, Lordship of, 26 Sora, County of, Ricardo de' Conti, 207 visited by Innocent, note 133, 47 Soule (Syla), thievish Lord of, 77 St. Andrew, head translated to Rome,

to Trinitarians, note g8, 17$

St. St.

91 Antonin, Abbey

of, 120,

121

Sardinia, 152
;

;

unsatisfactory condition,

Dominic, 118, 127

system of misgovernment, 154 Innocent Suzerain, 155; attempt to restore order, 156; Pisan interference, 156, 157

St. Francis of Assisi,
St. Gilles,

m
164

Abbey

of,

106

St.
St.
St.

Sarno, castle
killed at,

of,

Gaultier de Brienne

Hugh (Great), note 83a, 139 Jean Pied du Port, 242 Mark, Republic of, v. Venice
Count of, Crusader, 61, 63 Pons de Tomieres, Abbey of, 121

98
Card.,

St. Peter-by-the- Vatican,
St. Pol,

Sasso, Pietro, Card., 215
Savelli,

Cencio,

afterwards

St.

HonoriusP. M. Ill, note 180, 213, 218 Saxony, Duke of, Bernard II, xvi, 26 Elector of the Empire, 48 Schonfeld, Leopold von, Ghibelline, Archbishop of Mainz, xxiii, 37

St.

Thomas
age
to,

of

Canterbury,
;

exile

at

Pontigny, 137

Innocent's pilgrim-

257 Stade, Lordship of, 26 Stamboul, 81 Stephana, sentence on, note

7/, 113

;

;

272
Stockholm, foundation
Strassburg,
of,

INDEX
note 128, 195
of,

wald,

excommunicated,
of,

96;

de-

Heinrich,

Bishop

26;

feated at Barletta, 97

adheres to Otto, 28 Stubbs, Bishop, note 84, 136 Subiaco, Innocent's portrait at, 204 Sverker, King of Sweden, 195, 243

Trondhjem, Abbot Norway, 194
Toron, Henfrid
Toul, Bishop
of,

ablegate

in

of,

184
of,

2nd Alb. Cms., 123
75 heresy 128
;

Sweden, position of Church

in,

195

Toulousain, Bishops

in,

102; of

little faith, of,

Tancred, King

of Sicily, 93
of,

Toulouse, Count

v.
of,

Raymond VI,
;

Taranto, Principality

93 Templars acquire land in Romania, yy robbed by King of Armenia, 80
letters, note

Fulcrand, Bishop
;

Bishop

of,

105 deposed, 118

intruded

Tournaments forbidden,
Tours, Council
Troyes,
of, 103,

61, 251

109, 182

109
of,

Terzago, Uberto da, cr. Card. 1207, 216 Thebes, Lordship of, 72 thievishness
;

Gamier

Bishop

61

;

Crusader,

Latin

Elector

in

of

Lord

of,
of,

73-77

;

letters
;

to

Romania, note 32, 71
Tuscany,

Archbishop
to

note 46, 78

letters

Matildan

territory,

23
;

Canons of, note 48, 78 letters to Lord of, note 34, 74 Thedisius, Canon of Genoa, Legate in
;

Philip of Swabia invested with, 24

Rectors of and Innocent against

Albigeois, 120

Markwald, 89 Tusculum destroyed by Romans, 65
Tyrnovo, Archbishop
of, 196,

Theodoli,

Gregorio,

cr.

Card.

1212,

197

216, 219

Tzetzes, the poet, his prophecy, 70

Theodoros, Laskaris, Basileus of Nikaia,
67, 72, 76,

240
of,

Theodosius, Column

70
note 32, 79
78, 253

Thermopylai, Bishop
Thessalonika, Queen

of,
of,

Ubaldini, Ottavio, Card. .note 204, 219 Umbria, roused by Innocent against the Germans, 88
Utrecht, Bishop
of,

Crusader, 27

Thieneo, Uguccione Bobone, Card., 212.

Tiber and Infanticide, 172 Toledo v. Jews, Rodrigo, Archbishop
of,

Vaissete, O.S.B., 107
Valdimar, Bishop,
195. 2 43

ambitious bastard,
note

198
(del

Tommaso

Vescovo da Capua),

cr.

Valdimar
Valois,

II,

King of Denmark,

Card. 1212, 217, 219
Treviso, 153, 154
Trier,

129, 195, 243

Felix de, co-founder of Trini-

Archbishop

of, xxiii

;

bribed by

tarians, 173

Otto, 26 ; deserted to Philip, 28 ; crowns Philip, censured, pardoned, 32 ; named Elector of the Empire,

Varni, Lord

of, Land-thief, 165 Vatican Palace, note ijy, 208

Vegetarian Heresy, 106
Velletri, visited

48
Trinci, Giandominico, cr. Card. 1212,

Venetians,

banausic,
of,

by Innocent, 166-206 Pope's 62
;

217
Tripoli, eccentric. Count of, 58

suspicions

63

;

reported to be

Troja, Walther, Bishop
of Sicily, supports
letter,

of,

Chancellor
;

bribed by Saracens, 64 ; employ Crusaders to take Zara, 65
excessive position in Romania, 75 made to pay tithes, note 44, 78

Markwald, $y
;

note 58, 88

desires

See,

administers demesnes of Palermo,

monopoly of Canonries
stantinople,

in

Con-

92

;

incommoded by

Gaultier

de

79

;

dispute election

Brienne, 94; quarrels with Mark-

of

new

Patriarch, 80

;

;

INDEX
Verden,

2 73

Abbot

of,

Guelf,

27,

43
of,

Wilfred,

Lord Abbot of Mount

St.

deserts to Ghibellines, 44

Bernard's Abbey, Cist., note 85a,

Vermandois, Countess, advowsons
237 Verona, 153 Veroneikon, 172 Vicar of Christ,

138

title

assumed

by

Innocent, note 147, 205 Vico, Pietro, Imperial Prefect of

William the Lyon, 139 Winchester, Bishop of, Sub-Dean Prov. Cant., 132; Peter des Roches, Bishop of, 253 GrandWinterstadt, Volkwin von,
master of the Order of Christ, 247
Wittelsbach,

Rome,

162

;

swears allegiance to Inno-

Konrad von, Card., 211
of
Philip

;

163 Villehardouin, Geoffrey de, Crusader,
61, 69;
Visconti,

cent, note 93,

Otto

von, assassin

of

Romanian

titles of,

63
de,

Swabia, 47 Worcester, Bishop
Cant.,

of,

Chaplain Prov.

Vismes,
Viterbo,

Lamberto, of sentence on
heretical,
;

Pisa, 157

132;

Mauger,

Bishop

of,

Huguette

note 85, 137

note 75, 115

pressed, 160

159; heresy supclaims Vitorchiano,
of
St.

Xiphilin, Georgius
Byzantion, 248

II,

Patriarch

of

samsonizes gates
;

Peter's,

quarrels with Rome, war, 164 Innocent's diplomacy, 165 ; Gio-

York — Geoffrey,
Otto,
25,

Archbishop
of,

of,

140;
of,

vanni Toscanella da, Card., 211
Vitorchiano, 164, 165

Earl
;
>

note

fj,

note 81,

131

Langton's prebend
35

note 81,

1

Waipen, Bishop
Waldenses,
112

of,

195
108,

tenets of,

109,

III,

Zahringen,
Zara,

Berthold,

Duke

of,

attacked,

64

;

besieged,

254 65

Walter, Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 132, 251

taken, 66
Ziani, Pietro,

Doge, 247

Walther, Chancellor of Sicily

v.

Troja

Ziza, Palace of la,

94

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